You are on page 1of 7

Crushed Fine Aggregates Inevitable reality for construction

Quality does not cost, it Pays!!!

1 Value Engineering Division

The need for crushed fine aggregates Demand for crushed fine aggregates for making concrete is increasing day by day because natural sand cannot meet the rising demand of construction sector. Natural sand takes millions of years to form and is not repleneshible. Pune district alone consumes 25000 to 30000 tonnes of fine aggregates per day. Because of its limited supply the cost of natural sand has sky locketed and its consistent supply cannot be guaranteed. Under the circumstances use of crushed fine aggregates becomes inevitable. However many people in India have doubts about quality of concrete / mortars when crushed fine aggregates are used. Crushed fine aggregates have been regularly used to make quality concrete for decades in India and abroad. Natural sand in many parts of the country is not graded properly and has excessive silt on other hand crushed sand does not contain silt / organic impurities and can be produced to meet desired gradation and fineness as per requirement. Comparison with natural sand Property Shape Gradation Particles passing 75 micron Specific Gravity Water Absorption Ability to hold surface moisture Natural Sand Spherical Particles Cannot be controlled Presence of Silt Should be Less than 3% 2.6 to 2.8 2 to 3 % Up to 7% Crushed fine Aggregate Cubical Can be controlled Presence of Dust Less than 15% 2.7 to 2.9 3 to 4% Up to 10%

Comparison in concrete when compared with well graded silt free natural sand. Crushed sand gives comparable /better strength when compared with natural sand It gives lower workability It gives lower workability retention It gives lower cohesion

However, commonly available natural sand is rarely well graded and silt free.

Quality does not cost, it Pays!!!

2 Value Engineering Division

Long Term Effects (Durability) Durability depends on permeability of concrete & long term stability of cement matrix from alkali aggregate reaction, chlorides present in cement, aggregates and admixture. There is no evidence that concrete made from crushed fine aggregates is less durable than that with natural fine aggregates. Thus Crushed Fine aggregate can be used for all types of concrete including. High Performance concrete Self Compacting Concrete Pumpable Concrete Roller Compacted Concrete Precast concrete products Brick Work and plaster Mortars Flooring Water proofing Trouble Shooting practical problems encountered while using crushed fine aggregate Concrete does not give adequate workability Reason The particle shape is not spherical but cuboidal or flaky Usually has higher % of fines Remedy Controlling shape and gradation Use of plasticizers Use of flyash

Concrete tends to set quickly Reason Higher water absorption removes free water Lower particle size results in faster absorption Greater surface area results in faster evaporation Remedy Wetting of fine aggregates in case it is bone dry Use of retarding plasticizers Use of flyash Protecting the green concrete from drying

Quality does not cost, it Pays!!!

3 Value Engineering Division

Concrete tends to seggregate Reason Flaky shape Lack of adequate fines Segregation of Particles while transportation and Unloading Inadequate mixing Remedy Controlling the shape and gradation of particles Preventing seggregation during transportation by spraying water Use of Flyash Blending with natural sand Use of fibres to increase cohesion Using better mixers

Concrete gives lower strength Reason Flaky particles or higher fines increase water demand Higher water demand translates in to higher water cement ratio Seggregation of concrete results in non - uniform distribution of cement paste Remedy Controlling the quality of incoming material by visual inspection and regular sieve analysis Controlling the water cement ratio by using plasticizers Take steps to control seggregation

Concrete has Honeycombs Reason Lower workability and lower slump retention Inadequate vibration Segregation of particles during transportation and unloading Lack of fines Segregation of concrete Remedy Use of plasticizers ,retarders and flyash Complete compaction and finishing as early as possible Use well graded crushed sand with adequate fines Ensure cohesion of concrete

Quality does not cost, it Pays!!!

4 Value Engineering Division

Concrete surface shows irregular shaped voids Reason Concrete with excessive fines and flaky particles is prone to bleeding Bleeding is phenomena when water comes to vertical faces and top surface through capillaries Bleeding water gets trapped between concrete and form work to form water pockets This water evaporates and shows irregular shaped pockets on surface Remedy Ensure crushed sand is well graded and particle shape is not flaky Ensure that it is not stone dust! Non absorbent form surfaces like Plastic coated ply are more prone for trapping water pockets Regular tamping of concrete member with mallets will bring bleed water to the top surface

Major problems encountered Lack of workability Mortar sets quickly Mortar lacks cohesion Plaster tends to crack Solutions Use of plasticizers and retarders Use of fly ash Use of fine plaster grade crushed sand Use of fibres Use of mechanical mixer for mixing mortars Ensuring that moist sand is used for making mortar Covering the mortar with plastic sheets Economics of Crushed fine aggregates Natural Sand 2000 to 2500 Rs per 100 cft Rs. 0.4/- to 0.6/- per Kg Crushed Sand 1500 to 2000 Rs per 100 cft Rs. 0.3/- to 0.5/- per Kg Net difference: Rs. 0.1/- per Kg

Quality does not cost, it Pays!!!

5 Value Engineering Division

Economics in concrete 1 m3 of M20 concrete requires approximately 800 to 1000 Kg of fine aggregates Cost difference of using crushed fine aggregates: Rs. 80/- to 100/- per m3 Incremental cost of using admixture: Rs. 50/- to Rs 100/- per m3 Economics in Mortars 100 kg of 1:5 mortar requires: i. 17 Kg of cement Cost: Rs. 50/- (@Rs. 3/- per Kg) ii. 84 Kg of Natural Sand Cost: Rs 42/- (@Rs. 0.5/- per Kg) Total Cost: Rs. 92/-

Replace natural sand by crushed sand @Rs. 0.4/- per Kg Saving per 100 kg of Mortar: Rs 8.5/-

Additional cost of admixture: Rs. 4/(Dosage 0.5% by weight of cement @ Rs. 40/- per Kg) Additional cost of fibres: Rs. 5/- to Rs. 10/(125 gm per 50Kg @ Rs. 20/- to Rs. 40/- per pouch) Saving by flyash replacement (@Rs1.5 per kg: 25% replacement - Rs. 5/ 50% replacement - Rs. 10/Net cost saving per 100Kg of mortar Crushed sand (saving) Admixture (additional) Fibres (additional) Flyash 50% (saving ) Rs. 8.5/Rs. 4/Rs. 5/Rs. 10/-

Net saving: Rs. 10/- per 100cft

Quality does not cost, it Pays!!!

6 Value Engineering Division

Economics in Overall Building Building requires 100 to 150 Kg of fine aggregate per sq. feet Building requires 75 to 100 Kg of mortar Net saving: Rs. 6/- to Rs. 8/- per sq. feet (Note: Above calculations are based on price levels in Pune Region) Precautions to be taken Ensure that you are getting well graded and well shaped crushed sand Ensure that you are not getting a mixture of stone dust and grit at the cost of crushed sand Ensure that crushed sand is received in wet condition and does not seggregate while unloading Conclusions Natural sources of fine aggregates cannot meet the demand of the industry Natural sources of fine aggregate cannot meet the quality requirements of the industry Crushed fine aggregate can be used for all applications in construction Crushed fine aggregate can deliver a good product and will save costs All that is required is

Scientific approach to the whole issue & A little application on site Thank You

Quality does not cost, it Pays!!!

7 Value Engineering Division