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By Command of the LJe.fmce Cound
SURVIVAL AGAINST THE CONTENTS
Chapter 1. Physical Fitness
Chapter IV. Prevention and Treatment for Exposure and Exhaustion
I . The need for physical ntnen
Chapter 11. Movement in Difficult Country 3
..... 2. Frost bite ............... 3. Heat diaordera ............
I. Exposure and exhaustion
.............. 2.ReparaUon . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.Thccxpedition ..........
4. Roadure in the cnnt of an accident or emergency
Chapter V. Clothing and Equipment
............... 2.Equipment ..............
Chapter 111. Weather
Chapter VI. Food and Water
......... 3. Cold weather ............
4. The cflect of wind on cold mather 1
4.Alcohol ................ 44
ANNEX'A' THE COUNTRY CODE ANNEX '6' SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
SURVIVAL AGAINST THE ELEMENTS INTRODUCTION
This pamphlet is intended as a guide to all those leading, taking part in, 1. or planning exercises, expeditions or other activities, when the dangers of exhaustion and expowre may be encountered. Although the pamphlet particularly emphasizes the dangers, and safeguards that should be taken, when training in hilly or mountainous country in the United Kingdom it should be remembered that the Symptoms of exposure and exhaustion may be met anywhere at any time.
The pamphlet is not intended as a complete guide t o mountaineering and hill walking. Those who are planning special training and expeditions in wch areas are to refer to DCI (Army) Parts I to V, S20 of 1974 on Mountain Safety, and are advised to consult certain of the publications shown at Annex A. A chapter on weather conditions is induded as the weather can change very rapidly and the leaders of exercises and expeditions should be aware of the implications of any deterioration in the conditions.
The best advice is not to take chances G t h nature.
SECTION 1 THE NEED FOR PHYSICAL FITNESS
101. Military skill and technical knowledge are wasted unless the soldier can overcome fatigue and mental strain. , n e basic requirement to help prevent such inefficienq is physical fitness, which can only be acquired by Physical Training.
Continuous and strenuous physical effort in extreme weather conditions can sap morale just a much as anxiety and danger, and there is a great risk s that the untrained will become casualties from premature exhaustion leading t o collapse.
103. Physical Training is, therefore, an essential. preparation for soldiers taking part in strenuous field exercises, since a suitably graded programme toughens the body and develops a high standard of functional and specific fiiness.
The acquisition of physical fitness, together with training in survival 104. and technical military skills, i s of the utmost importance in making the soldier confident that he can perform efficiently in adverse conditions of terrain and weather. It should be remembered that: a. Physical fitness is the basis on which t o build military fitness.
Planning and preparation are essential for the success of any b. exercises, including physical exercises. The unit APTC Instructor should be coapted on to all training c. conferences; he is a fully qualified technician. The effectiveness of the fitness programme should be checked by d. carrying out physical efficienq tests. e. Tests are "yardsticks" by which a man's progression and achievements are measured, thus giving an indication of an individual's ability to carry out his duties effectively in varying conditions.
It is far better to take every possible step to avoid cases of f. exposure and exhaustion than to have to treat them.
Complacenn/ about physical fitness can be very dangerous and it should 105. never be assumed that:
Soldiers are physically fit to take part in an exercise or a. expedition without confirmation. Games fitness is the equivalent of all-round physical fitness; the b. one is complementary to the other.
Everything will be all right on the day. c. and ensure that it is all right.
Plan wisely and well
The relevant information on the preparation and conduct of physical 106. fitness programmes is given in the Ministry of Defenoe (GS) training publication "PHYSICAL TRAINING IN THE ARMY 1958" pamphlets Nos 1 and 4. (Code Nos 9467, 9470).
the remaining daylight and the wellbeing of all members of the expedition. routes and timings. (2) Maintain a suitable pace. others to assist with navigation. (4) Ensure members of the expedition are f i t and well. (31 Check clothing and equipment of all members of the expedition for serviceability and completeness. and rest at suitable times and places.weather. The term ‘difficult country’ applies to areas of moorland and upland as well as to hills and mountains. (3) Know the location of the expedition at all times. On the expedition: (1) Keep the p a w together at all times. (2) Advise a responsible person. and that they have eaten. These may conveniently be listed under three sub headings: a. and the progress of the expedition. Detail (41 Maintain a watch on the . b. Before setting out on the expedition: (1) Brief members of the expedition on the complete plan. not on the expedition. 3 . The sections in this chapter cover the planning and execution of any expedition and the action t o take in the event of an accident.CHAPTER II MOVEMENT IN DIFFICULT COUNTRY SECTION 1 - GENERAL 201. (5) Obtain a weather forecast. of the composition of the party. The chapter can be summarised at this stage under the general heading of “Responsibilities of the Leader”.
of possible difficulties. so that they can be avoided.c. is most important. if there is very rough ground it may be better to avoid it by either descending or climbing. particularly in circumstances which may have led t o apprehension for the safety of the party. Sometimes. difficult country. The map and route card should be carried in a polythene cover for protection from the wet. (2) Check all equipment and the wellbeing of members of the expedition. a rough sketch map is most valuable. (4) Choose the route so that height which will have to be regained later is not lost.PREPARATION 22 0. when moving in a. SECTION 2 . however. When planning a route the following points should be borne in mind: A . On return to base: (1) Advise the responsible person of the safe return of the expedition. so that if they are encountered in a mist or at night the'expedition will have an idea of its own position and the best way to go. (2) Note in particular the position . eg cliffs and unbridged rivers etc. . A detailed route card. (5) Remember that in hills the shortest route is seldom the quickest or emiest. b. 4 . (3) Note the general direction that rivers etc run. In the event of bad conditions and poor visibility all the necessary data is then immediately available. (1) Try to choose the easiest route and to memorise prominent features on it. must always be worked out beforehand. containing all details required to complete each leg of the route. Planning of the Route The chocsing of a good and sensible route.
before nightfall.the map. 203. rough going. expedition and adjust the length of any route acmrdingly. if possible. d. The leader must judge the capabilities of the remainder of the b. always tries to find the shortest way and consequently descends in the steepest places. when planning a route. When planning a route involving a valley remember that water c. on recommended route5 and the conditions likely to be encountered. heavy loads. ' 5 .A better route for ascent or descent will usually be found on the shoulders of mountains or hills which enclose a stream.(6) 'A hillside. 204. Only experience will teach leaders how much to allow for these factors. It must be remembered that this i s only a guide. ie: (1) Allow one hour for every 5 Kms as measured on. that care should be a. When estimating how far it is possible t o travel. Naismith's Rule c. Length of Route It is most important. or in a valley. The leader should cover such points as: (1) Route and approximate timina (Details must be left at Base for use in an emergency). I f it is envisaged that the route may be difficult or dangerous local advice should be obtained. ' 2 (2) Allow a % hour for every 300 metres climbed. . taken to ensure that the expedition is on easy ground. a tired party. ~. provided it is not too craggy. (3) Allow additional time for halts as required. gives a good . . may be descended direct. it sets off.guide. The Briefing of an--l%pedition It is most important that an expedition is properly briefed before a.distanoe travelled considerably. mist or high winds will reduce the.
Clothing. the leader must ensure that the more experienced members of the expedition are detailed to help and guide those with less experience. against cold. t o wear when temporarily resting. clothing and rations to be taken. When making his plan the leader must allow for the unforeseen and thus his plan must be flexible. h o w e r . b. (31 Equipment.(2) Size of the party. the following points should b considered b y e every leader of an expedition: a . 6 . must be carried. Procedure in event of an accident (See paras 210-214). 205. (7) (8) Resume' on safety aspects (qparty must not split up). Equipment and Rations. c. '. in Chapters V and VI. Speed o f the Party (ie t o be that of the slowest member). These are discussed in more detail and with particular reference to the medical aspects. (2) Spare warm clothing. wind and rain. When movement is particularly difficult in mountains. A deputy leader of an expedition must be appointed before it mwes off. d. this should never be less than four. including distress signals /See para 212). also light-weight wind and waterproof outer garments. (4) (5) Details of halts (ie frequency and duration). and gloves when applicable. including the head. Ar a general guide. Clothing (11 This should be light and designed t o protect the whole body. ( 6 ) Order of march and distribution of loads. (9) A system of signalling.
torch. climbing equipment (such as ropes. . . be closed at the head when being used. On more ambitious expeditions a tent. etc.necessary. but even the shortest and easiest will require map. Footwear (1) It is essential t o be well shod. (2) For general purposes in hill walking and in snow and icy conditions boots are necessary. .) is not only serviceable but is up t o the approved safety standards laid down by the British Mountaineering Council.b. (2) On exercises or expeditions lasting seberal days or weeks a balanced diet containing plenty of energy producing food will be . These must be tough and give a good grip on rocks. d. of coufse. slings. First Aid and bivouac equipment. but they are very dangerous if the rocks are slimy. icy. sleeping bag and cooking stove should be included. c. Equipment (1) Equipment to be taken will depend on the type and scope of the exercis or expedition. (4) Boots DMS should not be wom for any form of rock climbing hut can be worn for fell walking. karabinen.soles. are best. energy producing foods. quick-energy producing foods are best for difficult climbing or mountaineering conditions and whenever strength and stamina deteriorate quickly. compas. - (2) It is of vital importance that. In ifs simplest form. or very wet. pitons. eg Vibram. gauge 500) which should not. (3) For rock climbing on some types of dry rock gym shoes with a thin hard sole are acceptable. the latter could be a polythene bag (8’ x 4 ‘ minimum. where it is to be used. Rations (1) Light. whistle. plain leather soles are not adequate and hard moulded rubber .
or hag difficulty in finding a route. eg houses. (2) I f the whole of the route can be seen from the starting point the easiest line should be chosen and the landmarks memorised. (2) The leader must. If he does not do so. the deputy leader mu* a u m e command. t (4) An expedition MUST NEVER DIVIDE INTO GROUPS because of differences of opinion about the route etc. 8 .(3) Emergenq rations should always be carried. This has been shown t o be one of the commonest cause o f accidents. i (3) If the leader is physically unfit t o mntinue. and although a general discussion on the route may take place the leader alone must take the final decision and ensure that his orders are obeyed. In Clear Weather (1) In clear weather it is often k t to maintain direction by using landmarks if possible. (4) Take some form of salt in summer as heat exhaustion can be as dangerous as cold exposure. including the ingredients for brewing up hot Nveet drinks: alcohol must be avoided. the leader should tell the remainder o f the expedition. b. I f he also is unfit another member of the expedition must be appointed leader a once.THE EXPEDITION 206. General (1) If the expedition becomes lost. Rouk Finding a. however. maintain command. curiously shaped rocks. it will soon become apparent t o the remainder and they will lose faith in him as a leader. SECTION 3 .
A t Night - (1) On a clear night a convenient check on general direction can be obtained from the pole star. (4) In difficult country. Such a pointer is most valuable as it can be used when both the objective and intermediate landmarks are hidden by a fold in the ground. I 9 . It is. (3) When going up a hillside from a valley or plain it may be possible to see a road. where bad weather may make it advisable t o turn back. at 1east:should know how to find the pole star and hence true north. or “two paces to the right” etc. The leader and deputy leader. railway. A fresh compass check. (2) In featureless country a party of three can maintain direction by walking in line at suitable intervals. or the edge of a field. Any deviations by the leader may then be corrected by orders from the last man. A knowledge of i t s correct us? is essential. advisable t o look back occasionally to see if such a pointer is available. In Mist (1) The compass is often of use in clear weather. but i t s greatest use is at night or when visibility is limited by mist or low cloud. river. there fore. c.streams. etc. a memory of what the country looked like when seen in the revers? direction i s most valuable i f the expedition has to retrace its steps. It i s important t o do this as some way along the route it may no longer be possible to see the ultimate objective and the intermediate marks will help to ensure that the correct route is followed. d. however. which can be used as a pointer in the direction to be followed. The direction of the line should be set by a compms bearing and the last man should then maintain a direction by keeping the leader in line with the centre man. eg ”one pace to the left”. should be made periodically. or a wood.
It is better to start slowly so that a reserve of energy is maintained for difficult parts or emergencies. the whole sole of the boot should be placed horizontally on the ground where possible. If it is possible 10 .' (4) Each step should be made deliberately. Speed (1) Do not waste energy at the beginning of the day by starting at a fast speed. (2): The leader must set a steady speed based on that of the slowst member. e. In very hot desert or semi desert areas (1) It is dangerous to rely on distant features on the ground as markers as sight can often be distorted due 'to heat. according to the pace and the steepners of the slope. Speed. (6) Breathing should be rhythmical. ( 2 ) Compass bearings should also be frequently checked as magnetic storms can causa considerable magnetic variation. Rests and Halting Places a . (3) The last fev.(2) If overCaSt a compass should be used in the same way as in mist. as the apparent "top" may often prove to be a false crest. be lifted too high nor the stride made too long. If it is necessary to increase speed this should be done by lengthening the stride. This can often be done by placing the heel on a stone and by climbing in Zig-zags'rather than straight up. (5) The foot should not. He must also ensure that the party sticks together and that there are no stragglers. resulting in the wrong direction being taken. When climbing. metres to the top of a mountain or hill should not be'rushed.
(5) During rests the opportunity should be taken to change rucksacks. It is advisable not to go too fast unless the b w t s are well fitting and comfortable. M that all members of the expedition do their fair share of carrying. rests should not be for tw long a duration. otherwise feet will get blistered or ankles injured. on no account must they be allowed to trail as their condition will rapidly become worse. As a general rule sweet foods are the most beneficial. if neaessary. and a piece of elastoplast over rubbed skin. and everyone encouraged to drink as much as they require. .to sing or whistle going along the speed can be considered as reasonable. put on spare clothing and try to rest completely. ( 8 ) The leader must restrain the overenthusiastic and encourage and support the weaker members o f an expedition (9) Weak members. or any that are downstream of human dwllings or farm buildings. Any blisters should be dealt with immediately.. (2) When it is decided to rest. It is a good idea to try and rest the feet by removing boots and adjusting socks or stockings. ' (3) If the halt is for a meal it should be eaten slowly. or the use of thin strips of Dunlopiilo as padding. (4) It is advisable not to drink from valley streams and rivers. choosa a place sheltered from the wind. will help prevent -. blisters from developing. Rests and Halting Places (1) The leader should decide the time for a rest and for how long. (7) When descending a slope flex the knees and keep the weight well forward. If. water i s difficult t o obtain it should be drunk sparingly. either physically or morally. It is up to the leader to ensure that this i s done. b. should walk immediately behind the leader. Water purifying tablets should be used whenever possible. however.
f. A few hints on negotiating certain types of country are given at paragraph 209. If convenient. use paths and tracks. climb or descend simultaneously in line abreast. d. c. keep to clean turf and high ridges if'possible. which does not appear on the map. gullies and wet places. ' 209. If this is so.descend in single file unless there is a. keep close together so that any stones dislodged do not have time'to gather momentum and become dangerous to the other members of the party lower down. ' (2) If the width of the slope is restricted by rocks. The following are the safest rules: . rocks. Grass 12 . as the sides of a mountain are often the most difficult and roughest going and the gullies and little valleys may be boggy. climb or. When climbing in a mountainous area it is usually better to move along the ridges. b. They seldom. It may well be that there is a stretch of boggy ground. When the leader obtains his first view over the ground ahead.danger of dislodging stones etc on to those below. . avoid scree. Adapting the Route to suit the Ground a. but which can easily be avoided on the ground. however. . go the way that men want to go! e. or unless the party has been up the same way. hummocky and also rough. In precipitous mountains never attempt to follow a stream down unless it is possible to see the whole of its course to easier ground.208. as in a gulley. and it is necessary to follow the leader. however. as they often take the quickest line and are generally safe. In general. he should check the routes that have been chosen against the actual country and modify them where necessary. Types of Country a. or of rough going. and again when he reaches a viewpoint.- (1) If there are no paths.
13 . Bracken (1) Bracken should be avoided in summer as it makes walking very laborious and difficult. (2) It is possible to descend grassy slopes veri/ rapidly. (4) When ascending. it is advisable to avoid scree and climb grassy slopes. as the plant is tough and not easily up-rooted. with safety. I (3) Steep grassy slopes may well become coated with ice or thin snow in winter and should then be avoided. Wet grass can also be very slippery on steep slopes. provided the complete slope can be seen. - ( 1 I Scree is the name given to steep slopes of loose stones or rocks. and is usually the best way up a hill. (2) On rocks and hillsides it is treacherous as a handhold as it is very brittle and the roots mme out very easily. and should be avoided in high and' remote places where a twisted ankle or broken leg could have serious repercussions. way up a mountainside and a rapid way down. (2) Scree Heather mvered slopes of boulders should be avoided. Heather ( 1 ) Heather is better for climbing.( l i Shon grass is the most pleasant and easiest to walk on. (3) Generally it is better to avoid scree altogether when carrying a heavy pack. (2) In this country scree sometimes provides a safe. if rather tiresome. Scree running is an acquired skill.
These are rarely dangerous but should always be avoided as they are heavy going and very tiring. not possible'to avoid them then. a general rule. Streams and Lakes (1) The majority of hillside streams are easy to cross.but it is always advisable to moss carefully and to choos the easiest place. Even small stones can be lethal weapons if they fall down a hillside. Never descend rocks where it is not possible t o see the whole way down. as. ~ o g . boggy ground.( 5 ) When descending scree. f. Never descend at high speed and ensure that the bottom of the scree can be Seen before descending. (3) To avoid slipping or dislodging stones. (2) If it is. (6) Large saee should be avoided. (4) . The best method to descend is with the legs stiffened and the heels driven well in. e. Rivers. avoid using your hands unnecessarily and make sure of each foothold. pay careful attention t o the placing of the feet and always think one or WO movements ahead. boots should be worn to avoid cutting or twisting the ankles. and great care must be taken to avoid dislodging stones or rocks. Rocks (1) Where possible rocks should be avoided and lett t o the experienced rock climber. In certain hills or moors there are large stretches of g. h. Stones. or where it is necessary to drop more than once from the hands: ' ' - (5) There are few places in the United Kingdom where'it is necessary t o descend rocks a d t h e r e is usually an easier way around. : If a stone is dislodged the culprit should shout "Below" in a loud voice t o warn anyone beneath him. 14 .
. a detour is more pleasant and less dangerous than a ducking on a cold day. (b) The strongest member should cross first. If he is swept away the others must run downstream whilst guiding him ashore. . Should the proposed route be blocked and a detour impossible. Should it be vital to cross such a stream the following precautions must be taken: (a) DO NOT remove boots. (6) Mountain streams are liable to become gushing tonents/.. ' . (d) He should secure himself t o an endless circle of rope which is held by two others. as when doing so it is a y to attempt too long a jump and slip. (c) - He should tie to an arm any available buoyancy. always to walk carefully when traversing a steep hillside round a lake.(2) Be careful if attempting to cross dry shod. . one slightly upstream and one well downstream of him. (4) In strong flowing rivers it is extremely difficult to wade safely in water above waist level as the bed of the river is usually rocky and uneven. (5) A number of mountain lakes have steep hillsides rising' from them. (e) Once the first man is aaoss. within a very short time after heavy rain. If they try to pull him t o the bank against the current he will be forced under water. the last man crosses in a similar manner to the first. therefore.helped by a stick t o act as a third leg upstream. It is advisable. eg plastic water container. (3) The rivers in the main valleys should always be crossed by bridges where possible. and the lakes may be very difficult t o clamber out of.an endless circle of rope is available to enable others to cross sicurelv. the usual course i s to wait until the force of water is reduced.
(2) Ice on sloping rock or grass is highly dangerous and should be crossed only with the greatest caution. greatly increased. ' . . .Soft or powdery snow.451 In descending hard snow without crampons the heels should be dug well in and.if it is soft the labour of walking uphill or on the level i s . The leader must dig steps sufficiently close together for the smallest member of the party to use them comfortably. but. if the slope i s steep. Snow and Ice ( 1 ) In snow and icy conditions it is essential to wear wrrect footwear. in winter. balance stadied by the use of an ice axe. lying on a firm snowhce base.to be safe. to carry an iwaxe and to know how to us it to brake in the event of a downhill slide. On a long slope this duty should be taken in turn as it is very tiring.j. ( 7 ) Snow slopes. (3) The effect of snow depends upon i t s condition. . should be cleared away with the axe before placing the feet. What in summer may be a straighfoward hill wdk may. 16 . crampons' provide the only safe footwear. . . . (4) In climbing hard snow without crampons steps should be dug by the leader of the party. (8) In general.. conditions of ice and hard snow completely change the character of an expedition.are inviting to glissade down but this should only be done if: (a) the run out of the slope can be seen . (b) Ice axes are carried and everyone is trained in their use. . ' (6). demand the experience and skill of an alpine mountaineer.
If for some reason it is not possible t o use a whistle or shout. followed by a pause of a minute. Carry out any immediate first aid. b. 214. The International Distress Signal. Decide on further action to be taken. must: Going for help. sheltered. repeated several times. is six blasts on a whistle. International Distress Signal. taken by those remaining or going for help. or six flashes of a torch. Ensure the expedition's present position is pin-pointed as c. a signal may be made by waving a handkerchief or something similar. Before going for help the leader of the expedition Ensure the casualtyls) is a comfortable as possible and well s a. or emergency. etc. Issue clear instructions on the treatment and action to be b. c. Immediate Action a. Make the casualty(s) comfortable and warm. The party going for assistance should write down the details of their location and also of the time and nature of the casualty(s). which 212 every member of the expedition should know. six shouts. as recommended b. accurately as possible. 21 1 No injured or exhausted person should be left alone. 17 .PROCEDURE I N THE EVENT OF AN ACCIDENT OR EMERGENCY 210. etc 213.if necessary. asabove. If the signal has been heard the answer will be three blasts followed by a pause of a minute. in Chapter IV. General Evewone must know what to do in the event of an accident a.SECTION 4 . then a further six blasts.
Check the position and route to the nearest mountain rescue e. d. . post. . All members of the expedition should know the location of the mountain rescue posts when training in mountainous areas. police or habitation. One man should not be sent on his own. 18 . or remaining behind.Detail someone to be in charge of the party going for assistance. if the leader is going himself. . .
Deaths have occurred in the United Kingdom during cold or rainy spells and in heat waves. This chapter deals with the Risk and the two subsequent chapters with the Results and Remedies. use of clothing and equipment and by mrrect feeding. therefore.' 19 . because they describe its dangers. from the Met Office or local air station. . Because weather conditions in mountainous areas are liable t o change rapidly. "temperature" is. The climate of Western Europe. ( 2 ) Learning to recognise the Results (Effects) in their early stages and knowing their First Aid treatment. the human body of each type of weather. Remedies. He must also have sufficient knowledge of weather t o be able t o make sensible deductions from the forecast given and if necessary make appropriate changes t o his plans.CHAPTER 111 WEATHER SECTION 1 - GENERAL 301.. has a wide range of temperature from very cold to extremely hot. parties should normally be prepared for the worst mnditions. in particular that of the United Kingdom. a poor description of the weather pattern. The types of weather. They should all be read carefully as each is'as important as the others. before setting out.- Results. Preparation. . The best preparation is to have an advance knowledge by learning the "three Rs" of weather. The "three Rs" are: a. i ~ ~ 303. 304. and the precautions t o be taken against it. The result of taking the risk and the effects on b. 302. ( 1 ) Prevention by the correct. The leader must obtain a local weather forecast. these were mainly due t o underestimating or not recognising the dangers. Risk. c.
be cold and wet enough to be a hazard to life. This condition has various names . puddles. are: a. snow does not melt. The ground. Cold/Dn/. or Hypothermia (deficient heat). d. Another serious condition arising in a Cold/ Wet climate is Immersion Foot or Trench Foot. Coldmet Coldlory Hotmet Hotlory SECTION 3 - COLO WEATHER 306.THE RISK SECTION 2 . The general lowering of body temperature (Exposure) can occur. TYPES OF WEATHER The four main types of weather. Cold/Ory describes the climate when the air temperature rarely rises above freezing point at any time of the day. when the feet have been in water or mud for long periods without much movement. The great danger to life in this type of climate is a general lowering of the body temperature due to a combination of cold. aggravated by fatigue and lack of hot food and drink. Cold Exposure. all of which are encountered in 305. b. 20 . Western Europe and the United Kingdom. It is typical of the winter months in the United Kingdom that what starts as a mild day can. sleet and high ' winds. etc are frozen. 307. Coldmet describes the weather when the air temperature varies around freezing point in the range loo Centigrade to minus 2 Centigrade (0 Fahrenheit to 2 ' 5' 8 Fahrenheit) with rain. pools. and the presence of wind greatly increases the danger of body chilling in this climate.Exposure. or local chilling can go on to local freezing of exposed or badly protected tissue: this is called Frostbite. c. ColdMlet. a few hours later. wind and wet clothing.
without instruments. can be referred to correctly. The wind speed. and with a general description to assist estimating. Wind speed plays such an important part in the 308. 21 . which is shown at Figure 1.THE EFFECT OF WIND ON COLD WEATHER Wind Speed. effects which the Cold/Wet and Cold/Dry climates may have on the human body that the table reproduced below is a guide so that the speed can be estimated. the wind chili effect of a strong breeze of Force 6 s (about 28 mphl in an air temperature of 10' Centigrade (0 Fahrenheit) 5' is equivalent t o a slight breeze of Force 1 (about 2 mph) at minus 12' Centigrade 110' Fahrenheit). is shown in relation to the Beaufort Scale. 309.SECTION 4 . in order that the wind chill effect. this can be checked in Figure 1. in the following table. A an example.
54 - % 8 Gale 9 Strong Gale 55 63 10 11 12 Whole Gale Storm Hurricane TABLE I 64 . Inland trees uprooted. generally slows progress . Small trees in leaf begin to sway. 0 1 2 3 4 . created wavelets form on inland waters. visibility obscured by drifting snow. Breaks t q i g s off trees. Widespread damage.18 4 Moderate Breeze 19 ~ 24 5 Fresh Breeze 25 - 31 6 Strong Breeze 32 .72 73 ~ 82 . Leaves and small twigs in constant motion. Raises dust and loose paper. wind extends high flag. leaves rustle ordinary vane moved. chimney pots and slates fall off roofs.46 . ' Slight structural damage occurs . whistling heard in telegraph wires. inconvenience felt when walking against wind. Wind felt on face.WIND SPEED rind Speed mph 1 1 . Hurricane. snow begins to drift. Whole trees in motion. high drift occurs. Large branches in motion. small branches are moved.38 7 High Wind 39 47 .7 Slight Breeze 8 - 12 Gentle Breeze 13 .3 3eaufort Scale Wind Force Calm Light Air Land Description Smoke rises vertically Wind direction shown by smoke and not by wind vane.
(4) Zone D (1000-1200). if the pencil point mark is in: (1) Zone A (below ZOO). little danger with light clothing provided the exercise is not too prolonged and food is taken regularly. no danger. (2) Zone B (200. hot food. Make a pencil point mark where the temperature line b. The air temperature can be taken from the minimum temperature quoted in the newspaper. waterproof shelter. 23 . (5) Zone E (120Cb1400). or other weather forecasts. intersects the left-toright line of the wind speed. If clothing is wet from profuse sweat. (3) Zone C (400-1000).400). It i s in this band that the majority of deaths from exposure have occurred in the United Kingdom. The wind-chill index. or by. shown in Fig 1. melting snow or other immersion. p o w r of the climate on the body and is obtained from the relationship $existingbctween the temperature of the air and the speed of the wind. i s used as follows: a. c.direct measurement i n a training area. travel only in heated vehicles. sleet. and prevention of exhaustion. Check the newspaper.The wind-chill index gives a measure of the cooling 310. WindChill. increasing danger requiring up to full clothing. The degrees Fahrenheit Scale is shown along the top and degrees Centigrade along the bottom of the chart. rain. This is given in miles per hour on the right of the chart and in metres per second on the left. or thermometer. travel becomes dangerous on overcast days. To interpret the wind-chill index. but beware of the weather deteriorating. 311. to see if the temperature is in degrees Fahrenheit or degrees Centigrade. subtract 6' Centigrade or 11' Fahrenheit from the air temperature (to allow for the extra cooling of the body due to the water) before using the chart.
Wind Chill Index '. 24 . 1 .Fig.
ing to be carried out with variws readings of the heat s t r e s index. SECTION 5 .HOT WEATHER 312. t o the abundant supply of moisture. and the deadly Heatstroke. Cloud forme tions at night a h prevent the terrain from losing heat t o the open sky. Hotmet climates are typical of tropical'jungle country where the air temperature seldom rises above 3 Centigrade (looo Fahren8 ' heit) and more commonly is around 3 Centigrade (930 Fahrenheit) in day4 ' time. Deaths occur'every summer in the United States when intensive training starts for the .(6) Zone F ~14001600). Whenever i t is considered that there may be a danger o f heat illnesses 314. The danger of direct radiation from the sun is not very great because of the readily available shade in the dense vegatation and from the convective 25 . Kingdom and BAOR during healwaves in recent years. Hotmet. with cloud formations blocking direct sunlight There is no marked fall in temperature at night because the moisture' which evaporated during the day condenses once more. thus returning heat to the atmosphere.Autumn football season. These could all be prevented i f the risk was measured and activities lessened or stopped when the heat stress was too great. This is particularly dangerous in a sudden heatwave in Europe. occurring during training the Medical Officer should be consulted. The great dangers to health and life are Heat Exhaustion from lack of water or salt. These temperatures are mainly due.temporary shelter i s dangerous to live in. both arising from working or training too hard especially while unacclimatised to the heat. and survival efforts are required. (7) Zone G (1600 and above).'but with lower humidity than 4 ' the jungle climate and without the heavy rainfall. exposed flesh freezes in less than one minute. General. have occurred in the United 313. The US Marine Corps Recruit Depot in Southem Carolina have had great problems during training (600 heat casualties in the summer of 1952) and have evolved a system for preventing heat illness by grading the amount and type of train-. 315. Cases of heat illness. Healwaves in Westem Europe and the United Kingdom contain parts of both the HotNVet and Hotlory climates having air tempera tures up to 3 Centigrade (93' Fahrenheit). and a few deaths.
Hot/Dry climates are those of desert and semi desert areas. There is a marked fall in temperature during the night because the lack of clouds allow the ground to radiate the heat accumulated during the day to the open sky. Wind velocities are low except in violent storms and approach zero in forested areas. Hot/Dry. Rain occurs frequently as local downpours and causes dripping vegetation. 26 . A storm is usually followed by a brief period of intense sunshine. radiation levels from the sun are high and air tempemtures may go up to 5 Centigrade (122' Fahrenheit) or higher.cumulus cloud formaticons. The sky is clear. 316. often dust or sand laden. stagnant and humid atmosphere. The low 0 ' humidity and scanty rainfall result in sparse vegetation and there are sudden intense windstorms.
27 . slurring of speech. Complaints of feeling cold. Any two of the following symptoms require immediate action: a. Ehporurc. Violent outbursts of unexpected energy or speech. or understand questions or orders. recognise the early or mild cases of exposure or exhaustion. Physical and mental lethargy. Sudden uncontrollable shivering fits. Unexpected or unreasonable behaviour. Physical exhaustion is an additional factor over and above the deficiency of body heat which kills quickly. but it is most important to be on the watch for it. It has not been possible to separate the effects of one from the other in many of the recent fatal cases in the United Kingdom. repeated falling disturbance or failure of vision f. Symptoms of Exposure and Exhaustion. c. b. e. I t i s not always easy to 402. stumbling 0.CHAPTER I V PREVENTION AND TREATMENT FOR EXPOSURE AND EXHAUSTION (RESULTS AND REMEDIES) SECTION 1 - EXPOSURE AND EXHAUSTION 101. Definitions a. Slowing down. tired or listless. Exhaustion. or 9. including failure to respond to d. Exposure is a severe chilling of the body surface causing a progressive fall of body temperature with the risk of death from hypothermia (deficient heor). b.
Loose Layers of clothing D 28 .h. A. Aggravating Factors. cold. A thorough knowledge of First Aid and the contents of 404. An injury that immobilises the casualty and severely d. combination of fatigue. Men should be e n c o u r a d to develop the "buddy" system. 405. Collapse. To keep warm a good mnemonic to remember is "Cold Feet".Overheating is Out. f. 0 . Unusual thinness. The following factors are likely t o aggravate'.' the Symptoms given above: a. the onset of any of the signs or symptoms of exposure or exhaustion can then be recognised and reported quickly. . c. with strict adherence to the rules.Dryness Definitely' Demanded. L .. the chapters in this pamphlet. stress can be especially dangerous. j. reduces his ability to produce heat. anxiety or mental e. 403. C - Clean Clothing. in which soldiers are paired off to watch one another at all times. Soaked clothing with high wind increasing the windchill. Prevention. is the best way of preventing the onset of exposure or exhaustion. stupor or unconsciousness. physical resistance t o offered help. General chilling from continued low air temperature and b. high wind speed. Immersion in cold water.
rescued if they remain where they are? b. These conditions will include: (1) The state of the patient. Time and distance to a safe refuge. fairly advanced. there' are many important discrepancies which can be remnciled only when considered in the light of actual conditions at the. snowing. It is a matter of leadership and experience to decide what t o do in specific circumstances. Eat your Rations. Is he in the early stages. t o enable energy reserves t o be built up (6g from body fat). The way in which a casualty will eventually remver from exposure is by: (1) Insulation from further heat loss. Resting. time of a particular accident. On top of a mountain. Time of day (daylight.The general rules are discussed below. etc) (3) Location.F E E - Faca. or in a valley. (2) . Boots are Terrible. or has he collapsed and become quite incapable of any further movement? What reserves of energy has he remaining. Chances of being able t o reach it. What are the chances of being able to survive until. mild for the time of year or severe. raining. Finger and Foot Exercises. Treatment of Exposure a. Equipment check before leaving.Tight 406. . 29 . Summer or Winter conditions. c. (4) Clothing and equipment of the party. high wind. T . Although there i s general agreement between authorities on this subject. (2) The Weather. .
Remember' always to keep the head and neck well protected. It will also act as a very efficient insulation against exterior warmth. The first decisions to be made by the leader are: ( 1 ) Are ihe conditions suitable for the casualty to be able to recover in his present environment? (2) Must an attempt be made to get him. The 30 . and to put them both in a sleeping bag together. To attempt this on top of a Scottish mountain in Winter would be madness. etc. warmth from companions.' c. that i s to say with his own body resources. Treatment for Recovery. Carryinpout implies evacuation of a casualty on some form of stretcher or improvised carry. But warm drink and food should always be given. ' . which i s a good method of assisting recovery. or a warm tent. f.insulates him against absorbing heat from outside. assist recovery. as well as a healthy person. and the head low in relation to the body. even though this will lead to further deterioration and possibly death. e. cooking stoves in tents. and the casualty can recover d. except for the difficulty of getting two adults into one sleeping bag.(3)' is not necessarily essential.(3) Replacement of lost heat and energy by warm drink and food and exterior warmth. spontaneously. whereas in a hut with a fire going. Carrying Out and Walking Out. when available. it becomes more practical. because there i s little chance of him surviving in his present situation? (3) A compromise solution might be a temporary halt for a rest and food. ' g . can provide considerable extra warmth.'to safety. covered by waterproof outers to prevent evaporation of moisture. Even wet clothing. Insulating the patient against further heat loss also . When should wet clothing be removed? When should the patient be left with little clothing on to ' speed the abmrption of exterior warmth? One method of treatment is t o strip the patient. Exterior warmth can be provided by fires.before continuing to the nearest place of safety. to : .
without assistance from companions. They should. The temperature must be maintained by frequent topping up with hot water. the treatment can be harmful. and gathering close together. as when the patient is suffering from serious injuries or frostbite. it is likely that full bivouac equipment in the form of tents. If he is allowed to walk out he may well keep himself warmer. 31 . Under certain conditions. Incorrect temperature may introduce shock if too hot. the treatment of the casualty should proaeed along the lines set out in para 406c. fully clothed except for his boots. It does not form part of the treatment in the mountains or at normal refuge. When a decision is made to set up a bivouac. However. When normal body temperature is regained. It i s frequently better to let the casualty make his own way i n this manner. and details of the treatment are basically tor interest only. and perspiration breaks out on the brow. or further loss of body heat if too cool. even if he is staggering to a certain extent. If the expedition has been planned to last Several days. h. The patient is immersed. if necessary by erecting a wind break. collecting grass or heather to form a warm bed. Put on all extra clothing. be ready to give all assistanm if required. 407. the patient is removed to a warm bed in a warm room. unless he is kept very warm (sleeping bag etcl he will still lose a great deal of body heat. of course. Frequent halts can be made for rest and warm drinks and food to be consumed. (3) Light a fire. The important thing to remember is that this treatment should be given only under a doctor's supervision. (2) Use all means to insulate all members of the expedition from cold.advantages of this System are that the casualty does not use energy in movement. Hot Bath Treatment. greatly facilitating the treatment of the casualty. brew-up and use emergency ration. sleeping bags and c w k ing stoves will be carried. in a hot bath at a temperature of 45' (113OF). Survival a. (1) Set up the bivouac in a location as sheltered as possible in the circumstances.
(4) hole. ' Immersion in Very Cold Water (Immersion Exposure) a. ' 32 . consciousness becomes clouded in about seven minutes.5' Centigrade (0 Fahrenheit) it. ' Survival will depend upon the kind of protective clothing being worn. freeze in about four minutes. The breath i s k. the likelihood of 7' survival after longer periods of time is good.would be 6' unlikely for men not wearing special protective garments to survive for more than aboui five hours. 5 (0 Fahrenheit) survival should be considered a a matter of minutes. Previous experience of bivouaccing in a hostile environment will do much t o create confidence and. two of the fittest members of the expedition The ability to survive in adverse conditions is dependent on b. such as the fingers. men can live in cold water. injury and training. There is a risk. in fact. casualty. b. and death occurs in 15-20 minutes. mental and moral qualities as much as the physical condition of the. 'Some men have saved themselves by really violent action on hitting the water but greater numbers require help or die because of muscle spasm. . of cold injury to the extremities in these circumstances. At temperas tures in the order of 15. the body curls up and control of the muscles is lost.It has been stated that at sea temperatures under 4' Centigrade . it i s not easy to predict how long. coupled with a fatalistic attitude t o succumb. Fear i s the great enemy. In suitable snow conditions dig a snow scrape or snow (5) Send at least for assistance. for example.nocked out of the person. strength of will. however. 4' s this may be as few as five but perhaps as many a 60. violent shivering starts. ' A t temperatures of the order o f 21' Centigrade (0 Fahrenheit). A common belief that immersion in cold water is rapidly fatal is. Exposed parts. age. and above. ' 408. Immersion in water with ice floating nearby 'is a grave emergency because the effects are immediate and clothing affords little or no protection. in general. not always true and it is possible for men to survive immersion in very cold water for some time. This is it matter of training.
It is better t o cling to a floating object rather than to stmggle or to swim more than a very short distance unless this is likely to reduce the time spent in the water. and lack of food. to8 and leg e x e r c i s and the loosening o f any constrictions that may impede circulation of the legs. Prevention comprises dryness. The skin will be livid or purple in an established case. Some people swam around and thus lost body heat. others took clothing off in the water or entered it with little or none on. drink and sleep. or are thoroughly damp and cold for long periods without free movement and their blood supply is additionally constricted by tight clothing and by sitting with the legs down for many hours. lay him down and then take off the foot and leg coverings very care fully. The condition is serious and i t s onset is hastened by exhaustion. The prindples of treatment are those for exposure. Immersion in water that is not cold enough to produce these acvte reactions calls for ths saving of body heat by a minimum of exertion. When the liner LACONIA was abandoned near Madeira. and the rest were attributed t o Immersion Exposure. or the pain and numbness may alternate. Do not remove your clothing in the water. combat the pain with aspirin and keep the casualty lying down until he is safe in bed in haspital. Immersion or Trench Foot Immersion or Trench Foot occurs when the feet are immersed a. in cold water. If Immersion Foot is suspected the First Aid treatment i s to remove the casualty gently to warm surroundings as soon as possible. The pain can be so severe that the person looks ill and shocked. Elevate the pan t o help the swelling to diminish and improvise a cage over the feet t o take the weight of the blankett that are necessary to provide warmth and wmfon. Dry the limb with gentle dabbing but do not rub or damage any of the blisters. Do give the casualty hot food and drink. Do not provide the pan with artificial warmth and do not massage or rub. The feet and legs are painful and numb.c. only 11 of the 124 deaths were due to injury or accident. 33 . general chilling. 49 0. preferably by cutting. b. c. with swelling and blister formation.
34 . . cheek and skin which herald frostbite. a.&gravating factors to be guarded against are exhaustion. do not allow fuels. f. Do not handle metal with bare hands in these conditions and e. the affected part as quickly as posible while it is in the painful tie warning) stage. ' To keep warm remember "COLO FEET". ' . c. not until a skin temperature of minus lo Centigrade (0 Fahrenheit) 3' or lower is reached. d. the area of skin exposed. ears and fingers. . or the amount of constriction of blood supply t o a part. cheeks. lack of food and drink. ' . ' Under the "buddy" system the men should watch each other for the blanching (white appearance) . ' Protea the casualty by getting under cover and warming up .FROSTBITE 410. This i s because the shape and function of the feet render them diffi. . the wind speed. ' . cult 'to insulate adequately and 'any carelessness in severe wather makes them particularly liable t o this form of cold injury. and this is. b. Minor Frostbite most often affects the tip of the nose. General Frostbite occurs when the tissue' actually freezes.. such as petrol.ears.con&iction of blood supply:to a part such as the foot. other illness. ' Prevention of Frostbite a .SECTION 2 .in Korea were of frostbitten feet. b. Know the contents of these sections. wetting by sueat or water and the general chilling of the body. ' 411. as freezing is almost instantaneous.Severe Frostbite is wrnrnonest on the feet and indeed 85 per Cent of the cases.of nose. The time scale depends on the severity of the cold. t o contaminate the skin.
At this stage the frost has bitten and the area i s blanched and waxy white to look a t and hard to the touch. a marked decline in endurance and can lead to Heat Exhaustion.109' Fahrenheit) provides the best treatment for frost bitten limbs. The condition is now serious and will spread i f shelter and w a r m i n g are not obtained. If a p e r m is intensively pre-ompied . b. The water may be tested for temperature by using the elbow. eventually the pain disappears when the foot becomes numb. as a test of true friendship. SECTION 3 .HEAT DISORDERS 413. 35 . but with blankets or other coverings around to conserve heat. cheek or ear with a gloved hand and get into warm shelter quickly. because this will cause further damage to what is already very delicate tissue.generally stunned with cold or exhausted the warning pain may not be recognised. get into shelter quickly and. The first aid treatment at this stage is to cwer the nose. The affected part may be intensely painful and this should be sufficient warning that it must be warmed up. b. The fingers or hand should be slipped through the clothing into the armpit. When the feet are affected. especially those directly due to the environment. Water in a container over a primus stove can be used conveniently for hands or feet.412. General a. The disappearance of pain and the return of normal sensation indicates that the danger is over. Never rub a frost bitten part with anything. Research has indicated that rapid thawing in water of 42' 43O Centigrade (loa0 . Dehydration (lack of water) causes a loss of working efficiency. - c. Treatment for Frostbite a. The challenge o f the heat wave and the tropical climate can be better met i f there is a wider understanding of the illnesses and afflictions likely to be encountered. place them on the bare warm abdomen of a comrade.
(2) 414.groups g. aaarding to the degree of incapacity they cause:. f. sometimes with a vesicle in the 'centre. (3) Areas of skin' usualli covered by clothing are most fquently affected. perhaps complicated by sunburn or prickly heat or aggravated by continued exercise. (1) Minor disorders. Any of the heat disorders can predispose a man t o Heat Stroke. (2) The prickly sensation arises from a blockage o f the mouths of the sweat glands which prevent Sweat escaping. d. Major disorders. 36 . a reddening of the surrounding skin and irritation. Prickly heat (1) Prickly heat is common and is a source of great annoyance t o the sufferer. particularly by interfering sleep. e. from which he may die. but even acclimatised troops are affected when the simple instructions are not obeyed. Instead. the sweat has to force its way through layers of skin cells causing fine eruptions. may become infected due to scratching. and. . c. Heat Exhaustion.. Unacclimatised troops are particularly prone to heat disorders especially under operational conditions. Dehydration and lack of salt can o a r together. which may m u r alone. and can lead to Heat Cramps. so that they become ptentially lethal. For further consideration they fall into two main . ' Minor disorders a. or in association with.Lack of salt produces a similar inefficiency and likelihood of fatigue.
i f not removed from the heat stress. but in regions where sunshine is strong the first exposure must be no longer than five minutes if sunburn is t o be avoided. 37 . who will recover rapidly after a short rest. b. he is predisposed to a more sarious heat illness. (2) (3) Its occurrence does not imply any weakness or incapacity in the man. In the tropics the troops are more likely t o faint hermed "Heat Syncope") while standing quietly.(4) The mndition is aggravated by heat s t m .diminished. fever and occasional vomiting. (2) The reddening and blistering of sunburn is due t o the ultra violet content o f sunshine affecting skin which has not developed a protective tan. (31 Extensive sunburn causes temporary upset. T h i s is particularly true of unacclimatised men. Sunburn (1 1 Sunburn is a particular hazard for unacclimatised troops. (4) The body's heat regulation may be upset because the affected areas do not sweat. with the result that. which would otherwise causa increased sweating. from the increased strain on the cirwlatory system due to the environment. (5) A severely affected man may suffer extensive damage to a large number of sweat glands causing sweating ability t o be . in addition t o the pain of the burn. Fainting (1) Fainting after standing still for long periods can occur in troops anywhere. c . This ten is achieved by graded exposure. headache.
sweating.415. Heat Exhaustion includes four separable mnditions all of which are serious. This type of Heat Exhaustion i s a potentially lethal cmdition and requires urgent medical attention. ' '' ' 11) I ( 2 ) Salt deficient heat exhaustion. : initiative and interest. . nausea or vomiting and sometimes cramp of the muscles. b. . (4) Exercise induced heat exhaustion. However. and may stop a t the exhaustion stage or 90 on to actual collapse. Eventually he is unable to stand or cmtrol his muscles and becomes restless and hysterical or delirious.energy. Such cases usually have to be returned. This commonly occurs after 2 3 days heavy sweating without replacement of salt. stroke. He is impatient. Heat hyperpyrexia and heat. by severe prickly heat and accompanied by loss of. The latter wn involve the large muscle groups and morphine may have to be used t o control the severe pain. weary and sleepy. The symptoms are collapse. This may follow any period of heavy sweating when the water intake has been restricted. with rest in the shade and water t o drink. These are: . (1) Heat hyperpyrexia means "high fever" and is usually defined as a body temperature of 41' Centigrade (106O 38 . Anhidrotic heat exhaustion.. . which is nearly always preceded . Major disorders a. This is the name given t o chronic swaating deficienq of gradual onset (anhidrotic meaning "without swat"). These are of the utmost importance in view of the rapidity with which a man may be struck down and die. This is the Sequel to physical exertion in a hot environment in the absence or deficienq of salt or water or sweating. to a temperate climate. recovery IS rapid. Heat exhaustion. The symptoms are that the man complains of vague discomfort. . (3) Water deficient heat exhaustion. shortness of breath and a blue tinge of the skin develop and he has difficulty in walking. pallor. no appetite and dizziness. tingling sensations.
wrapped in a wet sheet or covered with a wet towel. Heat Hyperpyrexia can progress rapidly to Heat Stroke in which. such as under a tent flap or behind a bush. 39 . they are more dangerous from a tendenq on the part of a casualty to crawl into a quiet corner. the heat regulating mechanisms have failed. where he may easily escape notice during the critical period. (b) The only cure is immediate cooling t o check the rise in temperature. 0 with snoring breathing and a hot. (2) Heat stroke (a) The onset of Heat Stroke is sudden and the victim may have been quite well a few hours previously. (c) The man should be stripped of his clothing. The disturbances are profound. dry. (e) Do not wait for medical aid t o arrive before starting the suggested treatment i f Heat Stroke is suspected. and fanned by any means at hand to promote cooling by evaporation. resulting from impaired functioning o f the heat regulating mechanism. (d) Do not apply iced water t o the skin of the patient as this will not have. including delirium. the desired effect. The body temperaturn rises steadily in the absence o f sweating and death ensues at a temperature of about 43' Centigrade (110' Fahrenheit). flushed skin. If) Although cases'of Heat Stroke are relatively rare. a a delay of one or two hours s can mean the differenca between life and death. convulsions and partial or' complete 1 sof consciousness.Fahrenheit) or more. Where there is a risk o f Heat Stroke the above point must therefore be borne'in mind.
This quality is particularly required in outer garments. otherwise the workload will increase and there will be a danger of over-heating. 502.and waist.CHAPTER V CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT SECTION 1 . ' Water resistance and water proofness: These are highly desirable in outer garments and footwear in ColdANet climates: g.and by having the' head. Clothing should not hinder agile or fine movements. Each layer must f i t comfortably on the inner layer d. ' . face and hands bare. Ventilation. b. It must not be too loose or body move ments will cause a serious loss of heat by .CLOTHING The function of clothing is to aid in keeping the body temperature within the narrow range of the few degrees that are normal for efficient functioning and t o prevent injury t o the skin from rough terrain. Fibre permeability. thomy plants. 501. Clothing for cold climates should have the following qualities: a . without constricting. The amount of insulation can be varied by removing or putting on one or more layers o f clothing when too warm or chilly. ' Windproofness. Insulation is achieved by trapping still air (the . The windprcmfing of garments prevents the penetration by wind which would remove the still heated air. There is a danger ' 40 . wrists.. best 'insulation known t o man). Insulation."bellow" action. f. Fit. c Bulk. This is essential in outer garments for ColdIDry climates since exoegive sweat can evaporate and escape without condensing in the clothing. ' e. Over-heating is prevented by ventilating the clothing through clmures at'the neck.between the fibres in the weave and between the layers of the under garments. insects etc. end therefore quick fatigue.
ing. lightweight cooking equipment and emergency camping gear. 503. must be fitted carefully when a man is standing and carrying a loaded pack. In snow cover and sunshine snow goggles are required to prevent snow blindness. The areas most liable to frostbite after the feet and fingsrs are the tip of the nose.-as it is in such places where frostbite has resulted from not replacing mittens and gloves properly. First Aid Kit. This is in order t o prevent snagging and tearing of outer garments which would allow trapped heat t o be lost rapidly. In severe Cold/Dry conditions. Washable. balaclavas. hats and hoods of combat smock and parka. felt insoles and mukluks should be used. socks and boots. h. This calls for fabrics that do not shrink on wash. ie. 505. leather boots-cease to protect between minus 10' Centi0 ' 5 grade and minus 2 Centigrade (14' Fahrenheit t o minus' Fahrenheit) so duffle socks. hands and feet as well as on to the body and limbs. j. for instance. 'Care should be taken to overlap the various items particularly at the wrist. and this applies to the head. 41 . Protection of the head in cold weather deseNeS special mention. Spare food. waterproof overgarments. Cold weather clothing is fitted on the layer principle. skin of the head is well supplied with blood vessels. with sleeping bag. The 504. . such as a rucksack. . cheeks and ears. and dry easily. should also be carried by each man i f the expedition'is to be away for more than a few hours. Web equipment is not waterproof and so the contents should be kept dry by. torches and spare batteries. Durability. but it does not feel the cold. but it i s the body that feels cold and extra clothing put on the body does not make a man any warmer. It is therefore more economical and weight saving to wear even a light head covering. The result i s that a bare head can lose a substantial amount of heat. putting them into a polythene bag. Equipment The equipment to be carried should ideally be in a waterproof container. The footwear for ColdNVet climates. More severe weather requires the use of ear muffs.that frost or ice may form inside certain commercial waterproof clothing in these conditions and soldiers should be on their guard against this.
long pants. eg string vest. clothing and equipment before setting out to ensure that: ' a. c. especially on the lower half of the body. gloves. heavy shirt. must check 507. and had pushed on to exhaustion. windproof outer garments and boots. head coverings.That it is dangerous not t o carry the above items is shown clearly in 506. each morning. 42 .and 58 milder cases. Emergency items have not been forgotten and the polythene b a s are not torn. 508.order. the. recent incidents of exposure in the United Kingdom in which there were 25 deaths. socks. Correct clothing i s taken. Waterproof garments are carried: This means that the danger of setting out in bad weather or deteriorating conditions must be taken into amount. b.sleeping bags have no holes and zippers are not jammed. pullover(s). As conditions change throughout the day clothing should be added or removed t o maintain an even skin temperature.the items are in good . that members do not put on all their warm clothing before beginning the day's activities. The leader of a party should check. mittens. 5 cases of unconsciousness all recovered . All were wet through with inadequate windproof clothing. in all of which the symptoms began 5-6 hours after setting out. The interval between the onset of wmptoms and collapse and death was sometimes as short as 1-2 hours. and in particular the leader of an expedition. furthermore that. - All men.
If extra salt is required it should be taken by crushing and dissolving the tablets at the rate of one tablet to one pint of water. It is advisable not to swallow salt tablets whole because they can irritate the stomach and cause vomiting. In heat-waves and tropical climates the main meal should be kept 603.CHAPTER VI FOOD AND WATER SECTION 1 - FOOD 601. and this is often done at the expense of food and water supplies. Always carry a reserve of food above the normal requirement. say in the water bottle. One of the best reserve foods (to be eaten in emergencies only) is glucose toffee sweets containing 7 per cent fat and 85 per cent sugar. There is enough salt in Army rations to replace that lost in 10-12 pints of sweat daily. Experiments on troops have proved that a high fat and carbohydrate (starches and sugars) diet is better for protection in cold climates than a high meat diet. 602. so there should be supervision at meal times. however. hot food and drink may be fatal. Common salt is lost in the sweat and in the urine and if it is not replaced inefficient working and then illness result. SECTION 2 . If the weather deteriorates suddenly the results of lacking shelter. provided the rotion is eoten. but it needs only a twisted ankle to immobilise a man in open country for several hours while help is obtained. SALT 604. 43 . This solution does not taste and i s quite the best way of ensuring an extra supply with the amount of water required by the body to use it. packed in 5 8 oz boxes. There is a great temptation to travel light. Optimism that there will not be an emergency in the short time away from Base is another danger. Appetites readily become jaded in the heat. until the cool of the evening and special attention should be given to "attractiveness" so that jaded appetites are stimulated.
small quantities in t h e evening in hot climates. the high daily water requirement in a cold climate. and in the tropics. Always have a good meal before starting. . SECTION 4 . The consumption of alwhol can be dangerous in Certain conditions of exposure and exhaustion and it . if physical efficiency is m be maintained. It is better to stop at regular intervals to "brew-up" in shelters. 606. Remember that food and drink are the only souras of fuel necessary to keep going well.must be encouraged to drink past the point of thirst quenching.SECTION 3 605. The thirst sensation is not an accurate reflection of the body's water requirements and troops. A good d e is 10 pints of water per day plus one pint for every hour of activity.ALCOHOL Never take alcohol during the-day and only well diluted and in 607. walking round counts a an activity. If the urine is scanty and highly wloured more water must s be drunk.. . should not be used. and remember t o take a reserve. The body's water requirements in heatwave. are large because of the high sweat rate which is necessary to keep'the body mol and working efficiently. 44 . WATER Troops lacking experience of winter training are often surprised a t ' . then a snack at a "brewup" halt about midday and another good meal in the evening.
The Country Code is: (1) Guard against all risks of fire. but helps t o ensure that the Army is not brought into disrepute. hedges and walls. Protect wildlife. Keep to paths across farmland. when training or moving Over private land. Keep d o g under proper control.1 . grass can be precious. f. b. It IS not only a matter of courtesy to the landowner and the public in general. A. Do not dig water trenches around tents in the mountains as d. When climbing a wire fence put one foot on each side of a POSt and do not stand with full weight on the wire between WO posts. If damage is caused by accident it must be reported as soon as e. Safeguard water supplies.Annex A THE COUNTRY CODE 1. I f it i s necessary t o climb over a gate. c. do so at the hinged end. possible. Do not scorch grass with cooking stoves but rest them on a stone. (2) (3) (4) (51 (6) (7) Do not leave litter. Avoid damaging fences. It is essential that the Country Code is always obselved. particularly a. (8) (9) (10) Respect the life of the countryside. Do not shout unless there is an emergency. Go carefully on country roads. g. Fasten all gates. wild plants and trees. This must be done even if the damage is repaired a t the time.
Mountaineering "Mountain Leadership" by E Langmuir "Mountaineering" by A Blackshaw Sports Council Penguin Books Mountaineering Association Educational Publications Edinburgh Universiw Press Nelson Faber Kaye \ "A Short Manual of Mountaineering Training" "Rock Climbing" "Mountain Climbing" "Let's Go Climbing" "Modern Mountaineering" "The Technique of Mountaineering" "Safety on Mountains" by W C Burns (Know the Gameseries) by C M Dixon (Teach Yourself series) by G H Francis by C Kirkus by S Styles by J E B Wright CCPR Handbook obtainable from 22 Park Crescent. British Mountaineering Council and Association of Scottish Climbing Clubs Joint Circulation No. British Mountaineering Council and Association of Scottish Climbing Clubs Joint Circulation No. Hill Walking "Camp and Trek" by J Cox Lutterworth . 326.- ANNEX B SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY The bibliography contains only a few of the publications available and is not intended to be a comprehensive list. 380 (BMC 380 lissued on scale C)). London W1.
Weather "The Observer's Book of Weather" "The Weather Map" 'Weather" "Understanding Weather" 'Weather' Guide" General "Where to climb in the British Isles" by R M Lester Meteorological Office by R S Scorer bv 0 G Sutton .ReSCUe "Mountain Rescue and Cave Rescue" . 746D M 3/75 . Handbook of the Mountain Rescue Committee obtainable from Hill House. Cheshire. Cheadle Hulme. Stockport. by Fosdyke Warne HMSO Phoenix House Pelican Hamilton by E C Watt by J E B Wright Faber Kaye "Rock Climbing in Britain" "The Climber and Rambler" "Mountain" This is a monthly magazine suited to all tastes 10 times a vear BMC.
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