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BASIC: Beginners All- Purpose Symbolic Instruction-Code The computer is defined as an electronic device, which can perform to mathematical, logical and other operations by processing or manipulating information in accordance with a set of instructions called program. In a short, a computer can add, delete, store, chart, compare, analyses project communicates play with information in on its forms at incredible speed. If we have typed in a list of employees into the computer, and we want to alphabetize the list, the act of placing the names in alphabetical sequence is considered as processing. Abbreviation of a computer C:- Calculation O:- Organization M:- Manipulation U:- Understanding T:- Tabulating E:- Editing R:- Regeneration The term Computer is derived from Latin word “compute” which means to calculate or manipulate. 1. It accepts data (information) from the users and displayed it. 2. Computer stores large volume of information in the form of symbols and digits, in its memory and make available at any time. 3. It also performs operations like arithmetic and logical. 4. Transfers data, images, sound and graphics through cables at a very fast rate. Features of Computer 1) Speed Computer is a very high speed information processing machine. The speed of the computer is measured in terms of Million Instructions Per Second (MIPS). It represents the number of instructions that can be executed by the computer per second. 2) Detailed Instructions A Computer operates according to the instructions contained in a particular programme and will solve a given problem accordingly. For example, if a programme containing the figures of wages of thousands of workers is fed into the Computer, it will immediately make various calculations and print a wage sheet in no time.


3) Firmware Firmware is a prewritten program that is permanently stored in read-only memory. Even in the absence of electrical power the memory in ROM stays intact. It configures the computer and is not easily modifiable by the user. BIOS (Basic Input Output Services) instructions are an example of firmware. 4) Live ware People who are associated with and benefited from the computer system are called the live ware. They are (a) System Analysts. Design data processing systems. (b) Programmers. Write programs to implement the data processing system design. (c) Operators. Participate in operating the computers. 5) Procedure Computer has complex and rigid procedure to operate it. Developing a suitable program is more difficult. The following series of operations is to achieve the desired result. (a) Hardware oriented procedure Details about components and their method of operation. (b) Software oriented procedure Set of instructions required to use software in a computer system. (c) Internal procedure It answers smooth data processing. 6) Versatile Machine Computer can do a wide variety of jobs through software development. Computer can switch over from one programmed to another according to the set of instructions fed into it. The same computer can be used for accounting work, invoicing, stock control, sales analysis and even for playing chess. 7) Reduced costs With the ever-increasing advances being made in the state of the art, the cost of computer equipment has dropped drastically over the years. Hardware cost of acquiring their own computer system many now find it not only feasible to acquire a system, but cost-effective as well. 8) Unemployment Computer performs work speedily and accurately, so big enterprises prefer it. A computer is capable of performing jobs earlier being performed by many people and thus throwing many people out of employment. 9) Storing


Computer has an in-built memory where it saves data and instructions so that they are available for initial or for additional processing. Such information can be stored in it on a permanent basis on magnetic discs, floppy discs, punched cards or microfilms etc. DVD’s of today can store data of many CDs. 10) Accuracy Computers can perform all the calculations and comparisons accurately provided the hardware does not malfunction. Computer operations are error-free and as such the information obtained from it is highly reliable. Errors can occur in a computer due to human element. Computer errors caused due to incorrect data or unreliable programs are often referred to as garbage-in-garbage-out (GIGO). 11) Use of special language The computer dose not understands ordinary language, so specific language: BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN has been developing for use in the computer. (a) COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) is used for large data handling purposes in commercial and processing the business information. (b) FORTRAN is a language most suited for processing the mathematical and statistical information. (c) BASIC is used by the persons who have just started to learn the programming. (d) LOGO (Logic Oriented Graphic Oriented) is mainly developed for children. It helps them learn basic mathematical and geometric skills easily. (e) C++ is used effectively in developing system software as well as application software. (f) JAVA or OAK is designed for the development of software for consumer electronic devices. 12) Use of Binary System Binary means pertaining to a pair. Binary numbering system is one which has a base of 2 represented by the digits 0 and 1. (In contrast to this binary system our extensively used decimal system has a base of 10, represented by the digits 0-9.) Conversion of decimal number 20 into Binary Digits. Operation 20/2 10/2 5/2 2/2 1/2 Quotient 10 5 2 1 0 Remainder 0 0 1 0 1


The process will be continued till the Quotient becomes 1 or 0. Finally, we shall be writing last Quotient first and remainders in the reverse order, i.e., from bottom to the top. Thus, for the decimal number 20, the binary number will be 010100. 13) Computer is different from a Calculator a) Calculators can work only with numbers, but computers can work with both numbers and words. b) Calculators can’t perform logical operation, but computers can. c) Calculators don’t have permanent storage media, but computer stores large volume of data in its memory and reproduce any part of it, as and when needed. d) Calculators are less fast compare to computers. e) Calculators can’t be programmed very effectively, but computers can. f) Calculator can’t store program. h) Intermediate data can’t be stored and used later, but computers can. i) Calculators need human beings to interfere in its operations, but no human assistance is needed after the programmed goes for execution. 14) Computer is different from people a) Computers are faster than people. b) Computers are more accurate when dealing with large numbers. c) Computers simply don’t board and can perform the same operation over and over again over any length of time. d) Computers are not flexible like human life. A Computer must have every step describe and computers can’t think. e) Computers can’t do anything itself. It can do only what is instructed to do. f) To memories figures is difficult for human beings but not for a computer. APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTERS In human affairs we have reached a point where the problems we must solve are no longer solvable without the aid of computers. I fear not computers, but the lack of them. 1. Applications in Accounting or Business a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) Recording and posting business transactions. Processing and maintaining payrolls. Maintaining personnel records. Keeping effective stock control. Invoicing of sales. Preparing bills and debtors accounts. Maintaining purchases and sales ledger. Classification of accounting transactions through sorting, merging and updating. Reporting in the form of Trial balances and ledger balance and Balance sheet.


2. Applications in human lives a) Computers are useful for everyone. Parents can be using a computer to records for their daily expenditure and income. Also recording important dates like birthdays, marriage anniversaries etc. b) Telephone bills are generated by the computer. Telephone complaints are entered into computers to have better control on how many complaints are attended to in a day. Telephone inquiries have been computerized so that instant information is available to the customers. c) Students can use a PC to prepare notes and project, expect information from the Internet, take online test etc. In examination for checking papers etc. d) In office, they are also maintaining the all type records, workers details, manufacturing products like automobiles, shoes, computer cabinets etc. Creation of blueprints for houses. e) In developing country like India one of the reasons for people to go for PC is the E-mail facility, since this is the most convenient, fastest and cheapest ways to communicate with friends, family members and acquaintances within and outside the country. f) Hotel room bookings are done on the computer. This enables the person dealing with bookings to get quick information on the availability of rooms. g) Offices and organization use the computers to increase their productivity and profits. h) The advertisements that we see have a plethora of graphics in them. All these are computer generated. It also offers scope for games, music and even comic that adds to our entertainment. 3. Applications of Spreadsheet A spreadsheet is highly interactive computer program that accepts data in a tabular form (in rows and columns) and allows user to manipulate/calculate/analyze data in the desired manner, displayed on-screen in a scrollbar window. Sales: A marketing agency could use it to formulate and evaluate schemes for the items to be sold. In Sports: Individual and team statistics can be kept in spreadsheet. Home Usage: A home user can use a spreadsheet to plan expenditure, maintain daily accounts, and maintain dates of insurance premiums and installment payments. Accounting: They are used to create general ledgers, trial balance sheets and profit and loss accounts on the computer. Payroll: Payroll details can be maintained in it like basic salary, Leave Travel Allowance (LTV), Dearness Allowance (DA), House Rent Allowance (HRA), tax to be paid, gross salary and net salary. Features of Spreadsheet ♣ Spreadsheets cannot only represent data values but also their relationship(s). ♣Spreadsheets provide facilities of cutting, pasting, moving, copying data values or formulae


g) Do engineering for designing a machine or an automobile. WordPerfect. You can use a word processor to perform Repetitive tasks like typing: Circulars. sales presentations. ♣What if analysis becomes very easy using spreadsheets. d) Create animated birthday cards for your friends who have computers. digital publications. still and moving images (video). and save texts for future retrieval and revisions. 6 . Applications of Word Processor A Word Processor can be defined as a computer program that enables you to type. Applications of Multimedia A multimedia application is an application concerned with the computer-controlled integration of text. e. Tabular Reports: Time tables. i) Hypermedia. Soft word etc. electronic reference materials. Work Schedule. An article on World War II can include hyperlinks to articles on countries involved in the war. Contracts. print. Prospectus for colleges. ♣Data can graphically be represented through charts/graphs of many types.Or formats etc. With multimedia you can a) Add sound to files or tasks b) Create 3D effects in different ways. Some popular word processors are Microsoft Word. c) Build a business presentation that includes corporate presentations. ♣Numerous built-in functions are available in spreadsheets. Agreements. f) Do scientific research.g. This is known as computeraided design (CAD). drawings. animation. 5. Balance Sheets and Report cards. kiosks. j) Improve quality of games. sound/ audio. h) Doctors can simulate how the human body is affected by diseases spread by viruses and bacteria and then develop techniques to prevent the same. graphics. museum exhibitions and more.a scientist can look at a molecular model of a particular substance and manipulate it to arrive at a new substance. modify. WordStar. Public notices. 4. Memos. Tenders. Time consuming tasks like creating: Reports. Memos. General Correspondence: Newsletter. World Wide Web (WWW). e) Learn a new language by interacting with the written and spoken words.

(1954-1964) a) These computers are fully transistorized instead of vaccum tube.Generation of Computers 1. 2. more reliable. k) Single user capability. Ex: .computers not very reliable. b) Generated less heat. d) Highly sophisticated technology required for the manufacture of IC chips.IBM (International Business Machine Corporation) 701. 2nd generation computers:. 3rd generation computers:. 7 .IBM 1401 etc. i) Large air conditioners were necessary because the computers generated heat. c) High-level languages appeared. f) First operating systems developed. c) Reduced computational times from milliseconds to microseconds. g) Programming in machine language as well as assembly language. f) More programs can be run. l) Lower system software. Ex: . electric failure occurred regularly.(1942-1954) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) In this generation was the use of vacuum tubes. Vacuum tube technology made possible the advent of electronic digital computers.(1965-1974) a) These computers used IC’s technology and integrated Circuit on silicon chips. Perform computations in milliseconds. Manual assembly of individual components into functioning unit required. Big and clumsy computers. b) Minicomputers were introduced. Magnetic drums were used for memory. j) Programming in machine language. Transistor does the same functions as that the vaccum tube but very small size compared to vaccum tube. d) Core memory developed. Punched cards were used for input and output. Electricity consumption was high. e) Magnetic tapes and disks were used for secondary memory. 3. h) Relatively fast and the speed was 2 Mega operations Per Second. e) Reduced computational times from microseconds to nanoseconds. 1st generation of computers:. it consist of 1000 of transistors. IBM 350 etc.

e) Micro computer series such as IBM and APPLE developed. 5. In other words usage of mathematics has almost nil during that time because he started to learn counting by stones.DEC 3090 etc. Spectra 70 etc. knowledge processing and distribution processing are being considered under this generation. These computers will work 1000 of time faster than the best possible for electronic computers.IBM 370. It made-up of 1000 of transistors and other semi-conducting device. b) Very high speed of the order of greater than 100 operations per second. Ex: . 8 . History of Computers Stone Age In olden days people didn’t have the awareness of counting. d) Integrated circuits. The logic used as very large scale integration (VLSI). •The basic purpose of the device is to make calculations. It contain entire processing unit on a single chip. information processing. 5th generation of computers :-( 1985-onwards) The main specialty being the use of parallel. a) Advancement in networking technology. Abacus •Abacus is considered to be the first computer and was invented 5. The other concepts like data processing. 4.g) Require less power. d) Parallel-processing-many processors are grouped to function as one large group processor. e) Superconductors – a superconductor is a conductor through which electricity can travel without any resistance in faster transfer of information between the components of a computer. f) Portable computers developed. g) Great development in data communication. c) Highly sophisticated technology required for the manufacture of LSI chips. The latest generation computers in this year will photogenic computers.000 years ago by the Chinese. h) Different types of secondary memory with high storage capacity and fast access developed. c) Development of robots to assist human beings. smaller and faster. Ex: . 4th generation of computers:-(1975-1984) a) These computers used microprocessor technology. The speed operations orders are 100 mega operations per second. b) Development of storage technology and supercomputers.

These beads are used to perform calculations. constructed a new machine in 1671 that was able to perform multiplication and division as well. It worked on clock work mechanism principle. It had the following five components: •A storage unit that holds the numbers. a German mathematician. The adding machine consisted of numbered toothed wheels having unique position values. developed in 1614. •An arithmetic unit. notably reduced the tedium of repetitive calculations. In addition. He could perform both multiplication and division with these ‘Bones’. PASCAL’s adding machines (1642) Blaise Pascal. •An input device that gives the numbers and instructions to the computer. Machines were used to make holes in the card and thus store information.This computer performed basic arithmetic functions. Babbage’s Mechanical Computer Charles Babbage invented the first mechanical computer during the period 1830 to 1850. The idea of logarithm. Types of Computers 9 . This machine performed multiplication through repeated addition of numbers. Punched Cards The next device that contributed to the evolution of the computers was the punched cards. Napier’s ‘Logs’ and ‘Bones’ John Napier developed the idea of logarithm. invented the first adding machine (also known as Pascaline) in 1642 made up of gears which was capable of addition and subtraction. These were cards made of special pulp paper. He also devised set of numbering rods known as Napier ’s bones. The rotation of wheels controlled the addition and subtraction operations. a French mathematician. •A control unit that controls the activities of the computer. This machine was capable of carry-transfer automatically. This machine used stepped cylinder each with nine teeth of varying lengths instead of wheels as was used by Pascal. •Each string has a collection of beads. •An output device that displays the result.•It consists of a rectangular frame with a number of strings attached. sorting machines were used to read these cards and collect data. •Abacus is used even today to teach small children how to count. He is referred to as the ‘Father of computers’ due to his pioneering work. Leibnitz’s Calculator Gottfried Leibnitz. to perform the arithmetic calculations. called Mill. Napier’s log later became the basis for a well known invention-the computing machine known as ‘Slide rule’. He used ‘logs’ to transform multiplication problem to addition problem.

are small general-purpose computers. Of course.g. there would be no network at all. They are also the costliest computers. Mainframes •Mainframes are more powerful than minicomputers. Performance. aircraft design and automobile design. Speed of processing. •They are typically found in desktop publishing. •There are only a few supercomputers throughout the world. The most common operating systems for workstations are UNIX and WINDOWS NT. The print server takes care of the printing requirements of a number of workstations and the modem server helps a group of network users use a modem to transmit long distance messages. They are used in wide area networks and support hundreds of users. •They are used in fields like science and defense.Computers can be classified on the basis of Size. Cost. 10 . also known as midrange computers. if there were no nodes. Server A computer that facilitates the sharing of data. •They are larger in size and they have small to medium storage capacity. industrial and business environments that require high levels of computational abilities. deciding about their access privileges and regulating the amount of space allowed for each user. •Some examples are IBM 3000 series and Univac 1180. Storage capacity. software development. and hardware resources (e. biomedical research. These computers are used for designing and launching missiles. Supercomputers •Supercomputers are the largest and fastest computers. modems etc) on the network is termed as server. Ability to handle input and output devices as follows: Workstation (or Nodes) • Workstation refers to the computers that are attached to a network and are seeking to share the resources of the network. IBM’s Blue Gene is considered by many to be the fastest computer in the world. •Insurance companies use mainframes to process information about millions of policyholders. these computers consume more electricity. A computer becomes a workstation of a network as soon as it is attached to a network. However. software. •They have high processing speeds and can store large amounts of data. Minicomputers •Minicomputers. printers. India owns a series of supercomputers called PARAM developed by C-DAC. weather forecasting. These computers can perform more complex tasks and cost more than microcomputers. A file server serves files –related requests like storing files. A network can have more than one server that allows workstations to share specific resources.

type of computer. So. Palmtops or PDAs (Personal Digital Assistant). It may be either AC-powered. Spreadsheet calculations. •They are small in size. They are more costly when compared to laptop. A table PC is a type of notebook computer that accepts your handwriting. Examples: contura 3/20 and AcerAnyWare. statistical analysis. It has smaller processing power. They have the size of a notebook but are as powerful as a desktop. They are mainly used for desktop publishing. These computers use microprocessors. Insulin meter to find the levels of insulin in the blood. Palmtops are portable computers. Wearable computers is very small so that it can be worn the body itself. Man has a need to communicate with people in different places. They are lightweight. personal organization tools.g.•They are used for processing data and analyzing results of experiments. They weigh 2 to 3 kg. They are also used for controlling and monitoring production processes. They are not as powerful as a desktop. pacemaker to correct the heart beats. Individuals as well as organizations use these computers. In simple terms. faxing and paging. •Some examples are APPLE II. have the size of a pocket calculator. Notebooks are smaller than a laptop and are designed to overcome the drawbacks of a laptop. they do not have large storage capacities. (or palm computers) are the smallest and are designed to fit into the palm of one hand. It finds its application in the field of medicine. Also. The weight of a laptop is around 3 to 5 kg. Example 3Com’s Palm V. Laptops. game playing. These systems typically combine pen input. Microcomputers •Microcomputers are the least powerful. The most significant effect of computer networking is that they form a huge information chain that ensures that information is available to users at the time and location where they need it. Desktops are small enough to fit on top of or alongside a desk yet are too big to carry around. 11 . The drawback of a laptop is that it is too bulky. writing recognition. networking of computers is very essential. Laptops are small-sized machines that have the same power of a desktop. •Some examples are PDP 11/42 and VAX 11. Handheld computers. Business people have to exchange information with others around the world. They are expensive than desktop. They are also called personal computers (PCs). For e. accounting. and fit into most briefcases. battery powered or both. Examples: Toshiba 5200C and SLT/286. and communications capabilities in a very small package. Notebooks. It can do Word processing. handwriting recognition. NETWORKS A network is defined as an interlinked collection of computers by means of a communication system. IBM PC. graphics designing and project management. This input is digitized and converted to standard text that can be further processed by programs such as a word processor. two computers are said to be interconnected if they are capable of exchanging information. yet the most widely used and fast-growing. •They can perform difficult tasks. •Types of microcomputers: The difference between portables and desktops is that portables can be carried while traveling unlike desktops. PS/2 and Macintosh.

it may be impossible to carry out any work if the central server fails.such as printers and scanners.software can be installed centrally rather than on each machine. Based on geographical spread. protection from viruses. •LAN provides two benefits: economy and flexibility. so if one of them is unavailable. which are expensive pieces of hardware.It is easy to for the average person sitting at his PC to make reservation for airplanes. This can add to costs and you may need specialist staff to run the network. •If networks are badly managed services can become unusable and productivity falls. 12 .end network that links hundreds of computers spread across the globe. complexity and geographical spread. •Reliability-A file can have its copies on two or more computers of the network. •File security is more important especially if connected to WANs e. Wide Area Network (WAN) WANs are spread across the entire world. People become reliant on the communications. For instance. For e. hotels and so on anywhere in the world with instant confirmation. They are used to link computers across the globe.With networks. to connect five branches of a school in a city. This is much cheaper than buying licenses for every machine. People can share costly equipment. It includes: Share resources . MANs span distances up to 100 miles. trains. four microcomputers share the laser printer and the file server. For e. It is a form of computer communications generally used for the internal transfer of data and information within an organization. Metering software can than be used to limit the number of copies being run at any one time. Disadvantages of networks are: •The systems are more sophisticated and complex to run. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) MAN computers extend within the city or the metropolitan area. A network can either be a small group of five computers linked together or a high.g. Share storage – being able to access files from any machines on the network can share data. it is possible to exchange information at very fast speeds. •If software and files are held centrally. networks can be classified as Local Area Network (LAN) •LANs are confined to a localized area such as an office. if these fail it can cause havoc. •Access to remote database. Networks vary depending on size.. you would need a MAN.g. Share software. •Fast Communication. the other copies could be used.Advantages of networks are: •Resource sharing reduces the costs. This is cheaper than buying equipment for each computer.g. the type of network in our school is LAN.

or at the most. used by network users. Resources: Resources are files..Sending to a group can be done in one step. media and resources. client.Electronic mail can be delivered almost as fast as the wire can carry it anywhere around the world. High-speed WANs link remote computers effectively to reduce costs and to complete work faster. not to mention saving many trees.a system whereby a computer user can exchange messages and files with other computer users (or groups of users) via a communication network-is one of the most popular uses of the internet. you can automatically maintain a record of communications with someone else. ♣ Versatile. ♣Unwanted SPAM emails ♣Illegal contents including VIRUS damages end user systems. to connect different branches of a school in different countries. ♣ Efficient. This facet of the Net was one of the first applied uses. Server – A server is a computer that facilitates the sharing of data. data and reputation. It could be a computer. after initial set-up. PowerPoint or other files can be sent too. or data storage device. very little. you would need a WAN. or overnight courier service. software. a client is a user’s microcomputer. revised. so not sure all receiving parties use email system. and sent to others. Sometimes referred to as a LAN adapter.Easy to use.g. Advantages of E-mail ♣ Fast. Node – Any device that is connected to a network. ♣ Cheap. and hardware resources (e. Typically.A WAN can also connect individual LANs to create one integrated huge LAN. Media: Media is the way in which the computers are connected. faxes. NETWORK COMPONENTS Typically.g. all without reams of paper involved.Pictures. printers. Email is less expensive. It does not have the jangling urgency of a phone call.Transmission usually costs nothing. Compared to telephone calls. stored. ♣ Simple.E-mail waits until you read it. modems etc. For e. printer. ♣ Patience. ♣ Waste Reduction.Because all messages are files. Client – Client refers to the set of computers that access shared network resources provided by the server. Disadvantages of E-mail ♣Lack of computer knowledge among people. 13 . etc. printers.E-mail goes a long way towards reducing the clutter of paper in the modern office.) to other computers present on the network. Majority of the WANs use satellites to facilitate efficient communication. Network interface cards (NIC) – These are expansion cards located within the system unit that connect the computer to a network. Electronic mail (e-mail) . ♣ Record Maintenance. Your proposal can be answered. and continues to be a powerful communications tool. Timely buying and selling decisions can be made. all networks consist of a server.

♣ Access multimedia information that includes sound. Difference between internet and intranet The internet is a worldwide network of computer networks around the Globe. Each person owns the part of the internet he uploads data to.♣Email might not send due to loss of connection to the internet. which is privately owned. ♣ Exchange electronic mail (e-mail) with friends and colleagues with accounts on the internet. most computers are not connected directly to the internet. Governmental. Internet users can share information in a variety of forms. It establishes an intelligent connection between a local network and external networks with completely different structures. Commercial. and access diverse perspectives from around the world. ♣ Gathering valuable feedback and suggestions from customers and business partners. ♣ Communicating with others and transmitting files via e-mail. Rather they are connected to smaller networks. ♣ Marketing and publicizing products and services. Applications of Internet ♣ Searching online jobs. These computers possess software to provide or serve information and/or to request and see information. INTERNET The internet is a worldwide network of computers. Through telephone wires and satellite links. Advantages of Internet ♣ Sharing research and business data among colleagues and like-minded individuals. and military networks are part of the Internet. using a common protocol (TCP/IP or Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) to communicate with each other. ♣ Post information for others to access. photographic images and even video. The size. and update it frequently. scope and design of the internet allow users to: ♣ Connect easily through ordinary personal computers and local phone numbers. A gateway is a device that connects dissimilar networks. 14 . ♣ You have to be at a computer to read or print e-mail. which in turn are connected through gateways to the internet backbone. ♣ Requesting and providing assistance with problems and questions. How does internet work? In internet. Intranet also uses same set of protocols as Internet. On the other hand Intranet is network. Academic. This language acts as medium of communication among numerous Internet computers. Internet is not owned by anybody. Internet uses a set of protocols called TCP/IP. A backbone is a central interconnecting structure that connects one or more networks just like the trunk of a tree or the spine of a human being.

They start talking again simultaneously. TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) 15 . ♣ Make your own home page which talks about yourself. and then start talking again.♣ Learning a foreign language. ♣ Visit an electronic zoo or a museum. your family. techniques for detecting and correcting errors and so on. The objectives of FTP are: ♣ To promote sharing of files (computer programs and/ or data). It is a formal description of message formats and the rules that two or more machines must follow to exchange those messages. ♣ It is an effective way to get a geographically dispersed group to co-operate on a project. Protocols A protocol means the set of rules that are applicable for a network or we can say that the common set of rules used for communication in a network. is designed mainly for use by programs.. FTP offers these advantages: ♣ It is very useful to transfer files from one network in an organization to another. they must follow a common set of rules while talking. ♣ It is a potent and popular way to share information over the internet. ♣ Download (obtain) some interesting software and try it out. then pause for breath simultaneously. ♣ Chat with a friend working abroad and see him as you talk. Types of Protocols FTP (File Transfer Protocol) This protocol is mainly concerned with transfer of file from one system to another on internet provided that permissions are set accordingly. ♣ To encourage indirect or implicit (via programs) use of remote computers: ♣ To shield a user from variations in file storage systems among hosts. your pets and your hobbies. They want to exchange their ideas. Illustration Let us assume that A and B need to talk to one another. Protocol defines standardized formats for data packets. To avoid this confusion. say first A must talk. an electronic birthday card which actually sings ‘Happy Birthday to you’ ♣ Find out which are the current most popular computer programming languages in the industry. FTP. and ♣ To transfer data reliably and efficiently. through usable directly by a user at a terminal. ♣ Making friends from any part of the world ♣ Participating in a discussion about your favorite TV show with similar minded people across the world. ♣ Send to a friend. then he must give B a chance to put forward his ideas and so on. known as communication protocol for A and B.

access comprises the entering of the whole or any part of a computer system (hardware. Cyber Crime may be defined in a general way as an unlawful criminal activity where the computer or network is tool. or to append to a named resource. directories. or to store a webpage. and retransmits anything that did not get through. Messages are passed to HTTP in a format similar to that used by Internet Mail and Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME). source. stored data of the system installed. which provides the basic service of getting datagram to their destination. or to remove the web page or to connect two existing resources or to break an existing connection between two resources. It keeps track of what is sent. Crackers are the malicious programmers who break into secure systems. ♣ The protocols needed to manage a specific physical medium. Types of Cyber Crime Unauthorized access: is when a person who doesn’t have permission to connect to or use a system gains entry in a manner unintended by the system owner. ♣ A protocol such as TCP that provides services need by many applications. Now. such as Ethernet or a point to point line.TCP is responsible for making sure that the commands get through to the other end. HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) The HTTP protocol consists of two fairly distinct items: the set of requests from browsers to servers and the set of responses going back to the other way. SLIP/PPP (Serial Line Internet Protocol/ Point to Point Protocol) SLIP/PPP provides a form of direct Internet connection in the sense that: ♣ The home user’s computer has a communications link to the internet even if it is via a service provider (ISP). Hackers are more interested in gaining knowledge about computer systems and possibly using this knowledge for playful pranks. The HTTP has various built-in request methods which allow users to read a web page. ♣ The home user’s computer has the networking software that can speak TCP/IP with other computers on the Internet. which refers to all the legal and regulatory aspects of internet and the World Wide Web. traffic and content-related data. ‘illegal accesses. components. or place of a crime. Cyber law is a generic term. TCP applications use four layers: ♣ An application protocol such as mail. 16 . Generally. ♣ The home user’s computer has an identifying address (IP address) at which it can be contacted by other computers on Internet. Cracking: means. ♣ IP. The popular term for this is “hacking”. or to read a web page’s header. target.

performs some unwanted or harmful functions. Trojan attack: It is an apparently useful program containing hidden code that when invoked. which then goes on infecting other program. A 17 . Fraudsters often find it easy to spread bogus investment schemes or spread false information about a company. Sometimes these recommendations are totally bogus and cause loss to the investors. causing loss of millions who bank on them. Virus/worm attack: This attack can infect other program by modifying them. Data diddling: This kind of an attack involves altering the raw data just before it is processed by a computer and then changing it back after the processing is completed. Cyber Stalking: involves following a person’s movements across the Internet by posting messages (sometimes threatening) on the bulletin boards frequented by the victim. trademarks violations etc. constantly bombarding the victim with emails etc. Salami attack: This attack is used for the commission of financial crimes. entering the chat-rooms frequented by the victim. Logic bomb: It is the code embedded in a legitimate program that is to set to explode when certain conditions are met. pornographic magazines produced using computers and the Internet. Cyber pornography: This would include pornography websites. Bulletin boards: This is a forum for sharing investor information. such as hard drive or memory or it can reside in the transit across the physical network wire in the form of packets. Email spoofing: A spoofed email is one that appears to originate from one source but actually has been sent from another source. Online investment newsletters: Many newsletters on the internet provide the investors with free advice recommending stocks where they should invest. as well as users on the internet. Intellectual Property Crime: This includes software piracy.Email bombing: or spam refers to sending a large amount of emails to the victim resulting in the victim’s email account or mail server crashing. copyright infringement. To capture all network packets that is sent across a local network. Network packet snifters: A packet snifter is a software application that uses a network adapter card in a promiscuous mode. These two information states provide opportunities for attacks from users on the internal network. Security related crimes: Confidential information can reside either on the physical stored media. The modification includes a copy of the virus program.

which can range from invoking the web service to executing a certain part of its functionality. NETWORK SECURITY The problems encountered under network security can be summarized as follows: Physical security holes: When individuals gain unauthorized physical access to a computer and temper with files.third party can easily interpret the network packets and develop a packet snifter because they are not encrypted. Basically. and the broker (if there is one) . To counter such threats. Authentication involves accepting credentials from the entity and validating them against an authority. Inconsistent Usage holes: When a system administrator assembles a combination of hardware and software such that the system is seriously flawed from a security point of view. any hacker (or cracker) can simply record it and can use it later maliciously to corrupt data/files or to harm anyone etc. Authentication ensures that each entity involved in using a web service. the provider. Biometric systems The biometric systems involve some unique aspect of a person’s body such as finger-prints. If the user is able to provide a legal login-id. retinal patterns etc. An encrypted smart card is a hand-held smart card that can generate a token that a computer system can recognize. which even-though cracked or hacked. It determines if the service requestor is entitled to perform the operation. PROTECTION METHODS Authorization: determines whether the service provider has granted access to the web service to the requestor. cannot be used later. Authorization is performed by asking the user a legal login-id. authorization confirms the service requestor’s credentials. Software security holes: When badly written programs or ‘privileged’ software are compromised into doing things that they should not be doing. Encrypted Smart Cards Passwords in a remote log-in session generally pass over the network in unencrypted form.the requestor. newer approaches are suggested such as encrypted smart cards. It is also termed as password-protection as the authorized user is asked to provide a valid password. Every time a new and different token is generated. Cookies 18 . he is considered an authorized user. he is considered to be an authentic user. Hackers do it by guessing passwords of various users and then gaining access to the network systems.is what it actually claims to be. to establish his identity. and if he is able to do this.

A collection of eight such binary digits is called a byte.A cookie is a message that a web server transmits to a web browser so that the web server can keep track of the user’s activity on a specific web site. A computer uses binary system. a byte or a collection of eight bits is used to store one character in computer’s memory. especially intranet is called firewall. {}. but it is difficult to configure. Use virus protection software. ^ ). This is very effective. Units of memory 4 bits – 1 nibble 8 bits – 1 byte 1024 bytes – 1 kilo byte 19 . only two digits. packets can flow between the hosts without further checking. Once the connection has been made. All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall. ‘. which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria. It is fairly effective and transparent to users. it is susceptible to IP spoofing. ~. Make regular back-up of critical data. symbols and other characters (#. BIT AND BYTE The number of characters that can be stored in a computer is called the storage capacity of the computer. Cookies cannot read your hard drive to find out information about you. Firewall Techniques Packet filter Looks as each packet entering or leaving the network and accepts or rejects it based on user-defined rules. alphabets(A-Z). Firewall The system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network connected to the internet. The proxy server effectively hides the true network addresses. however. Proxy server Intercepts all messages entering and leaving the network. Bit is the smallest unit of measurement of storage capacity. Application gateway Applies security mechanisms to specific applications. In addition. including credit card information. In this way only cookies a threat to privacy. any personal information that you give to a web site. The 0’s and 1’s in binary system are known as bits (binary digits). but can impose performance degradation. to represent these characters. including numbers(0-9). More Security Tips Use strong passwords. Circuit-level gateway Applies security mechanisms when a connection is established. such as FTP and Telnet servers. Do not keep computers online when not in use. Typically. will most likely be stored in a cookie unless you have turned off the cookie feature in your browser. 0 and 1.

and information. Once written. The primary memory of a computer stores the data provided by the user and the instructions provided by the programs. To do so. and put characters on the screen. However. instructions. or retrieve. Capacity measures how much a particular storage medium can hold. ▪RAM is volatile. The characteristics of ROM are: ▪ “Read only” means that the CPU can read.1024 kilo bytes – 1 mega byte 1024 mega bytes – 1 giga bytes 1024 giga bytes – 1 tera bytes. because information stored in RAM is lost when the computer is switched off. Note : Both RAM and ROM are referred to as Immediate Access Storage(IAS) because CPU can access the data so quickly compared to data in baking storage( the secondary memory). The storage capacity of RAM may vary in different computers. these instructions cannot be erased or modified. it stores it in the RAM. data and programs written on the ROM chip. The characteristics of RAM are: ▪You can read the contents of a memory location or write new contents into it. Some important characteristics of secondary storage include:Media are the actual physical material that holds the data and programs. Internal storage (Primary memory) Memory is a holding area for data. Input data is stored in this memory before it goes to the processor for actual processing. Hence. The primary memory is placed on the motherboard in the form of chips. 20 . RAM is also called Read and Write Memory. Erasable Programmable Read . They are of two types: Random Access Memory (RAM) Whenever a computer receives any information.Only Memory (EPROM) is a special type of PROM. which can be erased by exposure to ultraviolet rays. ▪Information stored in ROM is not lost if the computer is switched off. They can only be executed. External storage (Secondary memory) This is used to store information permanently. Programmable Read – Only Memory (PROM) PROM is a memory chip on which data can be written using a special device called PROM programmer or PROM burner. Hence. give keyboard keys their special control capabilities. the program remains on the chip forever even after the computer is switched off. ROM is nonvolatile. Read Only Memory (ROM) Read only memory (ROM) contains all basic instructions that are needed for starting a computer. you use the external storage media.

Whenever you save data 21 . Access speed measures the amount of time required by the storage device to retrieve data and programs. It is used in large machines. Density refers to how tightly the bits (electromagnetic charges) can be packed next to one another.optical disk is high. •Quite slow to access and retrieve data. It may cause physical damage and hence loss of data. Double -sided indicates that data can be stored on both sides of the disk.5 inches with a storage capacity of 1. However. The most commonly used floppy disk is 3. Magneto. Do not expose it to dust or heat. These platters are sealed in a vacuum disk and located in the system unit.44 MB and is of double sided high-density capacities (135 tracks per inch). Most also write to storage media. Advantage: •Used to move data from one location to another. retrieving data from a cartridge tape takes time. •Inexpensive. •Always keep the floppies inside a paper cover. Small storage capacity. Disadvantage: •Not very strong-easy to damage. The various devices that are used for storage are the following: Cartridge Tape Cartridge Tape is a storage medium that is used to store large amounts of data. It contains a single flat piece of circular plastic (the disk) coated with metal oxide and enclosed in vinyl or plastic cover.Storage devices are hardware that reads data and programs from storage media. Floppy Disk Floppy disk is a magnetic storage device that is used to transfer files between computers and to store data/information as backup. Also. The speed of data retrieval is very fast.optical disk. It is a cheap and reliable storage device. the data in this disk is less prone to damage.Optical disk The storage capacity of a magneto. Computers can read and write onto a magneto. Hard Disk The hard disk is located in the system unit. Precautions: •Never bend the floppies. Reusable. It is made up of a collection of disks known as platters. Its appearance is similar to a video cassette.

Also. Can be used to store 1. The tracks on the disk surface are divided into invisible segments known as sectors. Can be used to store far more data than floppy disks. Disk Drives The computer has a special device to read from and write to the storage media. It is a removable and is a read only memory. To read a CD-ROM a device called CD-ROM drive is needed. graphics or audio on the CD distribution e.g. A DVD. DVD (Digital Versatile Disk) DVD is an optical storage device that looks the same as a compact disc but is able to hold about 15 times as much information and transfer it to the computer about 20 times as fast as a CD-ROM. Hard disk has the capacity to store huge amounts of data. e-books etc.44 MB of data. encyclopedias. when you copy data from a floppy disk to the computer the data is saved on the hard disk. The advantage of a CDROM is that the data present in it is less prone to damage. Floppy drives and hard drives are 22 . The drive for a floppy disk is called the floppy drive. Costly CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read Only Memory) Compact disc is an optical storage device that has a huge storage capacity. The computer takes less time to read from a hard disk. dust and improper handling as it is made of a flexible material. They can be used to store data in the range of a few GBs.. Similar numbered tracks on different platters of a hard disk form a Cylinder. It is a part of the system unit. You can read and write information to a floppy disk using the hardware device called the floppy drive. the data present in a CD-ROM cannot be changed and is mainly used to record information including text. sectors and cylinders. Inexpensive Hard Disk Hard disks are also called fixed disk. More prone to damage by heat. Hard disks store and organize files using tracks. This device is called the disk drive. Any information or data on CDROM can be erased or written onto with the help of a special device called CD-Writer. The computer takes more time to read from a floppy disk. Concentric circles on the magnetized surface of the magnetic disks are known as tracks. software. Floppy Disk Floppy disks are also called floppies or micro disks. games. Less prone to damage as it is within the system unit. Hence.in a computer. disk drive is an Input-Output device. it is stored on a hard disk. The disk drive performs the function of reading data from the disk as well as writing data to the disk. can hold up to 17 gigabytes of data or four hours of movies on a side. Being read only. also called a Super Density Disk (SD).

Customized software pertains to the System units and also requirements of a specific user for whom additional hardware the software has been developed. Keyboard. Rather it is a collection or a system of programs that handle many of the technical details related to using a computer with little or no user intervention. DISTINCTION BETWEEN HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE Points of Difference Meaning Hardware The internal components of the PC and the various input and output devices that can be attached to PC are called as the hardware. scanner etc. ♣It allocates the devices whose services the user requests for. TYPES OF SOFTWARE Software represents the set of programs that govern the operation of a computer system and make the hardware run. Oracle. Windows XP. The words program or application or software is all used interchangeably.free manner. ♣It supervises all the activity of the computer. It can be seen construction. Machines or hardware do not require changes for different works. Mouse. touched. and the Mac OS X are three best. Software Uses Physical Construction Examples Software constitutes the logical program that handles the different components of our PC and helps them to interact with one another in a handle. Monitor. Hardware has physical Software does not have physical construction. System software is not a single program. The drive used to read from a CD-ROM is called the CD-ROM drive.. printer. modem. The same hardware is used The different software is used for for performing different jobs. General components that can be software is developed keeping in mind added to our system are the general specifications of a problem-Excel. There are broadly two categories of software: System Software controls internal computer operations so that components of system function properly. DTP packages etc. It performs the following functions:♣It facilitates operation of hardware by its user. An operating system is a program which acts an interface between a user and the hardware (i. It includes following four types: a)Operating System. 23 . ♣It manages the various input-output devices of the computer.known operating systems for today’s microcomputer users. all computer resources). performing different jobs. It can neither be seen nor and touched.examples of input and output devices as the CPU can read from and write onto them.e. Windows Vista. Word.

E. Requires less main memory. Source program and the interpreter are required for execution. It helps to protect you from the effects of a disk failure. ideally before they become serious. No security of source code. safer and more productive. An interpreter converts and executes an HLL (High Level language) program into object program line by line whereas a compiler converts an HLL program into object program in one go and reports all the errors along with their line numbers. Distinction between Interpreter and Compiler Interpreter Translates the program line by line. Windows utility called Disk Defragmenter locates and eliminates unnecessary file fragments and rearranges files and unused disk space to optimize computer operations. Compiler. Each time the program is executed every line is checked for syntax and then converted to equivalent object code directly. This frees up valuable disk space and improves system performance. 24 . An assembler converts an assembly language program into object program. that is connected to a computer system has a special program associated with it. such as a mouse or printer. Security of source code. The most essential utility programs are:Troubleshooting or diagnostic programs recognize and correct problems. For e. Requires more main memory. the operating system loads all of the device drivers into memory.g. Execution time is less.b) Utilities are specialized programs designed to make computing easier. d)Language Processor. Each time the computer system is started. It can make your computer faster. when all the syntax errors are removed and executes the machine code. Good for fast debugging and at testing stage. Whenever a new device is added to a computer system. Interpreter. Disk Cleanup is a troubleshooting utility that identifies and eliminates nonessential files. Backup programs that make copies of all files or selected files that have been saved onto a disk to be used in case the originals are lost or damaged. Once the program is error free. Converts the entire program to machine code. Assembler. Compiler Translate the entire program. c) Device drivers:. Antivirus Programs that guard your computer system against viruses or other damaging programs that can invade your computer system.Every device. Device drivers are specialized programs that allow particular input or output devices to communicate with rest of the computer system. it can be executed later. Execution time is more. Translate source program into machine language. File compression programs that reduce the size of files so they require less storage space and can be sent more efficiently over the internet. identifying any errors along the way. Neither source nor the compiler is required for execution. The process of translation is called is called as compilation. Slow for debugging and testing. Uninstall programs that allow you to safely and completely remove unneeded programs and related files from your hard disk.g. a new device driver must be installed before the device can be used.

f) Word Processing Package is a package that processes textual matter and creates organized and flawless documents. dictionary and thesaurus. It is usually located in a tower. who have never studied computer science. Pascal. closer to human languages. ♣Information can be saved for later use. stores the information in memory. High-level languages are more English-like. computer animation and video sequences is known as multimedia software. A Programming language is a set of words. A Computer receives information from input devices. 25 . After the source program has been converted into machine language by an assembler. to learn and use these languages. text.shaped cabinet. BASIC. Inter space is a client/server software program that allows multiple users to communicate online with real-time audio. processes it in the system unit and displays the results as output. The actual processing of data takes place in the CPU. video and text chat in dynamic 3D environments. CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT OR SYSTEM UNIT Processor or Central Processor Unit (CPU) is the control centre for a computer and is contained on a single chip called the microprocessor. Assembly language is a low-level programming language that allows a user to write programs using letters and symbols which are more easily remembered. such as executives and managers. The application software that a) Manipulates images is known as Graphics Software b) Incorporates images. representing data as 1’s and 0’s and are closer to hardware. it is referred to as object program. c) Creates professional looking visual aids is called Presentation Graphics Software. is known as Desktop Publishing Software. Machine or Low level language is the basic language of the computer. C++. ♣Offer very useful utility known as mail-merge. A symbolic program written by a programmer in assembly language is called source program. E. e) Assist the computer by performing housekeeping functions like backing up disk or scanning / cleaning viruses or arranging information etc is known as Utilities. They enable the noncomputer professionals. CPU is the brain of the computer. sound. It is required because system software cannot carry out routine jobs performed by the user which application software can easily do. Application Software Application software is the set of programs necessary to carry out operations for a specified application. ♣Provide the facility of spell-check. symbols and codes that enables a programmer to communicate a solution-algorithm to the computer.g. d) Handles page layout by combining the functions of a traditional typesetter and a layout artist. The main components of a CPU are the following: Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) performs two types of operations: arithmetic and logical. Word processors provide following features that enhance their usefulness ♣Provide variety of fonts and print styles. ♣Offer various formatting styles that enhance the present ability of a document.Computer Programming is the process of planning a sequence of steps for a computer to follow.

Arithmetic operations are the fundamental math operations: addition. A bus is a pathway for bits representing data and instructions. This set is called the instruction set of the device. Bus Lines (or Bus) called connecting lines provide pathways that support communication among the various electronic components that are either located on system board or attached to system board. etc could not communicate with the system unit without the system board. Logical operations consist of comparisons. slots. less than (<). provides connection point) the system board to a variety of different types of chips.e.is used for storing operands. Registers. The communication between the microprocessor and primary memory takes place through the bus. ♣Memory Address Registrar (MAR)-points to the memory location which the CPU plans to access. ♣Acculmular (ACC) . monitor. ♣Instruction Registrars (IR)-holds instruction to be decoded by the control unit. It does the following functions: ♣It has a limited set of on-chip memory locations. ♣Programmed counter (PC)-keeps track of next instruction to be executed. The clock speed is measured in gigahertz(GHz) or billions of beats per second.both RAM and ROM in the form of chips. multiplication and division. 26 . It is however. flow and manipulation of all data and information. For e. The number of bits that can travel simultaneously down a bus is known as the bus width.. sockets. The faster the clock speed. or greater than (>) the other. within CPU are.The system board is the communications medium for the entire computer system. The CU sends control signals until the required operations are done properly by ALU and memory.g. The system unit contains a large board that has a number of tiny electronic circuits and other components called the motherboard. either for reading or for writing. memory. bus lines and port. That is. Motherboard or System board. Microprocessor is just like any other electronic chip.A clock chip is used as a timekeeper to enable the components of the computer to work in synchronization. a modem card plugs into a slot on the system board to provide a connection to the internet. including microprocessor and memory chips. the faster the computer can process instructions. Control Unit (CU) – It controls and guides the interpretation. temporary results and results produced by arithmetic logic unit. The important registers. Ports are inlets and outlets through which input and output devices are connected to system unit. two pieces of data are compared to see whether one is equal to (=). External devices such as keyboard. Expansion slots provide expansion capacity for a computer system. System Clock. mouse.The Registers within CPU are special purpose temporary storage locations. ♣It can generate signals that are necessary for controlling external devices. The other components of the motherboard are microprocessor.is used for storage data either coming to the CPU or data being transferred by the CPU. clock. The microprocessor works on data present on the primary memory. These locations are called registers-used to store memory. ♣It can understand a fixed set of basic commands. more powerful than just any other chip. Sockets are used to connect (i. It provides the timing signal in the form of electronic pulses that are used by the components to set a working pace. subtraction. ♣Memory Buffer Registrar or Memory Data Registrar (MBR or MDR) . Users can insert optional devices known as expansion cards into these slots.

To move the cursor to the end of the line. commands and user responses into a computer. the special character above that number will be typed. ctrl . programs. To type “$”. To enter multiple spaces between two words in a document. Generally keyboards are available in two models:a) Standard keyboards ( 83-84 keys) b) Enhanced keyboards ( 104 or more keys) The keys of a computer along with their function typewriter keys (a-z).A fan called the exhaust fan is attached to SMPS. semiconductor or integrated circuit. To delete the character that is to the left of the cursor.Chips also called a silicon chip. function keys (F1-F12). Chips consist of tiny circuit boards (which can be smaller than the tip of your finger) etched onto squares of sandlike material silicon. The internal components of a computer run on DC (direct current) power to represent data and instructions. Power supply. alt. Special keys (Tab.The system unit draws power from AC (alternating current) mains. etc) etc. INPUT DEVICES An input device is any hardware component or machine used to feed data. which contains keys to feed information into the computer. Space Bar Home End Insert Esc Backspace 27 . and converts them into electrical signals (binary form) that can be accepted by the computer. To type the special characters above the numeric keys. shift. numeric keys (0-9 ).↑. Switched Mode Power Supply (SMPS). To move the cursor to the beginning of the line. To insert characters. you have to press the shift key and the number key 4.↓ → ). cursor control keys (←. which takes care of the conversion.g. caps lock. SPECAIL KEYS Caps Lock Tab Shift DESCRIPTION To capitalize letters. To enter a space. If you press this key along with a number key. There exits an internal power supply components. Some of them are following: Keyboard Keyboard is a typewriter like device. To cancel a command. E. Exhaust Fan. The fan works as long as the computer is switched on to keep the SMPS unit cool.

It is a rectangular shaped device. The mouse pointer usually appears in the shape of an arrow. folder or anything else). rapidly. Mouse is very easy and faster as compared to the keyboard only in operating system. and right directions in a document. right-click. There are three kinds of clicks. or the palm of our hand. or finger. to control the pointer by directing the stick with your finger.Delete Enter Arrow keys Mouse or Mice To erase the character to the left of the cursor. Touch Pad is a small touch-sensitive pad used as a pointing device on some portable computers. By moving a finger or other object on the surface of a pad. right-clicking on an item or the windows desktop will reveal the properties box for that item. Three devices similar to mouse are Track Ball (or Roller Ball) is a pointing device. It is also called context-sensitive menu. It is connected to the system unit by means of a long chord. The shortcut menu is useful in the sense that all related commands are available at one 28 . Pointing Stick is located in the middle of the keyboard. A shortcut menu shows the most frequently used commands for a selected item (file. a track ball is a mouse lying on its back. They are left-click. Mouse stands for “Mechanical Operated User Serial Engine”. left. we rotate the ball with our thumb. double-click. When a mouse moves on a flat surface. we can move the pointer on the display screen. This is hand held device allows us to control our computer without having to type instructions from the keyboard. with a rubber ball embedded at its lower side and buttons on the topside. In most cases. Left button single click Left button double click Right click Point the mouse to an item and click once to select an item. the cursor on the screen also moves in the direction of a mouse’s movement. Essentially. To move the cursor in the top. Point the mouse and then clicking the right mouse button is used to display the short-cut menu for that item. Some mouse has a wheel button that can be rotated to scroll through information that is displayed on the monitor. Mouse is used to point at and selects options on the VDU. Shortcut menu A shortcut is an icon that links to a file or folder. This is used to start programs and open files. Point the mouse to an item and click the left button twice. To start a new paragraph in a document. To move the pointer. down.

Open shortcut menu by right-clicking at a selected item. which creates an electronic form of a printed image displayed on the monitor. diagrams and photographs.platform without having to go here and there. A joystick is similar to a trackball as they both allow you to move objects around the screen easily. Printed image is in the form of typed or handwritten texts. Touch Screen is a particular kind of monitor with a clear plastic outer layer. Scanner (or Optical Scanner) A scanner is a device like photocopier. Joystick A joystick is a stick set in two crossed grooves and can be moved left or right. you can use the scanner to scan the picture available on paper. Dragging refers to the action of pressing the mouse button on the object and moving the pointer without releasing the mouse button. Dropping refers to the action of releasing the mouse button after the pointer reaches the destination cell. click create shortcut. It is useful for playing games on computer. To create a shortcut to a file Firstly. It is used to receive input as well as 29 . On the menu that appears.g. There are two basic types of optical scanners:Flatbed scanner is much like a copy machine. convert it into bits of information that a computer can understand and save it on the hard disk. Portable scanner is typically a handheld device that slides across the image. making direct contact. We can use our finger to touch an option on the screen to view information related to that particular option. which can later be manipulated. Drag and drop method The mouse can be used to drag and drop objects on the screen. Scanner makes a duplicate copy on paper of the required data or photograph stored in the computer memory. say there is a picture of a bird in a magazine and you want to display it on your computer screen. changed and modified according to the requirements. The moment you release the right mouse button. Then drag the file icon through right mouse button to desired location where shortcut is to be placed. Behind this layer are criss-crossed invisible beams of infrared light. This arrangement enables someone to select actions or commands by touching the screen with a finger. forward or backward and controls the movement of a pointer or some other display symbols. e. For. a menu appears. speed and direction of the joystick. The image to be scanned is placed on a glass surface and the scanner records the image from below. Lawyers and students use portable scanners as a valuable research tool to record information. select the file or folder you want to create the short to. You control game actions by varying the pressure. Note: A shortcut that appears on the desktop can be copied or moved to another location also. graphs.

The light pen is used to draw images on the screen. Travel Agencies etc. Handwriting recognition software translates handwritten notes into a form that the system unit can process. Touch screen are often used as input devices in public places such as ATM. MCIR is a direct-entry method used in banks. A stylus interacts with the computer through handwriting recognition software. A related technology is the magnetic strip. Once a picture has been taken. size. Digital Camera A camera that stores images digitally rather than recording them on film is called digital camera. Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) This device allows the computer to recognize human readable characters that are printed using a special magnetic ink.sensitive detector to select objects on a display screen. account number. A digital camera can operate upon without a computer system. which allows readers such as ATMs to read account information and facilitate monetary transactions. A web camera can only work with a computer system. An OCR can read the characters printed by computer printers. With the movement of the light pen over the screen. Stylus A stylus is a pen like device commonly used with table PCs and PDAs. and then manipulated with a graphics program and printed. Light Pen The light pen consists of a photocell mounted in a pen-shaped tube. The big advantage of digital cameras is that making photos is both inexpensive and fast because there is no film processing. used on the back of credit cards and debit cards. Optical Character Recognition (OCR) This device is used to read characters of a special type font that are printed on conventional paper with conventional ink. It is also useful for programs like CAD (Computer Aided Design) for changing shape. the branch code. It utilizes a light. Digital photos are limited by the amount of memory in the camera. of the screen. Airports. The amount of cheque is later entered by a clerk using a machine which prints the amount with magnetic ink. A stylus uses pressure to draw images on a screen. colours etc.give output. In a cheque. it can be downloaded to a computer system. Web Camera A webcam is essentially a camera that is connected to a computer either directly or wirelessly. the lines are drawn. OCR is used in departmental 30 . location. typewriters. and cheque number are preprinted at the bottom using magnetic ink. cash registers. adding machines. It generates digital images that can be accessed by and displayed on web browsers through a server. hand-written documents.

Speech Input Devices Speech or voice input devices convert a person’s speech into digital form.in human readable form. called optical mark reader (OMR) which transcribes the marks into electrical pulses which are transmitted to the computer. •Orders forms containing a small choice of items. an ATM card. OUTPUT DEVICES Output is anything that comes out of a computer.) Such a document is read by a document reader. ♣Whether a printed version of the output is required. The smart card contains a microprocessor that retains certain security and personal data in its memory at all times. The special reader machines that can read information on smart cards are called smart-card readers. printed on product containers.g. electronic-cash card etc. credit card. Each box is annotated distinctly so that the user clearly understands what response he is making out of a small number of alternatives. OCRs are best suited for: •Various types of surveys where responses can be restricted to one or more out of a few possibilities. ♣The volume of data. (E. or pictures. which is output. answer sheet of a multiple choice question paper where a choice of answer can be reflected by shading the appropriate box.. or characters. Smart Card Reader The enhanced version of cards with magnetic strips is called the smart card.stores to read retail price tags by reflecting light on the printed characters. Such information is almost impossible to duplicate. ID-card. The choice of output device depends on the following considerations: ♣Suitability of the application.g. The special reader machines that can read information on smart cards are called smart-card readers. Smart card can serve as multi-purpose card e. or printed pages. form voice recognition systems. 31 . Bar Code Reader A bar code is a pattern of printed bars on various types of products. bookshops. OCRs are used in credit card billing and reading of pin code numbers in large post offices to sort mail geographically. It can be meaningful information and it can be either displayed on the monitor or printed on paper by using a printer in a variety of forms-as binary No’s. these are photoelectric scanners that read the bar codes or vertical zebra striped marks. Smart cards allow access to crucial information if they are given correct password. ♣The speed at which the output is required. Optical Mark Reader (OMR) In this method. These devices when combined with appropriate software. •Time sheets of employees where start and stop times may be marked. in supermarkets. etc. You can see a bar code printed at the back cover of the book. special preprinted forms are designed with boxes which can be marked with a dark pencil or ink.

Modulation is the name of the process of converting from digital to analog. instead. They can display more colours with better clarity. Second. Active-matrix monitors are more expensive and require more power. text and graphics. is typically measured in bits per second (bps). the PC cannot display output. if there is movie playing on the computer. which displays the output of a computer. Liquid crystal display(LCD) has two basic types. •This computer screen is called Visual Display Unit (VDU) or monitor. which are continuous electronic waves. •It can display coloured as well as black and white output. images are displayed. It consists of a plug – in circuit board inside the system unit. •The computer has a screen to display output. The primary advantage are low cost and excellent resolution. Speakers The system unit has an audio speaker attached to it. To convert the digital signals to analog signals and vice-versa. we can hear the characters talk if you have speakers attached to the computer. The sound cards enable the computer. The output is in the form of sounds. Modem Telephone typically send and receive analog signals. •Images are formed on the monitor’s screen by a card called the display adaptor card. each pixel is independently activated. Modems are of four types: Internal modem is fixed within the computer. For example. Clarity refers to the quality and sharpness of the displayed images. we need a modem. Computers send and receive digital signals. passive –matrix or dual-scan monitors create images by scanning the entire screen. •The monitor of the computer resembles a television screen. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. Without this card. In text mode.♣The cost of the method chosen to the benefits derived. But CRTs are too bulky to be transported easily and occupy a considerable amount of space on the desktop. The speaker is connected to the motherboard and produces sound whenever instructed by software programs. Monitor can be divided into monochrome (black and white). This type requires very little power. •A computer can display data in two modes. First. to record sound input from a microphone connected to the computer and stored on a disk. individual characters are displayed and in graphics mode. 32 . The speed with which modems transmit data is called transfer rate. Modem is short form for Modulation – Demodulation. Active-matrix or thin film transistor (TFT)monitors do not scan down the screen. Demodulation is the process of converting from analog to digital. but the clarity of images is not as sharp. Types of monitor Cathode-ray tube(CRT) are similar in size and technology to television and are placed directly on the system unit or on the desktop. Monitor is a television like equipment. and color (it is displays 16 colours to 1 million different colours).

Plotters are widely used by graphic artists. For example.External modem is connected externally by a cable to a computer’s serial port. wireless modems send and receive through the air. A wireless modem may be internal. The most commonly used impact printer is the Dot matrix printer (DMP). •The dots are extremely small (usually between 50 and 60 microns in diameter). •The most costly aspect of such printers is replacing the ink cartridges. In a dot matrix printer. sketches and drawings. They can be made to print in colour by changing ribbons. •Typically ink-jet printers produce 17 to 19 pages per minute of black-only output and 13 to 15 pages of colour output. When we create a document in the computer we can send to the printer for printing its hard copy. so most users specify black ink for print jobs. •The dots can have different colours like black. there is physical contact between the paper and the printer head. graphs etc) on a physical medium such as paper. Another cable connects the modem to telephone wall jack. white etc. Many applications require a graphical output apart from printed output. combined together to create (print) photo-quality images on the same page. These printers can print in any language without any additional hardware. Printed information is often called hard copy because the information exists physically and is a more permanent form of output than that presented on a display device. Types of Printers Impact printers In impact printers. pie charts.e. bar charts and graphs with annotations are useful representation of information. engineers and architects to print out designs. the typeface (head or needle) presses against an inked ribbon and makes a mark on the paper i. They are mainly used to print internal reports and memos needed by organizations. characters are formed using dots. They offer good quality at an affordable price. alphabets. it does not use cables. Unlike the other modems. Inkjet printer is any printer that fires extremely small droplets of ink onto the surface of paper to create impression of text or image. so small that they are tinier than the diameter of a human hair (70microns) •The dots are positioned very precisely. Printer is a device that produces images (No’s. external.. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. There are two types of plotters: drum plotter and flat bed plotter. Printers are classified as impact printers and non-impact printers. They can print both text and graphics. Such printers have become the defector standard for home computers and low cost printing. PC Card modem is a credit card –size expansion board that is inserted into portable computers. Plotters are special purpose printers that produce good quality drawings and graphs using ink pens or pencils. or a PC card. with resolutions of up to 1440*720 dots per inch (dpi). Instead. A plotter draws images as a series of point-to-point lines. which is generally called a printout. 33 .

quality colour artwork and text. Photo printers are special-purpose printers designed to print photo-quality images from digital cameras. A thermal printer uses heat elements to produce images on heat-sensitive paper. Cannot produce colour copies. OS in short. Very fast: 10-20 pages per minute for multiple copies. Print quality is too poor to produce important documents for customers or management. Operating system is software that must always be running when the computer is on. High quality printouts. Laser printers are popular due to the high quality of the printout. Most photo printers print 3*5 or 4*6 images on glossy. The speed is measured in pages. Most expensive printer type to buy specially colour lasers. It is the rectangular portion of screen that displays an open program or the contents of a folder or disk. photo quality paper. there is no physical contact between the paper and printer head. A laser printer uses a beam of light to form images on the paper.Non-impact printers In non-impact printers. The most commonly used non-impact printer is the Laser Printer (LP). there is no contact between the typeface (head or needle) and the paper while printing i. A graphical user interface is simple to use because any action that is performed is in the form of buttons clicks or selection of commands. Can print on continuous stationary. to repair –lots of complex equipment inside. colour thermal printers have been widely used in professional art and design work to produce very high. Can’t use continuous or multi-part stationary to create carbon copies. Originally these printers were only used in scientific labs to record data. An Introduction to Windows Windows is a special type of software known as the operating system. Dot Matrix Printer A dot matrix printer prints characters using dots. DMPs can create carbon copies. Only A4 or A5 paper can be used in most laser printers. More recently. Using carbonated paper. They are mainly used for publishing newsletters. Very slow-can be less than 100 characters per minute. Laser printers are used for printing both text and graphics. The Windows Desktop Laser Printer A laser printer prints characters completely. Low operating costs. brochures and presentations. Very noisy-can’t be used near a phone. The speed is measured in characters per second. Windows provides a Graphical User Interface. 600 to 1200 dots per inch. Almost silent.e. 34 .

and then click New Toolbar… option. Disk – drive Icons graphically represent five disk-drive options: floppy-disk. Parts of a Window The parts of a window are the title bar. Commonly used icons are the following: Application Icons are the graphic renderings of the software package’s logo. 35 . This is called the tool tip. Note: You can easily remove a toolbar from the taskbar by right-clicking the taskbar and then clicking the item again to remove the check mark. The window is minimized to a button on the Taskbar. I To open a file. which is also active in another window. It is a set of buttons you click to perform common tasks. if you are currently working in Microsoft Excel’s window and now you want to switch to Microsoft PowerPoint. click its button on the taskbar.The large area on the screen that can be seen immediately after Windows gets loaded is called the desktop. there is a tool bar. You can easily switch to a different window by clicking its taskbar button. maximize and close buttons. Document Icons are the active document window. hard-disk. hosting the most widely used applications and features icons. Select a folder from the list. a Link bar. the minimize. Point to toolbars and then select the toolbar you want to add: an Address bar. folder or program on the desktop. Desktop is the workspace on the computer screen. A tool bar containing all items in that folder will be added to your taskbar. Icon is a graphic symbol representing a window element. menu bar the tool bar. That is. The Task bar The narrow blue band at the bottom of the screen is called the task bar. all you need to do is: “click the button representing Microsoft PowerPoint on the taskbar. Shortcut Icons are little graphics pointing to a particular application.” Displaying Toolbars in Taskbar A tool bar is a bar containing icons for various tools. RAM and CD. a text appears identifying its contents. which contains the name of the window on the left and three buttons on the right. a toolbar containing all items on your desktop (Desktop toolbar). ♣To minimize a window. The bar below the title bar is called the menu bar. then.ROM. Right-click the background of the taskbar. You can also create your own toolbar from any folder. or Quick Launch bar. These small images can represent a file. is called the title bar. Point to toolbars. which is a window within an application window. network. click the Minimise button. a folder or a program. you need to double-click on its icon. The date and time are displayed on the system tray. A tool bar contains shortcuts to items on the menu bar. The task bar has the Start menu at the left and the system tray on the right. Right click at the task bar then shortcut menu for taskbar appears. can be minimized to a document icon. The top-most blue bar. This bar is used to open programs (through start button available on it) and shows information about all open windows. When the mouse is placed over the icon. The text below each icon is the icon name. document or folder etc. The small pictures on the desktop are called icons. To restore the window.

a window might hide the icons on the desktop. A pop-up menu appears. 2. place the mouse cursor on one of the edges of the window. For e. type. The background is also known as the wallpaper. 3. Right-click on the empty space on the desktop. Changing the Desktop The appearance of a desktop can be changed. that is the window you are currently using. Changing the Screen Saver 36 . the Maximize button changes to the Restore button. To change the appearance of the desktop. The cursor changes to a double. Click the Auto Arrange option. Click the OK button to close the dialog box. 3. To automatically arrange them. These can be dragged and placed anywhere on the screen. All the windows are displayed as buttons on the taskbar. Right-click on the empty space on the Desktop.g. Select Autumn as the background and click the Apply button. To move the window. On maximizing a window. 1. Moving a window. 5.Sometimes. ♣Click the Restore button to bring it back to its original size. 1. WORKING WITH WINDOWS DESKTOP Arranging Icons on the desktop Icons can be created and arranged on the desktop.headed arrow.There might be situations where multimedia windows have to be used at the same time. On restoring the window. The window occupies the whole screen. To open some other window. Choose the Arrange Icons by option from the popup menu. click its button on the taskbar. drag the window to another place. Click the properties option. date etc. size. Switching between windows. click the maximize button.♣To maximize a window. drag the mouse to resize the window. 2. the Restore button will be replaced by the Maximize button.. Click the Desktop tab. The icons can also be arranged by name. Select any option from the list box. click the Close button. The button of the active window. RESIZING AND MOVING WINDOWS Resizing a Window – To increase or decrease the size of a window. A menu that appears when you click the right mouse button is called a context-sensitive menu. click the title bar and with the left mouse button pressed. 4. ♣To close a window. is highlighted on the taskbar. Keeping the left mouse button pressed.

Screen saver is a moving picture or a pattern that appears on the screen when the mouse or the keyboard is not used for a specified period of time. Select any screen saver from the list. It helps in accessing the files and folders in the computer. Click the Properties option. 2. click the Turn off option. The Start Button Click the Start button to invoke the Start menu.   My Documents: When a new document is created. The left side of the menu displays the most frequently used programs. The start menu appears. My Computer: It is a very important and frequently used option. Click the Screen Saver tab. The start menu has various menu options such as My Computer.used files. In the Turn off computer dialog box. 4. The top left of the menu displays the icons for Internet Explorer and E-mail. 3. This option acts as a shortcut to the recently. TURNING OFF THE COMPUTER To turn off the computer. You can open a file in My Recent Documents by simply clicking its icon. 5. Click the Apply button. The menu has two panes. My Documents. Using this option. Note: Do not turn off your computer until you see a message telling you that shut down are complete. you can also share files and folders in your machine so that others can access it from their machines. The time can be set using the Wait spin box. Click the OK button to close the dialog box. 6. picture files are stored in this folder. 2. 1. My Network Places: This option enables you to access your computers on the network. you risk losing information. Click the Turn off Computer option. 1. Right-click on the empty space on the desktop. My Pictures and My Music And so on. To select the screen saver. 4. My Pictures: By default. 3. My Recent Documents: This option displays the list of files that have been opened recently. it is saved in the My Documents folder by default.     37 . music files are stored in this file. If you turn off your computer without shutting it down correctly. Click the start button. You can get information about files and folders on other machines. The computer shuts down. My Music: By default.

The settings of the desktop can also be changed using the display the display icon in the pick a control icon section. A Magnifier option in the See Also section of Accessibility Options. 2. Click the Apply button. 1. Choose Windows Classic. screensaver and the appearance. User Account Option The user account option in the control panel helps to control the rights and permissions. Using this option portion of the screen can be increased. mouse functionality.The applications in Windows can be started using the Start menu. To change the theme of the desktop. Click the Start button present in the taskbar. The Display option helps in changing the settings of the desktop. Appearance and Themes The appearance of the desktop can be changed using the Appearance and Themes option in the Control Panel. CONTROL PANEL The control panel contains specialized tools to change the visual settings and the system settings in the operating system. To start control panel. Click on the OK button. The application opens in a window. 4. such as changing passwords and personal settings of a specific user. You can change the background picture. A pop-up menu appears. Select the desired application. And text and configure Windows to work for the users with disabilities. This section also contains icons for customizing the folders and start menu. It consists of tasks to change the contrast for the screen elements. the screen saver and the theme of the desktop. 1. Click the Theme combo box drop down arrow. 2. 38 . The Taskbar and Start Menu helps in changing the way the start menu and the taskbar is displayed. Accessibility Option The accessibility option in the control panel is used for customizing the keyboard. which you want to open and press the mouse button on the particular application. Click change the theme task. such as the background. Click the control panel option from the start menu. You can also change the appearance and resolution of the computer. 5. Click the start button. 3. display. The Folder option helps in changing the way the files and the folders are displayed and change file associations. such as cursor.

Keyboard The keyboard icon has three options to be configured. After the date is changed. and then click the arrows to increase or decrease the value. ♣To change the AM/PM indicator. Speech recognition is the ability of Windows XP to convert spoken words to written text. click the month list. and then click the arrows. Language. select the seconds. Speech The speech icon allows changing the settings for speech recognition and text to speech conversation. 4. 3.You can add or remove language definitions from your computer from this panel.Panel enables you to set the repeat rate. Change the sound scheme helps to change the sound settings that are applied to events in windows. Under Date. Click date and time under control panel dialog. select the item you want to change: ♣To change the hour. ♣To change the seconds. Under Time. select it. and then click the arrows to increase or decrease the value. select the minutes. click the arrows in the year list. Now date and time properties dialog box opens up.This panel is where you define the keyboard brand or type. select the hour. select the item you want to change: ♣To change the month. and then click the arrows to increase or decrease the value. 2. or type the correct year. Speed. Its task is to change the system volume. sound scheme and speaker settings. ♣Click the OK button. ♣To change the minutes. Adjust the system volume helps in increasing or decreasing the volume associated with the system. Change the speaker settings helps to change the settings of individual speakers. repeat delay and cursor blink rate. you can follow the steps given below: 1. ♣To change the day. ♣To change the year. General. 39 .Date and Time Option To change date and time on your system. ♣Click the Apply button. click the correct day on the calendar. Sounds and Audio Devices This option allows to customize the sound system and also to configure settings for the audio and recording devices. and then click the correct month.

Time. and date settings vary from region to region. ♣To remove a program. click on Add or Remove programs. time. currency. ♣To add/install new software. 40 . To do this: ♣Click Regional and Language options under control panel. Number. To install new Plug and Play hardware. this is where you alter the way Windows displays the date. click at Add New Programs and than on CD or Floppy button. ♣Changing double click speed. currency. we use this wizard. This will open up Mouse Properties dialog box. Time. and Date formats. The plug and play architecture consists of three components: Plug and Play BIOS: This detects and configures Plug and Play cards as part of the POST process. time. Date. Regional Settings The number. ♣Click at Customize button to set up regional characteristics for Number. you need to click at Mouse under Control Panel.You can alter the way numbers appear on your system from this screen. ♣Changing mouse speed and pointer trail etc. In the control panel.This panel is where you set the way Windows displays the time. the wizard for adding new hardware gets started.Changing Mouse Settings To change various mouse settings or properties. ♣On the Regional Options tab.Use this panel to display and print numbers that represent currency in your region. You will see Add or Remove Programs Properties dialog box appear on your screen. make right button work as left button and vice-versa (useful for left-handed people).Just like the Time setting screen. ♣The Regional and Language options dialog box opens up. This wizard automatically detects and guides you through the process of adding a new piece of hardware to your computer.e. click the name of the region whose number. Make sure you have connected your hardware or installed its components in your computer before running the wizard. Add New Hardware Once you click at Add Hardware in the control panel. You can change these settings as per your requirements through Regional and language options under control pane. Currency. and date format you want to use. ♣Selecting different mouse pointers. Add or Remove Programs Option This option is used to add or remove an application or window components in the control panel. Currency. select it from the list and click change or remove programs to remove it. wherefrom you can do many things such as: ♣Reversing mouse buttons i. Follow instructions as they appear on your screen and you will get the desired software installed on your screen.

♣The pick a Control Panel icon section contains icons to configure energy-settings and perform administrative settings in the computer. folder or a website. Performance and Maintenance Option ♣The Performance and Maintenance Option allows to increase space on the hard disk perform frequent checks on the computer and configure settings to save power. Run Command The Run option enables you to open a program. ♣The Scheduled Tasks Option helps in running the computer task automatically. ♣The Power Option helps in changing the energy saving settings in the computer. connect to the workplace network from home and create a small office or home network. The Printer and Faxes option helps in changing the display printers that are installed in the machine and also add and remove printers. folder or a website in the Open combo box. keyboard. For example. It provides the Configuration manager to integrate the automatic hardware configuration process.Plug and Play hardware devices: The ESCD data structure holds the current configuration of all devices in the system in some form of non. to access the calculator. Click OK button to run it. ♣The Administrative Tools option helps in changing the administrative settings in the computer. phone and modem. Installed printers and also add a printer to the computer options can be viewed. removing and changing the scanner and camera settings. Plug and Play operating system: The Windows operating system is Plug and Play compatible. Network and Internet Connections This option in the control panel consists of tasks to change the settings of the internet. The Scanner and Camera option helps in adding. Type the name of the program. you can type calc in the Open combo box and click the OK button. Using this option. DATA ORGANISATION 41 . Printer and other Hardware Using the printer and other hardware option in the control panel. The Game Controller option helps in changing the settings of the game controller hardware. ♣The System Option helps to change the hardware settings and also to see the information about the system. scanner and camera can also be changed. Icons displayed in the pick a control panel icon section are used for configuring the display and connection settings of the internet and also to connect your computer to other networks and the Internet.volatile storage. click Browse button. To select the location/path or name of desired program/file/folder/web page. a fax machine can also be added to the system. the settings of games control.

The extension is used to identify which application has been used to create the file. Doc. which is called the drive name. When you select an icon. Types of Files in Computer’s Storage Media    Text Files: A file containing information in the form of text is called a text file. The floppy drive is usually referred to as A: and the hard drive is usually referred to as C: Folder is like a container or file drawer where you can store programs. Doc is the extension for Microsoft word files. Explorer window and the work area. tool bar. In the My Computer window. The left pane has The Explorer bar and the right pane is the working area where you can access your computer. double. A computer uses drives to store information and each drive is identified by its name. The primary name is used to identify the file. pertaining to a particular topic. Example: Text. WINDOWS EXPLORER The windows explorer is a feature of windows operating system that can be used to view the contents of a computer and network drives in a hierarchical structure. Graphics File: Graphic files contain information in the form of pictures. Instead of opening drives and folders in separate windows. Data File: Data files contain information in binary form. videos. To view the contents of a drive. windows explorer lets one browse through them in a single window.) A file name has two parts. When data is processed into a more useful form. The work area has icons representing the drives in the system. That is why we need to organize our data. it is known as information. File is a computerized document that contains information like Text. also called the secondary name.click its icon. The My Computer window has a menu bar. You use folders to organize files into distinct groups in the same way the drawers and folders inside a file cabinet are used to organize information. We would never be able to get the books we require. Textual information can be in the form of letter. MY COMPUTER My computer is used for accessing information from different drives in the system. 42 . there are two panes. sketches and other forms of visual information. here text is the primary part and doc is the extension. the information about that icon appears under the Details section on the left. the primary name and the extension. Information is stored in the form of files. Data is defined as the input that is given to a computer. files and also other folders. A dot is used to separate the primary name and extension. (Document is a file you create when you save your work in a program. Graphics and Numeric data stored on a disk.Just imagine how it would be if we were to search for a book in a library that has no racks. together in a common location. The contents of the drive will be displayed.

CREATING FOLDERS Creating a Folder on the Desktop To create a new folder on the desktop. Click the folder option. You can change the name to any other name. Click the windows explore option in the submenu. Note: In Windows Explorer. Double-click the icon for C drive. a ‘+’ mark is shown by the side of the folder name. 43 . When a folder has a subfolder in it. the parent folder alone is shown and the ‘-‘ changes to ‘+’. 1. Use Explorer to view files and folders To view a folder or a file. Hold down the start button and press E the key. a new folder is named as New Folder. By default. 1. To create a folder in an existing folder. Double-click the icon for the C drive. 3. Click the file menu. 1. Choose the All Programs option in the start menu. 4. 2. 4. When you click the ‘-‘ sign. Choose the accessories option. The C drive window appears. Click the folder option. The left pane is called the folder pane. to show or hide folders on the left side of the window. click the plus or minus sign beside the folder. Choose the new option. 2.To start explorer. then double-click that particular file or folder or right-click the file or folder and the click the open option in the popup menu. 2. Alternatively. When you click the +mark. To create a folder in the C drive. it changes to ‘–‘ sign and the subfolders are displayed. Right-click on the empty space in the window. 2. Click the New option. 3. It contains the list of drives and folders on the computer. OR Open My Computer and click on the folders button at the top of the My Computer environment. Creating a folder in the C Drive The procedure for creating a folder is same in My Computer and Windows Explorer. Click the Folder option on the popup menu. The windows explorer window has a menu bar. 1. 3. 3. tool bar. 4. Right click on the empty space on the desktop. The right pane is the working area. Click the start menu. Choose the new option. Alternatively. address bar and two panes. It displays the contents of a selected folder.

Double-click the folder to open it. moved or deleted. You can change the name.1. Right click on any empty space on the desktop. moved. Alternatively. 4. 1. 1. 2. 1. You can also select the file and press the F2 key to change the name. Choose the new option. Create the new file by using the same procedure mentioned above. Right.click the file. The name of the file or folder is highlighted. Say. 2. CREATING FILES Creating a file on the Desktop To create a word file on the desktop. deleted or renamed. the Games folder is called the parent folder and the Tennis folder is called the subfolder. Rename a file or folder through shortcut menu 44 . you create a new folder called Tennis in the Games folder. The folder or file gets highlighted. Right-click on the empty space in the folder window. Click the Microsoft Word Document option. Selecting a file or a folder is simple. 3. 1. Creating a file in a folder The procedure for creating a folder is same in My Computer and Windows Explorer. 2. 2. Select the file. FILE OPERATIONS Files and folders can be copied. Double-click the icon for the folder. Type the new name and press the Enter key. 2. 3. the file is named as New Microsoft Word Document. Click the folder option. Click the Rename option in the file menu. Click the Rename option in the popup menu. 3. Select the file. as you have to click that particular folder or file. For this you need to select files that are to be copied. To create a file in a folder. Renaming files and folders A file or folder can be renamed immediately after it is created or later. Click the New option from the popup menu that appears. 3. In this case. Right-click on the empty space. By default. To rename a file.

select the Cut option from the shortcut menu or press the Ctrl and X keys simultaneously. hold down the <Ctrl> key and click each item. you can right-click the file or folder. 3. In a window. Click the Edit menu. you can right-click the file or folder. When you want to select files that are not consecutive. you can right-click the file or folder. 4. hold down the <shift> key and click the last item. choose Edit. Alternatively. 2. Moving files and folders To move a file or a folder completely from one folder to another. 3. Select the file. click the first item. 2. Alternatively. 1. 4. click the copy option from the shortcut menu or press the Ctrl and C keys simultaneously. Select the file or folder. and then press Enter. Click the Edit menu. 3. 2. 45 . Type a new name. Searching Files and Folders To search files and folders. it can be done using the Shift key or the Ctrl Key. Alternatively. If multiple files have to be copied or moved. Right clicks to bring the shortcut menu for selected file. click the Paste option from the shortcut menu or press the Ctrl and V keys simultaneously. Click the search option in the start menu. Copy a file to a Floppy Disk 6. Click the Edit menu. 3. Click the Edit menu. point to Send To. 1. 6. Select the folder where you have to paste the file.1. Click the paste option. On the File menu. 1. Copying files and folders To copy a file or a folder to another folder. Find the file or folder you want to copy. 2. When you want to select consecutives files and folders. Click the paste option. and then click the drive where you want to copy the file or folder. select the file or folder you want to rename. and then click it. Select Rename from the shortcut menu. To select all files and folders in the window. 1. Click the cut option. Select the folder where you have to paste the file. Click the copy option. 5. Select All. 7. Double-click My Computer.

select Restore. Alternatively. Press the Delete key. 3. PAINT You can use Paint to create. 1. If one wants to undelete a file. Windows will ask you to confirm your choice. Specify the folder in which the search has to be happen.2. 46 . then it may be restored from recycle bin. From the file menu. The results are displayed in the right pane. 3. Deleting a file or folder To delete a file or folder. The files or folders removed from a floppy disk (A: or B: drive). You can also access the search option by pressing the Ctrl and E keys simultaneously. Specify the name of the file or the folder that has to be searched. select empty the Recycle Bin. Click Yes to delete the file or folder. Copy and Paste techniques to add paint picture into WordPad document you have created or use it as your desktop background. 2. Windows asks for confirmation before deleting a file or folder. or from the DOS command prompt are deleted permanently. Note: Files that have been placed in the recycle bin continue to effectively take up space on your hard drive until you empty the bin. You can use Cut. 1. Select the Recycle Bin in the left side pane of the Explorer. However. 4. Select the file that you are planning to restore in the right side pane. 2. 1. if items are deleted from the recycle bin itself. you can right-click the file or folder and select the delete option in the popup menu. 2. Click the ‘All files and folders’ option. From the file menu. Select the file or folder. Select the Recycle Bin in the left side pane of the Explorer. Click No to cancel the operation. Restoring from the Recycle Bin To restore a file that is in the Recycle Bin. 3. then all of its items in it are permanently deleted and cannot be restored later. RECYCLE BIN Recycle Bin is the place that holds the deleted files you no longer need temporarily but are inaccessible. Emptying the Recycle Bin To empty the Recycle Bin. edit and view pictures. it does not go into the Recycle Bin.

Converts all colours to the currently selected background colour. Creates irregularly shaped triangles.The work area section covers a major part of the paint window. Works just like a pencil. Toolbox. Lets you create curved shapes. Paint windows open where you can create. boxes and other multisided objects. We can select any option of our choice by moving the mouse pointer over it and then click. 47 . Menu bar. view. “Picks up” a colour on your painting that you want to use somewhere else. “Paints” in a freehand style. Let’s you type text for captions and titles. The colour you click becomes the foreground colour. Click at start. 8. image. Colours box. These bars usually display the program name and name of the file we are correctly working in. Lets you zoom in to any part of your painting to view or edit the pixels (dots) that make up the painting.The menu bar displays a number of options like file. company logos.The topmost portion of the paint window is termed as title bar. You can even use Paint to view and edit scanned photos. You can adjust the width of the point. Paints square or rectangular shapes. illustrations. and then click at Paint. Draws straight lines at a variety of angles.The colour box is present at the bottom of the paint window. Work area. To start paint. These tools help we create drawing as follows: Tool Name Free-from selected tool Select tool Eraser Fill with colour tool Eyedropper tool Magnifier Pencil Brush Airbrush Text Line Curve Rectangle Polygon Ellipse Rounded rectangle What it does Selects irregularly shaped cutouts. You can adjust the spray width. etc. cartoons. Creates squares and rectangles with rounded corners.On the left side of the work area we will notice the toolbox. It includes various colours. It consists of various tools. then point to All Programs. 3. then to Accessories. This is a freehand painting tool. colour and help. Working in painting Tools The paint window is made of following tool bars 1. The scroll buttons are horizontal and vertical is also available in down and left side of the work area. 2. Sprays a dot pattern of the currently selected foreground colour. Creates circles and ellipses. Selects square or rectangular cutouts. edit or view pictures. 9. maps.You can create business graphics. 4. 5. Fills enclosed areas with currently selected foreground colour. Title bar. edit.

Cut command removes data and places it on the clipboard. You must be careful not to erase valuable data that has been placed in the clipboard or you will lose it. ♣Paste: a single item. ♣Click All: items from the office clipboard. although the set of data can be almost any size of length. you can have as many as 12 sets of data simultaneously stored in clip board. ♣Delete: a single item from the office clipboard. 1. ♣Integrates all office applications. you can copy an address from one letter to another and thereby avoid retyping it. The office clipboard ♣Is in addition to the standard windows clipboard. ENTERTAINMENT IN WINDOWS XP Windows XP Provide Entertainment Package to the user to facilitate entertainment in the following ways: Using CD player 48 . The contents of the clipboard are cleared each time you select a new set of data and choose either the cut or copy commands again. This fact has two important consequences: 1. you use the paste command to copy the contents of the clipboard back into your document. 2. However. For e. In either case. Click the Office clipboard option. 2. ♣Can hold a maximum of 24 items. Note: The clipboard generally stores only one set of data at a time. To open the clipboard task pane. Click the Edit menu.g. it is placed onto the clipboard and remains there until you clear the clipboard or until you cut or copy another piece of information. When you cut or copy information from an application. The various buttons on the clipboard and the way you can use them is given below: ♣Paste All: items from the office clipboard. You can Paste data from the clipboard as many times as you like (until you choose cut or copy again). Copy command.CLOPBOARD The Clipboard is a special file or memory area where data is temporary stored before being copied or moved to another place. ♣Holds multiple items. stores the data on the clipboard but does not remove the original. in word 2000.

you can use head-phones that are plugged into the CD-ROM. Using Volume Control If you have a sound card. To use Sound Recorder. then only.You can use CD player to play audio compact disc on a CD-ROM drive connected to your computer. you can play your music CD’s. point to All Programs. Then point to Accessories. To hear sound when you can use Media Player. 49 . and edit sound files. To start volume control. Note: Computer must have sound card and speakers. you also need a microphone. point to All Programs. you can use Volume Control to adjust the volume and speaker balance when you play audio files. ♣Now click at Windows Media Player. To listen to a CD. ♣Click Start. or animation files and to control the settings for multimedia hardware devices. ♣Click Start. To start sound recorder. play. point to All Programs. you must have sound card and speakers installed on your computer. you must have a sound card. ♣Now from the Volume Control dialog box. insert the audio CD in CD Drive and choose Play option. Then point to Accessories. and then to Entertainment. Using Media Player You can use Media Player to play audio. you can listen to a CD over your speaker system. and then to Entertainment. and then to Entertainment. video. If you have a sound card installed. ♣Now click at Volume Control. Using Sound Recorder You can use Sound Recorder to record. ♣Now click at Sound Recorder. you can control volume as desired. To start media Player. Then point to Accessories. ♣Click Start. ♣To start a CD player. If you want to record live sound.

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