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Dr. Fayaz Ahmed Bhatti
Director Inclusive Education Directorate General of Special Education Ministry of Social Welfare and Special Education, GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN
Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Capital Total Area Population Annual per capita income Islamabad 796,095 Sq. km. 149.03 million (1998 census) Rs.28,933 (US $ 492 approximately)
gov.pk .Languages Urdu (National) and English (Official) 51.6 % Parliamentary form Literacy rate Government Source: www.
pk .gov.200 19.100 12.Education Sector Primary Schools Middle Schools High Schools Arts & Science Colleges Professional Colleges Universities Public Sector Private Sector 164.900 925 374 29 10 Source: www.
434 1.05% 2.04% 2.12% 2.333 PERCENTAGE 1.705 80.46% 2. OF DISABLED PERSONS ISLAMABAD PUNJAB SINDH NWFP BALOCHISTAN NORTHERN AREAS AJK 8.75.826.70% (2.23% 2.48% 3.400 3.623 929.49% of total population) Source: National Population Census. 1998 (GOP) .241 21.POPULATION OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES IN PAKISTAN NO.448 146.
The Union of the Physically Impaired Against Segregation (UPIAS) “The disadvantage or restriction caused by a contemporary social organistaion which takes no or little account of people with disabilities and thus excludes them from participation in the mainstream of activities” .
Disabled People International(DPI) “Disability has too long been viewed as a problem of the individual and not the relationship between his/her environment” .
.Background The National Policy for Persons with Disabilities launched in 2002 envision “full realization of the potential of persons with Disabilities through their inclusive mainstreaming” Ensuring greater access of children with mild and moderate disabilities to mainstream and local education is central to achieve determined goals.
About 66% of school age children are getting education facility. The children with disability is one of the major segments of this population.49% can be considered disabled. About twenty million children of ages group 5-9 years. . 34% of school age children are deprived of this facility. Above figures indicates that about 6 million children have no access to primary education which are alarming for any developing country.The 1998 census report estimates 2. where as.
Why such high number of children are not attending schools Poverty /Unemployment/ underemployment Poor family attention Gender discrimination which leads to lack of female children education in rural areas Accessibility to the schools for normal as well as for children with disabilities Traditional and conservative way of thinking Lack of awareness among the masses regarding education for children with disabilities as well as for normal children Disability .
Special Education in Pakistan The Directorate General of Special Education under the Ministry of Social Welfare and Special Education catering the services of education.000 children with disabilities. we could not serve for more than 4%. it reveals that only 4% of the total children with disabilities are facilitated with the provided services Despite of continues efforts from all stakeholders. pre-vocational training and rehabilitation through 51 Special Education Institutions and 13 National Centres for children with different disabilities across the country At present a network of all Federal. Even they remain invisible in all educational planning. Provincial and NGOs based Special Education Centres catering to about 24. On the other hand. . 96% school age children with disabilities have no access to school and deprived of all services.
The enrollment ratio cannot be increased unless the primary schools at the doorstep of these children are made open and welcoming through inclusive approach as it is not possible to open special schools at all locations.000 per child per annum studying in ordinary school.30. curricula.Existing situation The average estimated cost of special education is Rs.000 per child per annum as compared to Rs. assessment procedures and poor teacher’s behavior. It needs substantial improvement to cater for the diversified needs of all children. The drop out rate at primary level is about 40 % because of rigid admission policy. The school tends to see and remains happy with uniformity rather than diversity. .2.
The implementation of inclusive education. however. Although Pakistan is signature of many International commitment. The Directorate General of Special Education has recently started Pilot Project for Inclusive Education in 14 different schools (7-male and 7-female) . the dream of Inclusive Education has not yet become a true reality in our country except a handful private institutions offering IE without proper facilitation and support.Existing situation According to National Policy for Persons with Disabilities. 2002 clearly made commitment for IE in the country. is not possible without making it an agenda of Ministry of Education and National and Provincial level.
. We are succeed to have joint declaration between M/o Education and M/o SW&SE on the 27th April 2005 in Islamabad for future cooperation.Existing situation The Ministry of Education both at National and provincial level is not fully sensitized/motivated to include children with disabilities in EFA targets. International donor/ sponsoring agencies need to redirect their resources to encourage inclusive education as a token of international commitments.
It is at once the foundation and the grid on which to build for equity and fairness of opportunity .LEGISLATION The law is the first essential in improving the condition of the disabled.
Salamanca Statement And Framework Of Action (UNESCO1994) “The right to education of every individual as enshrined in the 1948 UNIVERSAL DECLARATION of human rights and renews the pledge made by the world community at the 1990 World Congress on Education for all to ensure that right for all regardless of any individual differences” .
1994 “The education of disabled children should be an integral part of the education system” “Parent groups and organisations of persons with disabilities should be involved in the education process at all levels” .United Nations Standard Rules on equalization opportunities.
policy makers and Institutions. ministries.Challenges in Implementation of Inclusive Education in Pakistan Awareness in the community Acceptance in general public Poor accessibility Shortfall in Policies designed for normal education institutions Lack of interaction/coordination between Normal and Special Education. .
Awareness in community Our religion. . The community must be sensitized towards IE. clearly support the idea of inclusive education. ability or disability etc. religion. Teachings of Islam. emphasis to provide due opportunities to all human being without discrimination of race. Islam.
Acceptance in general public The parents of able bodied children may be motivated to encourage their children to accept their friends with disabilities with warm hands. The awareness in all groups of society at all levels to create acceptance and promotion of social inclusion . The parents of children with disabilities may be encouraged to bring their special children into normal education institutions.
Easy accessibility Friendly physical environment must be created in all public. In normal education institutions such facilities for mild children with disabilities should be provided which could help them in mainstreaming. government and other places. .
in all primary schools in the country. a unified policy . Special Education Centres should provide facilities to the sever type of disability. education for all should be adopted. . Initially.Review of existing Policies The Ministry of Education must revised their policies for adoption of Inclusive Education in normal education institutions. Training arrangement for normal school teachers which could help them for inclusive education. The load of mild and moderate children with disabilities should be taken up by normal education institutions. Assistive devices should be arranged for children with disabilities.
Provincial and District levels:a. Provincial and District Advocacy groups should be formulated for legislation and Policy and planning at Federal. . Policy and Planning group under the Chairmanship of Secretary.Legislation and Policy and planning at Federal. Ministry of SW&SE. 3. Ministry of Social Welfare and Special Education and Provincial counterparts should take the responsibility to initiate the functioning of these groups as a major stakeholder. Legislative group under the Chairmanship of Ministry of Special Education. b.
Disabled friendly physical development must be adopted in new projects and enhancement in the existing structure should be ensured. The teachers training should be carried out by National Training Institute for Special Education. Councils for rehabilitation of children with disabilities may provide assistive devices as per actual requirement of each disabled at federal and provincial level.Coordination between line departments/agencies The federal government should enhanced the budget of education department to encourage them for Inclusive Education system. .
Thank You .