# 4531/2

1 A student carries out an experiment to investigate the relationship between current and potential difference for an ohmic conductor. Diagram 1.1 shows the circuit set-up by the student to investigate how the potential difference, V across a piece of constantan wire varies with the current, I in the wire. The current I is changed by adjusting rheostat.

The reading of voltmeter current, I is adjusted to 0.2 A is shown in Diagram 1.2. The procedure is repeated by varying the values of I to be 0.4 A, 0.6 A, 0.8 A and 1.0 A. The corresponding readings of voltmeter are shown in Diagram 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 and 1.6. (a) In the experiment, identify: (i) The manipulated variable _________________________________ [1 mark] (ii) The responding variable _________________________________ [1 mark] (iii) The constant variable _________________________________ [1 mark] (b) Diagram 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 and 1.6 show the reading of voltmeter, V and their corresponding current, I.

Diagram 1.1 when the

Diagram 1.2

Diagram 1.3

5 Diagram 1. [5 marks] (d) (i) Based on your graph. [3 marks] (c) On the graph paper provided.6 Tabulate your results for V and I in the space below. plot a graph of V against I. . _________________________________ [1 mark] (ii) Calculate the gradient of the graph.4531/2 Diagram 1. Hence. state the relationship between V and I. deduce the resistance of the constantan wire.4 Diagram 1.

Student A claps and student B measures the time. how you determine the value of t. V is given by the formula: 2d t V= . (i) what is the relationship between t and d? [1 mark] (ii) determine the time taken. d apart from a high wall. The results of this experiment is shown in the graph t against d in Diagram 2. Show on the graph.4531/2 [3 marks] (e) State one precaution that should be taken to obtain the accurate readings of V. Diagram 2 (a) Based on the graph in Diagram 2. t when they are 50 m apart from the wall. [3 marks] (ii) The speed of sound. They both stand next to each other at a distance. ______________________________________ [1 mark] 2 Two students carried out an experiment to measure the speed of sound by using the principle of echo. t between the clap and the echo by using digital watch. [2 marks] (b) (i) Calculate the gradient of the graph.

state clearly the following: (i) The aim of the experiment. (ii) The variables in the experiment. describe one experiment to investigate the hypothesis stated in 3(b). _________________________________________ [2 marks] SECTION B [12 marks] Answer one question only in this section. He found that the trolley is more difficult to move and stop compare to an empty trolley at the same speed. _________________________________________ 2. [1 mark] (b) State one suitable hypothesis. [3 marks] (c) State two precautions that can be taken to improve the accuracy of the reading in this experiment. [1 mark] (c) With the use of apparatus such as hacksaw blade. plasticine and other apparatus. . 1. 3 Diagram 3 shows a man moving a trolley full with goods after shopping. In your description.4531/2 Calculate the value of V. Diagram 3 Based on the information and observation: (a) State one suitable inference. (iii) The list of apparatus and materials.

measuring cylinder. [10 marks] 4 Diagram 4 shows a diver starts to dive. (ii) The variables in the experiment. Diagram 4 Based on the information and observation: (a) State one suitable inference. (vi) The way you tabulate the data. (vi) The way you tabulate the data. describe one experiment to investigate the hypothesis stated in 4(b).4531/2 (iv) The arrangement of the apparatus. In your description. (iii) The list of apparatus and materials. [1 mark] (c) With the use of apparatus such as a thistle funnel. (iv) The arrangement of the apparatus. [10 marks] . (v) The procedure of the experiment which should include the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable. He experiences a greater pressure when diving deeper under the sea. [1 mark] (b) State one suitable hypothesis. state clearly the following: (i) The aim of the experiment. (vii) The way you analyse the data. (v) The procedure of the experiment which should include the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable. (vii) The way you analyse the data. manometer and other apparatus.

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