# 只限閱卷員參閱 FOR MARKERS’ USE ONLY

香港考試及評核局 HONG KONG EXAMINATIONS AND ASSESSMENT AUTHORITY 2008 年香港高級程度會考 HONG KONG ADVANCED LEVEL EXAMINATION 2008

物理 高級程度 試卷一乙 PHYSICS A-LEVEL PAPER 1B

本 評卷 參考 乃考 評局 專為 今年 本科 考試 而編 寫， 供閱 卷員 參考 之 用。 閱卷 員在 完成 閱卷 工作 後， 若將 本評 卷參 考提 供其 任教 會 考班 的本 科同 事參 閱， 本局 不表 反對 ，但 須切 記， 在任 何情 況 下均 不得 容許 本評 卷參 考落 入學 生手 中。 學生 若索 閱或 求取 此等文件，閱卷員/教師應嚴詞拒絕，因學生極可能將評卷參 考 視為 標準 答案 ，以 致但 知硬 背死 記， 活剝 生吞 。這 種落 伍的 學 習態 度， 既不 符現 代教 育原 則， 亦有 違考 試著 重理 解能 力與 運用技巧之旨。因此，本局籲請各閱卷員/ 教師通力合作，堅守 上述原則。 This marking scheme has been prepared by the Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority for markers’ reference. The Authority has no objection to markers sharing it, after the completion of marking, with colleagues who are teaching the subject. However, under no circumstances should it be given to students because they are likely to regard it as a set of model answers. Markers/teachers should therefore firmly resist students’ requests for access to this document. Our examinations emphasise the testing of understanding, the practical application of knowledge and the use of processing skills. Hence the use of model answers, or anything else which encourages rote memorisation, should be considered outmoded and pedagogically unsound. The Authority is counting on the co-operation of markers/teachers in this regard.

**© 香港考試及評核局 保留版權 Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority All Rights Reserved 2008
**

2008-AL-PHY 1B–1

®

只限閱卷員參閱 FOR MARKERS’ USE ONLY

**只限閱卷員參閱 FOR MARKERS’ USE ONLY
**

1

Marks

v

1A

0 t As air resistance increases with the speed of the toy, the acceleration of the toy is decreasing (or the net force acting on the toy is decreasing). The speed ceases to increase when the air resistance equals the propelling force and thus terminal/constant velocity is achieved. (i) air resistance R propelling force F weight mg and tension T Deduct 1 mark if “centripetal force” is drawn accept common symbols mg, W and T only F without labeling NOT accepted accept friction reaction force NOT accepted

1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 4

L T R

θ

F mg (ii)

T sin θ = T= mv 2 L sin θ mv 2 (radius = L sin θ )

3

……….……….(1) L sin 2 θ T cos θ = mg ……………….……..(2) (1) sin θ v : = ....................(3) (2) cos θ gL 1M for correct equation in terms of cos θ (2 m s −1 ) 2 1 − cos 2 θ = from two correct equations of motion, no −2 cos θ (10 m s )(0.8 m) need to check substitution 2 − 2 cos 2 θ = cos θ Let T ′ be the period, then 2 cos 2 θ + cos θ − 2 = 0 cos θ = − 1 ± 17 2×2 θ = 38.7°

2 2

1A 1A

⇒1M

By (2) : T = 1.28 N

**2πL sin θ v 2π (0.8m) sin 38 .7 T′ = 2ms -1
**

T′ = = 1.57 s (or 1.6 s)

1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 3 5

(iii) v decreases [as the output voltage drops] θ decreases as v decreases, i.e. v↓ => θ↓ the toy , describes a smaller horizontal circle at a lower level. [since from (3), v 2 = gL ⋅ tan θ ⋅ sin θ ] m g From (2), T = so T decreases, cos θ i.e.θ↓ [=> cosθ↑] => T ↓ [correct deduction with reason]

2008-AL-PHY 1B–2

1 M for v↓ no need to state reason , or even with a wrong reason. 1 M for v↓ => θ↓ no marks for , reasoning with contradictions 1 M for θ↓ => T↓ with a reason, no marks for just stating only θ↓ =>T↓ . 4π 2 L cos θ , From (3), T′ 2 =

g

Therefore θ↓ => cosθ↑ => T′ ↑, i.e. period increases.

只限閱卷員參閱 FOR MARKERS’ USE ONLY

**只限閱卷員參閱 FOR MARKERS’ USE ONLY
**

Photoelectrons are emitted from B with non-zero (or enough) kinetic energies / speeds and thus they can reach the anode. Enough “energy” NOT accepted Current is from A to B (or to the right) within the photocell. (i) Those/some photoelectrons with kinetic energies less than eVB/ potential barrier do not have enough energy to overcome the potential barrier in order to reach anode A, hence the current drops. Overcome “voltage” NOT accepted Or Those photoelectrons emitted with speeds less than vo where ½mevo2 = eVB could not overcome the attraction towards B, hence the current drops. (ii) 1.5 (eV)

h c = Φ+ K . max .E

Marks

1A 1A 1A 1A 2

2

2.4 10−19 J NOT accepted

1A 1M

1M for correct equation in terms of λ or correct ( 2.3 eV +1.5 eV ) sub. of Φ and K.E.max. 3 ×10 8 m − s 1 = − λ 1 6.63 ×10 −34 J s M for correct λ , accept 3.27 × 10 7 m to − 3.30 × 10 7 m λ = 327 nm 1 M for stating UV, mark independently and no penalty for spelling mistakes Ultraviolet (UV) (i)

λ

1A 1A 4

I / 10−10 A

2A

− 3.0

− 2.0

− 1.0

0

+1.0

+2.0

+3.0

VB/V 2

1M for same stopping potential. 1M for saturation current doubled and curve of similar shape.

(ii)

We would expect photoelectrons to be ejected with greater speeds/K.E./K.E.max when the radiation intensity increases, but this is not so as the stopping potential and thus K.E.max of the photoelectrons remain the same. Or According to the wave theory, the energy of light depends on its intensity, however, the stopping potential / K.E.max is independent of light intensity

1A 1A 2

2008-AL-PHY 1B–3

只限閱卷員參閱 FOR MARKERS’ USE ONLY

**只限閱卷員參閱 FOR MARKERS’ USE ONLY
**

(i) Resonant frequency: fo = 1600 Hz

Marks

1A 1M for correct equation or correct sub. of VS and R. 1M

**V At resonant frequency, r.m.s. current I = S R
**

=

1 V 0 4 Ω 0

= 0.25 A (ii) At resonance, VL and VC are equal in magnitude but opposite in phase (or cancel each other), therefore the whole of VS is across R. (Accept answers using phasor diagram.) VL = IXL 25 V = 0.25 A × 2π × 1600 Hz × L − L = 0.01 H (Accept 9.89 × 10 3 H to 0.01 H) Or 1M for substitution of VL, I and fo, even without 2π .

1A 1A 1M 1A

3

3

ωL=

L=

1 ω C

2

1

4π (1600 ) 2 (1 ×10 −6 ) = 0.01 H

P= I2R=

V S2 1 2 R + (ωL − ) ωC

2

×R

1M for P = I2R or where ω = 2π f1 IVScosφ or

2 VR or R

1M

V S2

=

1 R + (2πf1 L − )2 2πf1C

2

×R

V S2 cos φ or Z

1A

2

maximum P =

V S2 (10 V ) 2 = 40 Ω R

= 2.5 W

1M for correct equation or correct sub. of VS and R. 1M for correct P 1M for stating a correct condition, at resonance or f = fo NOT acepted

1M 1A

For P to be maximum, XL = XC or VL = VC or Z = R

ωL−

1 1 1 = 2πf1L − = 0 or C = 2 2 2π 1C f 4π f1 L ω C

1A

3

2008-AL-PHY 1B–4

只限閱卷員參閱 FOR MARKERS’ USE ONLY

**只限閱卷員參閱 FOR MARKERS’ USE ONLY
**

When S is closed, the circuit becomes an RC circuit. VS I=

.

Marks

R2 +

1 4π f 2C 2

2

As VS, R and C are constant, I. increases as f increases.

**10 r.m.s. voltage across the resistor in V 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
**

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8

Curve convex upwards 1M Voltage bounded 1M (Deduct 1M if curve clearly not through the origin)

2A

frequency in kHz

2

2008-AL-PHY 1B–5

只限閱卷員參閱 FOR MARKERS’ USE ONLY

只限閱卷員參閱 FOR MARKERS’ USE ONLY

Marks

From the graph, the difference in pressure of the gases is 2.05 ×10 5 Pa . The applied force F must produce the same pressure to keep the piston at rest, thus 1M 1M for N F = ∆ × A = (3.88 −1.83 ) ×10 5 Pa ×4.0 ×10 −3 m 2 ≈ 820identifying ∆ p, accept P 5 ± [(3.8 to 3.9) – (1.8 to 1.9)]× 10 Pa 1A = 820 N (Accept 800 N to 840 N) 1M for correct F (i) From the graph, we see that equilibrium is attained when the volume and pressure of the gas in 1A 1A chamber X are 2.57 ×10 −3 m 3 and 2.55 × 5 Pa respectively. 10 Accept p = (2.5 to 2.6) × 105 For an ideal gas, pV = nRT , pV 1M for correct sub. of p, V from (b)(i) and T = nR n = 0.15 mol into correct equation. 5 2.55 ×10 5 Pa × 2.57 ×10 −3 m 3 Accept p = (2.5 to 2.6) × 10 Pa & ans. in K or °C. = 0.15 mol × 8.31 J mol −1 K −1

2

2

(ii)

1M

**= 526 K (Accept 515 K to 536 K) = 253 °C (Accept 242 °C to 263 °C)
**

Or

**p1V1 p V = 2 2 T1 T2 3.88 ×10 Pa × 2.0 ×10 (350 + 273)K
**

5 −3

1A

2

m

3

=

1M for correct sub. of p, V of initial state, final p, V ×10 −3 m 3 2.55 ×10 5 Pa × 2.57from (b)(i) and T into correct equation

T2

Accept p2 within (2.5 to 2.6) × 105 Pa

5 p1 T2 = 526 K (Accept 513 K to 548 K) within (3.8 to 3.9) × 10 Pa,

**= 253 °C (Accept 240 °C to 275 °C)
**

(i) For a monatomic ideal gas, U =

3 nRT 2

∆U =

1M 3 nR ∆T 1M for correct equation of ∆ U 2 3 3 or = [ p 2V 2 − p1V1 ] = 2.55 ×10 5 Pa × 2.57 ×10 -3 m 3 − 3.88 ×10 5 Pa × 2 ×10 -3 m 3 ) 2 2 3 = × 0.15 mol ×8.31 J mol −1 K −1 × ( 253 °C − 350 °C ) 2 = −181 J (Accept - 140 J to - 206 J or 140 J to 206 J)

[

]

**The internal energy of the gas in chamber X decreases by 181 J. (ii)
**

U By the first law of thermodynamics, ∆ = Q +W . Since chamber X is insulated, Q = 0 , therefore W =∆ = − U 181 J . Work done by the gas = – W = +181 J (Accept –206 J to –140 J)

Q 1M for stating ∆ = 0 or W = ∆U or Work done by the gas = – (ans. from (c)(i))

1A

2

1M 1A 2

(By graphical method, W = –184 J)

1M for correct − “A” marks should NOT be given if an answer W, within the range is from incorrect equation/using wrong method

2008-AL-PHY 1B–6

只限閱卷員參閱 FOR MARKERS’ USE ONLY

**只限閱卷員參閱 FOR MARKERS’ USE ONLY
**

(iii)

Marks

The work found in (ii) is done on the gas in chamber Y and against the applied force. By conservation of energy, Work done by the gas in chamber X = Work done on the gas in chamber Y + Work done against F 1M 181 J = Work done on the gas in chamber Y + 58 J Work done on the gas in chamber Y = 123 J (Accept 82 J to 148 J) 1A (By graphical method, work done on the gas in chamber Y = 126 J) 1M for W = ± ans. from (c)(ii) – 58 J 1M for correct W, “A” marks should NOT be given if an answer within the range is from incorrect equation/using wrong method

2

(iv)

For the gas in chamber Y, work done on the gas W = +123 J. Since the gas is ideal and is W 123 J , 1M maintained at a constant temperature, ∆U = 0 , Q = − = − 1M for stating ∆U = 0 1A i.e., the gas loses/liberates 123 J of heat.(Accept 82 J to 148 J) or −W = Q Q = – (ans. from (c)(iii)) 1M for correct Q, “A” marks should NOT be given if an answer within the range is from incorrect equation/using wrong method

2

2008-AL-PHY 1B–7

只限閱卷員參閱 FOR MARKERS’ USE ONLY