Geography and the Future Author(s): Rex Walford Source: Geography, Vol. 69, No. 3 (June 1984), pp.

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let me make the necessaryobeisance and of thanthefirst searchno further (Orwell.theessence thesubject inthe all therealisation for itstheories. into the EEC). townscape). TheGeographical in Geography thepresent 193 .theneed to improvegeography's originating and teachers the and theneed to integrate community geography of public image.and inpublicpercepgeography schools. the which The bright dayin April(ah. tower-blocks. concepts an and and us of around as wevariously elements theworld them. The importance thefuture academicsfor moreeffective impinges of in and more on the geographyof thepresent:thistoo should be reflected our teaching. It is ironicthat in 1984 the Big Brotherwhom we cannot escape appears to be George So Orwell. © tion. Association 1984. swirl gritty thevile symbol theemergent regretted textual Is base and synoptic wind(the environmental . ABSTRACT. more action. 1949. chin striking doors the in to nuzzled hisbreast aneffort escapethevile into wind. in thecurrent treads precarious a tionand themedia: geography pathand seemsto be nowadays with in of geographical poorly represented thecorridors power. that. repressed.5): Eighty-Four paragraph Nineteen his Winston thirteen.and Geography theFuture Rex Walford President 1983-84 " is with premise the that"geography everywhere. Mansions(the of Smith(the case study humankind). into is that If we translate sentiment "Geography everywhere" somekindof realistic on to we be that ought baseourteaching it for education. along on at Address a conference is Whatpossiblerelevance thisbrief quote to a Presidential of lexicon theelements is The relevance. Winston Victory of the of dust. theclocks our has institution beenchanged cherished British thirteen yetanother following entry (yes. were and cold It was a bright dayinApril theclocks Smith. might this: principle geographical is of andideas. Briefreviews presented thestateof by in corecurriculum debate. paragraph anexemplary Every possible geography? form basisofoursubject. entering enough though with him. suchsimple on near recorded a bridge I withthegraffiti deludedoverclaim? respond only analysis is in Bedworth Warwickshire: "Geography everywhere". an anti-cyclone theNorth cold over striking Sea). Those concerned education in thefuture face threechallenges:theneed to respondto curricular initiatives fromoutsidegeography. Thisaddressstarts must and about their Human beings'innate surroundings environment be curiosity on are not stimulated teachers. that interest perceive order of the Conference theAssociaon address 17th this RexWalford delivered presidential during Annual April1984.geology weather).p. through glass swiftly slipped dust of a toprevent swirl gritty from notquickly ofVictory Mansions. Articlesabout him are everywhere.

Sometimes stimulation this than of. I enjoyed passively. landscape was was and the with I became enthusiastic an amateur field of doubts. history. chance my alone a fresh mustbe remote.in some part. suddenly I think waswhen contemplating daythecomplex of "There wallson a mountain . of Most of us are geographers geography and teachers becauseof thenurturing that we it or about our surroundings. . I remember how itcaughtmyimagination.Nowprobably question could askhasnotbeenaskeda hundred let times The of hitting a newquestion. or cocoonedin weekly Bingo. mydeclining years. and thesubsequent for of rationalising ourcareerintentions and our progress that. As W. a formative influence mostofus. 1). I hope thereis.Turner's we it: "Romance" (1939. essential inschools. at Chimborazo.a youthful passion forrailways aviation. peopled problems.though seemshe stilldoes notknowitbyname. thereis surelya moment a period in or but somewherein our liveswhen something us. zest.194 GEOGRAPHY intheseelements of Howextraordto person. Mountains thebeautiful in yearsI enjoyedtheMourne constituency in I to but them which. an by old book ofmaps discoveredin theattic?Somewhere therehas been alongtheway. to Powell's articulate of recapitulation a singlemoment maynotbe thewaythatmostofus can describe the genesis of our interest geography.dabbler geology. however dignify intellectually. and Our shapeittowards subsequently in and that and and to too. uncritically.Perhaps greatest know tohavestudents is we the sadness should we pass who from classesunmotivated further our students in to the around them.faroff play. theteaching do. settlement in in to a a of answers patterns. LatinandGreek. inary ourteaching boring. am stillin enjoyment a newand I of answer.p. .from If I searchmyown life-history go as farback as an earlychildhoodmemory having I can of The Windin theWillowsread to me. . maybe a verypedestrian Was it the exhilaration a hill-top of or view. or. ought be a fundamental curiosity an educated if to contrives maketheworld unreal worse still. was probably It beforeI could readproperly an 1984 Geography© To others maynothappen school. much it in from the at but later life.the stimulus an overseasholiday.and who will to of a respond thestories thelately-travelled with bland only inconsequence. primary secondary.Cotopaxi Took me bythehand too died. happens quitenaturally inspite rather becauseof. viewto meis wholly No somedistant without satisfying For several elevation. Nevermind. incolleges isatleast stimulate inform curiosity thosewhom teach. very The for wallsthemselves become objects niceinspection have the of thesakeofthehistoric economic and I can no queries they raise. this Consider extract of a well-known whoseeducation schoolwas orientated towards at writings publicfigure. J. havetheprivilege represent.Cotopaxi Had stolenme away .a travel of book recommended an enthusiastic or teacher. stirred Or at least. 1983). puzzlements. From that moment nature my the of pleasure altered enhanced. Otherwiseit and pragmatic attachment whichwe have to thesubject. stem. traveller search evermore evermorequestions. however we curiosity both role moral socialpurposes. mybrother My father dreams Theypassed likefleeting I stoodwherePopacatapetl In thesunlight gleams I dimly heardthemaster's voice And boys. inexhaustible (Powell. rather togeography: than . investigate world laterlifewillbe sedentary tunnel-visioned. Then it one visually. I likea landscape with mountains.I suggest. and ofseeingthemap which was itsfrontispiece (Fig.Enoch Powellhas come Thus belatedly it to add geography hislove of theclassics.I saidto myself side geometric patterns thestone boundary must somecomprehensible be discoverable for explanation allthat". on before. 1) simple puts poem WhenI was butthirteen so or I wentintoa goldenland Chimborazo. questions.

Shepardcopyright by reproduced permission CurtisBrownLtd. 1.GEOGRAPHY 195 to Fig. H. 1938) of undertheBerne convention.Frontispiece The Windin theWillows(Grahame.. Map by E. Geography© 1984 .

the disparity livingstandards of acrosstheworld.) The zeal withwhichwe maypropagateindividual causes in our personal lives may not necessarilybe appropriateif carried direct into the classroom. "Where allblueanddimandone "Whatis beyond WildWoodagain?" the of or like and or seeswhat they maybe hills. well as to less responsiveness individual if ii) It is unfortunate geography stayson theRiverBank and in theWildWood and failsto of relatethem to the Wide World. full the Beyond WildWood the lies is EssentiallyThe Windin theWillows a ruralidyll and heresy amongst charm: it's askedtheMole. emphasised stance. I think was thatwhichled me to a fascination fuelledby the verse of JohnBetjeman). you.the particular matters situationsin the Middle East. was justa graphic to and a fantasy of reality. pp. 13-14). © Geography 1984 . the home of Mr. One of the strengths the subject is its holism. Recentwriting. And I have a similarconcernifsuch causes are espoused by local authority edict also. 1938. believe thatour is role as professionals a liberaleducationaltradition in requiresthatwe shouldstillstrive in forimpartiality mostof the contentious issueswhichwe handle. he or she sits the But thegeneralist needs to beware ofgrosssuperficiality ofindigestible and gazeteering. and deeply politicalit is to attempt explanations of issues. sincewhatis sauce fortheBrentgeese is equallysauce fortheSolihullgander. "And that's something "BeyondtheWildWood comestheWideWorld" if nor and beenthere I'mnever to doesn't either youorme. historical analysisin literary and a plea fora nostalgic of a period'sambivalenceto capitalism theWillowsas a mediation evocationofplace it return a feudalsociety.The recession thatis no reason forwithdrawing from consideration difficult the in the Britisheconomy.are significant it in the global context and are notto be avoided. to to as unproductive better teaching.But to me.howeveruncomfortable maybe to raise be. Though neutrality impossibleand some bias inevitable. I of the real landscape (later on it was plentifully circlessees The Windin structural understand thatthese days.its of its inter-connectedness. some ofitfrom of whathappenson theearth'ssurface. and deep in the heartof the Wild Wood. powerto make sense ofwholesituations itsdemonstration by In withhuman. CentralAmericaand South Africa. generalist uncomfortably. going. lead to muchargument The developingcentralism educationalpolicymayeventually of needs. at theage offour.Don'tever stimulates reflections: two Ratty'sattitude whichare on i) To ignorethe Wide World and to concentrate thosebitsof local geography is personallyappealing (and also probablyuncontroversial) to take a deeply regressive howcomplex has radicalperspectives. Toad Hall.196 GEOGRAPHY of individualcorroboration theresearchofBlaut and Stea (1974) and othersthatgraphicacy for of and can precede literacy be a potentform communication children longbeforetheygo is to school. whateverits graphicambiguities.I'venever matter. gotanysenseatall. the with it mapsand thenwith elements Badger. themand howeverill-prepared we withpractical classroomstrategies maypresently But in the contextof theseconsiderations. rememberbeing fascinatedby it and by the 's locationsof thehomesof the animalswho peopled thestory Mole's House. would offer caveat about the role of the I a and teacherin conducting discussionwhichinvolvesexposureof attitudes values in the a I classroom. is it cloud-drift?" only that said theRat. of is needed and one of geography's assets is its long tradition most valuable current and explanationof environsynthesisand eclecticismin developingboth description mentsasa whole.(Granarne. Ratty home on the River Bank. please".butmorean oblique sketch I picture.local withregional.nationalwithinternational. something thesmoke towns. you've to refer itagain. (I exceptopposition racismand sexismfromthis. relationships physical and a world now dominatedby specialists. You willnoticethatthefrontispiece notquitea map. perhaps mayn't.

whomtheysaw as enjoying moreinsular superiority numbers ableposition. perhaps budget Or Control of Speedway for membersthe the venue Odsal at Final World would realise the that proposed If ofourisland? itdid. much worseforus. Yorkshire flying pickets April in as and them thenorth at border. correspondence Warman Lyme of MissSamantha letter from articulate Regis. of to a in live world which space.only of radius theYorkshire (Before consign a of lie three which within 100-mile you city. inunpretentious. beyond part the to children from dominant needsrecedes for concern personal begin explore emphasis.I quote: can't been It was I at Whenwas school. academic The anxiety needing closely he this twice century. I think to its or of small sectors thesubject. 9th.to thelocal study map skills and Sheffield Barnsley. is. use.an was attributed "a greater patrols of in and I indirect taught theschools compliment.) of use in These threeexamplesare eloquentvariations the everyday and perception in its local geo-political geography itsuse inproviding orientation.GEOGRAPHY 197 In enlarging context geography serve whole the of we the Or One doesnot public. for evadedthepolicewaiting the miners' On Monday. ofeveryday explanations a of the and To experience worktowards understandingsucha dimension I believe. weshould. bear that isso out Stadium. BBC radioputit. Bradford. theyears child's fundamental of every school. protect News an of the columns Motor-Cycle carried On Wednesday. to which American of from He Bradford sought justify report University. time News ofMotor-Cycle arereadinschool more copies Telegraph. beeninvaded had which already to defend extensive frontier an land to needed haveconsiderable that believe contended this that madetheRussians always they and a in over the USA. life.Thisisthewaythegeneral themselves. miners' surprise of of to local knowledge thegeography thearea" . April11th. to lacktheopportunityexplore should educated and education no properly person religious 1984 Geography© . with a interview an academic carried major BBC TV Newsnight On Tuesday. significancetheglobal . wascritical a recent which he factors of The first many relative levelsofarmaments simple by weapon-counting.Thedimensions world and of the are and andtime. The world the beyond school to this I For thefirst three daysintheweekpreceding address. If for centres recreational desirable sceneanditsvalueindefining particular activity1 these for the then or interest appealtous as educators.certainly have so my geography oneof favourite stretcha to doesn't their Board. itsnodality relation the orso other speedway . inorder find term to the haveto search practical inexhaustibly 'geography' knows term the classrooms. television. John and as account captioned 'geography' presenter Tusaquestioned was totakeinto sought in had that madethepoint Russia great him aboutthis. they map about. far ona limb itdoesn't thinking She goeson to makethequitesophisticated that is notBradford's centrality general point it in tracks Britain to 40 in but is which inquestion. us notbecome sucheveryday between imprisoned usage we And content. weekly. they andtoconstructrelationship it.Teaching subject tc unwilling geography and the influences actions which in of but thegenerating interest a dimension receivers. usremember) perceive (ex-school-pupils public the the So and use theterm 'geography'."swept by Nottinghamshire to The like from west"(rather young the ability avoidthepolice Lochinvar). in out from is this an irrelevancy a minority-interest letmepoint that allprobability. determined keepmyears in radioand use and eyes open forthe everyday of theword'geography' newspapers. so much worse are contexts notoneswhich let us. instead. respectively dominant history heritage geography.take it. dismiss application untraditional It to and should usageofthe Geographic. ofthespirit. isthegeneral stopworrying learn lovetheNational of the the that idea ofgeography represents greatest hopefor continuation itinthecurricon of not should be theforcing an unwanted ulum. subjects. when theinfant In education. ifwe do notrecognise links in Let we andwhat do inschools. April10th. or Guardian the than either Times.

in is But what of the image of the subject? Are we popular because a CSE in geography is perceived as a 'softoption'? Our colleague. geography I also doubt thevalidity theviewwhich of is of or thatthestudy geography history suggests the than bornfrom rather acceptable from age of 14 onwards.just as do geography and geography inmyjudgement. Whether future otherpressuresnow current theeducationsystem. 1983). geography economics'as ifthey able does no serviceto education.This is an improvement seventh on place in therank orderin 1961.geography thedustbin thecurriculum . April 1984 Geography© . But.norto thecredibility theauthors"(House of Commons of Education. muchmoreproblematic. 3rd. In 16 examinations (O-level and CSE) itstandsequal third availablefullstatistics2. 1982). 60-61). geographyand economics serve to give the pupil an insight his own) and man's place in his environment.Gotfull marks thegeography today. thatpopularfigure current of has some interest. .though to many other not history. Valuable thoughtheimpulseto inter-related integrated workis. provided literary recentevidence forus from secretdiary(Townsend. has teachers. us as Lawtonreminded inhis 1983Presidential Space and timeare inter-related. The stateof thesubjectinschools But if we are to justify school geography the future. Journalof Geography(publishedby the NGCE and revitalised underthe new editorship). but it coheres throughsomething more than a convenienceof (in adjacent content. we do so by reference a for can to observable quality?By reference its generalhealthand vigourin schools at the present to time?In whatstateis geography? Weak and ailing?Vibrantand healthy? If examinationstatistics are any clue.198 GEOGRAPHY those dimensionsin a coherentand sustainedway. The lumping together suchdifferent and werein some wayinterchangesubject areas as 'history. havingdroppedone place in popularity the last twenty witheconomicsnow greatly in entry numbers thanit was in years. up to the age of 16." (de Souza. Could thathappen here? Adrian Mole.pp. stronger in 1961. 3). secondaryschools. 1984. and fifth the will trends favour subject. Professor Address (Lawton. almostceased to exist. and biologyalso. inadequateto believe that a timetableslot labelled 'Humanities'in the secondaryschool will necessarily identifyand clarifythese dimensionsin a satisfactory way and give insightinto them. is dangerously and literature.given the place in 1971.accordingto themostrecently only mathsstandout. in test Yes! I amproud report I got to that Friday. At A-level it currently standsat eighthmostpopularexamination in entry. Science and ArtsCommittee. well ahead ofthefield.p. . thetwin basicsofEnglishand ity. it science. It was encouragingto see the House of Commons' Select Committee on the SecondarySchool make the same point in subjectingthe DES (1981) document The School Curriculum analysis. on commented thesituation Americanschools:"At theelementary in level. I viewwithconcern that and of whichseeks to use 'Humanities'to supplantthe teaching impetusin curriculum planning or history.a decisionoften pragmatism principle in hard-pressedsituations.In my opinion. 1982. Knowledgeabout theworldis notgainedina particular the Hirstian sense).In especiallyby specialistgeography is of . His references his to at geographycome coincidentally the veryend of the SpringTerm. the positionis tolerable.thatfatiguing period whichwe have all recently through passed. and history and do and geography overlap.if well taught.Paragraph22 of the DES reporthad said: to into the natureof "History." The Select Committee society (including commented:"We regardthiskindofstatement precisely thekindwhich as of (or government forthatmatter informed of any person)shouldavoid . Frenchhas droppedbelow it in popularity thattime.Relative to has its since 1961. instrucrecently tionin geography. geography improved shareofthemarket withbiologyin popularsubjects. the editorof the Americanteachers'journal. That seems to me to be thephilosophical form of grounding school geography. . aged 13% . both subjects are necessary.

And what it must lead towardsis active bothin thefieldand in theclassroom(yes. however can theyexercise any meaningful understanding themselvesas global citizens?If theyhave no idea of who is in theThirdWorld and who is not. isstill this He madabout Sunday. interested .. is But a quiz competition theright place forthatkindofbasicwork. in chaotic resources a totally department appalling in to It is not difficult postulatethefateof geography thesetwoschoolsin theyearsahead. in islike-mindedpurpose . I doubt if we can build a stable or satisfactory place in the school or curriculumby constructing so full of issues or the hoped-forclarification syllabuses transmission values and attitudesthat there is littletime forthe developmentof any of the we knowledgeabout theworldinwhich live. if will geography make by changes. whether happyabout thestateofthesubjectin schools. that On the other hand. cameround morning. . department contract staff 1984 Geography© . nothing of of thesubjectin each school and bythe efforts its health or lose itsway by the individual who will enable membersof staff In the first school. life asked themhow theywere finding in theschoolsin whichthey as me. as frankly theydare. how can theybe made to care about therape ofitsforests? was a thiskindof concernwhichled theGA intosetting theWorldwise Quiz competition year up and interest.. geography and to tell were teaching. ifitwere instatedas thecentre-piece thegeography bottom layer in the pyramidof buildingblocks. classroomsthatdoes happen.and gradually. poll. ifevera department with courses it me coursefailedto prepare foranything was to teachout-of-date regional . the in moribund teaching in will size. I to Pandora. IfthePGCE it needsa goodshake-up is this but notbeenherelong. arepleased isbuoyant the our to I'mpleased report department us makes the and course our14-18 O-level/CSE lower-school jointsyllabus Project developed 6th most is and year. tried take 5th. however. the different teaching styles. geography's popularity practitioners. In manygeography But it doesn't happen in all in schools.It wouldbe unfortunate is What it represents the of curriculum.and geography In maintain a strongpresence in the school's total curriculum. will to will leave to be replacedbyothers. Ifpupilsdon'tknowtheland from oceans on of a map..I stillbelieve in gamesand learning participatory and studyof the investigation simulations). itwillremain style. the second school. whichexplains its presentstrength the curriculum. educationalwaters.it is notsurprising Nigel and manyotherscan't get interested. who have been on the students Earlier thisyear. April Nigel hismind herbytalking I off about Norwegian the leather but somehowcouldn't him get industry. I wroteto over a hundredof myformer I PGCE course in Cambridgeduringthe past ten years. theyfelt butat leasta toe dippedinto testthetemperature a veryunsystematic It was. towards the developmentof self-motivated relevantnational discussionand debate about current and towardsinformed environment. . I know about Norwegian the leather nothingnowdon't industry. If geographyis like that. Unprotected theumbrellaof thecore curriculum.how can theybe once of concernedforitswelfare?Iftheyhave no knowledge whattheAmazon environment It was and how itfunctioned..It was good to findthatmostof thereplieswere positive. Amongstotherthings.The cloak of anonymity blessedly somewherein Britain: fromanotherstudent .in many and global issues.thedepartment continue innovate. of the current For instance: with recently our we at moment. I suppose. schools.The othermembers thedepartment up-to-date although all have . flame a Thank for letter. in most option popular form Geography alsothe option the4th 5th popular we and are of at A-level.GEOGRAPHY 199 Thereis out I of on twenty oftwenty!wasalso complimented theneatpresentation mywork. department coversthisresponse It is not all wine and roses. it and ithas been gratifying see how quickly has receivedsupport to ago. and it is that. havestirredsomewhat dwindling ofenthusiasm I have you you your one..

saw it as a element in a modern education.This is no timeforindolenceor faint-heartedness. thecurrent in seemsto have had relatively vocal friends few debate.theSecondaryExaminations Councilhas recently community).able and nimbleenough to maintainitsbalance forthemostpart. thateducationis muchmorethana it it preparationforworkand thata debate whichnarrows to thatover-riding premiseis one whichseriously diminishes otherlong-cherished concerns individuals be preparedboth for to forpersonal responsibility activecitizenship and within democratic a society.he spoke of theplace of geography the curriculumin his 1946Presidential Address: post-war I therefore youto maketheboldclaimthat want is geography an essential ofeducation part whatever forms education takeandthere benoquestion droppinginany can of it considered may course study. It has remained relativelyinvisiblein most of the debates.and because the Webbs and Hewins. It was fractionally DES The School Curriculum as of (DES. for at But theplainfactremains thatconcernaboutgeography notso farbeen a majorissuein has the debate about 'education fornationalefficiency'. that intelligent the must understand important theseare. . geography in or around the corridors power to represent or indeed to represent view which of the it. supplementary subject on the last page of A Framework theSchool Curriculum for more visiblein the subsequentpolicydocumentpublishedby the 1980). at Should we make such claims now? Do we make them? And if so. perhapspartly a result GA representations on the matter. Sir Cyril Norwood was Presidentof the GA. 1981). represented a latersupplementary thoughexcellently mentionas a paper (Geography Committeeof HMI. and made bya figure considerable of educationalinfluence thattime. or the secretof successis to stepforward And so itshouldbe forus momentum.howeverinadequate thebalancingpoles provided. is inmy of it more than or opinion. Author of one of the major educational reportsof twentieth-century in Britain. agreedto includegeography one of thesubjectsto be initially as in to considered relation grade-related criteria assessment 16+. highly as reason. . at Geography. Walkingthetightrope Given the current whicheffectively situationin the debates about thecurriculum. began with the James Callaghan Ruskin College speech in 1976. the firstDirector. 1981). Of course. © Geography 1984 . to freezeand do nothing. boldlyand maintain or on geographyteachers. Indeed. walks the tightrope present. geography treads a precarious path. it had only a perfunctory (DES. Bold claims indeed. would benefit and othersubjectsmoregenerally i. important a foreign language a science. Sir Haiford Mackinderwas one of the early significant Directorsof the LSE. do we make them effectively? In contrast. A subject which has incontrovertible value? Or a subjectof little importance? first clutchof HMI papers which was excluded fromthe much-publicised Geography in reportedon the 11-16curriculum. freezing the rope .butuncomfortably aware thatthesedaysno safety net hangs below to break the fall ifa false step is made.e.200 GEOGRAPHY in of geographywillbe eased fromthetimetable favour thoseoptionswhichgathersupport and enthusiasm whatever for otherreasons. 1946). theLSE in the included geographyas a subject forstudyas a counterto the outmodedcurriculum the of older universities. it was again excludedfrom first but the batchof subjectsto be consideredby the Secretaryof State in relationto the 16+ examinations (and thatdespiteexcellentand the education progressivesets of criteriapreparedand widelyagreed within geographical On theotherhand. so to speak.forthesimple person abouttheworld and thecountry thedistrict which is set to livehislife and in he something (Norwood. In 1946. This is in striking to contrast a similar debate whichwenton in thiscountry theyearsfollowing Boer War.the secretof the tightrope walkeris notto look nervously backwards overhisshoulder.

its within the charactermayeventually depend on who validatesit. currently of A second initiativerelates to the fast proliferation TVEI Projects (Technical and in areas. but much more significantly bodies whichhave theirorigins(and their Departmentof Education and Science and from and the financialresources) outside the education system the Departmentof Industry Services Commission.There skillsmaybe specifically includedin future thatgraphicacy hopes are also opportunitiesfor geographersto teach in the 'off-the-job Training/Education' sectionof theproposedcourses. whichcome thereis a need to respondpromptly particular curricular initiatives to Firstly. ifthese are implemented. is probablyimpractical ignorethemor actively oppose them. geographywould stand to gain more than manyother subjects if the curform includeAS-levelsalongsideA-levels. fromsources outside the discipline. of we butin theeighties focushas changed.Let me develop thema little further. but if the more optimistic pronouncements to be believed there is room for the workwithin Projectto broadenthescope of "Being better to equipped geographers offer to enter the world of work". there are reservations are school. a Studies' section for geographersto make considerablecontributions. Some regardtheschemeas narrowing sociallydivisive.and indeed in tension can make important but withthe above initiatives.The debate is now aboutwhether should the geography or should notbe taught all. images. The need to respondto curriculum initiatives in been conservative its in Althoughthe curriculum England and Wales has traditionally structural evolution. there is no doubt that we live in times in which an unprecedented come school. geographers contributions. TVEI is a five-year Vocational Education Initiative) certain by pilotschemefunded and vocationaleducationforsome 14-18year of the theMSC to stimulate provision technical of about its re-introduction selectionin the secondary olds. recent articleby a a practical Bulletin Sheila Nuttall(1984a) in theILE A Geography examplefrom pilot gives CPVE course.manymoreneed to do so. Such initiatives externalto the individual amountof change is beinginitiated fromthe not only frompressure groups of various kinds.thereis a need to be concernedabout the terms. and the Education StandingCommitteeof the G A also has the matter underactivereview.forinstance.To wave back thetide of MSC moneyis to behave like Canute. it is thiswhichneeds to give us the impulseto walk forward the tightrope. of One importantinitiativeis the rapid developmentof a Certificate Pre-Vocational Education (CPVE) as a 17+ qualification. Some individualgeographyteachershave already become involved.3 16+ and AS-level proposals are perhapscurrently overshadowed.Whateversuspicionswe may have of such Manpower to it initiatives.Thirdly. of checklists skills. Again.and thatactionis needed to face those on challenges. thatimage in realistic image of the subject and to be activein propagating of thereis a need to develop the integration resources within community scholarsand the of . Willtherebe a schoolgeography thefuture? at in In the second halfof thisaddressI wantto suggest withgeographical thatthoseconcerned education face a numberof immediatechallenges.integration themes.The nature of the common core of courses in advocated in theMansell Report(FEU. school leaversincludesa component The Youth TrainingScheme (YTS) forunemployed thereare whichspecifiesthattraineesshould learn about 'the worldoutsideemployment'.threecrucial teacherswho have trainedas geographers.GEOGRAPHY 201 A schoolgeography thefuture? for The past decade gave us theluxury debatingthekindof geography wishedto teach. But thereare opportunities Social and Environmental Studies')and in the 'Additional proposed core courses('Industrial. to was widenedin thesixth riculum © Geography 1984 . Initiatives. 1977) challenges detailthedominanceofsubjectand based courses in thissphere.Secondly.

You maythink. A recentinfamous 'Stop theWeek' radioprogramme savagedthesubjectin variousways. we cannotdo this. a goeson in theclassroom.but opportunistically active in seeking to teach cross-curricula modules fornew courses.202 GEOGRAPHY of The GA has soughtthrough last fewmonthsto encouragethe Secretary State to the We within curriculum. needs yourcontribution. perhapsthrough lifespentin the Doldrums. What other subject offers such a minimum speculation. opined Robert Robinson.This. and governors based on their viewpoints expressedbyparents past also sometimes reveala viewof thesubject experiences. GermaineGréer on TV was commenting place. totally © Geography 1984 . how can geographyteachersmake it so boring". to be surethatsome things has must come beforeothersand to give examplesof workprogression. thatit is byno meanseasy forgeographers do that. imply not be realised: of and The curriculum should relevant therealworld tothepupil's to be experience it.unguardedasides byhead teachers. it The need to attend theimageof thesubject to A second immediate comesin theneed to attend theimageofthesubjectin the to challenge external on lightof thecurrent pressures it. need to be in of we not jealously defensive.but at least some of Sir KeithJoseph'sotherrecentutterances directionwill thattheworst fearsofthosewho abhorvocationalnarrownessor central . highhopes.but we do know enough about children'smentaldevelopment and about the map of concepts whichthe 'new geography' helpedto layout forus. . We can also look forward fromthe GA Geography. one gathered.such limitless of savannas of unleavenedfact?"MiltonShulmanand Laurie Taylorjoined in withtheir usual brandofjocular iconoclasmand itwas left philosopher to to RogerScruton entera defenceof thesubject.weaimto use and teachexisting inways which out bring their practical inliving working. Lettersto newspapers.rather thanleave itto be belatedly stitched together some bureaucratic by hacks from back roomin thesubject.largely. in the midstof one of those chatshowswhichdependon personalanecdoteleavenedbyhyperbole entertain to late-night thestudio audience. to "The world'sa wonderful Only a fewdays ago. in schools whichis at best naive.4 subjects I seek neither prescription what a nor for but syllabus. of "Geography rankslow in the hierarchy acceptablesubjects".do we have a If subject wortha name? It would be as well if the most informed and innovative in thinkers geography their set mindsto thistask. I do.and inmaking hoc contributions from considerable resource ad the of the geography curriculum.7 Another certainexternalpressurein the near future the proposal to identify is specific objectives forsubjects at particular ages .Schools and Industry whichis just beinglaunchedwith Project.a cause also espoused withvigourby Sir Keith as to Joseph. because hissister was married a geographer.5 It seems to me thatthementality thelaageris inappropriate thissituation.The GA bookleton thecontribution geography 17+ courses(just one of a whole of to fromthe last fewyears) is essentialpreliminary sequence of usefulpublications readingto those who ventureaway fromO-level and A-level teaching thefirst for time(Geographical withconfidence a substantial to contribution Association. the about theplace ofgeography make some kindofpublicstatement have had littlesuccessso far. Already the considerablework of the 16-19Project in broadeningout fromits original A-level intentions and exemplarsforwork in this has provided backgroundinformation field6. a national newframework skill within which professional the commitment free-ranging ofourteachers and canbe puttobesteffect. a "geographyteachersseem consumedby some inwardrage.The EducationStanding a of Committee theG A seeks to tackle thattaskwithimmediacy. and at worst. 1982). erroneousand archaic.

If a parents'eveninggives an students good thingswhichgeographersand geography for opportunity subjects to displaytheirwares.It is well-known wisdom. allows her to changethe 1984 Geography© . Charlie twicerefuses. howeverbriefly Sizewell. we figure in featurespaces or the lettercolumnsof nationalnewspapers. need to let the local radio stationor local paper interesting in of know. we need to make sure thata concise memorandum on the desk next extendedto visita lessonor two aside . media. taken aback. Is it rather not taken. There are oftencolumnsor minutes blankspace to fillat thelastminute thelocal schoolshave highpriority.onlytwo of thesewere specifically fromgeographers. of in our have good evidencewithin own academicdiscipline recentyearsof theimportance and oflandscapesinorderto comprehend Ifwe need to understand imagesofthecity images. If students(from primarythroughto sixth-form level) are doing we local projectsand fieldwork.000 London Airportat Stansted. urgency. too do we need to pay attention theimagesof intellectual humanactivity as perceived by other people. imagination hearsay.we show too littleinterest issueswhichcapturetheheadlinesand publicimaginsome of thespatial and environmental ation.To have thembelatedlyreportedto our such commentsand to respondpositively of but committees monthslateris betterthannothing. I wishthat couldfind collective to deputeat least monitor and to of one selected officer thenationalorganisations systematically exhaustively to them. smacking unsavouryactivity. to so and lifestyle.Is it thatno regional imbalance.sizingup thesituation. is about the subject. but their was invisible. will at we the whether nationalor local level. Lucy. The subject has lacked a David Bellamy or an disciplines in too infrequently the so Attenboroughto capture the public imagination far.the need to stand together. but it is not necessarily We of sharp advertising practice. A recently formed of joint committee theRGS. taskwhichis needed forthe At the local level we all need to be alertto the publicrelations do. her tinyclenched fistunderCharlie's nose.and an invitation to the morning refute murmured the followingweek. curtly. muchneeds to be done with in to Some groupsin public lifeare assiduousin responding comments themedia. we belatedly are becomingaware thatthepublic image does matter. and good newsstoriesfrom to a tactics itis merely strategy ensurethatwhen All thisis notspecial pleadingor unfair in in of decisions about the future geography schools (and particularly staffing geography are takenbynon-geographers.)The case put bythe Northof EnglandRegional Consortium participation to of regionalairports correct case urging an inherently greaterdevelopment geographical engineersand accountants.GEOGRAPHY 203 that It is not enoughto shrugtheseoff witha sighand surmise thatitis fortunate we know betterthanthosewho make thecomments. to or interested informed advise or be partof this geographerin the Northwas sufficiently were notgrasped. willbe approachedon good evidenceand noton they schools) and recollection. Charlie.Sellafield.There is of thefount geographical whichperiodically invigorates special ingredient one storyin which Lucy goes to Charlie Brown and politelyasks him if she can change thenthrusts channelson theTV.(Other geographers may have been activebehindthe scenes. not usuallyproductive fruitful reply. theIBG and theG A has begunto address but itselfto the general problemsof the image of geography. intotheproposalto buildthethird to documentswere submitted thepublicenquiry 2.As the impactof the Taylor Report and the 1981 Education Act bring outsidersintomoresignificant discussion individual of schoolcurricula (and evento influence and controlthem)thelayman'sviewcannotbe dismissed lightly.in an area centralto publicconcern? the The need to integrate subject'sresources is thatthe Peanuts comic-strip the Thirdly.initiatives thatopportunities I consortium? cannotbelieve so. arcane and somewhat to is The need for image-making sometimesthought be a highly so.was argued by economists. it is worththe extra time and troubleto some of theclassroom syllabusand to demonstrate prepare a sheet of A4 on the geography showssignsof vagueness If the Headteacher or the Directorof Curriculum methodologies.as faras I could discover.Stansted.

in-service is in more the provision becoming sparse someareasandso theneedfor GA itself todevelopbranch initiatives within of reach every school in becomes more Indeed. an 'us' . we also respectable.p.and can. purpose to achieved. stimulate towards And if. whatkindofgeography itworth still however. become in committees working and andtoparticipate turning tosupport branch local activity. askacademic we to toschools. makecommon we disciplines we on of which seek not but operate a broadbase."Whycan'tyouguys organised that?" a time economic get for eachofustoshelter in it andunprecedented contractioneducation. iscounter-productive that to inourstock or room go on working and trying pretend the quietly. relevant. all needto recall body inSheffield. pressing.'notwaving drowning' .to givetimeto helpwithin-service of teachers' courses. theexistence otherwise a GA branch determine whether notnewinitiatives geographical or in education taken sustained. thepurposes theAssociation of towards and ends. I amnotconvinced we they it us. the a needfor GA. schools. others lackthe may bythetideinthenext that theenergy savethat to But which on inherited appointment. membership theGA has risen bothof thelasttwoyears. like five and can'tyouguys organised that?". years increasing provision help andservice increasing the numbers non-specialist of who be geographers may calleduponto teachthesubject part their as of other in duties schools which desperately are to trying spread andre-deploy resources. Evengreater effort be production salesofitspublications more neededinthecoming tosustain andalsotomake that totrain. organised seeing and cause with other occasionson which should. alarm there many are I do notimply else thatgetting is everyone as hostile.on theone hand.on theother hand. cannot cogent in activities whether co-ordinated localteachers in-service and participate localgroup by or the of that There signs statutory are centres. Itmay be theframe theessence thesubject to preserve within curriculum. geographers fulfil responsibilities to the 'seed-corn' the subject. the that The roleofthevoluntary We professional is quitecrucial. that can work fully colleagues inschoolsis intellectually and But considered.where localadviser the for is at responsible geography nota geographer all and carries other itis or of will which many responsibilities.a six-and-a-halfGA is nota 'them' ina lofty but tucked eyrie away 'us'. and have will than doubled. too. someareas. 201)evocative sary a "cordiality geographers" Professor phrase to cohere the discipline aroundits essentials. presuming a communityscholars teachers left teach © Geography 1984 of Teachinga geography thefuture . individual so to ask conferences. well-informed. positive practical down sucked One hasa worrying vision wellmeaning. teaching the future? Whatsortof geography bestservethepurposes theschoolsin 1985and will of that of and is to it? beyond. getting or commitment but decade. critically need to encourage and at solidarity mutual support the local level. organisations their is A coalition geographic of and particular viewpoints. examineits practices make them to and to it immediate action. working opinion activity necesin of Mead's(1982.204 GEOGRAPHY his examines ownspread As her Charlie channel. and of on thousand-strong The health thesurvival theAssociation depends directly our in involved ownwillingness lift sights to to our the and beyond immediate parochial. are and We should. Lucysits down watch. usshapethefuture in is The question remains.we must schoolteachers utilise resources their the that inhigher so education provide. of enthusiastic individualists. get fingers muses "Why In of like diffficulty Exactly. I takesomecomfort thefact from in that a time severe of in cutbacks teacher the of in The numbers. needto takea fatalistic let before shapes attitude towards events. Giventhe current on I of conceive a more reason geography for teachers to pressures schools. through voluntary organisation a GA branch. think. groups. theIBG andthe Therewasnever greater in in geography also to include within the RGS to drawtogether common and purpose from whatever discussion other for which share common a concern thesubject. cupboard tutorial bellsarenotringing.

It seems important.Anotherchallengeis the need to establish in rational and harmoniousrelationships the abrasivecontextof the global village.contemplated like the Club of Rome.thatmostgifted film-makers. Our whole history an exploring as nationpreparedus fora global and mercantile to perspectivein national education. cycles) theuse ofsimulation (such as thelong-term held on 'Geographyand the As long ago as 1970. I respect memory any and his work greatly.I stillfindthewordsprovocative: an of ..in theyearsfollowing introducof tion of national education by the ForsterAct of 1870. a of When geography the came intothecurriculum schools.GEOGRAPHY 205 The dominantthemeof thisconference an exploration thefutures branchesof the of is of to themselves subject and of elementsof it. sheltered the in in to bring temptation dwell thepast. Since we no longer have an the need to knowabout theworldaroundus? Or are there empire.(Grierson. and othersmoreexpertthanme are addressing and substantive within generalframe.fight itand visit shouldknow for it. knowthatas I look out ofmy are even ifitsmanifestations at different present.itis thatwe shouldteachinschoolsand colleges. of excitement intellectual speculationamongst werea quotationfrom in wordswhichI evermanagedto getintoprint book form. a imperialheritage.a conference so-called Delphi techniques. 1980) and HermanKahn. The first were and still documentaries whosepre-war of JohnGrierson. who would markdown I As a youngcollege lecturer examinedwitha venerableprofessor his in workwhichhad theelementofwhathe called 'crystal-gazing' it. It is the teachingof possible a purpose and practicality geographies of the future. with to It is almosta clichéthesedaysforgeographers speakoftheworldas highly dynamic.intheenjoyment learning. economic. But theyshould these processes to be generally considered. would be sure to findthe "the savannasoffact". and the supplementary rationaleforgeography (that whichderivesfrom circumstanceratherthan philosophy)must change with it.agricultural. covering sizeable partoftheworld. the Empire added a practicalutility the reasons for whichitshouldbe taught. governments the and influence future. and developed.Iftheteachers especial is all to vitalities thepasttogivelife thepresent. contemplate There are already books and journals whichcontemplatethe futurein various ways. profession It has. process of for therefore.. and is itselfa mainspring the World Conservation Strategyalready consideredin thisconference.There are also an increasingnumberof organisations of can techniqueswhichpotentialforecasters use. of boththelength myuncutgrassand thegrowing contemplate gardenwindowand gloomily of rustsignson thebodywork mycar.andeventofeelat home it. modelling.serveinit. Teaching insomesenses. and a growing prophetslikeToffler devoted to futuresconsideration.8 addressed itself directly is workifthere to be to need to add one generalperspective their I suggestthatgeographers of about the geography the 1990s. Times change.tosome extent. about it. wantto make justone generalplea I this specific topics .and is also important multi-racial now thatBritainitself a moreobviously is society a questionto whichtheGA in thelastyear. or MIT or not remain a rathermystical provinceof organisations can We need to make it clear thatindividuals or multi-national companies. thisis by alreadyansweredin one form thosewho propagatepeace education.Britain and itwas naturalthatthosewhowouldlead it.There. charges backwards is notwell. Robert Robinson for one. © Geography 1984 . are geographicalresourcesof thehighest quality.butiftheir of emphasis suchas tomake all look their 1966).9 and of number networks (1970. it was set withinthe contextof an had an empireacrosstheseas. theconsideration data and theextrapolathe Kondratieff tionof trends . urban and industrialspheres in physical. forecasts the resultsof equally the subject forstudy. iswell. geography 'thefuture. vegetational.but I cannot thinkthatI share (or ever shared) his view about the is work: forthe future deeply embedded in the of undesirability speculativeor predictive I time-scales. a is.does it diminish practical so not new challenges?The challengeto stewardthe environment thatit remainsintactfor of futuregenerationsis one such spur.

iii) ifwe countthepeople living thefavelas. .For example. importance thefuture of the moreand moreon it.. 35-36). 1975. Tokyo. age of universal the the contact. theshanty-towns. These are just a rangeof the examplesin which.the prospectof the futureinescapablyconfronts Particularissues whichfight timeand space on thecurriculum environmental for education. as yet.educationfor education. all theyoungand ambitious had longsincemoveddownsouth(to populatetheshanty towns on Hampstead Heath and Clapham Common) . age of information.. as the Great Aunt had so oftenpointed out cities like the in infrastructuredecay.rather thanthetraditional stretching pattern. thathishorizonshad grownnarrower narrower .as thefollowing impinges examplestestify: The traditional now divisions industrial of and tertiary) i) occupation(primary. David Edgar's bleak viewof for Britainin 1997 might stimulus .it is possibleto experiment visionsof the innovatein thisarea at variouslevels.a muchmore ecological relationships...might themselves moreconstructively less contenbe and peace. But some of the more highly-coloured of futureoftenleave much to be desired in sound scholarship and in theirunderstanding do On thewhole. the so-called 'coffin-area' ii) The industrialgeographyof the UK has long identified between London and Liverpool as the industrial axis of the country.pp. .theworld'smajorcities. relationships speculation.and sixteen and Sunscope (both announcing details of a competition)and quiz games and Mirrorscreen werebroadcasting winning the numbers a lottery of Expresseramaand The Daily Mailout(which 4Huh-communications!' Harold thought. . usefully provideus witha provocative . givewayto theharsh 1984 Geography© . would be a morerealistic data. in and some urban areas already exceed those whichnationalstatistical list digestsconventionally as the largest. . geographers not fallintothattrap.ifwe teach about thepresent school and in us. surrounLiverpool and Bradford farfrom European ports.no centralised control. now have to shift thinking from Bristolto Cambridge.' (Edgar. Peter Hall's London 2000 was an early example here of the intriguing contribution can make (Hall.As 'high-tech' we our towards dominant a 'sun-belt' replacesheavyindustry. And as we currently of teach the geography thepresent.206 GEOGRAPHY a Future' produceda stimulating of papersfrom distinguished set groupofacademics(Abler and et ai 1975). Survey vessels which monitorthe oceans warn us with that and increasing regularity thecapacityoftheseas is finite theremaysoon come a day when theconsequencesof pollutionare irreversible. . category alreadydominantnumerically manyWestern in societies(Abler etal.. theIndependent ControlConsole seemedto be stuckon channelchangeand so Harold went severalsnookerchannelsand some cricket theracing from and live through Munich. We teach of London.thebustees. theworlda pulsating electronic Yet somehow. New York.their ded by bleak countryside were unviablein the contemporary world. 1984). tiouslyconsideredwithin geographical Orwell's Nineteen Four has been muchquoted thisyear. year2000 ifpresenttrends and iv) We use thesea as hunters nomadsand yetalso stilluse itas a bottomless inwhich pit to tip the world's garbage.he spider'sweb with Tokyoas nearas Tottenham. processingand usinginformation). college classrooms. development this context. of 'down-to-earth' approach.perhapswe shouldsearch Eightyforitssuccessorin thespeculative literature theyearsahead.. based on knowledgeabout the presentand an understanding current basis forforward and trends.. (those people category is That fourth transmitting.. secondary ..and therecame a point wherenatural sentiment must realities modern of times.In theThirdWorld. 1963). . and . felthimself. Mexico Citywillbe the mosthighly populatedurbanarea by the continue. stimulating geographers and curriculum Since we have.quaternary have a fourth who earn a livingby generating. there was this kind of ghost economy in countiesto sustainthe ageingpopulationas theironce greatcities remaining the northern crumbledquietly around them .

NorthScituate. Sheffield: try. A.) (1984) Geography. DES (1981) The School Curriculum. Conclusion Thorn Gunn. distanthorizons. D. and Sommer. The Secretary State forEducation and Science. Janelle. de Souza.let us at least notwalkbackwards is Geographyhas experiencedevolutionsinceitsearliestdays. 7.. Marxism Today. and The sustainedstudy a number possiblegeographies theshort-term middle-term of of of will encouragethestudent considerthoseaspectsof thefuture whichare desirable future to into and those whichare not. R. in an age in whichthefuture survivalof the planet is being called intoquestionby both physicaland humanagency. I. intoit. It needs to be "in motion"in orderto negotiatethe immediate challenges of the present . 4.the journal of forecasting and planning.They are not absolute predictions but it is possible to whatmustor mustnotbe from eventstowards themand to establish extrapolate present-day done ifthevisionsare notto become reality. Hopefully can suchgeography teaching vitaliseschoolstudents which afflicts fatalism an interest their in own futures. NOTES locationsis of in 1. See for example Futures. 8. In urging I thatwe teacha geography thefuture. of 83(1). J. an articlein The Times. Publications emanating from the GA's Working Partyon 'Geographical Education fora Multi-CulturalSociety'are expectedin the Autumnof 1984.G. M.February of 5. Journal Geography.: DuxburyPress. D. (1975) Human Geography in a ShrinkingWorld. I doubtifit has an "absolute.1984).thatis hardly surprising.. (1984) "Editorial . of Schools and IndusCorney. 9. 1984. in 1984. The Secretaryof State forEducation and Science.inwhich rest One is nearerbynotkeepingstill.GEOGRAPHY 207 It seems to me that extractsof that kind are teachingresourceswhichcan provideboth stimulusand objective for study. The work of the WorkingPartywhichpreceded the to Project is shortly be published(Corney. 3.wrote a poem called "On the on Move" (Gunn. Geography© 1984 DES (1980) A Framework the School Curriculum: for London: HMSO. If thefuture unavoidable.. 1957). geographyneeds to develop on as perspectives the future well as in thepast and present to look onwardsto new and "One is nearerby notkeepingstill". Philbrick. 24-29. Proposals for Consultation. 28(1). . in whichto rest" . But beyond that.. (1974) "Mapping at theage of three". Journal Geography. 73(7). . pp. and Stea.J.9thJanuary Courses in the 6.and at best to Reachingno absolute. London: HMSO. 5-9. and from DES StatisticalBulletin 10.publishedbi-monthly Butterworths by of inco-operationwiththeInstitute theFutureUSA. do notmeanto saythatwe shouldgive of of of up teachingthegeography thepast: butwe shouldmakethatpasttheservant thefuture. See Geographyand PreEmployment Form and The Geographical Componentof Sixth17+ Pre-employment Courses(Schools Council 16-19 Project. pp. .Even on thetightrope. D. speakingon ITV's 'Weekend World'. the English poet domiciled in California. p. London: HMSO. Comparisons are taken trom tables in Statistics of Education 1961-1978. It is about travelling theWestCoast: At worst one is in motion. 1983). mayhelpto assuagethepremature and largesectionsof teenagelifein the 1980s.and in viewof thechangesin But theworld about whichit teaches. (1984) "1977".Mass. As Sheila Nuttall(1984b) stressesin a paper in the 'Geo Notes' sectionof thisissue of Geography. 3. 1982 on EnglishSchool Leavers 1980-81. Abler. (ed. The interest the geography sporting developed in the forthcoming likely to be further Journalof SportsGeography. REFERENCES A. The GeographicalAssociation. Edgar. but has in I have triedto suggest thisaddressthatgeography an essenceto cherish.we mustsurelyrespondto thatultimate challenge. Blaut.

place and time". (1984a) "ABC: the geographer'scontribu18.London: Methuen.A. A.Sheffield: in GeographyCommitteeof HMI (1981) Geography the School Curriculum 11-16.Science and ArtsCommittee(1982) The SecondarySchool Curriculum and London: HMSO. (1963) London 2000. (1982) The SecretDiary of Adrian Mole Aged 133A. (1980) The ThirdWave. New York: Random House. pp. Shopping and the Retail Scene using Goad Plans CLOSING DATE . pp. S. Geographyto 17+ Courses. 382-393. (1982) "The discovery Europe". (1938) The Windin theWillows. E. tion". (1983) "Findingout". (ed.London: Seeker & Warburg. pp. R.69(3). 193-207. 193-202. (1939) SelectedPoems 1916-1936. Sunday TimesReview. 1-9. (1946) "Address to the Geographical Association". E. Hall. in Grierson. Gunn. 31(1). 29-32. Geography. Grahame. London: Faber & Faber. S.London: DES.S. Geography. Goad Ltd. Toffler. (1970) FutureShock. R.London: Collins. (1966) "A mindforthe future". House of Commons Education. education: Nuttall. Examinations. T. W. (1949) Nineteen Eighty-Four. Turner. Hardy. of Geographical Association (1982) The Contribution GA. FEU (1977) A BasisforChoice: Report a StudyGroup of on Post-16 PreCourses. Nuttall. pp. ÍLEA GeographyBulletin. Orwell. London: FurEmployment therEducation Curriculum Review and Development Unit. Sir C. (1957) The Sense of Movement. (1984b) "New courses in further the geographer's contribution".67(3).) Griersonon Documentary. G. Toffler. (1983) "Space. E. Powell.68(3).208 GEOGRAPHY of Mead. 18a Salisbury Square. K. Lawton. GOAD LTD Publishersof the CentrePlans and Associated Data Shopping announce £250 GOAD AWARD for Project Work in Secondary Schools concerning Shops. Townsend. Old Hatfield. Herts AL9 5BE 07072 71171 Geography©1984 . CHAS.Geography. pp. P. 17thJuly1983. London: Faber& Faber..London: OUP.J.London: Methuen. Norwood. W. J. pp.1 MARCH 1985 from: information Further Chas. Geography. 244-249. F.London: Faber & Faber.

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