Rock and Pop

1950s
Ÿ Rhythm and Blues - saxophone and electric guitar - more powerful beat than 40’s - prominently African american music, but then spread out Examples - Drifters (gospel-tinged vocal group), the Platters (falsetto lead sounds) Influenced - Fats Domino, Chuck Berry Ÿ Rock and Roll - Teenage delinquency - contemporary music - rebelliousness à loudness, pounding beat Examples - Bill Haley and the Comets (Rock Around the Clock 1954) - 1st big hit of r&r - Elvis Presley ‘King’ of Rock and Roll - youthful rebellion

1960s
Ÿ Soul - Black performers - emphasized emotionality - gospel roots Examples - James Brown, Ray Charles, Aretha Franklin Ÿ Motown Motor Town USA - From Detroit - Blend of rhythm and blues with popular music - American African composers/performers à mainstream popular. Examples - Diana Ross and the Supremes, Stevie Wonder Ÿ Rock & Roll British Influence - new era - influenced wider range of sounds/musical ideas - experimentation with electronic effects - ‘classical’/non-western instruments - unconventional scales, chord progressions, rhythms Examples - The Beatles (1964 American Tour), The Rolling Stones Paul McCartney, John Lennon, George Harrison, Ringo Starr

instrumentation .Sgt.visual aspects of stage show .theatricality .Donna Summers ‘Disco Queen’ Ÿ singer-songwriters Examples .popular dance music Example . Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band (Beatles) .Bookends (Simon and Garfunkel) .record companies released ‘oldies’ Ÿ Disco .nostalgic fascination with 50’s rock and roll .Technological advancements in recording techniques .moved to mainstream as stars won national popularity . War.70s Expansion of: .popular with many young people Developed by .continuation of 60’s styles .lyrics à contemporary issues eg.Ÿ Folk Rock .formal structures . social injustice .concept albums à songs linked bya basic idea .equivalent to Romantic era song cycles 1970s .revival of rock and roll . Against racial bigotry) 1960s Fusion Folk Rock Jazz Rock Psychedelic Rock Acid Rock Art Rock 60’s .Bob Dylan (Blowin’ In the Wind. Broadway musicals .Billy Joel.influence on Hollywood films.scope of its harmony and textual content . Bruce Springsteen Ÿ County Rock .

synthesizers.Run-D. speed.Jamaican Ÿ Funk . New Order.heavily amplified bass .Rhythmically assertive .rhythmically accented poetic recitation .disk jockey accompaniment à manipulated recordings on two trutables . Dolly Parton.C. the Clash. The Cure Ÿ Heavy Metal . the Beastie Boys 1990’s Ÿ Heavy metal substyles à thrash.outlandish-looking performers Examples .collage of percussive and musical effects .‘second British invasion’ . Willie Nelson Ÿ Reggae . Iron Maiden. computers .east coast American cities .the Police.young urban blacks .popular in America .Black soul music Ÿ Punk . Guns ‘n’ Roses Ÿ Rap .renewed interest among teens . death Ÿ Rap .stylistically eclectic .lyrics à sex & violence.primal rock 1980s Ÿ New Wave .M.anger and frustration of urban youth Examples .unrestrained guitars à very loud .derived from punk .Metallica. Motley Crue.pounding drums . Disconcerting Examples .technically refined .extensive use of electronic technology .Johnny Cash.Examples .

funk.despair of Seattle . Missy Elliot Ÿ Grunge/Alternative . System of a Down Ÿ Latino .De La Soul. Pearl Jam.. NoFX.Green Day. Reggae.rhythm guitar (electric) .guitar manipulated electronically . Public enemy.Garth Brooks Ÿ 70’s music à Disco. Ricky Martin Ÿ Country . heavy metal Examples .powerfully amplifiers .brash. synthesizer .trumpets.angry lyrics .percussion -keyboard à piano.inspired by success of grunge Examples . country.signers . Dr.electric bass . Dre.stylistic variety Influenced by: 1970s punk.Gloria Esefan. trombones. sax 1960’s .variety of instruments . Rock & roll. Nine Inch Nails Ÿ Punk resurgence . Alice in Chains.pan-Latin influences Examples . Soundgarden. Tupac. electric piano. grinding guitar .electric guitar à contrast brass-reed sound of 30s/40s big=band .stylistic features from other popular music . hard rock. punk Elements Ÿ TONE COLOUR .young people disenchanted with ‘polished’ mainstream rock .wide range of tone colours Band: .Nirvana. Eminem.controversial gangsta rap à deliberately antisocial and explicit lyrics Examples .lead guitar (electric) .

nonsense syllables .60s/70s combined complicated rhythms with basic pattern.symph orch 1970’s/80’s .rhythmic excitement à heightened by subdivision into equal notes (8 faster pulses) .bass player emphasisez offbeats Ÿ FORM .different stanzas of text set to repeated melody and accompaniment Chorus .few performers could sounds like a large ensemble 1990’s/2000s .chants (yeah yeah yeah!) Ÿ RHYTHM .strong accent on second and fourth beats .exploitation of synthesizers and computers (improving technology) .black.32-bar A A B A or variant Ÿ strophic .eg .crowd noises . country.text and music repeated .verse/stanza followed by chorus/refrain Verse .attention drawn to words due to repetition Ÿ verse-chorus .differ from crooning sounds by earlier popular vocalists Ÿ Shout Ÿ Cry Ÿ Wail Ÿ Growl Ÿ Guttural Ÿ Falsetto .. western .4 or 8 bar phrases .early music in 12-bar blues form .multiple computers in contemporary rock concerts Ÿ SINGING STYLE .disk jockey à manipulate vinyl recordings .powerful quadruple meter . folk. .harpsichord to sitar Diverse sounds .‘hook line’ à repeated melody/lyric .electronic blips .musical accompaniment remains same for each stanza (found in folk) .

sometimes restricted to two chords .eg Eleanor Rigby .mid 60s .Beatles and Beachboys using innovative new chord progression .Mixolydian.simple .John Lennon ‘Norwegian Wood’ ..irregular phrases . then Dorian Ÿ HARMONIC PROGRESSION .short melodic patterns that are repeated/varied several times Use of modes Eg .John Lennon/Paul McCartney .3 or 4 basic chords .

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