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STRESS ANALYSIS OF BASALT /EPOXY LAMINATE J.Alexander1 and Dr.BSM.

Augustine2 1Phd Scholor, sathyabama University, Chennai,Tamilnadu,603110 2Professor, sathyabama University, Chennai,Tamilnadu,603110 e-mail: vsjalexander@gmail.com I. Introduction BASALT FIBER, A new kind of inorganic fiber like glass fiber, is fabricated from basalt rocks through the melting process. It has a higher working temperature and better tens ile strength than Eglass fiber. In addition, the basalt fibers do not need any other additives in t he single producing process, adding special benefit in cost. Basalt fiber reinforced composites show great improvement in the elastic modulus, chemical resistance and thermal stability compared to glass fiber reinforced composites. These advantages make basalt fiber a promising alternative to glass fiber as a reinforcement material in aerospace, metallurgical, chemical, building industrie s and so on. At this work Basalt epoxy laminate was fabricated using hand lay up process and the mate rial properties were found using experimental methods. Classical Laminated theory is used for calcula ting Lamina stresses which are compared with lamina stresses of various composite materials. The result shows baslt/epoxy laminate has very good strengths at axial loads. The basalt fiber used in the experiment was Basalt fabric whose density is2.7gra ms/cm3 mixed with LY552 epoxy resins .The fiber resin volume fraction is 60:40 After being impregna ted in resins and cured, the basalt yarns were cut short to about 350 mm, and smooth and rounded s pecimens were selected for the tests of tensile strength, tensile modulus and elongation at br eak. Both ends of the selected samples were tabbed by two pieces of starched paper to avoid the end br eakage caused by test machine clamp. The gauge length of the sample was 200 mm. The basalt yarns tensile strength was tested on a universal testing machine according to GB3362-82, and the load v elocity was 2 mm/min. Table i Tensile Test Results

Width(mm) Thickness(mm) Breaking load(N) Tensile strength Tensile modulus (N/mm^2) (KN/mm^2) 26.4 4.3 16.8 148 12.247 25.8 4.65 15.38 128 11.822 24.8 4.8 17.1 144 10.952

The above Test result are used in the laminated plate theory for stress analysis II Laminated Plate Theory The mechanics of materials deal with stresses, strains, and deformations in engi neering structures subjected to mechanical and thermal loads. Lamination theory is useful in calcul ating stresses and strains in each lamina of a thin laminated structure. Beginning with the stiffne ss matrix of each lamina, the step-by-step procedure in lamination theory includes1. Calculation o f stiffness matrices for the laminate 2. Calculation of mid plane strains and curvatures for the lami nate due to a given set of applied forces and moments 3. Calculation of in-plane strains exx, eyy , and .xy for each lamina 4. Calculation of in-plane stresses sxx, syy , and txy in each lamina. The geometri c midplane of the laminate contains the xy axes, and the z axis defines the thickness direction. T he total thickness of the laminate is h, and the thickness of various laminas are represented by t1, t2, t 3, and so on. The total number of laminas is N. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------(1) Where, e0xx , e0yy mid plane normal strains in the laminate .0xy -mid plane shear strain in the laminate kxx ,-k yy bending curvatures of the laminate kxy - twisting curvature of the laminate z-distance from the mid plane in the thickness direction Laminate Forces and Moments Applied force an d moment resultant (Figure 2) on a laminate are related to the mid plane strains and curvatures by the following equations

------------------------(2)------------------------(2) FIGURE 2 In-plane, bending, and twisting loads applied on a laminate. In matrix notion the force and moment equations are written as ----------------------------------------------------------------(3) ------------------------------------------------------------------(4) The fabricated Basalt/epoxy laminate is subjected to an axial load of 100N in th e X direction and the stresses in each ply is analysed by using matlab software . Analysis of Composite Laminates Based on Classical Laminated Plate Theory Material 4: User Material: BASALT/EPOXY552 Engineering Properties Matl E1 E2 G12 v12 1 5.480e+010 1.757e+010 7.138e+009 0.232 Stacking Sequence Layer Matl Ply Angle Ply Thickness 1 1 30.0 1.200e+000 2 1 60.0 1.200e+000 3 1 30.0 1.200e+000

Laminate Mechanical Input Load Vector NX NY NXY MX MY MXY 1.000e+002 0.000e+000 0.000e+000 0.000e+000 0.000e+000 0.000e+000 Strains are given as Total Strains (Mechanical + Thermal + Moisture) Layer Eps-1 Eps-2 Gam-12 Sig-1 Sig-2 Sig-12 1 4.978e-010 3.146e-010 -1.536e-009 2.906e+001 7.689e+000 -1.096e+001 2 -2.129e-010 1.025e-009 -9.265e-010 -7.621e+000 1.745e+001 -6.613e+000 3 4.978e-010 3.146e-010 -1.536e-009 2.906e+001 7.689e+000 -1.096e+001 Material Strengths Matl Xt Xc Yt Yc S 1 2 3 4 1.500e+009 1.083e+009 1.276e+009 1.480e+008 -1.500e+009 -6.207e+008 -3.379e+008 -2.000e+008 4.000e+007 3.931e+007 2.897e+007 1.480e+008 -2.462e+008 -1.283e+008 -1.579e+008 -2.000e+008 6.828e+007 8.897e+007 4.897e+007 1.400e+007

II. Conclusion For a particular load the stresses in each layer is calculated .These stress val ues are compared with results of same type of laminate with different material. But the properties of basalt /epo xy laminate is better than Glass/epoxy laminate. Hence glass/epoxy can be replaced by Basalt/epoxy for vari ous structural applications. (Detailed results will be discussed in the full paper. References 1. Medvedyev, O. O. and Tsybulya, Y. L. (2004). The Outlook for the use of Basalt C ontinuous Fibers for Composite Reinforcement[C], International SAMPE Technical Conference, SAMPE 2004, 16 20 May 2004, Long Beach, CA, United States, pp. 275 279. 2. The effect of adhesion interaction on the mechanical properties of thermoplastic basalt plastics P. I. Bashtannik, A. I. Kabak,and Yu. Yakovchuk, Mechanics of Composite Materials, Vol. 39, No.

1, 2003. 3. Novel basalt fibre reinforced glass matrix composites, e. bernardo e. stoll ,, a. r. boccaccini j mater sci 41 (2006) 1207 1211. 4. Chemical Composition and Mechanical Properties of Basalt and Glass Fibers: A Com parison Tams Dek and Tibor Czigny,Textile Research Journal 2009 79: 645. .