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The Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) scheme is an electronic toll collection scheme adopted in Singapore to manage traffic by road pricing, and as a usage-based taxation mechanism to complement the purchase-based Certificate of Entitlement system. The ERP was implemented by the Land Transport Authority in September 1998 [1] to replace the Singapore Area Licensing Scheme after successfully stress-testing the system with speeding Lamborghinis, Porsches and Ferraris. Singapore was the first city in the world to implement an electronic road toll collection system for purposes of congestion pricing.

The system
The scheme consists of ERP gantries located at all roads linking into Singapore's central business district - areas within the Central Area such as the Downtown Core. They are also located along the expressways and arterial roads with heavy traffic to discourage usage during peak hours. The gantry system is actually a system of sensors on 2 gantries, one in front of the other. Cameras are also attached to the gantries to capture the rear license plate numbers of vehicles. Currently, there are 80 ERP gantries in Singapore. New gantries are implemented where congestion is severe, like expressways and other roads. A device known as an In-vehicle Unit (IU) is affixed on the lower right corner of the front windscreen within sight of the driver, in which a stored-value card, the Cash Card, is inserted for payment of the road usage charges. The second generation IU accepts Contact less NETS Cash Card and EZ-Link. The cost of an IU is S$150. It is mandatory for all Singapore-registered vehicles to be fitted with an IU if they wish to use the priced roads. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd sold the IU technology to Singapore, and the project was spearheaded by a Consortium comprising Philips Singapore Pte Ltd, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd, Miyoshi Electronic Corporation and CEI Systems and Engineering (now known as CSE Global Ltd) in 1995 through an open tender. When a vehicle equipped with an IU passes under an ERP gantry, a road usage charge is deducted from the Cash Card in the IU. Sensors installed on the gantries communicate with the IU via a dedicated short-range communication system, and the deducted amount is displayed to the driver on an LCD screen of the IU.

The charge passing through a gantry depends on the location and time, the peak hour being the most expensive. Examples include a trip from Woodlands to Raffles Place via Yishun - CTE - CBD will cost about $15 during peak as the driver will pass about 5 gantries whereas during lunchtime, it cost about S$2. Foreigners driving foreign-registered cars on priced roads, during the ERP operating hours, could choose to either rent an IU or pay a daily flat fee of S$5 when leaving Singapore. If drivers fail to have sufficient value in their CashCard (or EZ-Link), they can pay the charges plus an administration fee of $10 within 24 hours or till midnight. Otherwise, a fixed penalty ticket of S$70 will be issued by registered post to the vehicle owner. This may rise to a fine of $1000 if not settled within 30 days or 1 month jail time.

Improvements and adaptations

A Electronic Parking System at Yishun. According to a paper presented in the World Roads Conference 2006, the Land Transport Authority has been testing a system based on the Global Positioning System that may eventually replace the current Electronic Road Pricing system. The proposed system overcomes the inflexibility of having physical gantries, which "are not so flexible when it comes to re-locating them". A lightweight version of this same technology is implemented for use on parking, known as the Electronic Parking System (EPS). It has since been adopted in favour by several carpark operators, superseding the use of autopay tickets or parking coupons. These systems have also typically switched to charging by the minute.

The ERP system, although understandably unpopular among most road users, has helped to tweak road usage patterns since its implementation. The LTA reported that road traffic decreased by nearly 25,000 vehicles during peak hours, with average road speeds increasing by about 20%. Within the restricted zone itself, traffic has gone down by about 13% during ERP operational hours, with vehicle numbers dropping from 270,000 to 235,000. It has been observed that car-pooling has increased, while the hours of peak vehicular traffic has also gradually eased and spread into off-peak

hours, suggesting a more productive use of road space. In addition, it has been noted that average road speeds for expressways and major roads remained the same, despite rising traffic volumes over the years. The system has its share of problems. Road users pointed out that the implementation of an ERP gantry along any road simply moves the traffic somewhere else, potentially causing traffic bottlenecks along smaller roads. For example, the ERP gantry along the Central Expressway (CTE) has been said to have caused traffic to increase substantially in north-south trunk roads, such as along the Thomson Road and Serangoon Road corridors. The rising traffic prompted the LTA to add a gantry along Thomson Road, while Upper Serangoon Road's capacity was increased somewhat with the building of a new viaduct. Similarly, the ERP gantry on the East Coast Parkway's westbound carriageway was said to have led to increased traffic on Geylang Road and Nicoll Highway, where ERP gantries were also placed subsequently. This "chasing after the jam" phenomena has led the general public to question its effectiveness. While ERP gantries on major roads and expressways have usually been implemented on the carriageway which is city-bound, major traffic congestion on the north-bound carriageway of the CTE has led to the LTA considering its implementation there, a suggestion which has been met with protests by motorists who questioned the need to pay for the time they take to go home. The LTA, sensing the displeasure, attempted to alleviate the situation by widening the road between the Pan Island Expressway (PIE) and Braddell Road in 2003, in response to public feedback which frequently attributed the jams to this congested stretch. In addition, the LTA expressed hopes that the North East MRT Line will help provide an alternative form of transport for north-eastern residents, who usually use the CTE to reach the city. The pending completion of the Kallang-Paya Lebar Expressway in 2008 has also been cited as a solution to the almost nightly jams. There was also suggestions for the CTE to be further widened, including the construction of a viaduct, which the LTA rejected citing its infeasibility. When the jams continued to persist, the LTA finally made the announcement on 30 May 2005 that a new ERP gantry will be setup on the northbound stretch between the PIE and Braddell Road from 1 August 2005.

Latest developments
In an effort to improve the pricing mechanism and to introduce real-time variable pricing, [4] Singapores Land Transport Authority, together with IBM, ran a pilot from December 2006 to April 2007, with a traffic estimation and prediction tool (TrEPS), which uses historical traffic data and real-time feeds with flow conditions from several sources, in order to predict the levels of congestion up to an hour in advance. By accurate estimating prevailing and emerging traffic conditions, this technology is expected to allow variable pricing, together with improved overall traffic management, including the provision of information in advanced to alert drivers about conditions ahead, and the prices being charged at that moment.[5] This new system integrates with the various LTA's traffic management existing systems, such as the Green Link Determining System (GLIDE), TrafficScan, Expressway Monitoring Advisory System (EMAS), Junction Electronic Eyes (J-Eyes),[6] and the Electronic Road Pricing system. The pilot results were successful, showing overall prediction results above 85 percent of accuracy.

Furthermore, when more data was available, during peak hours, average accuracy raised near or above 90 percent from 10 minutes up to 60 minutes predictions in the future.[7] The latest expressway in Singapore is Kallang-Paya Lebar Expressway (KPE). It has 16 ERP gantries. [8]

Similar systems in other metropolitan areas

In Toronto, Ontario, Canada an electronic road pricing system is used on Highway 407 to collect tolls electronically and billed to the owner of the car by taking a picture of its license plate[9]. Despite the local public controversy, the ERP system attracted the attention of transport planners and managers in other metropolitan areas, particularly those in Europe and the United States. For example, the London Congestion Charge was introduced on 17 February 2003, after London officials visited Singapore to study the ERP system, and used it as a reference for the London system. London's charge area was expanded in 2007. [10] The Stockholm congestion tax is also a congestion pricing system implemented as a tax which is levied on most vehicles entering and exiting central Stockholm, Sweden.[11] The congestion tax was implemented on a permanent basis on August 1, 2007,[12][13] after a seven-month trial period was held between January 3, 2006 and July 31, 2006.[14] In 2007, Dubai, at the United Arab Emirates, implemented a corridor congestion pricing scheme called Salik[15] which works on similar principles. Since January 2008, Milan introduced a traffic charge scheme as a one-year trial, called Ecopass, and exempts high emission standard vehicles and some alternate fuel vehicles.[16][17][18] In other cities, similar systems have failed to see the green light for various reasons. For example, Hong Kong first conducted a pilot test on the Electronic Road Pricing system in 1983 to 1985 with positive results.[19] The study also included a simulation of the Singapore Area Licensing Schemebased 12-hour manual toll collecting system, itself also a world pioneering effort in road pricing since 1975. However, public opposition against the move stalled its implementation. New studies conducted in the 1990s and the opposition towards further reclamation of the Victoria Harbour recently has led to advocates of the ERP as a possible alternative for road management. Thomas Chow, Deputy Secretary for the Environment, Transport and Works, noted, however, that the Central-Wan Chai Bypass, to be built on the reclaimed land, is still needed because the ERP works best if an alternative road system is available, citing the Singapore and London experiences whereby the systems were only implemented after bypasses were available. (see also Edinburgh congestion charge)

COMPONENETS IN PROJECT: 1. Hardware components 2. Software

List of hardware components : 1. RFID Module 2. LCD 3. Microcontroller (AT89S52) 4. IN4007 Diodes 5. 7805 voltage controller

1.What is RFID?
A basic RFID system consists of three components: a) An antenna or coil b) A transceiver (with decoder) c) A transponder (RF tag) Electronically programmed with unique information. There are many different types of RFID systems out in the market. They are categorized according to there frequency ranges. Some of the most commonly used RFID kits are as follows: 1) Low-frequency (30 KHz to 500 KHz) 2) Mid-Frequency (900KHz to 1500MHz) 3) High Frequency (2.4GHz to 2.5GHz) These frequency ranges mostly tell the RF ranges of the tags from low frequency tag ranging from 3m to 5m, mid-frequency ranging from 5m to 17m and high frequency ranging from 5ft to 90ft. The cost of the system is based according to there ranges with low-frequency system ranging from a few hundred dollars to a high-frequency system ranging somewhere near 5000 dollars.

How RFID Is Changing the Business Environment today

Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been in use for several decades to track and identify goods, assets and even living things. Recently, however, RFID has generated widespread corporate interest as a means to improve supply chain performance. Market activity has been exploding since Wal-Mart's June 2003 announcement that its top 100 suppliers must be RFIDcompliant by January 2005. Mandates from Wal-Mart and the Department of Defense (DoD) are making many companies scramble to evaluate, select and implement solutions that will make them compliant with their customers' RFID requirements and additional retailers and other large supply chain channel masters are likely to follow suit. COMPONENTS OF RFID A basic RFID system consist of three components:

An antenna or coil A transceiver (with decoder) A transponder (RF tag) electronically programmed with unique information

These are described below:



The antenna emits radio signals to activate the tag and read and write data to it. Antennas are the conduits between the tag and the transceiver, which controls the system's data acquisition and communication. Antennas are available in a variety of shapes and sizes; they can be built into a door frame to receive tag data from persons or things passing through the door, or mounted on an interstate tollbooth to monitor traffic passing by on a freeway. The electromagnetic field produced by an antenna can be constantly present when multiple tags are expected continually. If constant interrogation is not required, a sensor device can activate the field. Often the antenna is packaged with the transceiver and decoder to become a reader (a.k.a. interrogator), which can be configured either as a handheld or a fixed-mount device. The reader emits radio waves in ranges of anywhere from one inch to 100 feet or more, depending upon its power output and the radio frequency used. When an RFID tag passes through the electromagnetic zone, it detects the reader's activation signal. The reader decodes the data encoded in the tag's integrated circuit (silicon chip) and the data is passed to the host computer for processing.


TAGS (Transponders)

An RFID tag is comprised of a microchip containing identifying information and an antenna that transmits this data wirelessly to a reader. At its most basic, the chip will contain a serialized identifier, or license plate number, that uniquely identifies that item, similar to the way many bar codes are used today. A key difference, however is that RFID tags have a higher data capacity than their bar code counterparts. This increases the options for the type of information that can be encoded on the tag, including the manufacturer, batch or lot number, weight,

ownership, destination and history (such as the temperature range to which an item has been exposed). In fact, an unlimited list of other types of information can be stored on RFID tags, depending on application needs. An RFID tag can be placed on individual items, cases or pallets for identification purposes, as well as on fixed assets such as trailers, containers, totes, etc. Tags come in a variety of types, with a variety of capabilities. Key variables include: "Read-only" versus "read-write" There are three options in terms of how data can be encoded on tags: (1) Read-only tags contain data such as a serialized tracking number, which is pre-written onto them by the tag manufacturer or distributor. These are generally the least expensive tags because they cannot have any additional information included as they move throughout the supply chain. Any updates to that information would have to be maintained in the application software that tracks SKU movement and activity. (2) "Write once" tags enable a user to write data to the tag one time in production or distribution processes. Again, this may include a serial number, but perhaps other data such as a lot or batch number. (3) Full "read-write" tags allow new data to be written to the tag as neededand even written over the original data. Examples for the latter capability might include the time and date of ownership transfer or updating the repair history of a fixed asset. While these are the most costly of the three tag types and are not practical for tracking inexpensive items, future standards for electronic product codes (EPC) appear to be headed in this direction.

RFID TAGS Data capacity The amount of data storage on a tag can vary, ranging from 16 bits on the low end to as much as several thousand bits on the high end. Of course, the greater the storage capacity, the higher the price per tag. Form factor The tag and antenna structure can come in a variety of physical form factors and can either be selfcontained or embedded as part of a traditional label structure (i.e., the tag is inside what looks like a regular bar code labelthis is termed a 'Smart Label') companies must choose the appropriate form factors for the tag very carefully and should expect to use multiple form factors to suit the tagging needs of different physical products and units of measure. For example, a pallet may have an RFID tag fitted only to an area of protected placement on the pallet itself. On the other hand, cartons on the

pallet have RFID tags inside bar code labels that also provide operators human-readable information and a back-up should the tag fail or pass through non RFID-capable supply chain links. Passive versus active Passive tags have no battery and "broadcast" their data only when energized by a reader. That means they must be actively polled to send information. "Active" tags are capable of broadcasting their data using their own battery power. In general, this means that the read ranges are much greater for active tags than they are for passive tagsperhaps a read range of 100 feet or more, versus 15 feet or less for most passive tags. The extra capability and read ranges of active tags, however, come with a cost; they are several times more expensive than passive tags. Today, active tags are much more likely to be used for high-value items or fixed assets such as trailers, where the cost is minimal compared to item value, and very long read ranges are required. Most traditional supply chain applications, such as the RFID-based tracking and compliance programs emerging in the consumer goods retail chain, will use the less expensive passive tags. Frequencies Like all wireless communications, there are a variety of frequencies or spectra through which RFID tags can communicate with readers. Again, there are trade-offs among cost, performance and application requirements. For instance, low-frequency tags are cheaper than ultra high-frequency (UHF) tags, use less power and are better able to penetrate non-metallic substances. They are ideal for scanning objects with high water content, such as fruit, at close range. UHF frequencies typically offer better range and can transfer data faster. But they use more power and are less likely to pass through some materials. UHF tags are typically best suited for use with or near wood, paper, cardboard or clothing products. Compared to low-frequency tags, UHF tags might be better for scanning boxes of goods as they pass through a bay door into a warehouse. While the tag requirements for compliance mandates may be narrowly defined, it is likely that a variety of tag types will be required to solve specific operational issues. You will want to work with a company that is very knowledgeable in tag and reader technology to appropriately identify the right mix of RFID technology for your environment and applications. EPC Tags EPC refers to "electronic product code," an emerging specification for RFID tags, readers and business applications first developed at the Auto-ID Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This organization has provided significant intellectual leadership toward the use and application of RFID technology. EPC represents a specific approach to item identification, including an emerging standard for the tags themselves, including both the data content of the tag and open wireless communication protocols. In a sense, the EPC movement is combining the data standards embodied in certain bar code specifications, such as the UPC or UCC-128 bar code standards, with the wireless data communication standards that have been developed by ANSI and other groups. RF Transceiver:

The RF transceiver is the source of the RF energy used to activate and power the passive RFID tags. The RF transceiver may be enclosed in the same cabinet as the reader or it may be a separate piece of equipment. When provided as a separate piece of equipment, the transceiver is commonly referred to as an RF module. The RF transceiver controls and modulates the radio frequencies that the antenna transmits and receives. The transceiver filters and amplifies the backscatter signal from a passive RFID tag. Typical Applications for RFID

Automatic Vehicle identification Inventory Management Work-in-Process Container/ Yard Management Document/ Jewellery tracking Patient Monitoring

The Advantages of RFID Over Bar Coding No "line of sight" requirements: Bar code reads can sometimes be limited or problematic due to the need to have a direct "line of sight" between a scanner and a bar code. RFID tags can be read through materials without line of sight. More automated reading: RFID tags can be read automatically when a tagged product comes past or near a reader, reducing the labor required to scan product and allowing more proactive, real-time tracking. 3. 4. 5. Improved read rates: RFID tags ultimately offer the promise of higher read rates than bar codes, especially in high-speed operations such as carton sortation. Greater data capacity: RFID tags can be easily encoded with item details lot and batch, weight, etc. such as

"Write" capabilities: Because RFID tags can be rewritten with new data as supply chain activities are completed, tagged products carry updated information as they move throughout the supply chain.

Common Problems with RFID Some common problems with RFID are reader collision and tag collision. Reader collision occurs when the signals from two or more readers overlap. The tag is unable to respond to simultaneous queries. Systems must be carefully set up to avoid this problem. Tag collision occurs when many tags are present in a small area; but since the read time is very fast, it is easier for vendors to develop systems that ensure that tags respond one at a time. See Problems with RFID for more details.




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