S.P. JAIN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT & RESEARCHS.P.

JAIN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT & RESEARCH

Operations SchedulingOperations Scheduling
A Brief DiscussionA Brief Discussion
Academic Group 17Academic Group 17 9/17/20119/17/2011

We will discuss few dynamic scheduling algorithms and introduce you to a unique bottle neck scheduling algorithm commonly used in the semiconductor industry. We will discuss few dynamic scheduling algorithms and introduce you to a unique bottle neck scheduling algorithm commonly used in the semiconductor industry. We would wrap our discus 1 .Operations Scheduling 2011 This paper introduces you to the basic concepts of operations-scheduling. We would wrap our discussion with an interesting example of the video download servicesion with an interesting example of the video download serviceThis paper introduces you to the basic concepts of operations-scheduling.

From a hospital to a factory. 3) Dependable Delivery: Good scheduling is a competitive advantage that provides dependable delivery. In 1917. The early charts were a static representation of the schedule.Operations Scheduling 2011 Scheduling – A Brief Introduction Scheduling is an allocation decision. In the decision making hierarchy. could not have been built without some form of scheduling. scheduling is usually the final step in the transformation process. scheduling plays a critical role. standardization and uses more line work flows. It establishes the timing and the use of resources within an organization. This helps in lowering costs. patient admission. Scheduling techniques are found across various process types including both services and manufacturing. Front office has more customer interaction. Implications of Scheduling The immediate implications of scheduling are as follows: 1) Lower Costs: Scheduling allows companies to use their assets effectively and create greater capacity / value per dollar invested. There is an increased demand for effective scheduling. It was used as a production control chart. A manager in a hospital would typically like to schedule the usage of operating room. In the manufacturing industry. However there is limited evidence of any formal process regarding scheduling before 20th century. 2) Customer Service: This added capacity and relative flexibility provides for better service delivery and therefore better customer service. How it all started Scheduling is not a new concept. customization and complex scheduling process while back office has low customer interaction. The various historical monuments like pyramids. purchase of raw materials and deciding on the number of workers. Sun Tzu (ancient Chinese military strategist) wrote about scheduling and strategy 5000 years ago from a military perspective. Planning the timetable and schedule of the instructors is an excellent example of scheduling in University. Scheduling – The Present Today scheduling is everywhere. scheduling is present while planning the production of goods. Henry Gantt introduced his famous Gantt chart. security and many other facets. The increasing popularity of JIT and lean manufacturing has contributed greatly to this demand of effective scheduling. It occurs just before the output stage. 2 . This was perhaps the inception of scheduling. transcontinental railways etc.

The different activities under capacity planning. Short term scheduling is generally done a daily basis. The basic goals of short term scheduling are as follows: 1) 2) 3) 4) Minimize Completion Time Maximize utilization Minimize Work In progress Inventory Minimize Customer Wait Time A typical scheduling algorithm would aim to make effective use of labor and machinery to achieve maximize utilization.Operations Scheduling 2011 Scheduling occurs at different level. 3 . master scheduling and the short term scheduling is given below. aggregate scheduling. we would be concentrating only on the short term scheduling process. Capacity Planning [ Long Term] 1) Facility Size 2) Equipment Procurement Aggregate Scheduling [ Intermediate] 1) Facility Utilization 2) Personnel needs 3) Subcontracting Master Schedule [ Intermediate] 1) Disaggregation of master plan 2) MRP Short Term Schedule [Intermediate] 1) Work Centre Loading 2) Job Sequencing For our discussion today.

takes care of this limitation. material availability. Thus. Scheduling based on Slack time remaining (STR). it would be possible to execute a job in a time window larger than its processing time allowing temporal flexibility. A vast majority of scheduling research efforts have concentrated on the development of workable predictive baseline schedules. unexpected events like machine breakdowns. however. A set of schedules. company's preferences and other possible disruptions. In the first step. and Critical Ratio (CR) etc. assuming complete information and a static and deterministic environment. It can also be subject to technological constraints. We present you with an algorithm that tries to cope up with these disruptions. However in reality. can make render the predictive schedule unfeasible or lead to a poor performing schedule. In semi-active schedules. A desired range of performance values is accounted by the partial order computation. In the next step. A time window and the type of the schedules chosen provide temporal flexibility. The flexibility introduced in step one is then used on-line to propose to the decision-maker a set of alternative when necessary. It starts with a set of flexible schedules that is released for execution. a set of schedules is built to follow a partial order. The choice of scheduling algorithms is based on the following factors: Qualitative Factors:  Number and variety of jobs  Complexity of jobs  Nature of jobs Quantitative Factors:  Average completion time  Percentage Utilization  WIP inventory  Average Lateness ( customer waiting in the system) Among the common scheduling algorithms we have the First Come First Basis. to adapt the original solutions to the shop floor reality. Shortest Job First. Semi-active schedules allow the presence of idle times between the jobs. 4 . There are several algorithms that are used today. etc. a reactive algorithm is used. During execution. therefore. a project may be subject to numerous schedule disruptions. precedence constraints or release dates. This takes care of having some flexibility in job sequencing.Operations Scheduling 2011 Scheduling Algorithms Scheduling algorithm is an algorithm which dictates the creation of a priority list on the basis of which processes are scheduled. Predictive (or proactive) Scheduling algorithm is a robust technique as it incorporates a safety time to incorporate safety time to absorb anticipated disruptions with a reactive procedure that is invoked when a schedule breakage occurs during project execution. if need be. Predictive Reactive scheduling The approach is a two-step process. jobs cannot be scheduled to start earlier without changing any of job sequence.

The fewer the operations in that job that remain.  Allocate labor to the workstation which has the job that is in the system for the longest time. Least setup (LSU) This rule aims at maximizing machine utilization. The job with the least setup time/changeover time is scheduled first. Cyclic Scheduling In cyclic scheduling. The available amount of labor can be allocated based on priority rules some of which are listed below. Rescheduling becomes necessary when the performance is considerably less than the desired performance. These are usually used in mass production scenarios. Other Algorithms Fewest operations remaining (FOR) It is a variant of SPT.Operations Scheduling 2011 If the flexibility induced by the partial order and the possible idle times absorbs all unforeseen perturbations. Labor & Cyclic Algorithms Labor Scheduling In a labor-limited environment. a reactive algorithm that takes a convenient action with minimum changes on the partial order and minimum loss of performance is required. there is no need for rescheduling. 5 . the resource constraint is the amount of labor available. Performance of Common Scheduling algorithms A study conducted by Hughes Aircraft (LeGrande) indicates the following:    Minimum Processing Time has the best efficiency and flow rate measures Minimum Slack Time per Operation meets the due dates best. It is also called Earliest Start Date (ESD). the earlier the job is scheduled for production Minimum Planned Start Date A master schedule that has been already prepared is looked up to find a job that is scheduled to start first.  Allocate labor to the workstation which has most number of jobs waiting for processing. a set of tasks is to be repeated many times (assumed infinite).  Allocate labor to the workstation which has the largest standard work content. The one that has the earliest start date is taken up first for processing. Otherwise. the scheduler must also assign the labor available to their next workstations. These have periodic schedules. wherein the jobs are scheduled based on the number of successive operations remaining before one can assume the job to be complete. First Come First Serve and Minimum Planned Start Date algorithms usually perform worse than Random selection in most of the cases.  Allocate labor to the workstation which has the job with the earliest due date. Therefore.

This particular methodology offers two distinct advantages over other heuristics. While doing so they communicate/collaborate with each other by depositing a chemical called pheromone on the ground. Secondly.Operations Scheduling 2011 Ant Colony Optimization – Semi Conductor Industry Ant Colony Optimization is a meta-heuristic technique which attempts to emulate the optimization mechanism of biological ants. it can effectively integrate business rules and problem specific information (operational constraints) while searching for the appropriate solution. this is a model-based algorithm and not an instance based algorithm The solution/underlying approach when implemented at an Intel Chip manufacturing facility resulted in significant savings on machine conversion time as compared with traditional scheduling approach. It is vital to optimize the utilization of these ATM stations. the ants follow a straight line path to their destination. Should no obstruction be encountered. in the wake of an obstruction being encountered the initial set of ants split equally and starts walking around the obstruction. In the semiconductor industry. As illustrated in the adjoining figure. Since the chemical evaporates overtime. However. the concentration of pheromone along the longer path is less as against the shorter path. the focus of the solution is on scheduling production at bottleneck stations. Most ATM production facilities are designed based on Theory of Constraints (TOC) where the bottleneck station capacity limits the throughput of the production line. where ants search for the shortest path between their nest and the food source. the algorithm replicates a cooperative ant model. The essential approach is to incorporate each ant agent’s feedback and then search for good solutions in a collaborative manner. First. specifically during the assembly and test manufacturing (ATM) phase. a station consists of a multiple machines (either similar or not) to complete a single operation step. Specifically a 20% reduction in machine conversion time of the bottleneck station was achieved resulting in millions of dollars of cost savings for Intel 6 . especially the bottleneck station to improve productivity. Thus. and the ants tend to follow the shorter path with higher concentration of the chemical.

Operations Scheduling 2011 7 .

Issue with the solution: Service latency is experienced because of the waiting time between the request made and the request served. The Virtual Batching technique. Possible Solution #1: Increase the number of servers from where the videos are streamed. Possible Solution #2: The batching process can be implemented. Owing to the plethora of such VOD applications. dedicating a stream to each viewer for downloading will exhaust the network I/O bandwidth of the video server. However. This creates a bottleneck like situation. This problem of simultaneously supporting several users is faced by many existing systems. jitteriness’. VCR like functionalities etc. IPTV technology is often used to bring video on demand to televisions and personal computer “ Recent advancement in communication has given rise to video on demand applications. To ensure a jitter free service the videos are retrieved from storage systems and carefully distributed. Customers expect Quality of Service such as service latency. 8 . The arriving user is queued and is not served till the batch initiates. This business area is also facing a lot of competition. users requesting the same videos can be served in batches. retaining customers has become an issue. Possible Solution #3: The batching approach does not take into account the difference between the arrival times of the successive requests. takes into account the difference in the arrival times of the requests and still allows the sharing of a single video. In this.Operations Scheduling 2011 Example – Video on Demand “Video on Demand (VOD) or Audio and Video on Demand (AVOD) are systems which allow users to select and watch/listen to video or audio content on demand. connection of a group of requests by chaining. A substantial reduction in server capacity is experienced by batching but today’s customer who is low on patience might not take the service latency very positively and cancel his request as the waiting time increases. Issue with the solution: Cost of hardware increases tremendously as also the cost of hiring network administrators.

the existence of an isochronous channel between the sharing nodes is required.Operations Scheduling 2011 In the Virtual Batching method. Team (in alphabetical order) Amit Sarda (PGP-11-101) Nishank Sethi (PGP-11-131) Pooja Shrivastava (PGP-11-135) Priya Zacharia (PGP-11-142) Shouvik – S – Mazumdar (PGP-11-159) Swati Karle (PGP-11-168) 9 . each client stores the video stream temporarily and transfers it at a later time to a geographically further client. Advantages of this technique:    In this technique. n) then Am and An can be served by the same video. To implement this. Let Am and An be two display stations which are playing the ith and the jth R-blocks of the same video. this request is followed by a request from Am. Let the R-blocks be numbered from 1 to the length of the video depending on the position of the piece n the entire video. This kind of mechanism allows users to share and download simultaneously. An has the buffer capacity to store a (m. The issue of scalability owing to scarcity of server space can be overcome by the Virtual batching technique. If (j-i) is less or equal to a (m. Arrival of a new request can be seen as a contributor rather than a burden to the server. Say that An has requested the video first and has a buffer space of a (m. a receiving station considers the transmitting station as a server. every client station contributes to the community by using its own storage space and I/O communication channel. n) which can be transferred at a later time to Am. In this strategy. Now the number of blocks in between i and j blocks is given by (j-i) assuming j>i. The Virtual Batch Scheduling Technique Say a video is divided into R-blocks (retrieval blocks) where each block is the minimum unit of data. n).

The Virtual Batch Scheduling Technique Say a video is divided into R-blocks (retrieval blocks) where each block is the minimum unit of data. n) which can be transferred at a later time to Am. In this strategy. Team (in alphabetical order) 11 . connection of a group of requests by chaining. n) then Am and An can be served by the same video. a receiving station considers the transmitting station as a server. An has the buffer capacity to store a (m. The issue of scalability owing to scarcity of server space can be overcome by the Virtual batching technique. If (j-i) is less or equal to a (m. This kind of mechanism allows users to share and download simultaneously. To implement this. the existence of an isochronous channel between the sharing nodes is required. Say that An has requested the video first and has a buffer space of a (m. takes into account the difference in the arrival times of the requests and still allows the sharing of a single video. this request is followed by a request from Am. Let the R-blocks be numbered from 1 to the length of the video depending on the position of the piece n the entire video. Let Am and An be two display stations which are playing the i th and the jth R-blocks of the same video. The Virtual Batching technique. each client stores the video stream temporarily and transfers it at a later time to a geographically further client. Now the number of blocks in between i and j blocks is given by (j-i) assuming j>i. Arrival of a new request can be seen as a contributor rather than a burden to the server. In the Virtual Batching method.Operations Scheduling 201 1 The batching approach does not take into account the difference between the arrival times of the successive requests. Advantages of this technique: • • • In this technique. every client station contributes to the community by using its own storage space and I/O communication channel. n).

Operations Scheduling 201 1 Amit Sarda Nishank Sethi Pooja Shrivastava Priya Zacharia Shouvik – S – Mazumdar Swati Karle (PGP-11-101) (PGP-11-131) (PGP-11-135) (PGP-11-142) (PGP-11-159) (PGP-11-168) 12 .