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PATHOPHYSIOLOGY HYPERTENSION Genetic factors Family history Strain on arterial wall Loss of elasticity Increased of collagen and calcification

of arterial media Atherosclerosis in intima Narrowing of blood vessel lumen Stiffness of aortic and peripheral arterial Constriction of arterioles Environmental factors Sodium intake Alcohol Stress Obesity

Cardiovascular Increased TPR, PVR, CO

Neurologic Decreased baroreceptor sensitivity Chronic hypertension Changes in ICF pressure Decreased in cerebral perfusion and oxygen supply Memory impairment Dull headache in AM Vertigo and tremors Cerebral edema Renal hemorrhage, blurred vision, TIAs epistaxis, cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral thrombosis, CVA

Renal Sympathetic stimulation

Impaired myocardial oxygen Increased workload of hearth Increased myocardial oxygen consumption

Angiotensin / aldosterone released Decreased renal blood flow and oxygenation Ischemia of renal tissues Renin / Aldosterone secretion Increased blood pressure Nocturia Sodium/water retension Decreased glomerular infiltration rate

Dyspnea on exertion Ventricular hypertrophy Chest pain Cardiac decomposition Coronary artery disease Myocardial infarction Cardiac failure

Azotemia Renal failure