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BASIC: Beginners All- Purpose Symbolic Instruction-Code The computer is defined as an electronic device, which can perform to mathematical, logical and other operations by processing or manipulating information in accordance with a set of instructions called program. In a short, a computer can add, delete, store, chart, compare, analyses project communicates play with information in on its forms at incredible speed. If we have typed in a list of employees into the computer, and we want to alphabetize the list, the act of placing the names in alphabetical sequence is considered as processing. Abbreviation of a computer C:- Calculation O:- Organization M:- Manipulation U:- Understanding T:- Tabulating E:- Editing R:- Regeneration The term Computer is derived from Latin word “compute” which means to calculate or manipulate. 1. It accepts data (information) from the users and displayed it. 2. Computer stores large volume of information in the form of symbols and digits, in its memory and make available at any time. 3. It also performs operations like arithmetic and logical. 4. Transfers data, images, sound and graphics through cables at a very fast rate. Features of Computer 1) Speed Computer is a very high speed information processing machine. The speed of the computer is measured in terms of Million Instructions Per Second (MIPS). It represents the number of instructions that can be executed by the computer per second. 2) Detailed Instructions A Computer operates according to the instructions contained in a particular programme and will solve a given problem accordingly. For example, if a programme containing the figures of wages of thousands of workers is fed into the Computer, it will immediately make various calculations and print a wage sheet in no time.


3) Firmware Firmware is a prewritten program that is permanently stored in read-only memory. Even in the absence of electrical power the memory in ROM stays intact. It configures the computer and is not easily modifiable by the user. BIOS (Basic Input Output Services) instructions are an example of firmware. 4) Live ware People who are associated with and benefited from the computer system are called the live ware. They are (a) System Analysts. Design data processing systems. (b) Programmers. Write programs to implement the data processing system design. (c) Operators. Participate in operating the computers. 5) Procedure Computer has complex and rigid procedure to operate it. Developing a suitable program is more difficult. The following series of operations is to achieve the desired result. (a) Hardware oriented procedure Details about components and their method of operation. (b) Software oriented procedure Set of instructions required to use software in a computer system. (c) Internal procedure It answers smooth data processing. 6) Versatile Machine Computer can do a wide variety of jobs through software development. Computer can switch over from one programmed to another according to the set of instructions fed into it. The same computer can be used for accounting work, invoicing, stock control, sales analysis and even for playing chess. 7) Reduced costs With the ever-increasing advances being made in the state of the art, the cost of computer equipment has dropped drastically over the years. Hardware cost of acquiring their own computer system many now find it not only feasible to acquire a system, but cost-effective as well. 8) Unemployment Computer performs work speedily and accurately, so big enterprises prefer it. A computer is capable of performing jobs earlier being performed by many people and thus throwing many people out of employment. 9) Storing


Computer has an in-built memory where it saves data and instructions so that they are available for initial or for additional processing. Such information can be stored in it on a permanent basis on magnetic discs, floppy discs, punched cards or microfilms etc. DVD’s of today can store data of many CDs. 10) Accuracy Computers can perform all the calculations and comparisons accurately provided the hardware does not malfunction. Computer operations are error-free and as such the information obtained from it is highly reliable. Errors can occur in a computer due to human element. Computer errors caused due to incorrect data or unreliable programs are often referred to as garbage-in-garbage-out (GIGO). 11) Use of special language The computer dose not understands ordinary language, so specific language: BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN has been developing for use in the computer. (a) COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) is used for large data handling purposes in commercial and processing the business information. (b) FORTRAN is a language most suited for processing the mathematical and statistical information. (c) BASIC is used by the persons who have just started to learn the programming. (d) LOGO (Logic Oriented Graphic Oriented) is mainly developed for children. It helps them learn basic mathematical and geometric skills easily. (e) C++ is used effectively in developing system software as well as application software. (f) JAVA or OAK is designed for the development of software for consumer electronic devices. 12) Use of Binary System Binary means pertaining to a pair. Binary numbering system is one which has a base of 2 represented by the digits 0 and 1. (In contrast to this binary system our extensively used decimal system has a base of 10, represented by the digits 0-9.) Conversion of decimal number 20 into Binary Digits. Operation 20/2 10/2 5/2 2/2 1/2 Quotient 10 5 2 1 0 Remainder 0 0 1 0 1


The process will be continued till the Quotient becomes 1 or 0. Finally, we shall be writing last Quotient first and remainders in the reverse order, i.e., from bottom to the top. Thus, for the decimal number 20, the binary number will be 010100. 13) Computer is different from a Calculator a) Calculators can work only with numbers, but computers can work with both numbers and words. b) Calculators can’t perform logical operation, but computers can. c) Calculators don’t have permanent storage media, but computer stores large volume of data in its memory and reproduce any part of it, as and when needed. d) Calculators are less fast compare to computers. e) Calculators can’t be programmed very effectively, but computers can. f) Calculator can’t store program. h) Intermediate data can’t be stored and used later, but computers can. i) Calculators need human beings to interfere in its operations, but no human assistance is needed after the programmed goes for execution. 14) Computer is different from people a) Computers are faster than people. b) Computers are more accurate when dealing with large numbers. c) Computers simply don’t board and can perform the same operation over and over again over any length of time. d) Computers are not flexible like human life. A Computer must have every step describe and computers can’t think. e) Computers can’t do anything itself. It can do only what is instructed to do. f) To memories figures is difficult for human beings but not for a computer. APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTERS In human affairs we have reached a point where the problems we must solve are no longer solvable without the aid of computers. I fear not computers, but the lack of them. 1. Applications in Accounting or Business a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) Recording and posting business transactions. Processing and maintaining payrolls. Maintaining personnel records. Keeping effective stock control. Invoicing of sales. Preparing bills and debtors accounts. Maintaining purchases and sales ledger. Classification of accounting transactions through sorting, merging and updating. Reporting in the form of Trial balances and ledger balance and Balance sheet.


2. Applications in human lives a) Computers are useful for everyone. Parents can be using a computer to records for their daily expenditure and income. Also recording important dates like birthdays, marriage anniversaries etc. b) Telephone bills are generated by the computer. Telephone complaints are entered into computers to have better control on how many complaints are attended to in a day. Telephone inquiries have been computerized so that instant information is available to the customers. c) Students can use a PC to prepare notes and project, expect information from the Internet, take online test etc. In examination for checking papers etc. d) In office, they are also maintaining the all type records, workers details, manufacturing products like automobiles, shoes, computer cabinets etc. Creation of blueprints for houses. e) In developing country like India one of the reasons for people to go for PC is the E-mail facility, since this is the most convenient, fastest and cheapest ways to communicate with friends, family members and acquaintances within and outside the country. f) Hotel room bookings are done on the computer. This enables the person dealing with bookings to get quick information on the availability of rooms. g) Offices and organization use the computers to increase their productivity and profits. h) The advertisements that we see have a plethora of graphics in them. All these are computer generated. It also offers scope for games, music and even comic that adds to our entertainment. 3. Applications of Spreadsheet A spreadsheet is highly interactive computer program that accepts data in a tabular form (in rows and columns) and allows user to manipulate/calculate/analyze data in the desired manner, displayed on-screen in a scrollbar window. Sales: A marketing agency could use it to formulate and evaluate schemes for the items to be sold. In Sports: Individual and team statistics can be kept in spreadsheet. Home Usage: A home user can use a spreadsheet to plan expenditure, maintain daily accounts, and maintain dates of insurance premiums and installment payments. Accounting: They are used to create general ledgers, trial balance sheets and profit and loss accounts on the computer. Payroll: Payroll details can be maintained in it like basic salary, Leave Travel Allowance (LTV), Dearness Allowance (DA), House Rent Allowance (HRA), tax to be paid, gross salary and net salary. Features of Spreadsheet ♣ Spreadsheets cannot only represent data values but also their relationship(s). ♣Spreadsheets provide facilities of cutting, pasting, moving, copying data values or formulae


museum exhibitions and more. i) Hypermedia. General Correspondence: Newsletter. 5. With multimedia you can a) Add sound to files or tasks b) Create 3D effects in different ways. Time consuming tasks like creating: Reports. d) Create animated birthday cards for your friends who have computers. Balance Sheets and Report cards. and save texts for future retrieval and revisions. Contracts. drawings. World Wide Web (WWW). ♣Data can graphically be represented through charts/graphs of many types. c) Build a business presentation that includes corporate presentations. An article on World War II can include hyperlinks to articles on countries involved in the war. You can use a word processor to perform Repetitive tasks like typing: Circulars. ♣Numerous built-in functions are available in spreadsheets. This is known as computeraided design (CAD). WordPerfect. j) Improve quality of games. Tenders. ♣What if analysis becomes very easy using spreadsheets. Tabular Reports: Time tables. Agreements. Memos. WordStar.Or formats etc. e) Learn a new language by interacting with the written and spoken words. animation. still and moving images (video). Public notices. 6 . Memos. Prospectus for colleges. electronic reference materials. f) Do scientific research. Applications of Multimedia A multimedia application is an application concerned with the computer-controlled integration of text. Work Schedule. Applications of Word Processor A Word Processor can be defined as a computer program that enables you to type. print. e. graphics. digital publications.g. 4.a scientist can look at a molecular model of a particular substance and manipulate it to arrive at a new substance. g) Do engineering for designing a machine or an automobile. modify. sales presentations. Some popular word processors are Microsoft Word. h) Doctors can simulate how the human body is affected by diseases spread by viruses and bacteria and then develop techniques to prevent the same. kiosks. sound/ audio. Soft word etc.

Ex: . Transistor does the same functions as that the vaccum tube but very small size compared to vaccum tube. f) More programs can be run. IBM 350 etc. more reliable. d) Highly sophisticated technology required for the manufacture of IC chips. Vacuum tube technology made possible the advent of electronic digital computers. Magnetic drums were used for memory. i) Large air conditioners were necessary because the computers generated heat. k) Single user capability. d) Core memory developed. g) Programming in machine language as well as assembly language. electric failure occurred regularly.computers not very reliable. 3. 2nd generation computers:. Big and clumsy computers. c) Reduced computational times from milliseconds to microseconds. it consist of 1000 of transistors. 2.(1942-1954) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) In this generation was the use of vacuum tubes.IBM (International Business Machine Corporation) 701. Ex: . b) Generated less heat. Punched cards were used for input and output. f) First operating systems developed.IBM 1401 etc. 1st generation of computers:. e) Magnetic tapes and disks were used for secondary memory. l) Lower system software.(1965-1974) a) These computers used IC’s technology and integrated Circuit on silicon chips.Generation of Computers 1. Perform computations in milliseconds. Electricity consumption was high. b) Minicomputers were introduced. j) Programming in machine language. 3rd generation computers:. 7 . h) Relatively fast and the speed was 2 Mega operations Per Second.(1954-1964) a) These computers are fully transistorized instead of vaccum tube. Manual assembly of individual components into functioning unit required. e) Reduced computational times from microseconds to nanoseconds. c) High-level languages appeared.

Spectra 70 etc. h) Different types of secondary memory with high storage capacity and fast access developed. The other concepts like data processing. Ex: . These computers will work 1000 of time faster than the best possible for electronic computers. b) Very high speed of the order of greater than 100 operations per second. c) Highly sophisticated technology required for the manufacture of LSI chips. smaller and faster. It made-up of 1000 of transistors and other semi-conducting device. 8 .g) Require less power. 4.DEC 3090 etc. History of Computers Stone Age In olden days people didn’t have the awareness of counting. It contain entire processing unit on a single chip. a) Advancement in networking technology. e) Micro computer series such as IBM and APPLE developed. d) Integrated circuits. b) Development of storage technology and supercomputers. c) Development of robots to assist human beings. knowledge processing and distribution processing are being considered under this generation. g) Great development in data communication. The latest generation computers in this year will photogenic computers. 5th generation of computers :-( 1985-onwards) The main specialty being the use of parallel.IBM 370. information processing. f) Portable computers developed. •The basic purpose of the device is to make calculations. Ex: . In other words usage of mathematics has almost nil during that time because he started to learn counting by stones.000 years ago by the Chinese. The logic used as very large scale integration (VLSI). The speed operations orders are 100 mega operations per second. e) Superconductors – a superconductor is a conductor through which electricity can travel without any resistance in faster transfer of information between the components of a computer. 4th generation of computers:-(1975-1984) a) These computers used microprocessor technology. 5. Abacus •Abacus is considered to be the first computer and was invented 5. d) Parallel-processing-many processors are grouped to function as one large group processor.

PASCAL’s adding machines (1642) Blaise Pascal. to perform the arithmetic calculations. a German mathematician. In addition. Babbage’s Mechanical Computer Charles Babbage invented the first mechanical computer during the period 1830 to 1850. The rotation of wheels controlled the addition and subtraction operations. •An output device that displays the result. Napier’s log later became the basis for a well known invention-the computing machine known as ‘Slide rule’. invented the first adding machine (also known as Pascaline) in 1642 made up of gears which was capable of addition and subtraction. •Each string has a collection of beads. Machines were used to make holes in the card and thus store information. Types of Computers 9 . •An input device that gives the numbers and instructions to the computer. •Abacus is used even today to teach small children how to count. The adding machine consisted of numbered toothed wheels having unique position values. a French mathematician. He used ‘logs’ to transform multiplication problem to addition problem.This computer performed basic arithmetic functions. sorting machines were used to read these cards and collect data. notably reduced the tedium of repetitive calculations. He also devised set of numbering rods known as Napier ’s bones. These were cards made of special pulp paper. called Mill. developed in 1614. He could perform both multiplication and division with these ‘Bones’. •A control unit that controls the activities of the computer. Napier’s ‘Logs’ and ‘Bones’ John Napier developed the idea of logarithm. This machine used stepped cylinder each with nine teeth of varying lengths instead of wheels as was used by Pascal. It had the following five components: •A storage unit that holds the numbers. It worked on clock work mechanism principle. This machine was capable of carry-transfer automatically. He is referred to as the ‘Father of computers’ due to his pioneering work. constructed a new machine in 1671 that was able to perform multiplication and division as well. •An arithmetic unit. These beads are used to perform calculations. This machine performed multiplication through repeated addition of numbers. The idea of logarithm. Punched Cards The next device that contributed to the evolution of the computers was the punched cards. Leibnitz’s Calculator Gottfried Leibnitz.•It consists of a rectangular frame with a number of strings attached.

deciding about their access privileges and regulating the amount of space allowed for each user. •They have high processing speeds and can store large amounts of data. IBM’s Blue Gene is considered by many to be the fastest computer in the world. •Some examples are IBM 3000 series and Univac 1180.Computers can be classified on the basis of Size. The print server takes care of the printing requirements of a number of workstations and the modem server helps a group of network users use a modem to transmit long distance messages. Ability to handle input and output devices as follows: Workstation (or Nodes) • Workstation refers to the computers that are attached to a network and are seeking to share the resources of the network. These computers can perform more complex tasks and cost more than microcomputers. industrial and business environments that require high levels of computational abilities. modems etc) on the network is termed as server. if there were no nodes. software. •They are typically found in desktop publishing. However. Mainframes •Mainframes are more powerful than minicomputers. A network can have more than one server that allows workstations to share specific resources. software development. are small general-purpose computers.g. They are used in wide area networks and support hundreds of users. Speed of processing. Cost. These computers are used for designing and launching missiles. Storage capacity. these computers consume more electricity. and hardware resources (e. •They are used in fields like science and defense. Supercomputers •Supercomputers are the largest and fastest computers. aircraft design and automobile design. printers. 10 . The most common operating systems for workstations are UNIX and WINDOWS NT. there would be no network at all. Of course. •Insurance companies use mainframes to process information about millions of policyholders. They are also the costliest computers. •They are larger in size and they have small to medium storage capacity. biomedical research. also known as midrange computers. •There are only a few supercomputers throughout the world. India owns a series of supercomputers called PARAM developed by C-DAC. Minicomputers •Minicomputers. Performance. Server A computer that facilitates the sharing of data. weather forecasting. A file server serves files –related requests like storing files. A computer becomes a workstation of a network as soon as it is attached to a network.

Examples: Toshiba 5200C and SLT/286. personal organization tools. They are more costly when compared to laptop. So. They are also used for controlling and monitoring production processes. and communications capabilities in a very small package. writing recognition. battery powered or both. •Types of microcomputers: The difference between portables and desktops is that portables can be carried while traveling unlike desktops. pacemaker to correct the heart beats. Insulin meter to find the levels of insulin in the blood. Desktops are small enough to fit on top of or alongside a desk yet are too big to carry around. Spreadsheet calculations. Laptops are small-sized machines that have the same power of a desktop. Notebooks. faxing and paging. graphics designing and project management. They are expensive than desktop. •They are small in size. 11 . statistical analysis. The drawback of a laptop is that it is too bulky. They are lightweight. In simple terms. It finds its application in the field of medicine. Handheld computers. Notebooks are smaller than a laptop and are designed to overcome the drawbacks of a laptop. Also. networking of computers is very essential. have the size of a pocket calculator. yet the most widely used and fast-growing. They are also called personal computers (PCs). It can do Word processing. They are mainly used for desktop publishing. These systems typically combine pen input. NETWORKS A network is defined as an interlinked collection of computers by means of a communication system. For e. These computers use microprocessors. The most significant effect of computer networking is that they form a huge information chain that ensures that information is available to users at the time and location where they need it. They have the size of a notebook but are as powerful as a desktop. (or palm computers) are the smallest and are designed to fit into the palm of one hand. PS/2 and Macintosh. IBM PC. two computers are said to be interconnected if they are capable of exchanging information. Example 3Com’s Palm V. handwriting recognition. Wearable computers is very small so that it can be worn the body itself. •Some examples are PDP 11/42 and VAX 11. •Some examples are APPLE II. This input is digitized and converted to standard text that can be further processed by programs such as a word processor. Palmtops or PDAs (Personal Digital Assistant). Business people have to exchange information with others around the world. Palmtops are portable computers. Individuals as well as organizations use these computers. It may be either AC-powered. •They can perform difficult tasks. Microcomputers •Microcomputers are the least powerful. They are not as powerful as a desktop. they do not have large storage capacities. Man has a need to communicate with people in different places. Examples: contura 3/20 and AcerAnyWare. They weigh 2 to 3 kg. type of computer. A table PC is a type of notebook computer that accepts your handwriting. game playing. accounting. and fit into most briefcases. Laptops. It has smaller processing power.•They are used for processing data and analyzing results of experiments.g. The weight of a laptop is around 3 to 5 kg.

This is much cheaper than buying licenses for every machine. Disadvantages of networks are: •The systems are more sophisticated and complex to run. so if one of them is unavailable. For instance. A network can either be a small group of five computers linked together or a high. it may be impossible to carry out any work if the central server fails.software can be installed centrally rather than on each machine.g. Share storage – being able to access files from any machines on the network can share data. Share software. which are expensive pieces of hardware.end network that links hundreds of computers spread across the globe. •If networks are badly managed services can become unusable and productivity falls. •File security is more important especially if connected to WANs e. networks can be classified as Local Area Network (LAN) •LANs are confined to a localized area such as an office. It includes: Share resources . For e. MANs span distances up to 100 miles. Based on geographical spread.It is easy to for the average person sitting at his PC to make reservation for airplanes. People become reliant on the communications. 12 .g. the other copies could be used. •If software and files are held centrally.Advantages of networks are: •Resource sharing reduces the costs. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) MAN computers extend within the city or the metropolitan area. four microcomputers share the laser printer and the file server. to connect five branches of a school in a city.With networks. you would need a MAN. Networks vary depending on size.such as printers and scanners. They are used to link computers across the globe. People can share costly equipment. complexity and geographical spread. Metering software can than be used to limit the number of copies being run at any one time. •Fast Communication. •LAN provides two benefits: economy and flexibility. •Access to remote database. For e. Wide Area Network (WAN) WANs are spread across the entire world. This can add to costs and you may need specialist staff to run the network. •Reliability-A file can have its copies on two or more computers of the network. the type of network in our school is LAN. This is cheaper than buying equipment for each computer. hotels and so on anywhere in the world with instant confirmation.. protection from viruses. It is a form of computer communications generally used for the internal transfer of data and information within an organization.g. it is possible to exchange information at very fast speeds. trains. if these fail it can cause havoc.

all without reams of paper involved. ♣ Efficient. all networks consist of a server. used by network users.E-mail goes a long way towards reducing the clutter of paper in the modern office. media and resources. Timely buying and selling decisions can be made. Email is less expensive. Advantages of E-mail ♣ Fast. ♣Unwanted SPAM emails ♣Illegal contents including VIRUS damages end user systems. It does not have the jangling urgency of a phone call. ♣ Waste Reduction. ♣ Versatile.A WAN can also connect individual LANs to create one integrated huge LAN.E-mail waits until you read it. 13 . or overnight courier service.Transmission usually costs nothing. to connect different branches of a school in different countries. NETWORK COMPONENTS Typically. so not sure all receiving parties use email system. For e. stored. and continues to be a powerful communications tool.) to other computers present on the network. modems etc. a client is a user’s microcomputer. you can automatically maintain a record of communications with someone else.Because all messages are files. It could be a computer. data and reputation.g. ♣ Patience.Sending to a group can be done in one step. Typically. faxes.Electronic mail can be delivered almost as fast as the wire can carry it anywhere around the world. ♣ Record Maintenance.. Electronic mail (e-mail) . ♣ Cheap. Compared to telephone calls. Resources: Resources are files. Server – A server is a computer that facilitates the sharing of data. Media: Media is the way in which the computers are connected. very little. Your proposal can be answered. Network interface cards (NIC) – These are expansion cards located within the system unit that connect the computer to a network. Client – Client refers to the set of computers that access shared network resources provided by the server. and hardware resources (e. Disadvantages of E-mail ♣Lack of computer knowledge among people. Sometimes referred to as a LAN adapter. client. not to mention saving many trees. ♣ Simple.Pictures. printers. and sent to others. or data storage device. Node – Any device that is connected to a network. or at the most. High-speed WANs link remote computers effectively to reduce costs and to complete work faster. software. Majority of the WANs use satellites to facilitate efficient communication.Easy to use. you would need a WAN. after initial set-up. revised. printers. This facet of the Net was one of the first applied uses. etc. printer.g. PowerPoint or other files can be sent too.a system whereby a computer user can exchange messages and files with other computer users (or groups of users) via a communication network-is one of the most popular uses of the internet.

Advantages of Internet ♣ Sharing research and business data among colleagues and like-minded individuals. Through telephone wires and satellite links. INTERNET The internet is a worldwide network of computers. photographic images and even video. which in turn are connected through gateways to the internet backbone. ♣ Communicating with others and transmitting files via e-mail. Academic. most computers are not connected directly to the internet. ♣ Requesting and providing assistance with problems and questions. Each person owns the part of the internet he uploads data to. Commercial. Internet users can share information in a variety of forms. and access diverse perspectives from around the world. and military networks are part of the Internet. ♣ Access multimedia information that includes sound. How does internet work? In internet. using a common protocol (TCP/IP or Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) to communicate with each other. ♣ You have to be at a computer to read or print e-mail. ♣ Post information for others to access.♣Email might not send due to loss of connection to the internet. The size. Governmental. A gateway is a device that connects dissimilar networks. and update it frequently. ♣ Marketing and publicizing products and services. On the other hand Intranet is network. ♣ Exchange electronic mail (e-mail) with friends and colleagues with accounts on the internet. Internet is not owned by anybody. 14 . Internet uses a set of protocols called TCP/IP. A backbone is a central interconnecting structure that connects one or more networks just like the trunk of a tree or the spine of a human being. Applications of Internet ♣ Searching online jobs. These computers possess software to provide or serve information and/or to request and see information. Rather they are connected to smaller networks. Difference between internet and intranet The internet is a worldwide network of computer networks around the Globe. ♣ Gathering valuable feedback and suggestions from customers and business partners. Intranet also uses same set of protocols as Internet. It establishes an intelligent connection between a local network and external networks with completely different structures. This language acts as medium of communication among numerous Internet computers. scope and design of the internet allow users to: ♣ Connect easily through ordinary personal computers and local phone numbers. which is privately owned.

your pets and your hobbies. They want to exchange their ideas.. ♣ Making friends from any part of the world ♣ Participating in a discussion about your favorite TV show with similar minded people across the world. FTP. they must follow a common set of rules while talking. Protocols A protocol means the set of rules that are applicable for a network or we can say that the common set of rules used for communication in a network. ♣ It is an effective way to get a geographically dispersed group to co-operate on a project. an electronic birthday card which actually sings ‘Happy Birthday to you’ ♣ Find out which are the current most popular computer programming languages in the industry. then he must give B a chance to put forward his ideas and so on. Protocol defines standardized formats for data packets. FTP offers these advantages: ♣ It is very useful to transfer files from one network in an organization to another. The objectives of FTP are: ♣ To promote sharing of files (computer programs and/ or data). techniques for detecting and correcting errors and so on. Illustration Let us assume that A and B need to talk to one another. say first A must talk. ♣ Download (obtain) some interesting software and try it out. ♣ Make your own home page which talks about yourself. your family. ♣ Visit an electronic zoo or a museum. is designed mainly for use by programs. known as communication protocol for A and B. ♣ To encourage indirect or implicit (via programs) use of remote computers: ♣ To shield a user from variations in file storage systems among hosts. and ♣ To transfer data reliably and efficiently. It is a formal description of message formats and the rules that two or more machines must follow to exchange those messages. ♣ Chat with a friend working abroad and see him as you talk. ♣ It is a potent and popular way to share information over the internet. TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) 15 . Types of Protocols FTP (File Transfer Protocol) This protocol is mainly concerned with transfer of file from one system to another on internet provided that permissions are set accordingly. ♣ Send to a friend. and then start talking again.♣ Learning a foreign language. They start talking again simultaneously. through usable directly by a user at a terminal. then pause for breath simultaneously. To avoid this confusion.

source. The HTTP has various built-in request methods which allow users to read a web page. The popular term for this is “hacking”. Now. SLIP/PPP (Serial Line Internet Protocol/ Point to Point Protocol) SLIP/PPP provides a form of direct Internet connection in the sense that: ♣ The home user’s computer has a communications link to the internet even if it is via a service provider (ISP). ♣ The home user’s computer has the networking software that can speak TCP/IP with other computers on the Internet. Crackers are the malicious programmers who break into secure systems. or to store a webpage. HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) The HTTP protocol consists of two fairly distinct items: the set of requests from browsers to servers and the set of responses going back to the other way. ‘illegal accesses. It keeps track of what is sent. Types of Cyber Crime Unauthorized access: is when a person who doesn’t have permission to connect to or use a system gains entry in a manner unintended by the system owner. TCP applications use four layers: ♣ An application protocol such as mail. Generally. or place of a crime. such as Ethernet or a point to point line. or to remove the web page or to connect two existing resources or to break an existing connection between two resources. Cyber law is a generic term. 16 . access comprises the entering of the whole or any part of a computer system (hardware. Hackers are more interested in gaining knowledge about computer systems and possibly using this knowledge for playful pranks. ♣ A protocol such as TCP that provides services need by many applications. or to read a web page’s header. traffic and content-related data. which provides the basic service of getting datagram to their destination. Cracking: means. which refers to all the legal and regulatory aspects of internet and the World Wide Web. stored data of the system installed. Cyber Crime may be defined in a general way as an unlawful criminal activity where the computer or network is tool. components. target.TCP is responsible for making sure that the commands get through to the other end. ♣ IP. and retransmits anything that did not get through. directories. Messages are passed to HTTP in a format similar to that used by Internet Mail and Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME). or to append to a named resource. ♣ The home user’s computer has an identifying address (IP address) at which it can be contacted by other computers on Internet. ♣ The protocols needed to manage a specific physical medium.

copyright infringement. Network packet snifters: A packet snifter is a software application that uses a network adapter card in a promiscuous mode. A 17 . These two information states provide opportunities for attacks from users on the internal network. To capture all network packets that is sent across a local network. which then goes on infecting other program. Fraudsters often find it easy to spread bogus investment schemes or spread false information about a company. causing loss of millions who bank on them. Data diddling: This kind of an attack involves altering the raw data just before it is processed by a computer and then changing it back after the processing is completed. Cyber pornography: This would include pornography websites. Salami attack: This attack is used for the commission of financial crimes. The modification includes a copy of the virus program.Email bombing: or spam refers to sending a large amount of emails to the victim resulting in the victim’s email account or mail server crashing. Intellectual Property Crime: This includes software piracy. Cyber Stalking: involves following a person’s movements across the Internet by posting messages (sometimes threatening) on the bulletin boards frequented by the victim. Online investment newsletters: Many newsletters on the internet provide the investors with free advice recommending stocks where they should invest. Trojan attack: It is an apparently useful program containing hidden code that when invoked. Security related crimes: Confidential information can reside either on the physical stored media. such as hard drive or memory or it can reside in the transit across the physical network wire in the form of packets. Email spoofing: A spoofed email is one that appears to originate from one source but actually has been sent from another source. as well as users on the internet. entering the chat-rooms frequented by the victim. constantly bombarding the victim with emails etc. Sometimes these recommendations are totally bogus and cause loss to the investors. performs some unwanted or harmful functions. Logic bomb: It is the code embedded in a legitimate program that is to set to explode when certain conditions are met. trademarks violations etc. Bulletin boards: This is a forum for sharing investor information. Virus/worm attack: This attack can infect other program by modifying them. pornographic magazines produced using computers and the Internet.

NETWORK SECURITY The problems encountered under network security can be summarized as follows: Physical security holes: When individuals gain unauthorized physical access to a computer and temper with files. Software security holes: When badly written programs or ‘privileged’ software are compromised into doing things that they should not be doing.the requestor. the provider. retinal patterns etc. he is considered to be an authentic user. and the broker (if there is one) . Biometric systems The biometric systems involve some unique aspect of a person’s body such as finger-prints. authorization confirms the service requestor’s credentials. Basically. It determines if the service requestor is entitled to perform the operation. any hacker (or cracker) can simply record it and can use it later maliciously to corrupt data/files or to harm anyone etc. Hackers do it by guessing passwords of various users and then gaining access to the network systems. Cookies 18 . Authentication involves accepting credentials from the entity and validating them against an authority. To counter such threats. which even-though cracked or hacked. It is also termed as password-protection as the authorized user is asked to provide a valid password. and if he is able to do this. Every time a new and different token is generated. which can range from invoking the web service to executing a certain part of its functionality. If the user is able to provide a legal login-id. to establish his identity.is what it actually claims to be. he is considered an authorized user. Encrypted Smart Cards Passwords in a remote log-in session generally pass over the network in unencrypted form. Inconsistent Usage holes: When a system administrator assembles a combination of hardware and software such that the system is seriously flawed from a security point of view. Authentication ensures that each entity involved in using a web service. An encrypted smart card is a hand-held smart card that can generate a token that a computer system can recognize. PROTECTION METHODS Authorization: determines whether the service provider has granted access to the web service to the requestor. Authorization is performed by asking the user a legal login-id.third party can easily interpret the network packets and develop a packet snifter because they are not encrypted. cannot be used later. newer approaches are suggested such as encrypted smart cards.

will most likely be stored in a cookie unless you have turned off the cookie feature in your browser. A computer uses binary system. symbols and other characters (#. Units of memory 4 bits – 1 nibble 8 bits – 1 byte 1024 bytes – 1 kilo byte 19 . however. to represent these characters. Make regular back-up of critical data. 0 and 1. Bit is the smallest unit of measurement of storage capacity. The 0’s and 1’s in binary system are known as bits (binary digits). it is susceptible to IP spoofing. a byte or a collection of eight bits is used to store one character in computer’s memory. More Security Tips Use strong passwords. ^ ). only two digits. In addition.A cookie is a message that a web server transmits to a web browser so that the web server can keep track of the user’s activity on a specific web site. especially intranet is called firewall. including credit card information. which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria. Do not keep computers online when not in use. Firewall The system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network connected to the internet. Cookies cannot read your hard drive to find out information about you. It is fairly effective and transparent to users. Once the connection has been made. Firewall Techniques Packet filter Looks as each packet entering or leaving the network and accepts or rejects it based on user-defined rules. All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall. but it is difficult to configure. Circuit-level gateway Applies security mechanisms when a connection is established. Typically. any personal information that you give to a web site. In this way only cookies a threat to privacy. packets can flow between the hosts without further checking. such as FTP and Telnet servers. but can impose performance degradation. including numbers(0-9). Proxy server Intercepts all messages entering and leaving the network. Use virus protection software. The proxy server effectively hides the true network addresses. BIT AND BYTE The number of characters that can be stored in a computer is called the storage capacity of the computer. ‘. alphabets(A-Z). ~. A collection of eight such binary digits is called a byte. Application gateway Applies security mechanisms to specific applications. {}. This is very effective.

Input data is stored in this memory before it goes to the processor for actual processing. and put characters on the screen. give keyboard keys their special control capabilities. Read Only Memory (ROM) Read only memory (ROM) contains all basic instructions that are needed for starting a computer. To do so. or retrieve. data and programs written on the ROM chip. The characteristics of RAM are: ▪You can read the contents of a memory location or write new contents into it. Programmable Read – Only Memory (PROM) PROM is a memory chip on which data can be written using a special device called PROM programmer or PROM burner. instructions. They are of two types: Random Access Memory (RAM) Whenever a computer receives any information. ▪RAM is volatile. the program remains on the chip forever even after the computer is switched off. The primary memory is placed on the motherboard in the form of chips. They can only be executed.Only Memory (EPROM) is a special type of PROM. Some important characteristics of secondary storage include:Media are the actual physical material that holds the data and programs. 20 . Note : Both RAM and ROM are referred to as Immediate Access Storage(IAS) because CPU can access the data so quickly compared to data in baking storage( the secondary memory). Erasable Programmable Read . The characteristics of ROM are: ▪ “Read only” means that the CPU can read. Hence. ROM is nonvolatile. because information stored in RAM is lost when the computer is switched off. The primary memory of a computer stores the data provided by the user and the instructions provided by the programs. it stores it in the RAM. The storage capacity of RAM may vary in different computers. Capacity measures how much a particular storage medium can hold.1024 kilo bytes – 1 mega byte 1024 mega bytes – 1 giga bytes 1024 giga bytes – 1 tera bytes. RAM is also called Read and Write Memory. you use the external storage media. these instructions cannot be erased or modified. ▪Information stored in ROM is not lost if the computer is switched off. Internal storage (Primary memory) Memory is a holding area for data. Hence. External storage (Secondary memory) This is used to store information permanently. and information. which can be erased by exposure to ultraviolet rays. However. Once written.

Magneto. Small storage capacity. The most commonly used floppy disk is 3. Floppy Disk Floppy disk is a magnetic storage device that is used to transfer files between computers and to store data/information as backup. •Quite slow to access and retrieve data.Storage devices are hardware that reads data and programs from storage media. These platters are sealed in a vacuum disk and located in the system unit. •Inexpensive. Disadvantage: •Not very strong-easy to damage.optical disk is high. It contains a single flat piece of circular plastic (the disk) coated with metal oxide and enclosed in vinyl or plastic cover. Reusable. Do not expose it to dust or heat. It may cause physical damage and hence loss of data. The various devices that are used for storage are the following: Cartridge Tape Cartridge Tape is a storage medium that is used to store large amounts of data. It is a cheap and reliable storage device.5 inches with a storage capacity of 1. Its appearance is similar to a video cassette. retrieving data from a cartridge tape takes time. However. Most also write to storage media. Access speed measures the amount of time required by the storage device to retrieve data and programs. It is made up of a collection of disks known as platters. Also. Whenever you save data 21 .Optical disk The storage capacity of a magneto.optical disk. Double -sided indicates that data can be stored on both sides of the disk. Precautions: •Never bend the floppies. Computers can read and write onto a magneto. the data in this disk is less prone to damage. It is used in large machines. The speed of data retrieval is very fast. •Always keep the floppies inside a paper cover.44 MB and is of double sided high-density capacities (135 tracks per inch). Advantage: •Used to move data from one location to another. Density refers to how tightly the bits (electromagnetic charges) can be packed next to one another. Hard Disk The hard disk is located in the system unit.

Being read only. The computer takes less time to read from a hard disk. graphics or audio on the CD distribution e. You can read and write information to a floppy disk using the hardware device called the floppy drive. Can be used to store far more data than floppy disks. it is stored on a hard disk. sectors and cylinders. Hard disks store and organize files using tracks. Similar numbered tracks on different platters of a hard disk form a Cylinder. encyclopedias.in a computer. software. Hence. This device is called the disk drive. Inexpensive Hard Disk Hard disks are also called fixed disk.g. Less prone to damage as it is within the system unit.44 MB of data. also called a Super Density Disk (SD). Floppy Disk Floppy disks are also called floppies or micro disks.. the data present in a CD-ROM cannot be changed and is mainly used to record information including text. games. disk drive is an Input-Output device. A DVD. when you copy data from a floppy disk to the computer the data is saved on the hard disk. To read a CD-ROM a device called CD-ROM drive is needed. More prone to damage by heat. The disk drive performs the function of reading data from the disk as well as writing data to the disk. Any information or data on CDROM can be erased or written onto with the help of a special device called CD-Writer. Disk Drives The computer has a special device to read from and write to the storage media. Can be used to store 1. Costly CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read Only Memory) Compact disc is an optical storage device that has a huge storage capacity. The advantage of a CDROM is that the data present in it is less prone to damage. It is a part of the system unit. It is a removable and is a read only memory. Floppy drives and hard drives are 22 . They can be used to store data in the range of a few GBs. The tracks on the disk surface are divided into invisible segments known as sectors. Hard disk has the capacity to store huge amounts of data. e-books etc. Concentric circles on the magnetized surface of the magnetic disks are known as tracks. DVD (Digital Versatile Disk) DVD is an optical storage device that looks the same as a compact disc but is able to hold about 15 times as much information and transfer it to the computer about 20 times as fast as a CD-ROM. Also. The computer takes more time to read from a floppy disk. dust and improper handling as it is made of a flexible material. The drive for a floppy disk is called the floppy drive. can hold up to 17 gigabytes of data or four hours of movies on a side.

Customized software pertains to the System units and also requirements of a specific user for whom additional hardware the software has been developed. ♣It allocates the devices whose services the user requests for. ♣It manages the various input-output devices of the computer. It performs the following functions:♣It facilitates operation of hardware by its user. It can neither be seen nor and touched. ♣It supervises all the activity of the computer. Machines or hardware do not require changes for different works. touched. modem.. Word. The same hardware is used The different software is used for for performing different jobs. The words program or application or software is all used interchangeably. General components that can be software is developed keeping in mind added to our system are the general specifications of a problem-Excel. Software Uses Physical Construction Examples Software constitutes the logical program that handles the different components of our PC and helps them to interact with one another in a handle. Windows Vista. and the Mac OS X are three best. all computer resources). performing different jobs.examples of input and output devices as the CPU can read from and write onto them. DTP packages etc. printer.free manner. An operating system is a program which acts an interface between a user and the hardware (i. DISTINCTION BETWEEN HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE Points of Difference Meaning Hardware The internal components of the PC and the various input and output devices that can be attached to PC are called as the hardware. TYPES OF SOFTWARE Software represents the set of programs that govern the operation of a computer system and make the hardware run. It can be seen construction. 23 . Mouse.known operating systems for today’s microcomputer users. The drive used to read from a CD-ROM is called the CD-ROM drive. scanner etc. It includes following four types: a)Operating System. Keyboard. There are broadly two categories of software: System Software controls internal computer operations so that components of system function properly. Monitor. Oracle. Hardware has physical Software does not have physical construction. System software is not a single program. Rather it is a collection or a system of programs that handle many of the technical details related to using a computer with little or no user intervention.e. Windows XP.

File compression programs that reduce the size of files so they require less storage space and can be sent more efficiently over the internet. Neither source nor the compiler is required for execution. It helps to protect you from the effects of a disk failure. Source program and the interpreter are required for execution. The most essential utility programs are:Troubleshooting or diagnostic programs recognize and correct problems. Translate source program into machine language. Converts the entire program to machine code. For e. Compiler Translate the entire program. a new device driver must be installed before the device can be used. Disk Cleanup is a troubleshooting utility that identifies and eliminates nonessential files. Good for fast debugging and at testing stage. Assembler. Antivirus Programs that guard your computer system against viruses or other damaging programs that can invade your computer system. Uninstall programs that allow you to safely and completely remove unneeded programs and related files from your hard disk. An interpreter converts and executes an HLL (High Level language) program into object program line by line whereas a compiler converts an HLL program into object program in one go and reports all the errors along with their line numbers. identifying any errors along the way. Each time the program is executed every line is checked for syntax and then converted to equivalent object code directly. Distinction between Interpreter and Compiler Interpreter Translates the program line by line. it can be executed later. c) Device drivers:. No security of source code. d)Language Processor. Execution time is less. Backup programs that make copies of all files or selected files that have been saved onto a disk to be used in case the originals are lost or damaged. 24 . Interpreter. Compiler. Windows utility called Disk Defragmenter locates and eliminates unnecessary file fragments and rearranges files and unused disk space to optimize computer operations.g. ideally before they become serious. Execution time is more.g. Requires more main memory. such as a mouse or printer. Whenever a new device is added to a computer system. safer and more productive. that is connected to a computer system has a special program associated with it. Requires less main memory. Once the program is error free. Each time the computer system is started. Device drivers are specialized programs that allow particular input or output devices to communicate with rest of the computer system. This frees up valuable disk space and improves system performance. E. when all the syntax errors are removed and executes the machine code. Security of source code.b) Utilities are specialized programs designed to make computing easier. It can make your computer faster. the operating system loads all of the device drivers into memory. An assembler converts an assembly language program into object program. Slow for debugging and testing. The process of translation is called is called as compilation.Every device.

Machine or Low level language is the basic language of the computer. video and text chat in dynamic 3D environments. It is usually located in a tower. A Programming language is a set of words. CPU is the brain of the computer. The application software that a) Manipulates images is known as Graphics Software b) Incorporates images. such as executives and managers. E. dictionary and thesaurus. ♣Information can be saved for later use.g. c) Creates professional looking visual aids is called Presentation Graphics Software. ♣Provide the facility of spell-check. BASIC. is known as Desktop Publishing Software. C++. f) Word Processing Package is a package that processes textual matter and creates organized and flawless documents. to learn and use these languages. They enable the noncomputer professionals. 25 . representing data as 1’s and 0’s and are closer to hardware. computer animation and video sequences is known as multimedia software. Word processors provide following features that enhance their usefulness ♣Provide variety of fonts and print styles. d) Handles page layout by combining the functions of a traditional typesetter and a layout artist. e) Assist the computer by performing housekeeping functions like backing up disk or scanning / cleaning viruses or arranging information etc is known as Utilities. processes it in the system unit and displays the results as output. After the source program has been converted into machine language by an assembler. ♣Offer very useful utility known as mail-merge. Application Software Application software is the set of programs necessary to carry out operations for a specified application. High-level languages are more English-like. Inter space is a client/server software program that allows multiple users to communicate online with real-time audio. Pascal. it is referred to as object program. CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT OR SYSTEM UNIT Processor or Central Processor Unit (CPU) is the control centre for a computer and is contained on a single chip called the microprocessor. A symbolic program written by a programmer in assembly language is called source program. It is required because system software cannot carry out routine jobs performed by the user which application software can easily do. A Computer receives information from input devices. The main components of a CPU are the following: Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) performs two types of operations: arithmetic and logical.shaped cabinet.Computer Programming is the process of planning a sequence of steps for a computer to follow. Assembly language is a low-level programming language that allows a user to write programs using letters and symbols which are more easily remembered. text. stores the information in memory. sound. The actual processing of data takes place in the CPU. who have never studied computer science. symbols and codes that enables a programmer to communicate a solution-algorithm to the computer. ♣Offer various formatting styles that enhance the present ability of a document. closer to human languages.

♣It can generate signals that are necessary for controlling external devices. These locations are called registers-used to store memory. The microprocessor works on data present on the primary memory. less than (<).is used for storage data either coming to the CPU or data being transferred by the CPU. ♣It can understand a fixed set of basic commands. or greater than (>) the other. more powerful than just any other chip. within CPU are. Sockets are used to connect (i. a modem card plugs into a slot on the system board to provide a connection to the internet. The system unit contains a large board that has a number of tiny electronic circuits and other components called the motherboard. multiplication and division.The Registers within CPU are special purpose temporary storage locations. The CU sends control signals until the required operations are done properly by ALU and memory. External devices such as keyboard. Registers. Microprocessor is just like any other electronic chip. This set is called the instruction set of the device. two pieces of data are compared to see whether one is equal to (=). It is however. the faster the computer can process instructions. For e. etc could not communicate with the system unit without the system board.Arithmetic operations are the fundamental math operations: addition. System Clock. Motherboard or System board. That is.g. Control Unit (CU) – It controls and guides the interpretation. The communication between the microprocessor and primary memory takes place through the bus. either for reading or for writing. temporary results and results produced by arithmetic logic unit. Ports are inlets and outlets through which input and output devices are connected to system unit. Bus Lines (or Bus) called connecting lines provide pathways that support communication among the various electronic components that are either located on system board or attached to system board. Users can insert optional devices known as expansion cards into these slots. Expansion slots provide expansion capacity for a computer system.e. ♣Memory Address Registrar (MAR)-points to the memory location which the CPU plans to access. memory. 26 . A bus is a pathway for bits representing data and instructions. The clock speed is measured in gigahertz(GHz) or billions of beats per second. It provides the timing signal in the form of electronic pulses that are used by the components to set a working pace. monitor. The faster the clock speed. It does the following functions: ♣It has a limited set of on-chip memory locations.The system board is the communications medium for the entire computer system. ♣Acculmular (ACC) . slots. ♣Memory Buffer Registrar or Memory Data Registrar (MBR or MDR) . subtraction. flow and manipulation of all data and information. The other components of the motherboard are microprocessor.both RAM and ROM in the form of chips. bus lines and port. ♣Instruction Registrars (IR)-holds instruction to be decoded by the control unit..A clock chip is used as a timekeeper to enable the components of the computer to work in synchronization. Logical operations consist of comparisons.is used for storing operands. including microprocessor and memory chips. The number of bits that can travel simultaneously down a bus is known as the bus width. The important registers. clock. ♣Programmed counter (PC)-keeps track of next instruction to be executed. provides connection point) the system board to a variety of different types of chips. sockets. mouse.

To enter a space. alt. To move the cursor to the end of the line. To enter multiple spaces between two words in a document. which takes care of the conversion. Chips consist of tiny circuit boards (which can be smaller than the tip of your finger) etched onto squares of sandlike material silicon.A fan called the exhaust fan is attached to SMPS.g. caps lock. To insert characters. Generally keyboards are available in two models:a) Standard keyboards ( 83-84 keys) b) Enhanced keyboards ( 104 or more keys) The keys of a computer along with their function typewriter keys (a-z). which contains keys to feed information into the computer. Exhaust Fan. To delete the character that is to the left of the cursor. you have to press the shift key and the number key 4. The fan works as long as the computer is switched on to keep the SMPS unit cool. To type the special characters above the numeric keys. Power supply. shift.↑. and converts them into electrical signals (binary form) that can be accepted by the computer. Space Bar Home End Insert Esc Backspace 27 . INPUT DEVICES An input device is any hardware component or machine used to feed data. the special character above that number will be typed. To cancel a command. cursor control keys (←. To type “$”. commands and user responses into a computer. Special keys (Tab. If you press this key along with a number key. E. semiconductor or integrated circuit. The internal components of a computer run on DC (direct current) power to represent data and instructions.The system unit draws power from AC (alternating current) mains. Some of them are following: Keyboard Keyboard is a typewriter like device. ctrl . programs. numeric keys (0-9 ). There exits an internal power supply components. To move the cursor to the beginning of the line.↓ → ). Switched Mode Power Supply (SMPS). SPECAIL KEYS Caps Lock Tab Shift DESCRIPTION To capitalize letters.Chips also called a silicon chip. function keys (F1-F12). etc) etc.

The mouse pointer usually appears in the shape of an arrow. right-clicking on an item or the windows desktop will reveal the properties box for that item. Three devices similar to mouse are Track Ball (or Roller Ball) is a pointing device. Essentially. This is used to start programs and open files. Point the mouse and then clicking the right mouse button is used to display the short-cut menu for that item. It is a rectangular shaped device. and right directions in a document. It is also called context-sensitive menu. The shortcut menu is useful in the sense that all related commands are available at one 28 .Delete Enter Arrow keys Mouse or Mice To erase the character to the left of the cursor. Pointing Stick is located in the middle of the keyboard. This is hand held device allows us to control our computer without having to type instructions from the keyboard. Mouse stands for “Mechanical Operated User Serial Engine”. Left button single click Left button double click Right click Point the mouse to an item and click once to select an item. It is connected to the system unit by means of a long chord. To move the cursor in the top. down. Shortcut menu A shortcut is an icon that links to a file or folder. we rotate the ball with our thumb. There are three kinds of clicks. folder or anything else). Point the mouse to an item and click the left button twice. or the palm of our hand. to control the pointer by directing the stick with your finger. Mouse is very easy and faster as compared to the keyboard only in operating system. with a rubber ball embedded at its lower side and buttons on the topside. we can move the pointer on the display screen. or finger. Mouse is used to point at and selects options on the VDU. They are left-click. rapidly. right-click. By moving a finger or other object on the surface of a pad. Some mouse has a wheel button that can be rotated to scroll through information that is displayed on the monitor. To move the pointer. A shortcut menu shows the most frequently used commands for a selected item (file. the cursor on the screen also moves in the direction of a mouse’s movement. double-click. left. When a mouse moves on a flat surface. a track ball is a mouse lying on its back. To start a new paragraph in a document. In most cases. Touch Pad is a small touch-sensitive pad used as a pointing device on some portable computers.

Printed image is in the form of typed or handwritten texts. You control game actions by varying the pressure. Note: A shortcut that appears on the desktop can be copied or moved to another location also. speed and direction of the joystick. This arrangement enables someone to select actions or commands by touching the screen with a finger. We can use our finger to touch an option on the screen to view information related to that particular option. Scanner makes a duplicate copy on paper of the required data or photograph stored in the computer memory. It is used to receive input as well as 29 . click create shortcut. forward or backward and controls the movement of a pointer or some other display symbols. Portable scanner is typically a handheld device that slides across the image. A joystick is similar to a trackball as they both allow you to move objects around the screen easily. Open shortcut menu by right-clicking at a selected item. a menu appears. Then drag the file icon through right mouse button to desired location where shortcut is to be placed. For. diagrams and photographs. Dropping refers to the action of releasing the mouse button after the pointer reaches the destination cell. Dragging refers to the action of pressing the mouse button on the object and moving the pointer without releasing the mouse button. e. graphs. The moment you release the right mouse button. The image to be scanned is placed on a glass surface and the scanner records the image from below. On the menu that appears. To create a shortcut to a file Firstly. making direct contact.g. which creates an electronic form of a printed image displayed on the monitor. changed and modified according to the requirements. select the file or folder you want to create the short to. Scanner (or Optical Scanner) A scanner is a device like photocopier. Joystick A joystick is a stick set in two crossed grooves and can be moved left or right. convert it into bits of information that a computer can understand and save it on the hard disk. Lawyers and students use portable scanners as a valuable research tool to record information. you can use the scanner to scan the picture available on paper.platform without having to go here and there. say there is a picture of a bird in a magazine and you want to display it on your computer screen. There are two basic types of optical scanners:Flatbed scanner is much like a copy machine. Drag and drop method The mouse can be used to drag and drop objects on the screen. Behind this layer are criss-crossed invisible beams of infrared light. Touch Screen is a particular kind of monitor with a clear plastic outer layer. It is useful for playing games on computer. which can later be manipulated.

which allows readers such as ATMs to read account information and facilitate monetary transactions. and then manipulated with a graphics program and printed. account number. A related technology is the magnetic strip. Stylus A stylus is a pen like device commonly used with table PCs and PDAs. cash registers. It utilizes a light.sensitive detector to select objects on a display screen. The big advantage of digital cameras is that making photos is both inexpensive and fast because there is no film processing. Handwriting recognition software translates handwritten notes into a form that the system unit can process. it can be downloaded to a computer system. A digital camera can operate upon without a computer system. A stylus interacts with the computer through handwriting recognition software. Travel Agencies etc. The amount of cheque is later entered by a clerk using a machine which prints the amount with magnetic ink. An OCR can read the characters printed by computer printers. It is also useful for programs like CAD (Computer Aided Design) for changing shape. the branch code. the lines are drawn. A stylus uses pressure to draw images on a screen. In a cheque. With the movement of the light pen over the screen. A web camera can only work with a computer system. hand-written documents. Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) This device allows the computer to recognize human readable characters that are printed using a special magnetic ink. Digital photos are limited by the amount of memory in the camera. used on the back of credit cards and debit cards. and cheque number are preprinted at the bottom using magnetic ink. Touch screen are often used as input devices in public places such as ATM. Digital Camera A camera that stores images digitally rather than recording them on film is called digital camera. of the screen. The light pen is used to draw images on the screen. Web Camera A webcam is essentially a camera that is connected to a computer either directly or wirelessly. colours etc. adding machines. Airports. It generates digital images that can be accessed by and displayed on web browsers through a server. location. Light Pen The light pen consists of a photocell mounted in a pen-shaped tube.give output. Optical Character Recognition (OCR) This device is used to read characters of a special type font that are printed on conventional paper with conventional ink. size. Once a picture has been taken. typewriters. OCR is used in departmental 30 . MCIR is a direct-entry method used in banks.

these are photoelectric scanners that read the bar codes or vertical zebra striped marks. The smart card contains a microprocessor that retains certain security and personal data in its memory at all times. •Time sheets of employees where start and stop times may be marked. •Orders forms containing a small choice of items.) Such a document is read by a document reader. OUTPUT DEVICES Output is anything that comes out of a computer. 31 .stores to read retail price tags by reflecting light on the printed characters. Smart Card Reader The enhanced version of cards with magnetic strips is called the smart card. (E. printed on product containers. ♣The volume of data. ♣Whether a printed version of the output is required. special preprinted forms are designed with boxes which can be marked with a dark pencil or ink. Smart cards allow access to crucial information if they are given correct password. or characters. The special reader machines that can read information on smart cards are called smart-card readers.g.g. ♣The speed at which the output is required. You can see a bar code printed at the back cover of the book. an ATM card. form voice recognition systems. credit card. answer sheet of a multiple choice question paper where a choice of answer can be reflected by shading the appropriate box. in supermarkets. Each box is annotated distinctly so that the user clearly understands what response he is making out of a small number of alternatives. etc. called optical mark reader (OMR) which transcribes the marks into electrical pulses which are transmitted to the computer. Optical Mark Reader (OMR) In this method. bookshops. These devices when combined with appropriate software. ID-card. It can be meaningful information and it can be either displayed on the monitor or printed on paper by using a printer in a variety of forms-as binary No’s.. Bar Code Reader A bar code is a pattern of printed bars on various types of products. or pictures. Such information is almost impossible to duplicate. The special reader machines that can read information on smart cards are called smart-card readers. or printed pages. OCRs are best suited for: •Various types of surveys where responses can be restricted to one or more out of a few possibilities. which is output. electronic-cash card etc. Smart card can serve as multi-purpose card e.in human readable form. Speech Input Devices Speech or voice input devices convert a person’s speech into digital form. The choice of output device depends on the following considerations: ♣Suitability of the application. OCRs are used in credit card billing and reading of pin code numbers in large post offices to sort mail geographically.

each pixel is independently activated. Computers send and receive digital signals. It consists of a plug – in circuit board inside the system unit. images are displayed. •A computer can display data in two modes. Modulation is the name of the process of converting from digital to analog. The speed with which modems transmit data is called transfer rate. Demodulation is the process of converting from analog to digital. •Images are formed on the monitor’s screen by a card called the display adaptor card. Modem is short form for Modulation – Demodulation.♣The cost of the method chosen to the benefits derived. •It can display coloured as well as black and white output. The speaker is connected to the motherboard and produces sound whenever instructed by software programs. Modems are of four types: Internal modem is fixed within the computer. Clarity refers to the quality and sharpness of the displayed images. But CRTs are too bulky to be transported easily and occupy a considerable amount of space on the desktop. To convert the digital signals to analog signals and vice-versa. Active-matrix monitors are more expensive and require more power. individual characters are displayed and in graphics mode. we need a modem. but the clarity of images is not as sharp. Monitor can be divided into monochrome (black and white). This type requires very little power. •This computer screen is called Visual Display Unit (VDU) or monitor. Liquid crystal display(LCD) has two basic types. The sound cards enable the computer. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. •The monitor of the computer resembles a television screen. 32 . instead. In text mode. Without this card. and color (it is displays 16 colours to 1 million different colours). the PC cannot display output. The primary advantage are low cost and excellent resolution. which are continuous electronic waves. The output is in the form of sounds. First. For example. text and graphics. Monitor is a television like equipment. Types of monitor Cathode-ray tube(CRT) are similar in size and technology to television and are placed directly on the system unit or on the desktop. if there is movie playing on the computer. passive –matrix or dual-scan monitors create images by scanning the entire screen. which displays the output of a computer. Second. we can hear the characters talk if you have speakers attached to the computer. They can display more colours with better clarity. •The computer has a screen to display output. Active-matrix or thin film transistor (TFT)monitors do not scan down the screen. Speakers The system unit has an audio speaker attached to it. is typically measured in bits per second (bps). Modem Telephone typically send and receive analog signals. to record sound input from a microphone connected to the computer and stored on a disk.

Printed information is often called hard copy because the information exists physically and is a more permanent form of output than that presented on a display device. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. In a dot matrix printer. A wireless modem may be internal. The most commonly used impact printer is the Dot matrix printer (DMP). there is physical contact between the paper and the printer head. 33 . with resolutions of up to 1440*720 dots per inch (dpi). A plotter draws images as a series of point-to-point lines. They can print both text and graphics. external.e. PC Card modem is a credit card –size expansion board that is inserted into portable computers. so most users specify black ink for print jobs. They can be made to print in colour by changing ribbons. combined together to create (print) photo-quality images on the same page. graphs etc) on a physical medium such as paper. They are mainly used to print internal reports and memos needed by organizations. Unlike the other modems. For example. •The most costly aspect of such printers is replacing the ink cartridges. Many applications require a graphical output apart from printed output. sketches and drawings. bar charts and graphs with annotations are useful representation of information. Such printers have become the defector standard for home computers and low cost printing. They offer good quality at an affordable price. engineers and architects to print out designs. •Typically ink-jet printers produce 17 to 19 pages per minute of black-only output and 13 to 15 pages of colour output. •The dots can have different colours like black.External modem is connected externally by a cable to a computer’s serial port. When we create a document in the computer we can send to the printer for printing its hard copy. characters are formed using dots. it does not use cables. Plotters are special purpose printers that produce good quality drawings and graphs using ink pens or pencils. the typeface (head or needle) presses against an inked ribbon and makes a mark on the paper i. Instead. Types of Printers Impact printers In impact printers. Inkjet printer is any printer that fires extremely small droplets of ink onto the surface of paper to create impression of text or image. alphabets. pie charts. wireless modems send and receive through the air. which is generally called a printout. white etc. Printers are classified as impact printers and non-impact printers. There are two types of plotters: drum plotter and flat bed plotter. Printer is a device that produces images (No’s. or a PC card. Another cable connects the modem to telephone wall jack.. so small that they are tinier than the diameter of a human hair (70microns) •The dots are positioned very precisely. •The dots are extremely small (usually between 50 and 60 microns in diameter). Plotters are widely used by graphic artists. These printers can print in any language without any additional hardware.

colour thermal printers have been widely used in professional art and design work to produce very high. Most expensive printer type to buy specially colour lasers. Dot Matrix Printer A dot matrix printer prints characters using dots. Originally these printers were only used in scientific labs to record data. OS in short. photo quality paper. The speed is measured in characters per second. The speed is measured in pages. Can print on continuous stationary.Non-impact printers In non-impact printers. Windows provides a Graphical User Interface. Very noisy-can’t be used near a phone. Can’t use continuous or multi-part stationary to create carbon copies. DMPs can create carbon copies. Cannot produce colour copies. More recently. A laser printer uses a beam of light to form images on the paper. Using carbonated paper.e. there is no contact between the typeface (head or needle) and the paper while printing i. Photo printers are special-purpose printers designed to print photo-quality images from digital cameras. there is no physical contact between the paper and printer head. The Windows Desktop Laser Printer A laser printer prints characters completely. A thermal printer uses heat elements to produce images on heat-sensitive paper. The most commonly used non-impact printer is the Laser Printer (LP). Very slow-can be less than 100 characters per minute. An Introduction to Windows Windows is a special type of software known as the operating system. to repair –lots of complex equipment inside. Most photo printers print 3*5 or 4*6 images on glossy. Laser printers are used for printing both text and graphics. Operating system is software that must always be running when the computer is on. 600 to 1200 dots per inch. It is the rectangular portion of screen that displays an open program or the contents of a folder or disk. brochures and presentations. Almost silent. Print quality is too poor to produce important documents for customers or management. They are mainly used for publishing newsletters. 34 .quality colour artwork and text. Very fast: 10-20 pages per minute for multiple copies. Laser printers are popular due to the high quality of the printout. Only A4 or A5 paper can be used in most laser printers. Low operating costs. A graphical user interface is simple to use because any action that is performed is in the form of buttons clicks or selection of commands. High quality printouts.

Icon is a graphic symbol representing a window element. then. Disk – drive Icons graphically represent five disk-drive options: floppy-disk. The Task bar The narrow blue band at the bottom of the screen is called the task bar. Point to toolbars and then select the toolbar you want to add: an Address bar. if you are currently working in Microsoft Excel’s window and now you want to switch to Microsoft PowerPoint. The date and time are displayed on the system tray. You can easily switch to a different window by clicking its taskbar button. a Link bar. Right-click the background of the taskbar. menu bar the tool bar. hosting the most widely used applications and features icons. The top-most blue bar. all you need to do is: “click the button representing Microsoft PowerPoint on the taskbar. network. It is a set of buttons you click to perform common tasks. The window is minimized to a button on the Taskbar. A tool bar containing all items in that folder will be added to your taskbar. You can also create your own toolbar from any folder. which is a window within an application window. and then click New Toolbar… option. ♣To minimize a window. which contains the name of the window on the left and three buttons on the right. To restore the window. maximize and close buttons. is called the title bar. I To open a file. Commonly used icons are the following: Application Icons are the graphic renderings of the software package’s logo. the minimize. there is a tool bar. This is called the tool tip.ROM. Document Icons are the active document window. Select a folder from the list. a toolbar containing all items on your desktop (Desktop toolbar). These small images can represent a file. document or folder etc. The task bar has the Start menu at the left and the system tray on the right. A tool bar contains shortcuts to items on the menu bar. or Quick Launch bar. click its button on the taskbar. The bar below the title bar is called the menu bar. Right click at the task bar then shortcut menu for taskbar appears. The text below each icon is the icon name. Parts of a Window The parts of a window are the title bar. which is also active in another window. This bar is used to open programs (through start button available on it) and shows information about all open windows. a folder or a program. Shortcut Icons are little graphics pointing to a particular application. Desktop is the workspace on the computer screen. can be minimized to a document icon. That is. hard-disk. click the Minimise button. a text appears identifying its contents. Note: You can easily remove a toolbar from the taskbar by right-clicking the taskbar and then clicking the item again to remove the check mark. The small pictures on the desktop are called icons. you need to double-click on its icon. When the mouse is placed over the icon. RAM and CD. folder or program on the desktop.” Displaying Toolbars in Taskbar A tool bar is a bar containing icons for various tools.The large area on the screen that can be seen immediately after Windows gets loaded is called the desktop. 35 . Point to toolbars.

1. Click the Desktop tab. Click the Auto Arrange option. All the windows are displayed as buttons on the taskbar. date etc. 2. 2. Choose the Arrange Icons by option from the popup menu. click the Close button. size. Right-click on the empty space on the Desktop. For e.headed arrow. Click the OK button to close the dialog box.. To move the window. click the maximize button. The cursor changes to a double. To change the appearance of the desktop. ♣Click the Restore button to bring it back to its original size. the Maximize button changes to the Restore button. Keeping the left mouse button pressed. 3. that is the window you are currently using.g.There might be situations where multimedia windows have to be used at the same time. Click the properties option. 1. A menu that appears when you click the right mouse button is called a context-sensitive menu. The window occupies the whole screen. WORKING WITH WINDOWS DESKTOP Arranging Icons on the desktop Icons can be created and arranged on the desktop. Moving a window. Select any option from the list box. type. is highlighted on the taskbar. To automatically arrange them. On restoring the window. click the title bar and with the left mouse button pressed. RESIZING AND MOVING WINDOWS Resizing a Window – To increase or decrease the size of a window. Select Autumn as the background and click the Apply button. A pop-up menu appears. drag the window to another place. 3. Changing the Screen Saver 36 .Sometimes. click its button on the taskbar. To open some other window. a window might hide the icons on the desktop. drag the mouse to resize the window. Switching between windows. place the mouse cursor on one of the edges of the window. The button of the active window. The background is also known as the wallpaper. Right-click on the empty space on the desktop. ♣To close a window. Changing the Desktop The appearance of a desktop can be changed. On maximizing a window. 4. The icons can also be arranged by name. These can be dragged and placed anywhere on the screen.♣To maximize a window. 5. the Restore button will be replaced by the Maximize button.

you risk losing information. Click the OK button to close the dialog box. My Computer: It is a very important and frequently used option. picture files are stored in this folder. My Recent Documents: This option displays the list of files that have been opened recently. Click the Turn off Computer option. If you turn off your computer without shutting it down correctly. 2. The computer shuts down. Click the Screen Saver tab. Click the start button. 3. Click the Apply button. Using this option. My Documents. 6. 3. The time can be set using the Wait spin box. To select the screen saver. 1. My Pictures: By default. This option acts as a shortcut to the recently. The Start Button Click the Start button to invoke the Start menu. My Network Places: This option enables you to access your computers on the network. You can open a file in My Recent Documents by simply clicking its icon. In the Turn off computer dialog box. 5. You can get information about files and folders on other machines.     37 .used files. Note: Do not turn off your computer until you see a message telling you that shut down are complete. 1. it is saved in the My Documents folder by default. Click the Properties option. The left side of the menu displays the most frequently used programs.Screen saver is a moving picture or a pattern that appears on the screen when the mouse or the keyboard is not used for a specified period of time. click the Turn off option. The start menu has various menu options such as My Computer. 4. It helps in accessing the files and folders in the computer. My Pictures and My Music And so on. 4. you can also share files and folders in your machine so that others can access it from their machines. The start menu appears. 2. The top left of the menu displays the icons for Internet Explorer and E-mail. My Music: By default. Select any screen saver from the list.   My Documents: When a new document is created. music files are stored in this file. TURNING OFF THE COMPUTER To turn off the computer. Right-click on the empty space on the desktop. The menu has two panes.

which you want to open and press the mouse button on the particular application. Choose Windows Classic. 3. Select the desired application. 38 . Click the control panel option from the start menu. Click change the theme task. 1. Click the start button. Click on the OK button. This section also contains icons for customizing the folders and start menu. Appearance and Themes The appearance of the desktop can be changed using the Appearance and Themes option in the Control Panel. And text and configure Windows to work for the users with disabilities. 1. Accessibility Option The accessibility option in the control panel is used for customizing the keyboard. such as cursor. You can change the background picture. A pop-up menu appears. A Magnifier option in the See Also section of Accessibility Options. such as the background. mouse functionality. It consists of tasks to change the contrast for the screen elements. The application opens in a window. Click the Start button present in the taskbar. 4. The settings of the desktop can also be changed using the display the display icon in the pick a control icon section.The applications in Windows can be started using the Start menu. You can also change the appearance and resolution of the computer. Using this option portion of the screen can be increased. the screen saver and the theme of the desktop. The Taskbar and Start Menu helps in changing the way the start menu and the taskbar is displayed. Click the Theme combo box drop down arrow. CONTROL PANEL The control panel contains specialized tools to change the visual settings and the system settings in the operating system. The Folder option helps in changing the way the files and the folders are displayed and change file associations. display. screensaver and the appearance. Click the Apply button. The Display option helps in changing the settings of the desktop. User Account Option The user account option in the control panel helps to control the rights and permissions. 2. To change the theme of the desktop. such as changing passwords and personal settings of a specific user. To start control panel. 5. 2.

and then click the arrows to increase or decrease the value. Under Time. ♣Click the OK button. 3. you can follow the steps given below: 1.You can add or remove language definitions from your computer from this panel. select the hour. and then click the arrows to increase or decrease the value. ♣To change the year. Speed. Now date and time properties dialog box opens up. Speech recognition is the ability of Windows XP to convert spoken words to written text. Click date and time under control panel dialog. Speech The speech icon allows changing the settings for speech recognition and text to speech conversation. click the correct day on the calendar. Change the speaker settings helps to change the settings of individual speakers. click the month list. Keyboard The keyboard icon has three options to be configured. Sounds and Audio Devices This option allows to customize the sound system and also to configure settings for the audio and recording devices. 2. and then click the correct month. and then click the arrows. click the arrows in the year list. Its task is to change the system volume. repeat delay and cursor blink rate. ♣To change the AM/PM indicator. Under Date.This panel is where you define the keyboard brand or type. ♣To change the seconds. select the minutes.Date and Time Option To change date and time on your system. select the seconds. 4. sound scheme and speaker settings. Change the sound scheme helps to change the sound settings that are applied to events in windows. ♣To change the day. General. ♣To change the minutes. Adjust the system volume helps in increasing or decreasing the volume associated with the system. select the item you want to change: ♣To change the hour. and then click the arrows to increase or decrease the value. 39 . Language. ♣Click the Apply button. select the item you want to change: ♣To change the month. After the date is changed.Panel enables you to set the repeat rate. or type the correct year. select it.

make right button work as left button and vice-versa (useful for left-handed people). Time. Currency.You can alter the way numbers appear on your system from this screen. Add New Hardware Once you click at Add Hardware in the control panel. click at Add New Programs and than on CD or Floppy button.Changing Mouse Settings To change various mouse settings or properties. Make sure you have connected your hardware or installed its components in your computer before running the wizard.e. 40 . To do this: ♣Click Regional and Language options under control panel. You will see Add or Remove Programs Properties dialog box appear on your screen. currency. This wizard automatically detects and guides you through the process of adding a new piece of hardware to your computer. Time. The plug and play architecture consists of three components: Plug and Play BIOS: This detects and configures Plug and Play cards as part of the POST process. ♣To remove a program. you need to click at Mouse under Control Panel. ♣The Regional and Language options dialog box opens up. and date settings vary from region to region. the wizard for adding new hardware gets started. ♣Click at Customize button to set up regional characteristics for Number.This panel is where you set the way Windows displays the time.Use this panel to display and print numbers that represent currency in your region. This will open up Mouse Properties dialog box. Currency. ♣On the Regional Options tab. and date format you want to use. click on Add or Remove programs. and Date formats. we use this wizard. ♣Changing mouse speed and pointer trail etc. ♣To add/install new software. select it from the list and click change or remove programs to remove it. Number. time. Date. Regional Settings The number. this is where you alter the way Windows displays the date. ♣Selecting different mouse pointers. currency.Just like the Time setting screen. In the control panel. click the name of the region whose number. Follow instructions as they appear on your screen and you will get the desired software installed on your screen. Add or Remove Programs Option This option is used to add or remove an application or window components in the control panel. To install new Plug and Play hardware. wherefrom you can do many things such as: ♣Reversing mouse buttons i. ♣Changing double click speed. You can change these settings as per your requirements through Regional and language options under control pane. time.

Network and Internet Connections This option in the control panel consists of tasks to change the settings of the internet. ♣The System Option helps to change the hardware settings and also to see the information about the system. keyboard. Performance and Maintenance Option ♣The Performance and Maintenance Option allows to increase space on the hard disk perform frequent checks on the computer and configure settings to save power. Installed printers and also add a printer to the computer options can be viewed. The Game Controller option helps in changing the settings of the game controller hardware. Printer and other Hardware Using the printer and other hardware option in the control panel. ♣The Power Option helps in changing the energy saving settings in the computer.volatile storage. ♣The Administrative Tools option helps in changing the administrative settings in the computer. The Scanner and Camera option helps in adding. a fax machine can also be added to the system. Click OK button to run it.Plug and Play hardware devices: The ESCD data structure holds the current configuration of all devices in the system in some form of non. For example. folder or a website in the Open combo box. folder or a website. ♣The pick a Control Panel icon section contains icons to configure energy-settings and perform administrative settings in the computer. Run Command The Run option enables you to open a program. the settings of games control. you can type calc in the Open combo box and click the OK button. ♣The Scheduled Tasks Option helps in running the computer task automatically. The Printer and Faxes option helps in changing the display printers that are installed in the machine and also add and remove printers. click Browse button. phone and modem. Plug and Play operating system: The Windows operating system is Plug and Play compatible. removing and changing the scanner and camera settings. To select the location/path or name of desired program/file/folder/web page. scanner and camera can also be changed. Type the name of the program. to access the calculator. It provides the Configuration manager to integrate the automatic hardware configuration process. DATA ORGANISATION 41 . connect to the workplace network from home and create a small office or home network. Using this option. Icons displayed in the pick a control panel icon section are used for configuring the display and connection settings of the internet and also to connect your computer to other networks and the Internet.

The floppy drive is usually referred to as A: and the hard drive is usually referred to as C: Folder is like a container or file drawer where you can store programs. 42 .click its icon. MY COMPUTER My computer is used for accessing information from different drives in the system. The extension is used to identify which application has been used to create the file. Instead of opening drives and folders in separate windows. the information about that icon appears under the Details section on the left. here text is the primary part and doc is the extension. Data File: Data files contain information in binary form. The My Computer window has a menu bar. To view the contents of a drive. A dot is used to separate the primary name and extension.Just imagine how it would be if we were to search for a book in a library that has no racks. pertaining to a particular topic. tool bar.) A file name has two parts. together in a common location. Information is stored in the form of files. When data is processed into a more useful form. windows explorer lets one browse through them in a single window. which is called the drive name. videos. files and also other folders. Data is defined as the input that is given to a computer. A computer uses drives to store information and each drive is identified by its name. WINDOWS EXPLORER The windows explorer is a feature of windows operating system that can be used to view the contents of a computer and network drives in a hierarchical structure. In the My Computer window. Doc is the extension for Microsoft word files. double. Graphics and Numeric data stored on a disk. Doc. We would never be able to get the books we require. Textual information can be in the form of letter. Explorer window and the work area. That is why we need to organize our data. Types of Files in Computer’s Storage Media    Text Files: A file containing information in the form of text is called a text file. (Document is a file you create when you save your work in a program. The work area has icons representing the drives in the system. The primary name is used to identify the file. sketches and other forms of visual information. The contents of the drive will be displayed. When you select an icon. the primary name and the extension. You use folders to organize files into distinct groups in the same way the drawers and folders inside a file cabinet are used to organize information. The left pane has The Explorer bar and the right pane is the working area where you can access your computer. it is known as information. Graphics File: Graphic files contain information in the form of pictures. Example: Text. also called the secondary name. there are two panes. File is a computerized document that contains information like Text.

tool bar. Alternatively. Note: In Windows Explorer. Click the windows explore option in the submenu. Hold down the start button and press E the key. 1. Right click on the empty space on the desktop. 1. OR Open My Computer and click on the folders button at the top of the My Computer environment. then double-click that particular file or folder or right-click the file or folder and the click the open option in the popup menu. address bar and two panes. 3. Click the start menu. a ‘+’ mark is shown by the side of the folder name. Use Explorer to view files and folders To view a folder or a file. Click the Folder option on the popup menu. the parent folder alone is shown and the ‘-‘ changes to ‘+’. The windows explorer window has a menu bar. a new folder is named as New Folder. Alternatively. Creating a folder in the C Drive The procedure for creating a folder is same in My Computer and Windows Explorer. Click the New option. Choose the new option. 2. It contains the list of drives and folders on the computer. 4. Choose the accessories option. 4. By default. You can change the name to any other name. 3. Choose the All Programs option in the start menu. When a folder has a subfolder in it. Click the folder option.To start explorer. The left pane is called the folder pane. The right pane is the working area. CREATING FOLDERS Creating a Folder on the Desktop To create a new folder on the desktop. 1. 3. Choose the new option. click the plus or minus sign beside the folder. Double-click the icon for the C drive. When you click the +mark. it changes to ‘–‘ sign and the subfolders are displayed. 4. 2. 2. When you click the ‘-‘ sign. 2. Right-click on the empty space in the window. 43 . Click the file menu. Double-click the icon for C drive. To create a folder in the C drive. 1. To create a folder in an existing folder. It displays the contents of a selected folder. Click the folder option. The C drive window appears. 3. to show or hide folders on the left side of the window.

Double-click the folder to open it. Click the New option from the popup menu that appears. Right. moved or deleted. 2.click the file. the Games folder is called the parent folder and the Tennis folder is called the subfolder. 2. Say. you create a new folder called Tennis in the Games folder. 2. Click the folder option. moved. Rename a file or folder through shortcut menu 44 . 1. For this you need to select files that are to be copied. Type the new name and press the Enter key. 1. CREATING FILES Creating a file on the Desktop To create a word file on the desktop. 2. To create a file in a folder. By default. deleted or renamed.1. Creating a file in a folder The procedure for creating a folder is same in My Computer and Windows Explorer. Selecting a file or a folder is simple. Click the Rename option in the file menu. 1. 2. the file is named as New Microsoft Word Document. 1. In this case. as you have to click that particular folder or file. 4. You can change the name. Double-click the icon for the folder. Create the new file by using the same procedure mentioned above. Renaming files and folders A file or folder can be renamed immediately after it is created or later. Select the file. Click the Microsoft Word Document option. Alternatively. FILE OPERATIONS Files and folders can be copied. The folder or file gets highlighted. 3. Right-click on the empty space in the folder window. Choose the new option. Click the Rename option in the popup menu. 3. Select the file. To rename a file. 3. 3. The name of the file or folder is highlighted. Right click on any empty space on the desktop. You can also select the file and press the F2 key to change the name. Right-click on the empty space.

Copy a file to a Floppy Disk 6. Right clicks to bring the shortcut menu for selected file. 7. Click the Edit menu. 1. point to Send To. 3. 1. click the Paste option from the shortcut menu or press the Ctrl and V keys simultaneously. 3. Click the paste option. it can be done using the Shift key or the Ctrl Key.1. 5. When you want to select consecutives files and folders. Click the Edit menu. 3. Click the Edit menu. 1. hold down the <shift> key and click the last item. select the file or folder you want to rename. Select the file or folder. Moving files and folders To move a file or a folder completely from one folder to another. Click the search option in the start menu. Alternatively. Select the folder where you have to paste the file. Type a new name. 4. 45 . Find the file or folder you want to copy. To select all files and folders in the window. In a window. click the first item. you can right-click the file or folder. Copying files and folders To copy a file or a folder to another folder. Select the file. Click the copy option. 2. Select Rename from the shortcut menu. 3. 1. 2. select the Cut option from the shortcut menu or press the Ctrl and X keys simultaneously. choose Edit. Select the folder where you have to paste the file. hold down the <Ctrl> key and click each item. you can right-click the file or folder. you can right-click the file or folder. Searching Files and Folders To search files and folders. and then click the drive where you want to copy the file or folder. 4. Click the Edit menu. Alternatively. Click the cut option. and then click it. Select All. When you want to select files that are not consecutive. and then press Enter. 2. click the copy option from the shortcut menu or press the Ctrl and C keys simultaneously. 6. Click the paste option. Alternatively. Double-click My Computer. On the File menu. 2. If multiple files have to be copied or moved.

Copy and Paste techniques to add paint picture into WordPad document you have created or use it as your desktop background. 2. Select the Recycle Bin in the left side pane of the Explorer. select empty the Recycle Bin. 1. select Restore. Windows will ask you to confirm your choice. Windows asks for confirmation before deleting a file or folder. you can right-click the file or folder and select the delete option in the popup menu. Click Yes to delete the file or folder. then it may be restored from recycle bin. From the file menu. 3. The files or folders removed from a floppy disk (A: or B: drive). Alternatively. Specify the folder in which the search has to be happen. Restoring from the Recycle Bin To restore a file that is in the Recycle Bin. then all of its items in it are permanently deleted and cannot be restored later. Click No to cancel the operation. You can also access the search option by pressing the Ctrl and E keys simultaneously. You can use Cut. edit and view pictures. 2. Specify the name of the file or the folder that has to be searched. 4. if items are deleted from the recycle bin itself. RECYCLE BIN Recycle Bin is the place that holds the deleted files you no longer need temporarily but are inaccessible. Select the Recycle Bin in the left side pane of the Explorer. If one wants to undelete a file. Select the file or folder. 3. However. Press the Delete key. Deleting a file or folder To delete a file or folder. 46 . Note: Files that have been placed in the recycle bin continue to effectively take up space on your hard drive until you empty the bin. From the file menu.2. it does not go into the Recycle Bin. 3. or from the DOS command prompt are deleted permanently. 1. Click the ‘All files and folders’ option. Select the file that you are planning to restore in the right side pane. The results are displayed in the right pane. 2. 1. PAINT You can use Paint to create. Emptying the Recycle Bin To empty the Recycle Bin.

company logos.On the left side of the work area we will notice the toolbox. then to Accessories. Creates squares and rectangles with rounded corners. colour and help. Toolbox. etc. “Paints” in a freehand style. Working in painting Tools The paint window is made of following tool bars 1. It consists of various tools. 9. Creates irregularly shaped triangles. You can even use Paint to view and edit scanned photos. 2. maps. The scroll buttons are horizontal and vertical is also available in down and left side of the work area. “Picks up” a colour on your painting that you want to use somewhere else.You can create business graphics. image. 5.The menu bar displays a number of options like file. To start paint. This is a freehand painting tool.The topmost portion of the paint window is termed as title bar. Selects square or rectangular cutouts. view. edit or view pictures.The colour box is present at the bottom of the paint window. 47 . Lets you create curved shapes. Menu bar. Works just like a pencil. edit. cartoons. You can adjust the width of the point. Fills enclosed areas with currently selected foreground colour. 8. then point to All Programs. Lets you zoom in to any part of your painting to view or edit the pixels (dots) that make up the painting.The work area section covers a major part of the paint window. Paint windows open where you can create. boxes and other multisided objects. These bars usually display the program name and name of the file we are correctly working in. illustrations. Colours box. Let’s you type text for captions and titles. Sprays a dot pattern of the currently selected foreground colour. The colour you click becomes the foreground colour. You can adjust the spray width. 4. Title bar. It includes various colours. 3. These tools help we create drawing as follows: Tool Name Free-from selected tool Select tool Eraser Fill with colour tool Eyedropper tool Magnifier Pencil Brush Airbrush Text Line Curve Rectangle Polygon Ellipse Rounded rectangle What it does Selects irregularly shaped cutouts. Paints square or rectangular shapes. Converts all colours to the currently selected background colour. We can select any option of our choice by moving the mouse pointer over it and then click. Click at start. Work area. Draws straight lines at a variety of angles. Creates circles and ellipses. and then click at Paint.

In either case. To open the clipboard task pane. stores the data on the clipboard but does not remove the original. ♣Delete: a single item from the office clipboard. When you cut or copy information from an application. This fact has two important consequences: 1. For e. you can copy an address from one letter to another and thereby avoid retyping it. in word 2000. You must be careful not to erase valuable data that has been placed in the clipboard or you will lose it. ♣Holds multiple items. 2. 2. it is placed onto the clipboard and remains there until you clear the clipboard or until you cut or copy another piece of information. The office clipboard ♣Is in addition to the standard windows clipboard. ♣Click All: items from the office clipboard. Copy command. Click the Edit menu. although the set of data can be almost any size of length. Click the Office clipboard option. The contents of the clipboard are cleared each time you select a new set of data and choose either the cut or copy commands again. Note: The clipboard generally stores only one set of data at a time.g. you can have as many as 12 sets of data simultaneously stored in clip board. The various buttons on the clipboard and the way you can use them is given below: ♣Paste All: items from the office clipboard. ♣Integrates all office applications. you use the paste command to copy the contents of the clipboard back into your document. Cut command removes data and places it on the clipboard. ♣Can hold a maximum of 24 items. ♣Paste: a single item. You can Paste data from the clipboard as many times as you like (until you choose cut or copy again). 1.CLOPBOARD The Clipboard is a special file or memory area where data is temporary stored before being copied or moved to another place. ENTERTAINMENT IN WINDOWS XP Windows XP Provide Entertainment Package to the user to facilitate entertainment in the following ways: Using CD player 48 . However.

and edit sound files. To use Sound Recorder. then only. you can play your music CD’s. you can use head-phones that are plugged into the CD-ROM. Then point to Accessories. Using Volume Control If you have a sound card. If you have a sound card installed. Using Media Player You can use Media Player to play audio. ♣Click Start. and then to Entertainment. To listen to a CD. point to All Programs. Then point to Accessories. To hear sound when you can use Media Player. To start sound recorder. ♣To start a CD player. ♣Now click at Volume Control. you must have a sound card. you can use Volume Control to adjust the volume and speaker balance when you play audio files. point to All Programs. 49 . ♣Now click at Windows Media Player.You can use CD player to play audio compact disc on a CD-ROM drive connected to your computer. you can control volume as desired. play. To start media Player. and then to Entertainment. you must have sound card and speakers installed on your computer. ♣Now from the Volume Control dialog box. insert the audio CD in CD Drive and choose Play option. ♣Click Start. Using Sound Recorder You can use Sound Recorder to record. or animation files and to control the settings for multimedia hardware devices. and then to Entertainment. ♣Now click at Sound Recorder. you also need a microphone. video. To start volume control. If you want to record live sound. Note: Computer must have sound card and speakers. point to All Programs. Then point to Accessories. ♣Click Start. you can listen to a CD over your speaker system.

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