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EXPANDED PROGRAM ON IMMUNIZATION [EPI] (A research assignment)

The Expanded Program on Immunization was launched in July 1976 by the Department of Health in cooperation with the World Health Organization and the UNICEF. It aims to control the occurrence of preventable diseases especially of the children. Furthermore its original objective was to reduce the morbidity and mortality among infants and children caused by the six childhood immunizable diseases: Tuberculosis, Diptheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Hepatitis B, and Measles [Polio can also be added]. EPI has different principles, as follows: 1. The program is based on epidemiological situation; schedules are drawn on the basis of the occurrence and characteristic epidemiological features of the disease. 2. The whole community rather than just the individual is to be protected, thus mass approached is utilized. 3. Immunization is a basic health service and such it is integrated in to the health services being provided for by the Rural Health Unit. EPI also has some elements – Target setting Cold chain logistic management Information, Education and Communication Assessment and evaluation of the program’s overall performance Surveillance, studies and research

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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Immunization Schedule This Routine Immunization Schedule for Infants must be used in order to provide maximal immunity to the seven EPI diseases before the child’s first birthday. Minimum Interval Between Doses

Vaccine

1. BCG

Minimum Age at 1st Dose Birth or any time after birth

Number of Dose 1

Reasons

2. DPT

6 weeks

3

4 weeks

3. OPV

6 weeks

3

4 weeks

4. Hepatitis B

6 weeks

3

4 weeks

5. Measles

9 months

1

BCG given at the earliest possible age protects against the possibility of infection from other family members An early start with DPT reduces the chance of severe pertussis The extent of protection against polio is increased the earlier OPV is given An early start of Hepa B reduces the chance of being infected and becoming a carrier At least 80% of measles can be prevented by immunization at this age.

Note: BCG immunization shall be given to all school entrants both in private and public school regardless of the presence or absence of BCG scar.

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In addition, there is also the Tetanus Toxoid Immunization Schedule for Women.

Vaccine TT1

TT2

Minimum Age Interval As early as possible during pregnancy At least 4 weeks later

Percent Protected 80% 80%

Duration of Protection

Infants born to the mother will be protected from neonatal tetanus Gives 3 years protection for the mother Infants born to the mother will be protected from neonatal tetanus Gives 5 years protection for the mother Infants born to the mother will be protected from neonatal tetanus Gives 10 years protection for the mother Gives lifetime protection for the mother All infants born to that mother will be protected

TT3

At least 6 months later

90%

TT4

At least 1 year later

99%

TT5

At least 1 year later

99%

Note: If the woman received DPT in infancy 3 or 3 doses of DPT during infancy, this should be considered as TT1 and TT2. Succeeding doses will be TT3 and so forth.

Reference: Reyala, et.al. Community Health Nursing Services in the Philippines. Community Health Nursing Section, National League of Philippine Government Nurses, Inc., 2000. pp. 108-113.

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