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Introduction 1. Rationale of the study Nowadays, foreign language especially English plays an important role in our lives. It is a mean to communicate with every people in the world. It is also a tool to access to modern technology. In fact, people are aware of the importance of English and they want to learn it for different purposes like getting a job, business communication and so on. Therefore, the teaching and learning of English have been placed in an important focus at all schools, colleges and universities. However, there have been great problems of qualification of teaching and learning English that make universities and colleges pay attention to. As an English teacher, I may find that we are limited in teaching methods, in selecting textbooks and materials and in designing syllabuses. A syllabus can be considered a useful instrument to help both teachers and learners in teaching and learning processes. At present, many different kinds of English textbooks written by the English- native authors are available in Vietnam. Their content and construction are good. However, to some extent, they are not suitable for students’ specific conditions, or their language competence, their aims or objectives, time allocation of the syllabuses and so on. Teaching business letter is one part of teaching business communication. It is necessary for students when they finish their study at their colleges and start working at foreign invested or international Joint Venture firms. Textbooks for teaching writing business letters are available in Vietnam but it is difficult to choose the most suitable one. Because they don’t meet the need of time allocation, aims and objectives of the second year students of Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty at Sao Do Industrial College (SIC). From these reasons above, I have chosen my MA thesis “Designing an English Business letter writing syllabus for the second year students of Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty at Sao Do Industrial College”
2. Aims of the study The study aims at:
- Designing English Business letter writing syllabus to meet the demands of teaching
and learning writing business letters in a semester of 45 periods for the second year students of Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty at Sao Do Industrial College.
- Giving some useful suggestions for effectively teaching business letter writing at SIC.
3. Scope of the study The study is based on designing a writing business letter syllabus for the second year students of Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty at Sao Do Industrial College. Other students at other levels will not be suitable. 4. Research questions This study is carried out to answer the following questions: 1. How to design a writing business letter syllabus for the second year students of Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty at Sao Do Industrial College? 2. What are the main contents in business letter syllabus for the second year students of Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty at Sao Do Industrial College?
5. Methods of collecting data
In order to carry out this study, data were collected by means of survey questionnaires and then analyzed quantitatively; material analysis is also used in the process of selection of materials for the intended syllabus. Questionnaire 1 is used for the teachers of Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty at Sao Do Industrial College to get information about their expectations of their students at the end of the course, their ideas about topics, activities and correction techniques that should be included. Questionnaire 2 is designed for students in order to get information about the students’ needs and expectations of the writing business course, to identify useful and practical topics and language exercises and activities for their course. They are 50 second - year students of Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty at Sao Do Industrial College 6. Structure of the study Apart from Introduction and Conclusion, this thesis includes 3 chapters:
The Introduction provides basic information such as background, aims, research questions, scope, methods and structure of the study. The first chapter reviews the related literature on syllabus design, writing tasks and activities. The second chapter analyzes the teaching and learning situations at Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty of SIC and result of the survey. The third chapter presents the content of the Business letter writing syllabus. A syllabus focuses aims and objectives, content specification, suggested teaching methods and forms of testing. The Conclusion draws out the subject matter and suggestions for further research.
Chapter I: Literature review Language syllabus design is an area of applied linguistics which has been the focus of a variety of efforts to apply to language teaching basing on the requirements of studying language structure, language use and language acquisition. This chapter consists of three parts. The first part provides a general review of the English for Specific Purposes (ESP). The second part aims at providing the definitions of syllabus, an introduction to different approaches to syllabus design, types of syllabus. And the third part of the chapter focuses on revising theoretical backgrounds to writing and teaching writing activities. 1.1. An overview of ESP
ESP is a developing branch of EFL in Vietnam. So the design of an ESP syllabus that serves a particular group’s interests and needs has becomes a matter of urgent concern among Vietnamese ESP practitioners. According to Hutchinson & Waters’ point of view, they clearly mention “ESP is an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as to content and method are based on the learner’s reason for learning.” (Hutchinson & Water, 1987:19). The learners’ needs are considered the most important factor in ESP. Brimful (1977:7) states that “ESP course is concerned with the purposes for which learners need English, purposes for which are usually expressed in functional terms”. In the same view, Munby (1978:2) maintains that ‘analysis of the communicative needs of the learners’ should precede the syllabus design and materials development’. With the above mentioned views on ESP, it can be shown that we should pay more attention to the ways in which learners acquire language rather than focus on the method of language delivery.
The choice of a syllabus is a major decision in language teaching and it should be made as consciously and with as much information as possible. with the development of the latter obviously "the traditional distinction between syllabus design and methodology has become blurred".2. Writing Business Letters also is a subject related a lot to the career of students of Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty. the actual matter that makes up teaching. English for Business and Economics. as Nunan (1988:52) highlights. and English for Social Science and then when coming to upper level. Syllabus in language teaching A language teaching syllabus involves the integration of subject matter (what to talk about) and linguistic matter (how to talk about).2. the focus of syllabuses has shifted away from structure to situations. To begin with.5 Also in Hutchinson & Waters’ opinion. we realize that ways of classifying ESP will help teachers to make successfully a need analysis and design appropriate syllabus for their students. in recent years. In short. An overview of syllabus design 1. Of course. At the SIC. each branch is further divided into sub-divisions according to learners’ needs: for study as English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and for work as English for Occupational Purposes (EOP).1. For example. 1. Munby (1978:55) also shares the same view that ESP could be divided into two broad areas: EOP ‘where the participant needs English to perform all or part of his occupational duties’ and EAP ‘where the participant needs English to pursue part of his studies’. ESP is divided into three divisions: English for Science and Technology. . it seems of great importance to define the term syllabus in order to have a better understanding of what it actually means and to which aspects and dimensions of ELT it is related. That is why. that is. functions and notions to topics and tasks. EOP is taught for the students who need to use English as part of their work. it should be noted that there are many challenges to proper defining and elaborating on the concept syllabus.
in order to use it appropriately." A syllabus can also be seen as "a plan of what is to be achieved through our teaching and our students' learning" (Breen. They further add that it reflects of language and linguistic performance. Syllabus." Finally. in simple words.” So it is clear that a syllabus is an important document in learning and teaching process. 1984). It actually performs as a guide for both teacher and learner by providing some goals to be accomplished. After having understood what the term language “syllabus” refers to. Candlin (1984) suggests a different perspective implying that syllabuses are "social constructions. deals with linguistic theory and theories of language learning and how they are utilized in the classroom. produced interdependently in classrooms by teachers and learners…They are concerned with the specification and planning of what is to be learned. a language teaching syllabus involves the combination of subject matter (what to teach) and linguistic matter (how to teach).6 Accordingly. frequently set down in some written form as prescriptions for action by teachers and learners. In Wilkins' (1981) words. Hutchinson and Waters (1987:80) define syllabus as at its simplest level “as a statement of what is to be learnt”. Yalden (1987: 87) also refers to syllabus as a "summary of the content to which learners will be exposed". syllabus design is seen as “a matter of specifying the content that needs to be taught and then organizing it into a teaching syllabus of appropriate learning units. Therefore. it seems possible to make an attempt to define syllabus at least in an understandable way. syllabuses are "specifications of the content of language teaching which have been submitted to some degree of structuring or ordering with the aim of making teaching and learning a more effective process. According to Munby (1984). a syllabus designer needs to be aware of the approaches in designing process. . the next step would be to come to terms with what language “syllabus design” encompasses. in fact. though it is a little difficult on initial appearance to describe syllabus. 1984) while its function is "to specify what is to be taught and in what order" (Prabhu.
1. Approaches in designing syllabus There are many different trends in syllabus but in my thesis I will focus on these two major trends: * Synthetic approach According to Wilkin (1976:2). A structural or formal syllabus This is recognized as the traditional syllabus which is often organized along grammatical lines giving primacy to language form. And the teachers pay much attention to knowledge of the language system rather than its use.2. Chunks of language that may include structures of varying degrees of difficulties are expected to be presented with by learners of language.3. It is.3. in this thesis I choose analytic approach to design a writing business letter syllabus for second-year students of Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty. the communicative purposes for which language is used are the major points for syllabus design. In his opinion.2. the synthetic strategy tends to produce a structural syllabus that means when designing syllabuses basing on this approach. the language is divided into discrete units. a synthetic language teaching strategy “is one in which different parts of language are taught separately and by step so that acquisition is a process of gradual accumulation of parts until the whole structure of language has been built up”. So in analytic approach.2. The focus is on the outcomes or the product. learners are exposed to language that has not been linguistically graded.7 1. Wilkin (1976:3) assumes analytic syllabuses are those “organized in terms of the purposes for which people are learning language and the kinds of language performance that are necessary to meet those purposes”. in fact. a . In short. the starting point for syllabus design is not the grammatical system of the language. In other words. * Analytic approach To contrast analytic approach with synthetic approach. 1. Learners are presented at any one time only one item of language. Types of syllabus 1. but the communicative purposes for which language is used. Therefore.2.
2. A situation usually includes several participants who are involved in some activity in a particular setting. A notional/functional syllabus . One advantage of the situational approach is that motivation will be heightened since it is "learner. tightly structured and sequenced pattern practice drills. seeing the dentist. 1. The major organizing feature is a list of situations which reflects the way language and behavior are used everyday outside the classroom.3. The language used in the situation comprises a number of functions combined into a plausible part of available discourse.2.1976: 16). by connecting structural theory to situations the learner is able to induce the meaning from a relevant context. A situational syllabus With this type of syllabus. it specifies structural patterns as the basic units of learning and organizes these according to such criteria as structural complexity.e. 1. The main principle of a situational language teaching syllabus is to teach the language that occurs in the situations. for instance.3.8 grammatical syllabus in which the selection and grading of the content is on the basis of the complexity and simplicity of grammatical items. difficulty.rather than subjectcentered" (Wilkins. The learner is expected to master each structural step and add it to his/her grammar collection. The underlying premise is that language is related to the situational contexts in which it occurs. Thus. In other words. going to the cinema and meeting a new student.2.3. The content of language teaching is a collection of real or imaginary situations in which language occurs or is used. In this syllabus. and applies these situations. The designer of a situational syllabus tries to predict those situations in which the learner will find him/herself. regularity. situational needs are important rather than grammatical units. It makes ample use of highly controlled. the essential component of organization is a non-linguistic category. as a basis for selecting and presenting language content. utility and frequency. i. the situation.
e. etc. Besides. such as listening to spoken language for the main idea. delivering effective lectures. skill-based syllabi merge linguistic competencies (pronunciation. In this syllabus.3. grammatical items and situational elements are considered at subsidiary level of importance. needs analysis is central to the design of notionalfunctional syllabuses. and notions embrace age. Accordingly. grammar. As proposed to the hypothesis of structural and situational syllabuses which lies in the fact that it is most often in search of ‘how’ or ‘when’ and ‘where’ of language (Brumfit and Johnson. size. Needs analysis should be taken into account so as to establish the necessary objectives. White (1988:77) argues that "language functions do not usually occur in isolation" and there are also difficulties of selecting and grading function and form. and so forth.2. rather independently of the situation or context in which the language use can occur. 1. the content of the language teaching is a number of the functions that are performed on using the language. An important point regarding notional-functional syllabus is that the needs of the students have to be explored and analyzed by different types of interaction and communication a learner may be involved in. the functional/notional syllabus seeks for ‘what is a learner communicates through language’. comparison.4. and discourse) together into generalized types of behavior.9 The chief emphasis of this syllabus is upon the communicative purpose and conceptual meaning of language i. writing well-formed paragraphs. 1979:84). In other words. time. The chief rationale behind skill-based . agreeing. notions and functions. Apart from needs analysis that has an implicit focus on the learner. A skill-based syllabus Skills are abilities that people must be able to do to be competent enough in a language. color. vocabulary. Functions can be exemplified by instances such as inviting. Although situational syllabuses combine functions together into specific settings of language use. the content of the language teaching involves a collection of particular skills that may play a role in using language. or of the notions that language is utilized to express. this type of syllabus proposes a new list consisting of notions and functions that become the main focus in a syllabus. requesting. apologizing.
learning only incidentally any information that may be available while utilizing the language skills. 1. Testing and evaluation Discussing how to develop a syllabus.10 instruction is to learn the specific language skill. all syllabus types discussed here are being used in today’s language teaching. Objectives and aims 3. And Yalden (1983) also share the same idea. Taba (1962:422) points out that it is necessary to found basic elements. Needs analysis 2. Selection of learning activities 6. in designing a syllabus it is better to combine the advantages of each type in order to bring about positive results as it is believed that no type is the best. They are: 1. Therefore. Another less important objective might be to develop more general competence in the language. in designing a syllabus. any syllabus designers should follow 7 steps in designing a syllabus. Formulation of objectives 3. Need analysis 2. The syllabus to be designed should be incorporated to match the contents which are selected and organized logically and appropriately with the learners’ needs and the educational settings in which the syllabus is used. The choice depends on the aims and objectives of the course. Organization of content 5. the most important step is analyzing the learner’s needs. Organization of learning activities .4.2. Selection of content 4. Teaching method 5. Sequencing 4. He also suggested 5 following steps in designing syllabus: 1. In conclusion. However. the list is not meant the final or definitive set of categories. Steps in designing the syllabus According to Nunan (1985: 7). In his point of view. Each type of syllabus has its own strong points and weak points as well.
Decisions about what needs evaluating and how to evaluate (Taba 1962. he suggested that it is useful to consider the target situation in the following items: + Necessities . Goals and objectives 3.11 7. it can be used in developing goals. analyzing the learner’s needs should be the point of departure in the process of designing a syllabus. cited in Brimful. Thus. Needs analysis 2. Target needs In Hutchinson’s point of view target need is defined as “what the learner needs to do in the target situation”.1. Evaluation and testing form 1. In order to clarify target needs. Content selecting and grading 4. with its importance. 1984) From these above views. Richards (1984:5) also points out the significance of needs analysis as follows: Needs analysis serves three main purposes: it provides a means of obtaining wider input into the content. Hutchinson and Water (1987:2) clearly state that in order to meet the various needs particular learners. *. it is very important for designers to analyze their learners’ needs so as to design appropriate course for them. needs analysis is considered as the initial process for the specification of behavioral objectives. Needs analysis * The importance of needs analysis According to Nunan (1985).2. design and implementation of a language program. Suggested teaching methods 5. designing a syllabus often consists of the following steps: 1. objectives and content. and it can provide data for receiving and evaluating an existing program.4. to motivate them and to help them learn English faster and more effectively.
The gap between the two can be referred to as the learners’ lacks. For example. The target situation can determine the destination. to get the necessary information from sales catalogues and so on. Therefore. skills and strategies) and the learners’ motivation for traveling. + Wants Hutchinson & Water (1987:56). structural. Leaning needs Learning needs is what the learners need to do in order to learn. Richterich (1984:29) shares the same view: “… a need does not exist independent of a person. necessities can be called the type of need determined by the demands of the target situation. it can also act as a compass on the journey to give general direction. 1987: 56). to communicate effectively at sale conferences. *. what the learner has to know in order to function effectively in the target situation. This is the matter of observing what situations the learner will need to function in and then analyzing the constituent parts of them. However. it is useful to look at the target situation. so we can decide “which of the necessities the learner lacks”. He will also need to know the linguistic features such as discourse. needs to be matched against the existing proficiency of the learners. and lexical which are commonly used in the situations identified. stated that wants are what learners feel they need in order to operate in a target situation and are also called “subjective needs”. sponsors and teachers.e. Whether or not learners need instruction in doing this will depend on how well they can do it already. the designer or teacher should be aware of the different situation and takes account of them in materials and methodology. a businessman might need to understand business letters. learners’ views conflict with the perceptions of other interested parties: course designers. To clarify what is meant by “learning needs”. that is. One target situation necessity might be to read texts in a particular subject area. functional. but we must choose our route according to the vehicles and existing roads within the learners’ mind (i.12 According to Hutchinson and Water (1987:55). (Hutchinson & Water. their knowledge. + Lacks Beside to identify necessities we also need to know what the learner knows already. The target proficiency in other words. . It is people who build their images of their needs on the basic of data relating themselves and their environment.
when the learners. the level students will need to achieve.2. 1. Objectives express certain ways of achieving the goals. The aim of the course is to develop linguistic skills relating to particular procedures and activities.6. After choosing an appropriate content for the syllabus. Teachers should evaluate their courses to improve their effectiveness. and skills that the learner will be expected to know at the end of a course. 1. the content matter should be organized in such a way so as to facilitate teaching and learning. goals are general statement concerning desirable and attainable program purposes and aims based on perceived language and situation needs. teaching method is also of crucial importance. In short. it is certain that we must present and organize it properly. and which items should be included.7.13 For this reason. 1. Suggested teaching methods In addition to the content. The syllabus for writing business letter is aimed at developing writing business letter.2. Content selecting and grading Shaw (1976) states the steps in selecting content must be considered these questions: how much can we teach and how much can be learnt by the learners in question. and .5. As Brown (1995:71) explains. And he defines objectives as specific statements that describe the particular knowledge. This means that teacher doesn’t have to teach students how to write a business letter but also provide general knowledge about the form and ways of writing all kind of letters in business communications.2.8. and when and how it should be taught. clear understanding of goals and objectives will help teachers to be sure what material to teach. goals are general statements or the final destination. behavior. Evaluation can be done in two ways: implicitly and explicitly.2. Implicit evaluation takes place during the semester. by the grades. participation. Therefore. Evaluation and testing form This is the last but not the least stage. 1. Goals and objectives According to Graves (1996). while designing syllabus we may wish to restrict the syllabus depending upon our students’ needs.
2.2. 1. writing is valued as “a language skill which is difficult to acquire” (Tribble. Writing skills are important because they are a good way to reinforce what a student has learned as they will benefit from seeing new vocabulary in written form.14 motivation. Students need to know how to take notes as well as how to write essays and letters. Consequently. with the purpose of recording messages which can be retrieved by everyone who knows the language in question and the rules by virtue of which its units are encoded in the writing system. people can work effective in intellectual organization. if an English person moves to France.4. in the expression of ideas and argument. on the other hand. 1996:3). they will eventually learn to speak French just from being around native French speakers. Explicit evaluation may take place at the end of the course. and as such they do not strictly need to be learned. writing can be frustrating and disliked. give clues to the teacher on how their learning is going on. When we speak.” As mentioned by Byrne (1988) we can understand that “writing is an act of forming graphic symbols”. Peter T. Teaching writing business letters 2. By writing people can have control of both information and of people as well. For example. They will. we do not really think about the grammatical correctness or the mechanics of what we are saying. however. However. Writing tasks and activities Writing is an essential skill in our everyday lives and that makes it a really important aspect of our teaching too. we do not repeat our speech to check for mistakes or the appropriateness of what we are saying. though. From The World's Writing Systems. which makes this basic skill as important as speaking or listening. does not . in the management of everyday affairs. of all language learning skills.3. Writing.1. Through the mastery of writing. Speaking and listening are natural. Daniels defines writing as: “a set of visible or tactile signs used to represent units of language in a systematic way. Definitions of writing Writing is one way of communication.4. struggle to write in French. Everything flows as speech happens rather quickly.
. to request. Controlled writing activities based on some activities such as gap-filling. edit what we’ve written if necessary.4. We write a few lines. It includes: letter. to introduce a person or policy. and then carry on the process – we are constantly checking for correctness. to follow up or to formalize decisions. Business letters are sometimes called "snail-mail" (in contrast to email which is faster). initially at least. re-ordering words.150-152). Furthermore. It is also important to be involved every step of the way as leaving your students to produce a written piece of work with little help can be a rather daunting prospect for them. memo. Most people who have an occupation have to write business letters. to recommend. rather than marking a student’s work in red pen and handing it back to them it is much better to meet every individual student to discuss the strong and weak points of their work. correcting the facts and dictation. substitution. re-read them. many students would probably find it quite difficult and make many mistakes. According to Doff (1995. to apologize. to reject a proposal or offer. For these reasons we need to make writing an enjoyable activity that our students will not want to avoid. to invite or welcome. There are many reasons why you may need to write business letters or other correspondence: to persuade to inform. fax or email. Students would probably approach the task in different way and produce a wide variety of different paragraphs.15 flow smoothly. If so they would find the task frustrating and probably not learn very much from it. Teaching business letters Business Letters in English are formal paper communications between. However. to help our students become self-sufficient writers. to congratulate. Free writing activities include paragraph writing. p. there are some problems in free writing: When facing a free writing such as writing a paragraph to describe their own town or village. letter writing and essay-writing.3. 2. to express thanks. to write without worrying about the correctness of everything they put to paper – get them to generate ideas and then edit their written English afterwards. to or from businesses and usually sent through the Post Office or sometimes by courier. We need to encourage students. writing activities include controlled writing activities and free writing activities. to remind.
e-mails are taking the place of many business letters. genres can be identified by their overall shape and genesis structure by the genre linguistic functions. Business letters are common means of communication between companies. Additionally. job application letters. and also it conveys an impression of the company or of the writer in many ways. Once students have known the form of a business letter. spelling. The genre of business correspondence includes business letters like complaint letters. Speed is now becoming the key to successful business communications. Besides. they can be given communicative writing tasks that lead them to practice useful form. The writing of business letters in the classroom can be tied in a very neatly with lessons on the functions of language e. They must be of standard written language. As a result of fax messages.g.5. in the business letters. The business letter acts as an ambassador for the company. and conventions of capitalization and punctuation. to doing business. Summary . They are documents typically sent externally to those outside a company but it is also sent internally to those within a company. write a letter of invitation.e.i. how to make a complaint letter. enquiry and reply letters and some other business letters.16 There are many modern communication ways available today. All of them have one purpose. but the traditional business letter remains an important means of sending printed messages. the communicative purpose can decide some of the grammatical and lexical structures and other characteristics that make the discourse type distinctive. As defined by Martin (1993:36). invitation letters. letter of enquiry or reply and so on. vocabulary usage. concise language and impersonal and informal language must be minimized. 2. Business letters must confirm a number of linguistic features of the genre. Raimes (1993) mentions that business letter writing also gives us the chance to deal with a variety of forms and functions that are an essential part of language mastery. However. nobody can deny the existence of written communications. which means correct use of grammar.one of which is the use of application form or cover letter when you start your own job hunting process. the language must be appropriately used with formal. in many aspects of life and work. Development in technology has made it possible to have instant communication all over the world.
.17 In this chapter. In the next chapter. I have reviewed different approaches to syllabus design with an attempt to identify the most suitable for this study such as skilled-based syllabus. the teaching and learning at Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty will be analyzed and then a writing business letter syllabus will be proposed.
They have been trained from the elementary to the upper intermediate in English in the first three terms. However. needs analysis is the starting point in syllabus design. the course designers need to consider a number of factors such as the needs.1. Teachers in Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty at SIC Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty of SIC now has got 15 English teachers aged from 25 to 45. Moreover. In order to identify learners’ needs. speaking.1. aged from 19 to 22.A degree and the rest hold a B. But in the second year. reading and writing.A degree in English language teaching.1. most of them are female so they usually work hard. Their level of English is rather good. So they also have some experiences in choosing appropriate subjects for the course of Tourism. Situational analysis 2. some brief information of teaching and learning English process of Tourism and Foreign Faculty at SIC is provided. Six of them are working toward an M. The second year students of Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty at SIC These students are young.1. two questionnaires were designed for the second year students and teachers of Tourism and Foreign Faculty at SIC. Theoretically. From the second term of the course they have already learned English for tourism so they also have the basic knowledge of English and tourism. the teachers. in the two first terms.18 Chapter 2: The study According to Nunan (1988) and Yalden (1983). resources and administrative constraints. in designing syllabus process. the learners’ background. 2. Most of teachers in the faculty have to face with many difficulties in choosing materials in teaching English process especially the subjects related to their branch. The Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty has newly founded for 3 years. Five of them have been completed the short-term English for Tourism course.2. This chapter presents the result of the need analysis as the foundation for designing business letter writing syllabus for the second year students of Tourism and Foreign Faculty at SIC. 2. students have been trained and practiced with four skills: listening. Before the findings of the study are presented. they haven’t got any .
4.1. 2.It helps us know the objectives to be achieved at the end of the course . Questionnaire 2 was designed for the students and it has the same points with questionnaire 1 2. The findings 2.21). So when asked about the role of teaching writing business letter for students. Questionnaire 1 includes 7 questions used for teachers with three main points: . (p.2.21) shows that the highest percentage of 60% of the teachers consider item 3 and 6 are . most of teachers (100%) answer that teaching writing business letters plays a very important role for students after they graduate from their college. Table 1. (p. Analysis from the teacher survey Section 1: Teachers’ ideas on the role of writing business letter for students and expectations at the end of the course at SIC. The first is for the role of teaching writing and the second for expectations from teachers. The number of responses for expectations of teachers is presented in the table 1.4. My questionnaires are conducted to both the teachers and the students of Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty. There are 2 questions in this section. The subjects The subjects of the study were 5 teachers of the Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty who are in charge of teaching English for Tourism and 50 second.It is about the necessary topics and activities and the techniques as well in the syllabus. The aim of this section is to find out the role of teaching writing business letters for students and the teachers’ expectation at the end of the course.19 practical writing subjects so they meet many difficulties in writing and teachers can not cover all the mistakes in their learning processes.year students of Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty who have finished the first three terms from the elementary English to the upper intermediate English and now are developing with tourism branch. I use questionnaires as a main tool for collecting information about learners’ needs.3. This method gives me the high frequency and overlapping responses from a large number of people. 2. Instrument for collecting data In my thesis.
20 very necessary. 5 are also necessary for the course. It means that items 1. The results indicate that the teachers would like to emphasize on helping the students to understand how to write particular business letters and consolidate structures and lexical items commonly used in business letters. 4. 2. . The rest items occupy 40%.
Expectations of teachers at the end of the course .21 Table 1.
This time is appropriate for students to practice and prepare for the next lesson. This meant that there will be 2 lessons per week and each lesson will last 45 minutes. and 13. The Table 3(p. Section 3: Classroom activities and correction techniques should be included in the syllabus as perceived by the teachers This section is intended to find out teachers’ ranking of classroom activities and correction techniques. 100% of teachers were asked to choose the appropriate time for the course agree that 45 periods are suitable for the whole course. This proves that these topics are relevant to be included in the syllabus. 8 and 9 are very effective activities in the course but the item 4 and 10 are not effective so it should not be concentrated in this syllabus. 5.3. And most of teacher state that correction techniques in the class such as self-correction with teacher’s assistance (60%). 5 .10.12. Thirteen topics have been identified and the teachers were asked to rank the topics in terms of their relevance.22 Section 2: Topics relating business letter as perceived by the teachers This section aims at finding the relevant topics for writing business letters which should be included in the syllabus. The data from the Table 2 shows that the teachers’ opinions of relevant items which have the highest percentage are item 2. The number and percentage of people responding to each item is shown in Table 2(p. 7 .24) shows that 80% of teachers agree that items 1. 23).24). 6 . The rest items (1. The number and percentage of people responding to each item is shown in Table 3(p. 6 and 11) which receive the low percentage indicate that these items are not necessary in the course.7.2. peer-correction (80%) and teacher correction (80%) are effective activities in the course.4. The teachers were asked to rank from the activities according to their effectiveness in the course.8. Section 4: Time allocation for the course as perceived by the teachers The purpose of this section is to find out the suitable time for the course. . 3.9.
Teachers’ opinion of topics relating English business letters .23 Table 2.
Teachers’ ranking of classroom activities and correction techniques .24 Table 3.
10.28) shows that most of students agree that items 1. Section 2: Topics relating business letter as perceived by the students This section aims at finding the relevant topics for writing business letters which should be included in the syllabus. 6 and 11) which receive the low percentage indicate that these items are in appropriate for the course. 7 . The item 6 is also paid attention to with 88% of students’ expectation. In this table. The number and percentage of people respond is shown in the Table 4(p.7. 5 .9.4. 5. There are l3 topics which were given for students to rank their relevance. This section is intended to find out the expectations of students needed to be achieved at the end of the course. Section 3: Classroom activities and correction techniques should be included in the syllabus as perceived by the students The purpose of this section is to find out students’ ranking of classroom activities and correction techniques.27).3. The number and percentage of people responding to each item is shown in Table 5(p. 3.2 shows that the most relevant items which have the highest percentage are item 2. and 8 are very effective activities in the course but the item 4. The data from the Table 4.2. 6 .2. and 13. This proves that these topics are relevant to be included in the syllabus. Then the item 1 and 4 with 90% of students consider that to get general format of business letters and have outlines and detailed contents of particular business letters is very necessary for the course. 10 classroom activities and 3 correction techniques have been pointed out to ask students to rank their effectiveness in the course.26).12.4. 9. the highest percentage 94% (sum of very necessary and necessary) of students’ expectation needed at the end of the course is to consolidate structures and lexical items commonly used in business letter and 92% agree that it is important to understand how to write particular business letters. The Table 6 (p. The rest items (1. Analysis from the students survey Section 1: Expectations of students at the end of the course at SIC.8.25 2. The item 2 which has lower percentage (54%) meant that to build up terms using in English business correspondence should not be centred in the syllabus. and 10 are not effective so it should not be concentrated in this .
26 syllabus.13 which have high percentage in the table also indicated that these are effective activities. Expectations of students needed to be achieved at the end of the course . And all correction techniques 11. Table 4.12.
27 Table 5. Students’ opinion of topics relating English business letters .
28 Table 6. Students’ ranking of classroom activities and correction techniques .
Because both teachers and students realize that with 45 periods. The results of the survey have been analyzed and conclusion about learners’ needs have been drawn out from each section. Teachers would like their students to practice writing and do homework and assignment but their students do not like that.10. The information about learners’ needs has been gathered through a survey questionnaires administered to both teachers and students. They all agree that after finishing this course. they share the same positive views on a number of items such as 2. But there is a confliction between teachers and students about classroom activities. The need analysis provides the basic for designing an appropriate syllabus for the second-year students of Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty at SIC in Chapter 3. 2.3. . students can understand how to write particular business letters and get general format of each business letter. It appears that in general all of them share the same expectations of the writing business letter course. they can have basic knowledge of business letters in the syllabus.7.29 In short.8.5. the author has analyzed the results of the survey of target needs perceived by both teachers and second-year students of Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty.4.9. In terms of the topics needed for the syllabus. Summary This chapter has discussed needs analysis perceived by teachers and the second-year students of Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty at SIC.12 and 13.
Basing on the analysis of the requirements and results.30 Chapter 3: Syllabus design for business letters writing In this chapter. 3.2.1. Topics in syllabus As a result of analyzing the learners’ need. at the end of this course.To consolidate their writing skill In addition. Moreover. I would like to suggest these topics in the syllabus: . 3.2.Letter of apology . Aims and objectives of the syllabus It is the fact that students of Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty at SIC have not practiced much in writing so this syllabus aimed to drill writing skills especially in business letters writing. the syllabus focuses on these points: to provide students with the basic forms of business correspondence to help students read and write other forms of letters to drill writing skills especially writing business letters Objectives of the syllabus also illustrated through the aims of the syllabus. basing on the result of analyzing data from the survey. a proposed writing business syllabus for the second year students of the Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty at SIC is introduced.To read and understand written English materials relating to general correspondence . Content of the syllabus 3. students will be able to: .1. This chapter focuses on the aims and objectives of the syllabus. since the appropriate objectives should be included in each unit to help the teacher to find suitable teaching methods and remind them of the goals they have reached at the end of each unit. main topics and activities included in the syllabus and some suggestions for the teaching methods.To write all kinds of letters in business situations .Letter of appreciation . basing on the fact and the requirement of students after they finish their training programs.
2.2.Employment related letters 3. Writing tasks and activities in the syllabus Basing on the specified objectives of the course and the results of the survey.2.2.useful words and structures using in the letter .individual work peer review feedback from teacher self-correction with teacher’s assistance peer-correction teacher correction 3. The students have one English lessons per week and each lesson lasts for 45 minutes.Goodwill letters .31 . the following writing tasks and activities should be included in the syllabus: imitating models or samples doing controlled practice .Letter of enquiry .writing techniques for the letter .Letter of acceptance .Letter of invitation . The organization of syllabus The syllabus is presented in themes.Letter of refusal .3. The semester contains 15 weeks.Letter of reply .Letter of complaints . Time allocation of syllabus The syllabus is meant for one semester and for the second-year students of Tourism and Foreign Faculty at the SIC.4. 3.a sample letter .Letter for travel and hotel . each theme consists of: .
Then the unit provides writing techniques and some useful words for writing that letter. Proposed writing business letters syllabus for the second year students of Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty at SIC. etc. After that. students read and find out the form for the letter from the examples. . completing a letter with the given words. students must do some exercises to practice their writing skill such as: gap-filling. writing a letter in specific situations. 3.32 .activities for practice Each unit begins with some example letters.5.2.
The proposed writing business letter syllabus for the second year students of Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty at SIC .33 Table 7.
The proposed writing business letter syllabus for the second year students of Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty at SIC .34 Table 7.
Teachers must access how much time that they will give the students for a writing task by examine what writers actually do when they write .35 3.2. in order to achieve the course objectives of the designed writing business letter syllabus.to provide words or expressions in writing letter of complaints . Exercises: Find out the form of the complaint letters and words or expressions used in complaint letter.Teacher must know how to deal with the errors made by their students for example teachers can discuss with their students’ errors and give the time and opportunity for them to correct their mistakes. Writing techniques for complaints letter 1. Examples of complaints letter 2. some useful techniques for teaching writing will be presented as follows: . 3. II. Teaching suggestions In this study.to help students to write a letter of complaints * Content of the unit: I. Useful words and expressions III. Introduction 1. Write a complaint letter for the situations 2.4. Designing a sample of a unit Unit 5: Letter of complaints * Objective of the unit: . Assessment . Fill in the gaps in this letter 3. Guidelines for writing complaints letter 2. Practice 1. Complete the complaint letter with the given words 3.5.3.
The teacher should use these types of exercise to test their students: . arrange terms discuss .1. which is specially suitable for rough and uneven surfaces. 3. to you by rail a range of samples. we recommend quality numbers 5. Fill in the gap in the letter below using the given words: sent price list Dear Mrs. specially selected for their hardwearing qualities. A sample test I.. Complete a letter using the given words: (from Private secretary to Managing director) Dear Mrs Jenkinson I / interested / see / your advertisement / Today’s Daily Telegraph / would like / be / considered / this post.write a letter following the situations . We have today …………. In my present post / private secretary / manufacturing company / I / have / responsibilities / these / include / attend / take / minutes / meetings / and / interview / deal with callers / correspondence / my / employer’s absence / supervise junior staff / as well as / usual / secretarial duties. Forms of testing Because this is the writing course so the test must be taken in the form of writing. and the one formal method is to test. For the purpose you mention. King Thank you for your enquiry for samples and a pattern – card of our floors coverings. II. but regret we have no pattern-card we can send you.4. Without assessing the teacher and the syllabus designer cannot estimate how much the objectives of the syllabus have been achieved successfully.2.4.complete a letter by filling in the gap or using the given words 3. So it is necessary to access learner’s performance by testing.36 Assessment s a process of measuring. So it is a crucial process that the teacher needs to conduct at the end of the course.
You have just heard of the death of your dear friend’s father. Write a condolence letter to him/her. In the first part. Once you have done this. Summary I have introduced the proposed writing business letter syllabus. The sample of the unit is introduced and there are some suggested methods in teaching and assessing.5. is enclosed which also shows details of our conditions and ……………. Write a letter requiring all information needed to be a participant of that club. of trading. 2. . In the meantime.37 We encourage you to test the samples provided. Yours sincerely III. aims and objectives of the course. Choose one of topics and write a letter: 1. 4. the aims and objectives of the course is formed in order to set the content of the syllabus. Write an application letter to a tourist company for the post of a tourist guide. teaching methods and ways of assessment. Basing on these analyses. You have just graduated from foreign and tourism department of a college.. we will ……………for our technical representative to call you for an appointment. our …………. if you feel it would help to …………… the matter. the content selected. 3.. You want to take part in an English club. We hope these will be of use when you wish to place an order. teaching and learning English of the second-year students of Tourism and Foreign Faculty at SIC is analyzed in details. It includes parts: situations analysis.
38 Conclusion The purpose of this minor thesis is to propose a relevant writing business letter syllabus for the second-year students of Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty at Sao Do Industrial College basing on the result of the analysis of their needs. This calls for further research on designing a syllabus of developing writing essays. I analyzed the real situations at SIC with the testing results from teachers and students. the literature reviews on teaching writing activities especially in teaching business letters. . Different types of syllabuses are discussed and skill. its content. organization…And in this chapter. this study can not avoid limitations. there was a limitation regarding the data collection of the study because among this population. My thesis continued with the chapter two. I hope that my thesis will pay a contribution to the syllabus design process at SIC. I have presented the reason for carrying out this thesis.based approach is the main one to develop the writing syllabus. Like the other research thesis. some are very enthusiastic and interest in the questionnaires but some are reluctant to do the survey they affect to the final result. First. the literature reviews on ESP and current approaches of language syllabus design. I would like to summarize all the previous chapters and offer some remarks. After collecting information and analyzed the results. there are some suggested teaching methods and ways of assessment with a sample test for the writing business letter course. First of all. allocation time. Secondly. In the introduction. It is to design an appropriate writing business letter syllabus for the second-year students of Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty at SIC In the first chapter. Moreover. a proposed writing business letter syllabus is presented in the chapter three with the aims and objectives. Finally. due to the limitation of time. this syllabus only focuses on developing writing business letter skill not other writing activities. In this chapter.
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