Section IV HVAC, Building Envelope & Acoustics

Erik Kolderup
AEC Associate Principal

Tom Schindler
Charles M. Salter Associates, Inc.
© CHPS 2007

The Collaborative for High Performance Schools is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to CES Records for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for non-AIA members are available on request. This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.

2.5 AIA/CES HSW Learning Units are offered for training section II-V participated in person.

What are the goals of this section?
Participants will:
1. Learn about design priorities:
– Building enclosure design priorities (for efficiency, comfort and acoustics) – Ventilation (mechanical vs. natural) – Acoustic design – HVAC system selection – Displacement ventilation design

2. Gain an understanding of:
– Thermal comfort – Indoor air quality – Thermal loads

3. And at the same time…
– Introduction to relevant CHPS criteria and BPM guideline contents

HVAC. Building Envelope & Acoustics Session Agenda 1. Energy Design Criteria Overview Design Criteria Thermal Comfort School Thermal Loads Good Envelope Design Indoor Air Quality 8. 5. 2. HVAC System Selection & Design 11. Displacement Ventilation . Acoustics 10. 3. 6. Ventilation: Natural & Mechanical 9. 7. 4.

HVAC. Building Envelope & Acoustics Energy Design Criteria Source: Chartwell School .

Category Energy (20) Class 1. Commissioning and Training (2 points) Goal: Reduce environmental impacts and increased operational costs associated with excessive energy use. Energy Efficiency (15) Credit/Prerequisite EE1.3: Energy Management Systems Points P 1-13 1 1 BPM Volume III: Criteria Page 36-41 .1: Superior Energy Performance EE1. Energy Efficiency (15 points) – 2.2: Natural Ventilation EE1. Alternative Energy Sources (3 points) – 3.0: Minimum Energy Performance EE1.CHPS Criteria Category: Energy (20 points) Criteria Classes: – 1.

0. Attachment Construction document VERIFICATION Template Demonstrating compliance with this prerequisite requires annual energy simulations using a tool California Energy Commission-approved for compliance with nonresidential standards.P1 The time dependent valued (TDV) energy of the proposed school project design must be at least 10% less than a standard design that is in minimum compliance with the California 2005 energy efficiency standards.1: Superior Energy Performance EE1. BPM Volume III: Criteria Page 36 . APPLICABILITY New school ? New building ? Major modernization ? = For major modernizations and a new building on an existing campus this prerequisite is required based on the scope of the project.CHPS Criteria Category: Energy (20 points) Energy Efficiency (15 points) – EE1.3: Energy Management Systems Intent: Establish a minimum energy efficiency level.0: Minimum Energy Performance – – – EE1. CREDIT REQUIREMENT Prerequisite EE1.2: Natural Ventilation EE1.

11 32% EE1.2.2.1.3 16% 4 points 5 points 6 points EE1.10 30% EE1.1 12% EE1.6 22% 7 points 8 points 9 points EE1.1.0: Minimum Energy Performance EE1.12 34% EE1.5 20% EE1.2.14 36% VERIFICATION Template Attachment Construction document Energy simulations are required to earn this credit.2. CREDIT REQUIREMENT Reducing your total net energy use compared to Title 24-2005 baseline by: 1 point 2 points 3 points EE1. BPM Volume III: Criteria Page 38 .2 14% EE1. Applications for this credit are subject to the CHPS Energy Modeling Rules for Schools.4 18% EE1.8 26% EE1.CHPS Criteria Category: Energy (20 points) Energy Efficiency (15 points) – – – EE1.2.7 24% EE1. APPLICABILITY New school New building Major modernization For new schools calculate based on all campus buildings.2: Natural Ventilation EE1.2.2.2.9 28% 10 points 11 points 12 points 13 points EE1.3: Energy Management Systems – EE1. For new buildings and modernization projects.2. using a computer program certified by the CEC.2.2.1: Superior Energy Performance Intent: Exceed the minimum energy performance beyond the prerequisite. calculate for the energy use of just the new building(s) or the building(s) being modernized.

While this credit applies to modernization projects. the cost of installing interlocks on existing windows can be prohibitive.2: Natural Ventilation CREDIT REQUIREMENT 1 point Intent: Limit the use of HVAC Systems by designing to enhance natural ventilation.CHPS Criteria Category: Energy (20 points) Energy Efficiency (15 points) – – – EE1.1 Install interlocks to turn off HVAC systems in conditioned buildings if operable exterior windows or doors are opened. a new building on an existing campus. For new buildings and modernization projects.1: Superior Energy Performance EE1. additions and to major modernizations that include HVAC as part of the scope of improvements. EE1. A good opportunity to install interlocks occurs when the windows are being replaced as part of the project. APPLICABILITY New school New building Major modernization This credit applies to new schools. BPM Volume III: Criteria Page 40 .3: Energy Management Systems – EE1.2. interlock switches may only be installed in just the new building(s) or the building(s) being modernized to earn this credit.0: Minimum Energy Performance EE1.

2 Install an Energy Management System to monitor the energy use of the following systems throughout the school: Lighting. and the computer (controller). The contractor shall provide training to the M & O personnel for proper operation.CHPS Criteria Category: Energy (20 points) Energy Efficiency (15 points) – – – EE1.1. hot water and control the systems to Title 24 minimum standards. equipment.3. APPLICABILITY New school ? New building ? Major modernization BPM Volume III: Criteria Page 41 ? = the EMS must be installed for the entire school site.0: Minimum Energy Performance EE1.1: Superior Energy Performance EE1. actuators.3: Energy Management Systems CREDIT REQUIREMENT 1 point Intent: Provide ongoing accountability and optimization of the building energy performance over time. EE1. as well as a protocol for communication between the sensors. EE1. Attachment Construction document VERIFICATION Template The plans and specifications should include a list of all the sensors (measurements to be taken throughout the building) and actuators (devices to be controlled).3. .2: Natural Ventilation – EE1. not just for the new building or the building(s) being modernized. HVAC.

Category Energy (20) Class 2. Alternative Energy Sources (3) Credit/Prerequisite EE2.1: Renewable Energy Points 1-3 BPM Volume III: Criteria Page 43 . Commissioning and Training (2 points) Goal: Reduce environmental impacts and increased operational costs associated with fossil fuel energy use. Alternative Energy Sources (3 points) – 3. Energy Efficiency (15 points) – 2.CHPS Criteria Category: Energy (20 points) Criteria Classes: – 1.

BPM Volume III: Criteria Page 43 .2 EE2.1 EE2. APPLICABILITY New school ? New building ? Major modernization ? = calculations based on all campus buildings.1.3 5% of the building’s annual source energy use 10% of the building’s annual source energy use 15% of the building’s annual source energy use Attachment Construction document VERIFICATION Template Calculate the % renewable contribution using the equations detailed in the CHPS criteria.1: Renewable Energy Intent: Encourage on-site energy production with renewable sources.1. CREDIT REQUIREMENT Using on-site renewable energy systems to provide: 1 point 2 points 3 points EE2.1.CHPS Criteria Category: Energy (20 points) Energy Efficiency (15 points) – EE2.

Seaside.1 Renewable Energy Source: ATI Architects & Engineers Chartwell.Guideline EE2. Conley-Caraballo High School. CA Photovoltaic system installation. Hayward. Produces 100% of the school’s energy needs. CA Photovoltaic system on classroom roofs produces 85% of the school’s energy needs. Source: EHDD Architects .

Category Energy (20) Class 3. Commissioning and Training (2) Credit/Prerequisite EE3.1: Enhanced Commissioning Points P 1-2 BPM Volume III: Criteria Pages 45-48 . Alternative Energy Sources (3 points) – 3. Commissioning and Training (2 points) Goal: Verify that fundamental building elements and systems are designed. installed.0: Fundamental Building Systems Testing and Training EE3. and calibrated to operate as intended.CHPS Criteria Category: Energy (20 points) Criteria Classes: – 1. Energy Efficiency (15 points) – 2. and provide for the ongoing accountability and optimization of building energy performance over time.

Maintenance and record keeping must meet the Cal/OSHA Minimum Building Ventilation Standard. Effective and complete training and documentation must be provided.CHPS Criteria Category: Energy (20 points) Commissioning and Training (2 points) – EE3. Sec. 5142.0.1: Enhanced Commissioning Intent: Verify that the building’s energy systems are operating as intended and that effective training has been provided.0. Title 8.P1. EE3.0: Fundamental Building Systems Testing and Training – EE3. Attachment Construction document VERIFICATION Template APPLICABILITY New school ? New building ? Major modernization ? = For major modernizations and new buildings this prerequisite is required based on the scope of the project.0P3 A designated commissioning service provider or district official must verify that the Commissioning services provided meet the Scope of Work. BPM Volume III: Criteria Page 45 . CREDIT REQUIREMENT Prerequisite EE3.P2. EE3.

2) The commissioning agent must verify that the Commissioning services provided meet the Scope of Work as stated in the Comprehensive Commissioning process as defined by EDR’s Cx Assistant database tool.0: Fundamental Building Systems Testing and Training – EE3. CREDIT REQUIREMENT 1 point 2 points EE3.1 Standard Commissioning.1: Enhanced Commissioning Intent: Verify that the buildings energy systems are installed. 1) Appoint a commissioning service provider or district official. APPLICABILITY New school New building ? Major modernization ? = The scope of commissioning services for major modernizations will depend on whether the HVAC and/or lighting systems are being upgraded. BPM Volume III: Criteria Page 48 . 2) The commissioning authority shall verify that the commissioning services provided meet the Scope of Work. VERIFICATION Template Attachment Construction document Include all commissioning requirements in the contract documents.1. EE3. 1) Appoint a commissioning service provider. calibrated and performing as intended.CHPS Criteria Category: Energy (20 points) Commissioning and Training (2 points) – EE3.2 Comprehensive Commissioning.1.

HVAC. Building Envelope & Acoustics Thermal Comfort Overview .

What is thermal comfort influenced by? Environmental factors – – – – Air temperature Humidity Air velocity Mean radiant temperature (MRT) Non-environmental factors – – – – Clothing Gender Age Metabolic activity BPM Volume II: Design Page 407 .

depending on temperature BPM Volume II: Design Page 408 .What is considered good thermal comfort ? Air temperature between 70F-76F Relative humidity between 20%-60% Interior surfaces not too warm or cool Little air movement.

Princeton University Press. . but causes a constant awareness of air movement From slightly drafty to annoyingly drafty Requires corrective measures if work and health are to be kept in high efficiency 200 to 300 ft/m Above 300 ft/m Source: Victor Olgyay.Thermal Comfort Effect of Air Movement on Occupants Air Velocity Up to 50 ft/m 50 to 100 ft/m 100 to 200 ft/m Probable Impact Unnoticed Pleasant Generally pleasant. Design with Climate. 1963.

Building Envelope & Acoustics Thermal Comfort Design Criteria Source: Chartwell School .HVAC.

Lighting and Daylighting (6 points) – 2. Category Indoor Environmental Quality (20) Class 4.0: ASHRAE 55 Code Compliance EQ4. Thermal Comfort (2 points) Goal: Provide a high level of thermal comfort with individual teacher control of thermal and ventilation systems to support optimum health and productivity. Indoor Air Quality (9 points) – 3.1: Controllability of Systems Points P 1-2 BPM Volume III: Criteria Page 93 .CHPS Criteria Category: Indoor Environmental Quality (20 points) Criteria Classes: – 1. Thermal Comfort (2) Credit/Prerequisite EQ4. Acoustics (3 points) – 4.

Thermal Comfort Conditions for Human Occupancy. Attachment Construction document VERIFICATION Template Provide a summary that identifies each thermally controlled zone and the temperature and humidity control ranges and method of control used for each zone.P1 Comply with ASHRAE Standard 55-2004.CHPS Criteria Category: Indoor Environmental Quality (20 points) Thermal Comfort (2 points) – EQ4.0.0: ASHRAE 55 Code Compliance – EQ4.1: Controllability of Systems Intent: Provide a thermally comfortable environment. BPM Volume III: Criteria Page 93 . APPLICABILITY New school New building ? Major modernization ? = major modernizations depends on scope of the project. CREDIT REQUIREMENT Prerequisite EQ4.

Thermal Comfort ASHRAE Standard 55 .

Thermal Comfort Adaptive Comfort Model 32 30 indoor comfort temperature. Top ( C ) o 41 F 50 F 59 F 68 F 77 F 86 F 95 F 86 F 82 F 28 26 24 22 79 F 75 F 72 F 90% acceptability limits 20 18 16 14 0 5 10 15 20 25 o 68 F 80% acceptability limits 64 F 61 F 30 35 40 mean monthly outdoor air temperature ( C) .

Thermal Comfort Adaptive Comfort – Sacramento Results BPM Volume II: Design Page 412 .

Thermal Comfort Adaptive Comfort – San Francisco Results BPM Volume II: Design Page 412 .

Thermal Comfort Adaptive Comfort – Riverside Results BPM Volume II: Design Page 413 .

Thermal Comfort Adaptive Comfort – Long Beach Results BPM Volume II: Design Page 413 .

EQ4.1.1. it may also apply to modernizations that do not replace the HVAC system if the existing system is compatible with the controls technology. Modernizations that include window replacement in the scope of work will earn this credit also. All newly constructed classrooms can easily achieve this credit by including operable windows. Attachment Construction document VERIFICATION Template APPLICABILITY New school New building Major modernization This credit applies to all new classrooms and all modernizations with new HVAC systems. BPM Volume III: Criteria Page 94 .1: Controllability of Systems CREDIT REQUIREMENT 1 point 1 point Intent: Enable teachers to have control of the thermal environment within their classrooms.0: ASHRAE 55 Code Compliance – EQ4. EQ4.2 Provide separate temperature and ventilation controls for each classroom.1 Provide a minimum of one operable window in each classroom.CHPS Criteria Category: Indoor Environmental Quality (20 points) Thermal Comfort (2 points) – EQ4.

HVAC. Building Envelope & Acoustics Thermal Loads in Schools Source: WLC Architects. . Inc.

Why Talk About Thermal Loads? An understanding of loads helps when setting envelope design priorities Minimizing loads can have many benefits – Better comfort – Smaller HVAC equipment – Lower operating cost – CHPS energy efficiency points! .

Thermal Loads Overview External – Window conduction – Walls. roofs and floors conduction – Infiltration – Solar radiation Internal – People – Lights – Equipment and appliances Conduction Convection Lights Infiltration Radiation Machines and Equipment People .

293 watt-hour .Thermal Loads What’s a BTU? Btu = British Thermal Unit 1 Btu = Energy required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water (about 1 pint) by 1 degree Fahrenheit. 1 Btu = The heat generated by the burning of one match (approximately). 1 Btu = 1055 joule or 0.

413 Btu/hr) Three computers (About 150 watts each) Fairly small with correct orientation and shading 5.300 Btu/h 1.500 Btu/h up to 3.000 Btu/h 12.800 Btu/h .000 Btu/h 3.Thermal Loads Heat Gains (independent of outside temperature) People Lights Plugs Solar Total 24-30 kids (@ 200 Btu/hr) 1 watt per square foot (1 watt = 3.

Thermal Loads Heat Losses/Gains (dependent on outside air temperature) Window conduction Walls. roofs and floors Infiltration Outside air ventilation (a “system” load rather than a “space” load) .

000 0 -5.000 Cooling Required 20.000 -10.000 -25.000 Wall & Roof -15.000 -20.Thermal Loads Balance Point Temperature 25.000 Outdoor Air Temperature Heating Required 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 .000 5.000 15.000 Classroom Loads (Btu/hour) 10.

000 -25.000 0 -5.000 -10.000 Outdoor Air Temperature + Window 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Heating Required .000 -20.Thermal Loads Balance Point Temperature 25.000 Cooling Required 20.000 Classroom Loads (Btu/hour) 10.000 15.000 -15.000 5.

000 0 -5.000 Classroom Loads (Btu/hour) 10.000 -10.000 -15.Thermal Loads Balance Point Temperature 25.000 Outdoor Air Temperature Heating Required 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 .000 + Occupants 15.000 5.000 -25.000 Cooling Required 20.000 -20.

000 Classroom Loads (Btu/hour) 10.Thermal Loads Balance Point Temperature 25.000 -25.000 5.000 15.000 0 -5.000 -15.000 -20.000 -10.000 Cooling Required 20.000 Outdoor Air Temperature Heating Required 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 + Lights .

Thermal Loads Balance Point Temperature
25,000 Cooling Required 20,000 15,000 Classroom Loads (Btu/hour) 10,000 5,000 0 -5,000 -10,000 -15,000 -20,000 -25,000 Outdoor Air Temperature Heating Required 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 + Plugs

Balance Point Temperature

HVAC, Building Envelope & Acoustics Good Envelope Design

Source: Georgina Blach School

Good Envelope Design Overview
Palette of design options – Surface orientation – Building form – Envelope component conductance – Exterior surface color (solar reflectance) – Thermal mass – Fenestration area – Fenestration performance – Exterior shading

Control air leakage BPM Volume II: Design Page 15 . Specify window shading and/or high performance windows 4. Pay attention to the orientation of glazing 2.Good Envelope Design Control Thermal Loads Priorities: 1. Provide adequate insulation 3. Consider high mass materials 6. Control roof heat gain through cool roofs and radiant barriers 5.

.Good Envelope Design Fenestration Orientation Orient windows north/south.

Possible applications in corridors and transitional areas. not a good match.Good Envelope Design What about passive solar? Heat typically needed in early morning. Might be appropriate for mountain climates. Direct solar is a source of glare. .

HVAC, Building Envelope & Acoustics

Building Envelope Guidelines

Guideline IN1 Wall Insulation
Recommendation
Wall type South Coast North Coast 2x4 with R-13 or 2x6 with R-19 2x4 with R-13 or 2x6 with R-19 Provide wall shading Central Valley Desert Mountain 2x6 with R-19 Foam board sheathing + cavity insulation Interior or exterior insulation

Wood frame Steel frame Mass

BPM Volume II: Design Page 268

Good Envelope Design Insulation Materials
Batt insulation – Fiberglass, cellulose, cotton (R-3 to R-4 per inch typical) Loose fill insulation – Fiberglass, cellulose (R-3 to R-4 per inch typical) Foam board – Polyisocyanurate (R-6/inch typical) – Extruded polystyrene (R-5/inch typical) – Expanded polystyrene (R-4/inch typical) Spray foam – Polyurethane (R-6/inch) – “Icynene” (R-3.6/inch typical) – Soy based (R-3.6/inch typical) Straw (R-2.4 to 3.0 per inch typical) Gas-filled panels (up to R-20/inch) Aerogel (up to R-20/inch)

Good Envelope Design Opaque Envelope Heat Transfer R-value – Thermal resistance – Add layers for total R-value U-factor – Thermal transmittance = 1/R-value – IP units = Btu/hr-°F-ft2 – SI units = W/°C-m2 Q = U ⋅ A ⋅ (Tout − Tin ) .

Good Envelope Design Impact of Thermal Mass .

Good Envelope Design Thermal Mass Concrete Concrete masonry Insulating concrete form system Rammed earth .

attic and other R-13 foam board R-30 blown in attic R-30 batt in framed R-19 foam board R-38 blown in attic R-38 batt in framed BPM Volume II: Design Page 271 .Guideline IN2 Roof Insulation Recommendation Roof type South Coast North Coast Central Valley Desert Mountain Insulation above deck Wood-framed.

Guideline IN3 Cool Roofs Recommendation – Typically white color – Single ply: • EPDM • CPE • CPSE • TPO – Liquid applied: • Elastomeric • Acrylic • Polyurethane – White coated metal – Prescriptive requirement in 2005 Title 24 for low-slope roofs – CHPS credit SS 4.2 Reduce Heat Islands BPM Volume II: Design Page 273 .

Guideline IN4 Radiant Barriers Recommendations – Reflective foil sheet – Cuts radiant heat transfer – Reduces cooling energy – Especially beneficial if ducts are in attic space Source: www.net BPM Volume II: Design Page 277 .astrofoil.

if aluminum Shade south-facing windows with overhang High VLT & low SHGC for daylighting windows and skylights See also Guideline LG1: View Windows for VLT recommendations.Guideline IN7 Fenestration Performance Recommendation – – – – – – Double pane Low-e coating NFRC certified Thermal break. .

g. air. argon.Good Envelope Design Fenestration Performance Characteristics Performance ratings – Visible light transmittance (VLT) – Solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) – U-factor Components affecting performance – Glass properties – Coating properties and location – Gap thickness – Gap gas fill (e. krypton) – Spacer material National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) .

Good Envelope Design Transmission of Common Glazing Materials .

27 Source: www.1 Clear Double Clear VE1-85 VE1-55 VE2-55 VE4-55 ¼” clear ¼” clear / ¼” clear ¼” clear / ¼” clear ¼” clear / ¼” clear ¼” green / ¼” clear ¼” gray / ¼” clear None None Low-e Low-e Low-e Low-e 0.88 0.5 1.35 0.31 0.4 1.Good Envelope Design Example Glazing Properties Name Glass Type Coating U-factor (center of glass) 1.31 SHGC VLT VLT/ SHGC ratio 1.70 0.25 0.viracon.40 0.82 0.76 0.3 1.47 0.02 0.31 0.26 0.1 1.54 0.79 0.1 1.47 0.31 0.com .

Good Envelope Design Window Frame Options Metal Thermally-broken metal Wood Vinyl Fiberglass .

Good Envelope Design Fenestration Energy Optimization Total Energy Cost HVAC Energy Cost Lighting Energy Cost .

Good Envelope Design Georgina Blach Middle School. CA Image courtesy of GelfandRNP Architects . Los Altos.

AIA .Photo: Andrew Davis.

AIA .Photo: Andrew Davis.

view from northeast Photo: Ken Rackow .Gym.

View from southwest Photo: Andrew Davis. AIA .

Good Envelope Design Cesar Chavez Elementary School. Oakland VBN Architects .

During construction. Keep water out of the building.Guideline IN8 Moisture Control Design the ventilation system to control indoor humidity Minimize water vapor condensation Irrigation systems should not spray buildings. remove finish materials exposed to moisture .

0 or less 10. aluminum foil. exterior gypsum sheathings. unpainted stucco. heavy asphalt impregnated building papers. glass. February 2002. fiberfaced isocyanurate. unfaced fiberglass insulation. lightweight asphalt impregnated building papers.” Source: Joseph Lstiburek. and foil-faced insulating sheathings Plywood. unfaced expanded polystyrene.0 or less Examples Rubber membranes. polyethylene film. more than 10. the paper and bitumen facing on most fiberglass batt insulation and most latex based paints Vapor Barrier Impermeable Vapor Retarder Breathable SemiPermeable Permeable Unpainted gypsum board and plaster.Moisture Control Vapor Barrier & Retarders Type Description Class Perms I II III 0. oilbased paints. sheet metal. cement sheathings. Understanding the Terms Barrier and Retarder for Vapor and Air.1 or less 1. oriented strand board. vinyl wall coverings. cellulose insulation.0 asphalt impregnated fiberboard. and “housewraps. Source: WLC Architects .

Moisture Control Mold Remediation is Costly Yuma High School. An elementary school in El Paso Independent School District. Washington Elementary School. . Michigan.000 every 3 months to rent rooms in downtown buildings.Texas. Maine. Arizona.000 to remove mold from ceiling tiles. Saline Middle School in Washtenaw County. To relocate students from moldy schools in Portland. spent $500. the school district spent $100. MI. spent more than $5 million to clean up its mold problem.000 to clean up its mold problem.000 in repair work due to mold. spent $300. spent more than $200.

HVAC. Building Envelope & Acoustics Ventilation: Natural and Mechanical .

Such air may or may not be conditioned.1 Source: EHDD Architects .What is Ventilation? “The process of supplying and removing air by natural or mechanical means to and from any space.” ASHRAE Standard 62.

0.1.2) .Ventilation Why Ventilate? Comfort Health dilute odors dilute carbon dioxide and other pollutants Title 24 says that we must It is a CHPS prerequisite (EQ2. EQ2. EE1.

e. both) Source: WLC Architects .Ventilation How do I ventilate? Naturally Mechanically Mixed mode (i.

Ventilation Natural Ventilation Energy efficient ventilation potential Traditional in California Still appropriate strategy in much of state Design for security .

odors) Design meets Title 24 ventilation requirements . dust.g.Ventilation When is Natural Ventilation Feasible? Appropriate climate Acceptable outdoor noise level Acceptable outdoor air quality (e.

For a typical 960 ft² (30 ft x 32 ft) classroom. – At least 48 ft² opening area. – Total opening area > 5% of floor area. .Ventilation Title 24 and Natural Ventilation Title 24 Compliance using natural ventilation permitted if: – All spaces within 20 ft of operable opening. – Openings on two sides of the room.

Ventilation Natural Ventilation Potential. Central Valley (Sacramento) BPM Volume II: Design Page 415 .

North Coast (San Francisco) BPM Volume II: Design Page 416 .Ventilation Natural Ventilation Potential.

Southern Valley (Riverside) BPM Volume II: Design Page 415 .Ventilation Natural Ventilation Potential.

South Coast (Long Beach) BPM Volume II: Design Page 416 .Ventilation Natural Ventilation Potential.

Ventilation Title 24 and Mechanical Ventilation
Two options for calculating minimum ventilation rate
Actual number of occupants:
– E.g. 30 people per classroom

Default occupant density

OR

– Look up in Title 24 – Divide by two

For 960 ft² classroom:
– 20 ft²/person for classroom – 960/20 = 48 people – 48/2 = 24 people

15 cfm per person minimum for classroom
15 cfm/person X 30 people = 450 cfm 15 cfm/person X 24 people = 360 cfm

Ventilation Mixed Mode Ventilation
Often a good choice in California Opportunities – Avoid air conditioning in spring and fall – Save fan energy – Potential psychological benefits Challenges – Avoid increase in heating or cooling loads – Providing ventilation whenever occupants are present

HVAC, Building Envelope & Acoustics

Ventilation Guidelines

Natural Ventilation Guidelines TC13: Cross ventilation TC14: Stack ventilation TC15: Ceiling fans BPM Volume II: Design Page 509-526 .

Building Envelope & Acoustics Thermal Comfort Design Criteria .HVAC.

3: Energy Management Systems – EE1. While this credit applies to modernization projects. a new building on an existing campus. additions and to major modernizations that include HVAC as part of the scope of improvements. APPLICABILITY New school New building Major modernization This credit applies to new schools.1: Superior Energy Performance EE1. the cost of installing interlocks on existing windows can be prohibitive. For new buildings and modernization projects. EE1. interlock switches may only be installed in just the new building(s) or the building(s) being modernized to earn this credit. A good opportunity to install interlocks occurs when the windows are being replaced as part of the project.2: Natural Ventilation CREDIT REQUIREMENT 1 point Intent: Limit the use of HVAC Systems by designing to enhance natural ventilation.2. BPM Volume III: Criteria Page 40 .0: Minimum Energy Performance – – EE1.CHPS Criteria Category: Energy (20 points) Energy Efficiency (15 points) – EE1.1 Install interlocks to turn off HVAC systems in conditioned buildings if operable exterior windows or doors are opened.

• Locate exhaust high above inlet to maximize stack effect. • Orient windows across the room and offset from each other to maximize mixing within the room while minimizing the obstructions to airflow within the room • Provide ridge vents • Consider the use of clerestories or vented skylights • Provide attic ventilation • Consider the use of fan-assisted cooling strategies • Consider open staircases that provide stack effect ventilation BPM Volume III: Criteria Page 40 .2 Natural Ventilation Natural Ventilation Guidelines • Maximize wind-induced ventilation by siting the ridge of a building perpendicular to the summer winds • Naturally ventilated buildings should be narrow • Each room should have two separate supply and exhaust openings.Guideline EE1.

the classrooms stay comfortable The school also utilizes three passive cooling chimneys for the gym.Natural Ventilation Kenilworth Junior High School. Petaluma. library and a multi-use building Source: Quattrocchi Kwok Architects . CA Kenilworth has no HVAC system During hot spells. thermal mass and timely opening/closing of windows. night air is circulated inside to cool the thermal mass of the classrooms With improved insulation.

HVAC. Building Envelope & Acoustics Acoustics .

HOH. high background noise can promote problematic student-to-student communication. ADD. LD. speech disabilities. negatively impacting “classroom management” . relatively frequent colds Speech intelligibility research shows that HOH kids lag peers in educational achievement Intrusive noise distracts students.Why are good acoustics important to learning? Speech communication is an critical part of the learning process Students need good acoustics to understand and convey spoken messages Young students are still developing language skills and lack contextual correction ability for “lost” words As many as 1/3 of kids in typical classrooms have extra sensitivity to poor acoustics due to: ESL.

What should be considered to ensure acoustic comfort? Reduce sound reverberation time inside the classroom Limit transmission of noise from outside the classroom Minimize background noise from the buildings HVAC system BPM Volume II: Design Page 9 Source: Gelfand Partners Architects .

7 seconds for large classrooms Sound isolation between classrooms and other spaces Classroom Acoustics I from the Acoustic Society of America (ASA) is a primer on the basics of classroom acoustics Classroom Acoustics II summarizes studies that “connect” acoustics to learning and teacher performance 35 dBA background noise criterion is consistent with the longstanding ASHRAE classroom standard of Noise Criteria (NC) 25 to 30 .60-2002 Specifies: Low background noise 35 dBA maximum 55 dBC maximum Low reverberation time 0.6 seconds for normal classrooms 0.Acoustics Resource Documents ANSI Standard S12.

dBA 35 40 45 .000 ft3 & all ancillary learning spaces Corridors not used for formal learning Max one-hour-avg A-weighted steady background noise level. furnished learning spaces Learning space Core learning space: volume < 20.000 ft³ Core learning spaces: vol >20.Acoustics Maximum A-weighted Background Noise Levels Unoccupied.

Acoustics Speech Corrupted by Noise Uncorrupted speech (no noise) High speech-to-noise ratio (Minimum goal of ANSI classroom standard) Medium speech-to-noise ratio (Noise level increased by 5 dB) Low speech-to-noise ratio (Noise level increased by 10 dB) David Lubman Associates Very Low speech-to-noise ratio (Noise level increased by 15 dB) .

Cafeteria. Staircase. or Outdoors STC ≥ 50 Classroom or other core learning space Music Room. Speech Clinic. Room. Gym. Mech. Equip.Acoustics Noise Isolation (STC) Requirements Corridor. Office or Conference Room STC ≥ 45 (Doors closed) Another Learning Space. or Indoor Pool STC ≥ 60 Common use and public use toilet room and bathing room STC ≥ 53 a) See full ANSI Standard for other details .

gymnasium & indoor swimming pool STC 60 . Floor-Ceiling & Roof/Ceiling Assemblies separating a classroom from: 2. Corridor. Other staircase. cafeteria.Acoustics Interpreting the Standard Minimum STC Ratings for Wall. and public enclosed or office or use toilet open plan conference room and core learning room bathing room space. Common use 3. mechanical equipment room. Music room. 1. speech clinic. health care room and outdoors STC 50 STC 53 STC 45 4.

pdf .Acoustics Sample Sound Wall Constructions (6” steel studs) From http://www.jm.com/Insulation/TechnicalInfo/SoundControl/steelsound_bid000.

pdf .com/Insulation/TechnicalInfo/SoundControl/woodsound_bid002.Acoustics Sample Sound Wall Constructions (wood frame) From http://www.jm.

Generally Will Not Meet the Criteria Conventional operable partitions typically provide the fieldperformance equivalent of an STC value in the mid-30’s Set program requirement to “useful to occasionally close”. versus “useful to occasionally open” Use dual wall horizontal or folding vertical systems (more expensive) Include guaranteed. field-tested performance in operable partition specifications .Acoustics Operable Partitions .

Acoustics Doors Sound-Gasketed Acoustically-Rated .

Acoustics Lower noise HVAC Design Approach Fully Ducted Closet Fan-coils & PTAC’s .

5. but RT control is discussed in Annex C Core spaces volume between 10.000 ft3 and 20.000 ft³ Core spaces volume > 20. 1K.6 sec 0. & 2KHz Octave bands 0.000 ft³ & all ancillary learning spaces .7 sec.Acoustics Maximum Reverberation Times in ANSI Standard Volume & Type of Learning Space Core spaces Volume < 10. Limits not specified.000 ft³ Max Reverb time in 0.

Acoustics Reverberated Speech Samples Dry speech (no reverberation) 0.3 second reverb.0 second reverb. time 5. time 1. time .6 second reverb.

Carpet .Acoustics Sound absorbers reduce reverberation Classrooms Suspended ceiling QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.

Acoustics Sound absorbers reduce reverberation Ancillary Spaces Wall panels QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Acoustical Floor and Roof Deck .

Building Envelope & Acoustics Chartwell School. CA Acoustics Guidelines .Image courtesy of Chartwell HVAC. Seaside.

What guidelines does CHPS offer on acoustics? IS8: Acoustical Wall Panels and Ceilings IN9: Acoustic Design TC1: HVAC Acoustics .

Inc Description Recommendation – Select formaldehyde-free acoustical ceiling and wall systems with recycled content and high light reflectance. A variety of products are available including modular wall panels (textile and metalcovered). a recycled content products demonstration project.Guideline IS8: Acoustical Wall Panels and Ceilings – Acoustical wall and ceiling systems are widely used in school for sound absorption. suspended ceiling tiles (t-bar ceilings). BPM Volume II: Design Page 170 Acoustical ceiling tile/T-bar ceiling installation at the Central Market. Washington. . Photo courtesy of O’Brien & Company. Poulsbo. and surface mounted ceiling and wall panels.

– Ceiling tile waste. L M H L M H Benefits – Formaldehyde-free acoustical panels with recycled content are available. either from construction or demolition. BPM Volume II: Design Page 170 BENEFIT . – At least one manufacturer offers a reclamation program. – Acoustical products from wood fiber and other sustainable raw materials are highly durable. is non-toxic (as long as lead paint and asbestos were not used on older ceiling installations). One company claims that its panels can be ground up successfully and composted to produce a soil amendment.Guideline IS8: Acoustical Wall Panels and Ceilings Cost Effectiveness COST – Costs are low.

gyp (2 layers total). gyp (2 layers total). Batt insulation 5/8" metal studs. Resilient Channel. ⅝-in. Batt insulation 2x4 studs. ⅝-in. gyp (2 layers total). ⅝-in. Batt insulation 2x4 stud. gyp (4 layers total). ⅝-in. Batt insulation 2x4 stud. gyp (2 layers total). Batt insulation Staggered studs. Batt insulation Estimated STC Rating 34–39 46–47 Wall Assembly 43–44 43–45 45–52 56–59 . gyp (2 layers total).Guideline IS8: Acoustical Wall Panels and Ceilings Typical STC Ratings of Wall Constructions Description 2x4 stud. ⅝-in. ⅝-in.

BPM Volume II: Design Page 399 . – Design walls separating classrooms with a minimum sound transmission class (STC) of 50. cafeterias and mechanical equipment rooms with STC ratings of 60. Recommendation – Design the building envelope to provide acoustical performance that meets the 2002 voluntary American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard S12.60 of 35 decibels dBA or lower. sound transmission between classrooms. and walls isolating noise from music spaces. bathroom walls with an STC rating of 53. and exterior noise sources.Guideline IN9 Acoustic Design Description – Good acoustic performance = integrated design of both building envelope components and HVAC equipment selection/location. as children do not develop contextual listening skills at such a young age. – Classroom sound levels are especially critical in elementary schools. – Acoustics is affected by reverberation.

HVAC design may require longer duct runs.50/ft2 for new classrooms but can be as low as $1. larger duct cross-sectional area and a higher number of diffuser grilles. Designing new construction for good acoustic performance is much less costly than retrofitting a bad design. and an extra drywall layer to reduce sound transmission. Costs average around $4.50/ft2.Guideline IN9 Acoustic Design Cost Effectiveness – Designing the building envelope for good acoustic performance may require: higher NRC acoustic ceiling tiles. good quality drop seals and gaskets on doors. It will prevent the teacher from having to strain his or her voice to be heard. BPM Volume II: Design Page 399 . COST L M H L M H BENEFIT Benefits – Proper classroom acoustics will ensure an environment conducive to learning.

careful ductwork design to address sound transmission paths. ductwork design. HVAC equipment selection and location.Guideline TC1 HVAC Acoustics Description – Good acoustic performance is a result of integrated design of building envelope components. BPM Volume II: Design Page 441 Source: Trane Adding exterior ductwork avoids downflow of turbulent supply air. . and specification of interior surfaces. and diffuser selection to address the noise transmitted to the students. – The ANSI Standard S12. – HVAC acoustic design requires proper equipment selection and location to address the sound source.60-2002 recommendation is 35 decibels (dBA).

– Avoid abrupt duct transitions that cause pressure loss and create noise. duct turns. including strategic use of plenums. – Lay out ducts to minimize sound transmission. consider a displacement ventilation system. BPM Volume II: Design Page 441 . – Avoid use of dampers or other obstructions within the ducts. and branch takeoff locations. – As an alternative to overhead air distribution. which uses lower air velocities and can be quieter. – Avoid locating equipment within or directly above the classroom. – Size ducts adequately to avoid excessive air velocity.Guideline TC1 HVAC Acoustics Recommendation: To achieve the ANSI Standard: – Use four supply diffusers. each selected for an NC rating of no greater than 18. acoustic duct liner.

acoustic duct liners or the addition of a duct silencer. Benefits – Proper acoustics will ensure an environment conducive to learning and prevent the teacher from having to strain his or her voice to be heard.Guideline TC1 HVAC Acoustics Cost Effectiveness – HVAC design for acoustic performance may require longer duct runs and duct cross-sectional area and a higher number of diffuser grilles. BPM Volume II: Design Page 441 COST L M H L M H BENEFIT . – Addressing the sound paths from HVAC equipment ensures that both the background noise level (dBA) and sound quality provide an environment conducive to learning. offsetting incremental first costs. – Costs of measures to address HVAC noise vary from 0. good acoustic design will result in lower operating costs.3% to 6% of total new construction costs. Incremental costs of high performance acoustic design will be lowest with central systems. – In some instances.

HVAC. Building Envelope & Acoustics Acoustics Design Criteria .

Category Indoor Environmental Quality (20) Class 3. Acoustics (3 points) – 4. Lighting and Daylighting (6 points) – 2.CHPS Criteria Category: Indoor Environmental Quality (20 points) Criteria Classes: – 1. Acoustics (9) Credit/Prerequisite EQ3. Indoor Air Quality (9 points) – 3.1: Improved Acoustical Performance Points P 1 or 3 BPM Volume III: Criteria Page 90 . Thermal Comfort (2 points) Goal: Design quiet classrooms in which teachers can speak to the class without straining their voices and students can effectively communicate with each other and learn.0: Minimum Acoustical Performance EQ3.

For new construction. APPLICABILITY New school New building Major modernization BPM Volume III: Criteria Page 90 .0. EQ3.P1. Attachment Construction document VERIFICATION Template Reverberation time can be estimated by equations provided by the CHPS Criteria. CREDIT REQUIREMENT Prerequisite EQ3.1: Improved Acoustical Performance Intent: Provide classrooms with adequate acoustical environments.P2 Classrooms must have a Maximum unoccupied background noise levels of 45 dBA and a 0.0: Minimum Acoustical Performance – EQ3. the classroom design and the materials specified should ensure compliance.0.CHPS Criteria Category: Indoor Environmental Quality (20 points) Acoustics (3 points) – EQ3.6-second maximum (unoccupied) reverberation time.

2 Classrooms must have: 35 dBA maximum (unoccupied) background noise levels. EQ3. 0.6-second maximum (unoccupied) reverberation times.0: Minimum Acoustical Performance – EQ3.6-second maximum (unoccupied) reverberation times.1. BPM Volume III: Criteria Page 91 . Attachment Construction document VERIFICATION Template Reverberation time can be estimated by equations provided by the CHPS Criteria. CREDIT REQUIREMENT 1 point 3 points EQ3.1: Improved Acoustical Performance Intent: Provide classrooms with superior acoustical environments. 0.1. APPLICABILITY New school New building Major modernization* * Achieving the 40 or 35 dBA criteria may be more difficult for modernization projects.1 Classrooms must have: 40 dBA maximum (unoccupied) background noise levels.CHPS Criteria Category: Indoor Environmental Quality (20 points) Acoustics (3 points) – EQ3.

Building Envelope & Acoustics HVAC System Selection and Design .HVAC.

HVAC System Selection and Design Fundamental HVAC Decision Yes Can natural ventilation meet all cooling needs? No Heating-only system types Heating plus cooling system types .

HVAC System Selection and Design Heating-Only System Types Baseboard Wall panel Heated floor Furnace Fan coil .

HVAC System Selection and Design Ventilation for Heating-Only Systems Passive ventilation – – – – – – – – – Adequate airflow even when occupant-operable openings have been closed After-hours control to minimize unnecessary heating load Adequate airflow over the range of likely outdoor conditions Security of ventilation openings Removal of particulates from outdoor air Noise transmission through ventilation openings Drafts Distribution of ventilation air within the space (ventilation effectiveness) Consider stack ventilation Mechanical ventilation – – – – – – Furnace Fan coil Exhaust fan Supply fan Heat recovery ventilator (Optionally with CO2 control) .

HVAC System Selection and Design Heating plus cooling system decisions Air Delivery Method Overhead (mixing) Lower wall (displacement) Raised floor (mixing/displacement) System Type Single-zone packaged rooftop or split system Single-zone fan coil Multiple-zone VAV reheat Multiple-zone VAV dualfan dual-duct Water loop heat pump Dedicated outside air system (DOAS) with radiant heating and cooling .

HVAC System Selection and Design Air Delivery Method Options Overhead (mixing) Lower wall (displacement) Raised floor (mixing/ displacement) .

HVAC System Selection and Design Air Distribution – Overhead Mixing Mixing (typically overhead) 55F-57F 55F-57F .

HVAC System Selection and Design Air Distribution – Displacement Displacement (typically low wall) .

HVAC System Selection and Design Air Distribution – Underfloor Partial displacement .

HVAC System Selection and Design Air Distribution – Underfloor Swirl Diffusers – discharge causes rapid induction of room air – hybrid ventilation Displacement underfloor diffusers have low induction and a radial flow pattern .

with either packaged direct expansion (DX) or chilled hot water (CHW) cooling Multiple-zone VAV dual-fan dual-duct.HVAC System Selection and Design Heating and Cooling Systems – Selected Options Single-zone packaged rooftop Single-zone split system Single-zone fan coil Multiple-zone VAV reheat. with either packaged DX or CHW cooling Water loop heat pump. optionally with ground heat exchanger Dedicated outside air system (DOAS) with radiant heating and cooling .

HVAC System Selection and Design HVAC System Evaluation Method Select criteria Choose criteria weightings Identify shortlist of HVAC system options Assign criteria scores Calculate total weighted score BPM Volume II: Design Page 432 .

HVAC System Selection and Design System Selection Criteria Mechanical System First Costs Impact on Other Trades: General Contractor Impact on Other Trades: Electrical Contractor Floor Space Requirements Ceiling Space Requirements Energy Efficiency: Normal Operation Energy Efficiency: Off-hour Operation Flexibility for After-School-Hours Operation Acoustical Impact Indoor Air Quality Size Comfort Maintenance Cost Ease of Maintenance During School Hours Compatibility with Maintenance Staff Resources Use of Standardized Parts Reliability Longevity Compatibility with Natural Ventilation Flexibility for Future Occupancy Changes .

HVAC System Selection and Design HVAC System Evaluation Method (continued) Packaged single zone system example .

HVAC System Selection and Design The Good News… Most system types can be designed to be relatively efficient given careful attention to specifications and design details (sometimes with a little extra up front investment) Image Source: LPA. Inc Cesar Chavez Long Beach .

SEER 12 or better Design ducts for low air velocity High Efficiency Image Source: Small HVAC System Design Guide. CEC PIER Program. 2003 .HVAC System Selection and Design Design Case: Packaged Rooftop System Minimize cooling loads (envelope and lighting) Avoid conservative load calculations (and don’t rely on rules-of-thumb) Standard Efficiency Avoid over sizing (design conditions occur relatively few hours per year) Economizer – factory installed and run tested. direct drive preferred Thermostatic expansion valve High efficiency.

CEC PIER Program. 2003 .HVAC System Selection and Design Impact of Cooling Compressor Cycling Cyclic AC Performance Cyclic AC Performance Source: Small HVAC System Design Guide.

HVAC System Selection and Design Impact of Cycling on Efficiency Source: Small HVAC System Design Guide. 2003 . CEC PIER Program.

HVAC System Selection and Design Equipment Sizing Bigger is not always better! Avoid oversizing for: – – – – AC/heat pump compressors Furnaces Boilers Chillers Sometimes bigger is better! – – – – Ducts Fans (if they have speed control) Cooling towers Pipes .

Guideline TC8: Economizers Components of an Economizer in a Packaged Rooftop Unit BPM Volume II: Design Page 489 .

0% 40.0% Annual Energy Savings 60.0% 20.0% 10.0% 90. CEC PIER Program.0% 50. 2003 .0% 80.HVAC System Selection and Design Economizer Energy Savings 100.0% 30.0% 0.0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Climate Zone Non-integrated Economizer Integrated Economizer Source: Small HVAC System Design Guide.0% 70.

HVAC System Selection and Design Packaged System Problems Economizers Refrigerant charge Low airflow Cycling fans during occupied period Fans run during unoccupied period Simultaneous heating and cooling No outside air intake at unit 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0. 2003 . CEC PIER Program.1 0.7 Problem Frequency Source: Small HVAC System Design Guide.5 0.3 0.

HVAC System Selection and Design Economizer Actuator Types Linkage Driven Drive Drive Source: Small HVAC System Design Guide. CEC PIER Program. 2003 .

HVAC System Selection and Design Economizer Specifications
Factory-installed and run-tested economizers Direct-drive actuators Differential (dual) changeover logic Low leakage dampers

Source: Small HVAC System Design Guide, CEC PIER Program, 2003

HVAC System Selection and Design
Thermostatic Expansion Valve Impact
1.2

TXV
1

100%

Normalized Efficiency Normalized Efficiency

0.8

Fixed Expansion Device
0.6 TXV Short orifice

0.4

0.2

0 50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

110%

120%

130%

140%

% % Factory Charge Factory Charge

Source: Small HVAC System Design Guide, CEC PIER Program, 2003

HVAC System Selection and Design
Design Case: Packaged Rooftop System Costs
1000-ft2 classroom, 4-ton AC, SEER 10
Increase SEER 10 to 12 ($100 per ton) Economizer Thermostatic expansion valve Total Reduce from 4 tons to 3 tons ($500 per ton) Net Cost $400 $300 $75 $775 ($0.78 per ft2) - $500 $275 ($0.28 per ft2) $190 per year 1.4 years 4.1 years

Savings (~1,600 kWh/yr, @ $0.12/kWh) Simple payback period With downsizing credit Without downsizing credit

SEER >12 (add $350 per ton for SEER 16) Multiple compressors or variable speed compressor Variable speed or multiple speed fan CO2 ventilation control Specify commissioning Integration with lighting motion sensor control Interlocks on windows and doors Increase air flow to extract extra sensible cooling capacity from unit.HVAC System Selection and Design Additional Packaged Rooftop Measures Higher efficiency. . allowing the selection of a smaller “nominal” unit.

Building Envelope & Acoustics Displacement Ventilation .HVAC.

a thermal plume. . it slowly rises toward the ceiling. contaminated air is exhausted near the ceiling. Warm. The rising air produces a vertical airflow pattern near each occupant. making it less likely that germs will spread between occupants and from equipment to occupants.Displacement Ventilation How Displacement Ventilation Works Low velocity air enters near the floor at about 65°F. As the cool air comes into contact with heat sources. falls toward the floor due to gravity and spreads across the room.

Displacement Ventilation How Displacement Ventilation Works Features: Constant temperature/variable volume Constant supply air temperature of about 65 ºF Variable air volume (VAV) to maintain space temperature Low velocity. about 40-75 ft/min Exhaust air near ceiling .

Courtesy Julianne Laue. Provide secondary temperature control by reducing or increasing the supply air temperature. Dunham Associates .Displacement Ventilation Design Details – Classroom Deliver between 500 and 1200 cfm of 65 ºF air to each conventional classroom (more for computer labs or spaces with higher internal loads). PE. Provide primary temperature control by varying the volume of air (provide less air if the space is overcooled and more if it is under cooled).

Deliver air at a low velocity. PE. above the floor and at least 5 ft from the diffusers. Locate the thermostat 42 in. Locate the return air diffuser anywhere at the ceiling. Courtesy Julianne Laue. Dunham Associates .Displacement Ventilation Design Details – Classroom Provide at least two diffusers in each classroom or a continuous diffuser under the casework on one wall (preferred). less than 75 ft/min.

Provide outside air when the space is occupied. per Title 24. PE.Displacement Ventilation Design Details – Classroom In most of California. heating will only be needed prior to occupancy for morning warm-up or recovery from the school being closed for an extended period of time. Courtesy Julianne Laue. Dunham Associates . Initiate outside air ventilation at least an hour prior to occupancy.

Displacement Ventilation Basic Design Requirements Ceiling height of at least 9 feet is recommended (higher is better) High ceilings will promote stratification of heat and contaminants Maintain comfort requirements: – – – – SAT of 63-68°F Low velocity (<50-75 fpm) Use a moderate SAT in heating Use high performance glazing to reduce radiant effects Exhaust air at or near the ceiling .

germs are not spread as easily Better thermal comfort Better air quality Improved acoustics Energy efficiency Compatible with operable windows and natural ventilation .Displacement Ventilation Benefits Healthier environment.

000 cfm of total supply air per classroom Supply temperature about 55 ºF. variable temperature 1.Displacement Ventilation Conventional Overhead System Constant volume. this varies widely About 500 cfm of outside air (the rest recirculated) Ventilation effectiveness of 1. but with packaged systems.0 Air delivered at 600 to 800 ft/min (noisy) 55F55F57F 57F .800 to 2.

stratified Height [ft] 5 4 3 2 1 0 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 overhead. fully mixed Temperature [F] .Displacement Ventilation Temperature Thermal Displacement Mixing System 9 8 7 6 low load maximum load underfloor.

Displacement Ventilation Carbon Dioxide Concentrations Thermal Displacement Mixing System .

Displacement Ventilation Mean Age of Air Thermal Displacement Mixing System .

Displacement Ventilation Germ Concentrations Thermal Displacement Mixing System A A Germ Concentration The occupant in cubicle A has a cold and just sneezed extreme high low nil High germ concentrations Low germ concentrations .

Displacement Ventilation Energy Savings Increased chiller/cooling efficiency Lower primary fan energy Extended economizer range San Francisco Outdoor Temperature Distribution (Dry Bulb temperatures betweeen 8am and 8pm) 300 100% Economizer 2217 Hours Load Reduction? 54 Hours ?? 250 200 Hours 150 100 50 0 33 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 Outdoor Dry Bulb Temperature [F] 95 .

Displacement Ventilation Diffuser Product Options Sidewall – Corner. Half-round Recessed into Wall Freestanding circular diffusers Various finishes and duct cover options available Integrated with casework .

Displacement Ventilation Half-Round .

Displacement Ventilation Quarter-Round .

Displacement Ventilation Recessed .

Displacement Ventilation Diffuser Air-Flow Pattern Air Outlet at 50-75 fpm or slower Air accelerates over a short distance as it falls to the floor Air velocity gradually decreases as it spreads across the room Adjacent zone – area where local air velocity exceeds 40 fpm Highest air velocity near the floor. much lower above a height of 8” above the floor .

5 ft2 of floor space each About 10 ft2 of wall space for two diffusers Locate occupants at least 2 ft to 4 ft from the diffusers Recessed Diffusers are an option .Displacement Ventilation Space Requirements Sidewall diffusers occupy about 1.

Displacement Ventilation Typical Diffuser Layout .

Displacement Ventilation Air Delivery Options Overhead Ducted corridor and variations Vertical chase Below floor Suspended floor .

Displacement Ventilation Air Delivery Options .

Displacement Ventilation Ducted Corridor .

Displacement Ventilation Vertical Shaft – Two-story .

Displacement Ventilation Vertical Shaft – One-story .

Displacement Ventilation Below floor .

5% DB) Coincident wet bulb temperature (RH)% Cooling degree days (base 65 °F) Winter Design Temperature (0.Displacement Ventilation Demonstration Sites Roseville Site Cooling Design Temperature (0.6%DB) Roseville 102°F San Juan Capistrano 87°F 70°F (20% RH) 1250 DD 34 3150 HDD 67°F (35% RH) 900 DD 41 2200 HDD San Juan Capistrano Site Heating Degree Days (base 65°F) .

San Juan Capistrano .Displacement Ventilation Kinoshita Elementary.

Roseville .Displacement Ventilation Coyote Ridge Elementary.

KS DV retrofit in all classroom spaces Energy savings was achieved despite increasing outside air from 5 cfm/person to 15 cfm/person District is reusing design for other schools Courtesy: Jim Megerson. Larson-Binkley . Overland Park.Displacement Ventilation Blue Valley North High School.

Overland Park. KS HVAC System – Large rooftop unit serving multiple classrooms – Return air bypass for dehumidification – Demand controlled ventilation for verification of air quality .Displacement Ventilation Blue Valley North High School.

000 students High cooling loads from yearround operation Two-stage evaporative cooler uses 100% outside air to produce 64°F supply air Cooling system complemented by radiant floor heating Courtesy: Andy McPherson.Displacement Ventilation Inderkum High School. Sacramento. Nacht & Lewis Architects . CA High outside air requirements for 1.

Displacement Ventilation Inderkum High School. CA Two-stage evaporative cooling system with radiant floor heating Economizer is first cooling stage Second cooling stage – indirect evaporative cooling only Third stage – direct evap cooling (when outdoor conditions permit) Fourth. Sacramento. fifth Stages (rare) – DX cooling .

Longmont. CO Courtesy: Paul Hutton.Displacement Ventilation Mead Middle School Gym. Hutton-Ford Architects .

Displacement Ventilation Mead Middle School Gym. Hutton-Ford Architects . CO Three large supply outlets behind bleachers on one end Three large supply outlets on other end Air is exhausted at the ceiling Ventilation only with nighttime purge Courtesy: Paul Hutton. Longmont.

Cardiff.Displacement Ventilation Cardiff Branch Library. CA Uses 10 displacement diffusers for ventilation and cooling Packaged VAV Unit with “Engineered Coil System” North-facing exterior glass treated with perimeter baseboards Courtesy: Mark Bender. Bender-Dean Engineering .

5 nominal tons.Displacement Ventilation Cardiff Branch Library. CA HVAC Details Air-Cooled Condensing Unit – 19. Cardiff.610 cfm of supply air – 1550 minimum outside air VAV Terminal Units with Hot Water Coils Boiler for Perimeter Radiation at North-facing windows Ten Displacement Diffusers sized to space load . hot gas bypass for low load conditions Variable Air Volume Central Air Handler with evaporator coil sized for higher SAT – 6. two stages.

in some cases . a variety of systems can do the job Prohibitively expensive – Simplification of ductwork offsets small incremental cost of diffusers – Possibility to downsize cooling plant.Displacement Ventilation Common Misconceptions Requires a separate heating system – In most California applications the supply of heat through low velocity diffusers achieves adequate ventilation when a moderate SAT is used Cannot handle high cooling loads – Sacramento area classroom maintains comfort without the use of supplemental cooling or a chilled ceiling Cold drafts from the floor air supply – Maintaining proper supply air temperature and locating occupants more than 2-4 feet from diffusers results in good comfort Conventional equipment can’t be used – Main requirement is SAT control.

Guideline TC2: Displacement Ventilation System Displacement Ventilation Design Guide: K-12 Schools – – – – http://www. II.archenergy.com/ieq-k12 Load calculations System selection and design Energy calculations .Displacement Ventilation More Information CHPS BPM Vol.

ashrae.energydesignresources.org REHVA Guidebook: DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION in Non Industrial Premises – www.rehva.Displacement Ventilation Yet More Information EDR Design Brief: Displacement Ventilation – http://www.com .com/resource/199 System Performance Evaluation and Design Guidelines for Displacement Ventilation – www.

Perform load calculations and avoid over sizing AC equipment Consider displacement ventilation for better air quality and energy efficiency. Take advantage of natural ventilation where it’s feasible to expand comfort range and save energy.Summary Things to Remember Minimize cooling loads through orientation and shading design. .

Thanks for your participation Questions Visit us at: www.net .net Or contact us at: (877) 642-CHPS info@chps.chps.