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and stand against that wicked mob.C H A P T E R T W E LV E ZION’S CAMP Courtesy of BYU Fine Arts Collection Time Line Date Feb.2 Beginning in late February these eight missionaries traveling two by two visited the branches of the Church throughout the eastern United States gathering contributions and recruiting for Zion’s Camp. They were to recruit a company of five hundred men if possible—but no fewer than one hundred—to march to Missouri to redeem and restore Zion (see D&C 103:11. . . and Joseph was selected to be the “commander-in-chief of the armies of Israel. He was supported unanimously. Christensen goodly a land. 9–15 June 1834 ZION’S CAMP ORGANIZED After an arduous journey. . The high council in Kirtland. . The Lord set forth various means by which the Saints were to settle the Missouri dispute. 29–40). or lose the chance to “better themselves by obtaining so 19 June 1834 Violent storm protected Zion’s Camp from enemies 22 June 1834 The Lord set forth conditions for future redemption of Zion 21–29 June 1834 3 July 1834 Cholera attacked Zion’s Camp Presidency and stake high council were created in Clay County Zion’s Camp by C. but they were warned that if all peaceful remedies failed they might have to occupy their rightful lands by force (see D&C 101). including the Prophet. Thirty to forty of the men present volunteered. 141 . the Lord instructed the brethren in Kirtland to raise an army and go to Missouri. Parley P. which had been organized less than a week (see D&C 102 section heading). At the conclusion of the meeting. 15. Pratt and Lyman Wight arrived in Kirtland from Missouri on 22 February 1834. What was called Zion’s Camp became a reality. however. Eight men. 22. He asked for a vote of the high council to sanction his decision. The Prophet then asked for volunteers to go with him. The Prophet was not happy with the number of volunteers they recruited. .”1 That same day Joseph Smith received a revelation concerning the recruitment and size of this army.A.–May 1834 May 1834 8 June 1834 U R I N G T H E W I N T E R of 1833–34 the Saints still hoped that Governor Daniel Dunklin would assist them in regaining their homes in Jackson County. Joseph Smith received a revelation that raised ominous possibilities. In April he suggested that the brethren in the East volunteer to go to Missouri with Zion’s Camp. As events unfolded. were called to help gather young and middle-aged members for Zion’s Camp and to raise money to help the oppressed members in Missouri.C. Joseph Smith announced that he was going to Zion to help redeem it. 1834 Significant Event High council in Kirtland sanctioned plan to organize army to help Missouri Saints Members recruited for Zion’s Camp Zion’s Camp began march Zion’s Camp obtained maximum numerical strength of 207 people Governor Dunklin refused to cooperate with Zion’s Camp D Mar. On 16 December 1833. . assembled in Joseph Smith’s home two days afterward to hear the pair’s report and consider the Missouri brethren’s requests for help.

and a colonizer. Apostle. He was a schoolteacher. and eventually recruited more than twenty volunteers. food. . including Oliver Cowdery and Sidney Rigdon. Wilford Woodruff recorded in his journal.”6 Recruitment efforts in Kirtland were less disappointing.8 142 . and give it to those who have no talent. and Illinois. and President of the Church. members of the Church planted gardens so the women and children could harvest corn and other crops during the army’s absence. that I will lead you there and back again. few in the East volunteered for the camp. or an inheritance upon the land of Zion. Many ablebodied priesthood holders in that community volunteered to march to Zion.7 Many of the men in Zion’s Camp left families with little or no money and no source of income. in the name of the Almighty. Michigan. who later played key roles in the Church. . a missionary. chief of the Nauvoo police force. but he was hesitant to go because of his business affairs. and the three men clasped hands in confirmation of this promise. were left behind to supervise the ongoing construction of the temple and to direct the other affairs of the Church in Kirtland.”4 By 25 April. Michigan. which is essaying to be the Church of Christ will not help us. if you will go with me in the camp to Missouri and keep my counsel. They visited branches of the Church in northern Ohio. Wilford was impressed with Parley P. Wilford Woodruff (1807–98) was an avid student of the scriptures. when they can do it without sacrifice. . Wilford was living at Joseph Smith’s home in Kirtland helping prepare others for the camp. They were to lead those who joined them to meet Joseph’s company at the Salt River in eastern Missouri. One who did was a recent convert. twenty-seven-year-old Wilford Woodruff of Connecticut. “The effect of their preaching was powerful on me. bedding. Thirty-two-year-old Brigham Young stepped forward and tried to convince his older brother Joseph to go too. Hosea later wrote. and shall prevent them from ever obtaining a place of refuge. over half of them from Pontiac. “Brother Brigham and brother Joseph. “I told Brother Parley our circumstances.5 Hosea Stout.CHURCH HISTORY IN THE FULNESS OF TIMES “. The volunteers also gathered supplies and teams for their journey. God shall take away their talent. A few elders. to participate. a lawyer. Hyrum Smith and Lyman Wight went northwest from Kirtland to seek out more recruits. arrange my affairs. He told me it was my duty to try to prepare myself and go up to Zion. and not a hair of your heads shall be harmed. Joseph Smith declared to the two brothers. a missionary. an officer in the Nauvoo Legion. .”3 Nevertheless. On 21 April. Church historian. To prevent undue hardships. and arms for the Saints in Missouri. And accordingly I used every exertion to settle my accounts. as well as clothing. had not yet become a member in 1834 when Hyrum and Lyman went to his hometown in Michigan. Pratt’s impassioned appeal for volunteers. and when I considered that they were going up to Zion to fight for their lost inheritances under the special directions of God it was all that I could do to refrain from going.” Hearing this Joseph Young agreed Hosea Stout (1810–89) joined the Church in 1838 while living in Far West. a seventy. If this Church. Missouri. . and prepare myself to join my brethren to go to Missouri. I promise you.

”9 That day the Prophet spoke to the Kirtland Saints before departing. “I took leave of my wife and children and friends. who was to assign each man his responsibilities. the age of their leader. and 25 baggage wagons. they should all safely return. . Kimball said. high humidity. despite blistered feet. then went to work at their respective assignments. oppressive heat.”11 The men also consolidated their money into a general fund. . On 8 June at the Salt River in Missouri. the trumpeter roused the weary men with reveille on an old. Officers continued to recruit help from Latter-day Saints living in Ohio. keeping his commandments. battered French horn. the day appointed to begin the one-thousand-mile march. which was managed by Frederick G. arms. Each company gathered for prayer. 6 May 1834.M. Smith. was the youngest at age sixteen. It was not unusual for them to march thirty-five miles a day.ZION’S CAMP THE MARCH T O WA R D ZION On 1 May. . others 143 . . Indiana. where they were to wait for the others to join them. Joseph Holbrook. where Joseph Smith had arranged to meet Hyrum Smith’s company from Pontiac. and thirst. only twenty people were ready to go. 4 May. over eighty volunteers assembled in Kirtland. The average age of the recruits was twenty-nine. He divided it into companies of tens and fifties and instructed each group to elect a captain. Joseph Smith. Most able-bodied men walked beside the heavily loaded wagons along the muddy and dusty trails. . cousin of the Prophet. who was appointed paymaster. Throughout its journey the camp was gradually strengthened with additional volunteers. George A. and money. and Samuel Baker was the oldest at seventy-nine. One recruit. By Sunday. At 4:00 A. the army was at its largest: 207 men. Some were fearful of what lay ahead. Heber C. Some members of the company gathered firewood. before the Lord. Joseph Smith sent them fifty miles south to New Portage. He bore testimony of the truth of the work which God had revealed through him and promised the brethren that if they all would live as they should. it numbered 185 individuals. not knowing whether I would see them again in the flesh. and Illinois. hunger. Armed guards were posted around the camp at night. Many of them carried knapsacks and held guns. There the Prophet organized the camp. Nearly all of them were young men. . George A. reported that the camp was organized “according to the ancient order of Israel. By the time Zion’s Camp crossed the Mississippi River into Missouri. Smith wrote: “He impressed upon them the necessity of being humble. Williams. Michigan. supplies. The eighty men joined the twenty brethren in New Portage late Tuesday evening.”10 The next day Joseph Smith assumed his role as commander-in-chief of the army. second counselor in the First Presidency. heavy rains. 11 children. In many respects the daily routine of Zion’s Camp was similar to that of other armies. On 8 May the army of Israel resumed its long march west. exercising faith and patience and living in obedience to the commands of the Almighty. 11 women.

But Joseph Smith advised them that unless they were told the milk was contaminated.” The snakes were carefully carried across a creek on sticks and released. the Prophet said.13 George A. which raised fears among the camp of milk sickness. hungry and sleepy that I dreamed while walking along the road of seeing a beautiful stream of water by a pleasant shade and a nice loaf of bread and a bottle of milk laid out on a cloth by the side of the spring.15 Milk and butter was often obtained from local farmers under unsanitary conditions. and continue to make war upon it? Men must become harmless. “use all they could get from friend or enemy. and none be sick in consequence of it. rancid butter. and although we passed through neighborhoods where many of the people and cattle were infected with the sickness. it should do them good. strong honey. The men were often required to eat limited portions of coarse bread. “Let them alone—don’t hurt them! How will the serpent ever lose his venom. or even death. One afternoon while preparing to pitch his tent Joseph and others discovered three rattlesnakes. Joseph instructed the camp to refrain from killing any animal unless it was necessary to avoid starvation. while the servants of God possess the same disposition. and maggot-infested bacon and cheese. and took down tents. Smith wrote that he was frequently hungry: “I was so weary.17 144 . cooked breakfast. before the brute creation.”16 On a number of occasions. Wagon wheels had to be greased and horses fed and groomed before being hitched up for the day’s journey. raw pork. before drinking it. cornmeal mush. rotten ham.”14 On occasion the men strained swamp water to remove wigglers (mosquito larvae). Joseph Smith taught those in the camp to conserve natural resources and to avoid killing.12 Feeding the camp was one of the most persistent problems. yet my words were fulfilled. As the men prepared to kill them. puking fever.CHURCH HISTORY IN THE FULNESS OF TIMES Lake Michigan Lake Erie Michigan Indiana Illinois ve Ri Kirtland Ohio New Portage Chippaway Cleveland Wa b iver ash R r Wooster ive Mississipp iR Missouri Fis Ill in oi Iowa r s Springfield Springfield Indianapolis Dayton Greenfield Belleville E mb hin g Jacksonville Riv er arra s R i v e r Liberty Richmond Independence Atlas Jefferson City Mi ssouri Riv er io Oh er Riv The journey of Zion’s Camp carried water.

The Prophet promised if they would humble 145 . He said that he found a “rebellious spirit in Sylvester Smith. and Joseph’s watchdog kept him awake at night. Several men feared possible dangers. that they might not be scourged. frequently led the dissension. The Prophet recalled. a former Lamanite warrior chieftain who was killed “during the last great struggle of the Lamanites and Nephites. quarreling and contention within the camp became its most vexing problem.ZION’S CAMP Unlike most armies. and His angels went before us. a dozen men entered the camp and concluded there were six hundred soldiers.”21 The following day the prophecy was fulfilled: nearly every horse was sick or lame. Sylvester Smith (no relation to the Prophet). I told them they would meet with misfortunes. As the camp crossed the Illinois River. For forty-five days they marched together. and said. ‘and you will know it before you leave this place.”18 On 2 June 1834 the army crossed the Illinois River at Phillips Ferry. some complained about changes in their life-style.”19 The Lord also blessed the camp to travel safely through sometimes threatening circumstances. “God was with us. the Prophet inquired of the Lord and learned in an open vision that the remains were those of a man named Zelph. Ohio. preparations for the journey were inadequate. We know that angels were our companions. He complained that the food was poor. difficulties and hindrances. Besides company prayers the men were admonished to pray privately morning and evening. and partook of the sacrament. for we saw them. Near Dayton. The Prophet and a few others walked along the bluffs and found a huge mound with human bones scattered about and what appeared to be the remains of three ancient altars.20 When they faced opposition at Indianapolis. On the evening of 17 May. and the inevitable personality clashes were exacerbated by the harsh conditions they encountered. Those in the camp had faith that the Lord was accompanying them. They were often privileged to hear the Prophet teach the doctrines of the kingdom. Grumblers often blamed Joseph Smith for their discomfort. Members of the camp generally tried to conceal their identity and objectives as they marched. and a few questioned the decisions of their leaders. On Sundays the camp rested. the ferryman thought there were five hundred in the company. A hole was dug and a large human skeleton was discovered with a stone arrowhead between its ribs. taking different routes through the community undetected. and the faith of our little band was unwavering. He divided them into small groups which dispersed. As the brethren left the hill. held meetings. Zion’s Camp placed great emphasis upon spirituality. and to some extent in others. Joseph was called upon to settle a dispute among some of the brethren. a sharp-tongued group captain.’ exhorting them to humble themselves before the Lord and become united. Joseph assured the brethren that they would pass through the city without anyone being aware of their doing so. Potential enemies notwithstanding. Occasionally the army appeared larger or smaller than it actually was to those who tried to determine its strength.

”22 This sad prophecy would be fulfilled within a few weeks. And leave the world on fire. On Zion’s bright and flow’ry mount Behold the officers. he recognized that an armed force sent by the state would be necessary to restore the Mormons to their lands and protect them while the courts decided the legal issues involved. How martial they appear. their murmuring and faultfinding: “I said the Lord had revealed to me that a scourge would come upon the camp in consequence of the fractious and unruly spirits that appeared among them. By noon the horses were nimble once again. Hark! Listen to the Trumpeters Hark! listen to the trumpeters They call for volunteers. The eternal Son of God. They look like men of war. on a green and flow’ry mount. Dunklin claimed that calling out the militia would probably plunge the state into open war. which soon died. that is to take it by force of arms. We soon shall hear the trumpet sound That shakes the earth and sky. the scourge. We want no cowards in our bands That will our colours fly. And our Redeemer know. Their horses white. With angels all arrayed in white. still. And fight for liberty. Beyond the swelling flood. and he sought to have the arms returned that were taken from the Saints when they were expelled from Jackson County the previous November. Where fruits immortal grow. if they would repent and humble themselves before the Lord. their animals would immediately be restored to health. To march to Zion’s land. might be turned away. Pratt to Jefferson City. enlist with Jesus Christ. Lift up your heads. With courage bold they stand. their armours bright. On 3 June a frustrated Joseph Smith stood on a wagon wheel and scolded the men for their lack of humility.23 EFFORTS TO ACHIEVE PEACE The anti-Mormons in Jackson County learned of the advancing army in June when the postmaster in Chagrin. mobbers burned 150 homes belonging to the Mormons who lived in the county.”24 Believing that a Mormon invasion was imminent. Once Zion’s Camp was in Missouri. Redemption’s drawing nigh. I will enlist. ye soldiers bold. The great eternal Lamb. Enlisting soldiers for their King. Church leaders in Clay County continued to petition Governor Daniel Dunklin for assurance that he would support the Saints in returning to their homes. the armies shout. the state capital. We’ll shout and sing for evermore In that eternal world.CHURCH HISTORY IN THE FULNESS OF TIMES "Hark! Listen to the Trumpeters” was a march hymn sung by those in Zion’s Camp as they traveled to Missouri. In a vindictive spirit. the members of this camp will suffer for giving way to their unruly temper. Members of Zion’s Camp suspected that spies from Missouri had followed them for hundreds of miles.25 themselves and overcome their discord. While Satan and his army too Shall down to hell be hurl’d. One night a Missourian went into camp and swore that he knew their destination was Jackson County and that they would never cross the Mississippi River alive. Who’re not afraid to die. The trumpets sound. King Jesus is his name. There. Joseph Smith sent Elders Orson Hyde and Parley P. They drive the hosts of hell: How dreadful is our God t’adore! The great Emmanuel! Sinners. regaining their property. in a great measure. And all surround the throne of love. His garments stain’d in his own blood. and living in peace in Jackson County. as the Lord lives. The interview was a bitter disappointment. hoping perhaps to discourage the return of the Saints. 146 . The governor acknowledged that the Saints had been wronged by being driven from their homes. They follow their great General. To see our armies on parade. Furthermore. Jackson County troops began to drill. In fiery chariots we shall rise. Contention soon arose again when Sylvester Smith threatened to kill Joseph’s dog. And march with us to Zion’s land. and they should die like sheep with the rot. with the exception of Sylvester Smith’s mount. At the same time. gird on my arms. He advised the brethren that they could avoid bloodshed by relinquishing their rights. It sets my heart all in a flame A soldier for to be. to ascertain whether Governor Dunklin was still willing to honor his promise to reinstate the Saints in Jackson County with the assistance of the state militia. We call for valiant-hearted men. and sentries were posted at all ferries along the Missouri River. Ohio. And join the heav’nly choir. but. All arm’d and drest in uniform. wrote to his counterpart in Independence: “The Mormons in this region are organizing an army to restore Zion. Occasionally Brigham Young and Joseph Young sang the hymn for the benefit of the camp.

26 Parley was also convinced that the governor was a coward and was morally obligated to resign for failing to live up to the obligations of his office. of course. Turnham. belligerent crowd gathered at the meeting. but the brethren felt that he knew this was not practical. and they must either clear out. Angered and frustrated by the governor’s decision.’ “Mr. Soon thereafter the Saints prepared a counterproposal suggesting that a neutral committee determine the value of the property of those in Jackson County who refused to live with the Latter-day Saints. Meanwhile Judge John J. Their report dashed any hopes that the Missouri Saints would be allowed to return to their homes peacefully. ‘Let us be republicans. and they promised to respond to the Jackson County proposition within a week. let us honor our country. This proposal was unrealistic. Moreover. Zion’s Camp resumed marching.ZION’S CAMP selling their lands. said. or be cleared out. The Saints did not have enough funds to purchase even a fraction of the land owned by the non-Mormons. The Prophet called upon God to witness the justice of the Saints’ cause and the sincerity of their vows. and settling elsewhere. Ryland of Clay County arranged a meeting for 16 June at the courthouse in Liberty. and not disgrace it like Jackson county. were all known by the anti-Mormons. ‘The Mormons have lived long enough in Clay county.’”28 The Mormon committee prepared a statement specifying that the Saints would not commence hostilities. .27 These facts. This was unacceptable to the Church. the moderator of the meeting. The brethren also realized that the antiMormons were waiting to destroy all Mormons who attempted to settle in Jackson County. and that the Saints buy that property within a year. saying. the Saints promised to stay out of Jackson County until full payment was made. A committee of citizens from Jackson County and representatives of the Saints in Clay County were to meet in an effort to resolve the dispute. A large. and they could not sell their land in Zion because they had been commanded by the Lord to purchase and settle it. unruly. “A Baptist priest . Officers of the court were among the anti-Mormons in the county. The governor then advised an appeal to the courts. answered in a masterly manner. so it was like referring them to a band of thieves to sue for the recovery of stolen property. For God’s sake don’t disfranchise or drive away the Mormons. . Tempers flared as Jackson County representative Samuel Owens swore that the Missourians would fight for every inch of ground rather than let the Saints return. The non-Mormons proposed to purchase within thirty days all property owned by the Saints in Jackson County at prices determined by three disinterested arbiters or to have the Mormons do likewise and buy all their property within the same time period.29 147 . They are better citizens than many of the old inhabitants. Elder Pratt and Elder Hyde rejoined the approaching Zion’s Camp. These negotiations unfortunately proved futile.

Clay. there is some meaning to this. He declared.”33 It was impossible for anyone to sleep. frightened and scattered their horses.”30 They boasted that nearly four hundred men had joined forces from Ray. When Joseph Smith came in.CHURCH HISTORY IN THE FULNESS OF TIMES EVENTS AT FISHING RIVER By 18 June. to protect His servants from the destruction of their enemies. who are calculating to kill you this morning as you pass through. they camped just inside Clay County on a hill between two branches of the Fishing River. “Stand still and see the salvation of God. “It seemed as if the mandate of vengeance had gone forth from the God of battles. As the army encamped. The storm was so intense that Zion’s Camp abandoned their tents and found shelter in an old Baptist meetinghouse nearby.”31 Sounds of gunfire were heard. He had the camp roused in the early morning hours. Lafayette. The Prophet recalled. a black slave woman agitatedly told Luke Johnson. but the Prophet promised that the Lord would protect them. As the first ferry load of mobbers crossed the Missouri River to the south. filling the heavens with darkness. He went into the woods and prayed for safety. cursing. Joseph’s fears were confirmed when five armed Missourians rode into camp. he knelt and prayed again for divine protection. a small black cloud appeared in the clear western sky. a sudden squall made it nearly impossible for the boat to return to pick up another load. and some of the men wanted to fight. It moved eastward. God is in this storm. although they were able to make only nine miles. When Joseph learned that mobs were preparing to attack. and raised the level of the Fishing River.”32 A few minutes after the Missourians left. Instead of reaching their intended destination of Liberty. preventing them from attacking Zion’s Camp. and swore that the Mormons would “see hell before morning. the Prophet had a premonition of danger. Colonel John Sconce and two associates of the Ray County militia rode into Zion’s Camp to learn of the Mormons’ 148 . and he was assured that the Lord would protect them. It soaked and made the mobbers’ ammunition useless. The furious storm broke branches from trees and destroyed crops. unrolling like a scroll.”34 Elsewhere the beleaguered mobbers sought any refuge they could.” They met no resistance. the county seat of Ray County. and they left without prayers or breakfast. and Jackson counties and were then preparing to cross the Missouri River at Williams Ferry and “utterly destroy the Mormons. he exclaimed. so the group sang hymns and rested on the rough benches. “Boys. “There is a company of men lying in wait here. Zion’s Camp arrived within a mile of Richmond. being slowed down by broken wagon wheels. As they marched through Richmond.”35 Two days later. One camp member recorded that “during this time the whole canopy of the wide horizen was in one complete blaze with terrifying claps of thunder. on 21 June.

”37 Sconce and his companions were so affected by the stories of the unjust trials and suffering of the Saints that they promised to use their influence to offset feelings against the Mormons. as becometh saints. 19). This chastisement was directed specifically to members of the branches who were slow in sharing themselves and their means for the cause of Zion (see vv. and the plague was stayed. The brethren covenanted to that effect with uplifted hands. Three days later several more were struck with the dreaded disease. Speaking of the men in the camp he said. The Saints had to learn their duty and gain more experience before Zion could be redeemed (see vv. and got up by our enemies to procure our destruction. The next day. He said. to the poor and afflicted among them. causing severe diarrhea. and there should not be another case of the cholera among them. Disappointed and angry. Thus the Lord said. the Lord’s command not to do battle was the final trial of their faith. which was carried in contaminated water. vomiting. He promised the obedient that they would receive an endowment from on high if they continued faithful (see vv. the plague should be stayed from that hour. 11–12).” Sconce admitted. The day before the revelation was given two men contracted cholera. 13). “The evil reports circulated about us were false. and will accept their offering. they apostatized. about sixty-eight people.36 The Prophet explained that the only purpose of Zion’s Camp was to help their brethren be reinstated on their lands and that their intent was not to injure anyone. “I have heard their prayers. 7–8).38 On 2 July. and cramps. for the redemption of Zion” (v. 22 June. The epidemic spread. 9–10). If Zion’s Camp did not succeed in its military objectives. Before it ended. “And are not united according to the union required by the law of the celestial kingdom” (D&C 105:3–4). it did succeed in serving the purposes of the Lord. Joseph received a revelation communicating the Lord’s dissatisfaction with the members of the Church for their disobedience and selfishness: They “do not impart of their substance. For a few of the Saints.”39 149 . including Joseph Smith. one of whom was a woman named Betsy Parrish. “I see that there is an Almighty power that protects this people. were stricken by the disease.ZION’S CAMP intentions. As a result of their insurrection the Prophet again warned the camp that the Lord would send a devastating scourge upon them as a consequence of their unrighteous complaints. and it is expedient in me that they should be brought thus far for a trial of their faith” (v. “it is expedient in me that mine elders should wait for a little season. Joseph Smith told the camp that “if they would humble themselves before the Lord and covenant to keep His commandments and obey my counsel. and fourteen members of the camp died.

even as he had Abraham’s when he offered his son Isaac. and in his benediction asked the heavenly Father to bless us with eternal life and salvation. a few of the members had not learned from the persecutions of Jackson County.”40 The camp dispersed after being released by the Prophet. Unfortunately.CHURCH HISTORY IN THE FULNESS OF TIMES DISBANDING THE SAINTS THE CAMP AND REORGANIZING On 25 June. and that the Lord had accepted our sacrifice and offering. but carefully gather together. Joseph Smith and a few other leaders of Zion’s Camp arrived back in Kirtland in early August. The spirit of good will. that he was fully satisfied that he had done the will of God. After reviewing the evidence. began to change when Saints continued to migrate to Missouri in anticipation of returning to Jackson County and when some members of the Church bought property in Clay County. during the height of the cholera attack. that you may rest in peace and safety” (D&C 105:24–25). to the relief of the Saints in Kirtland who had worried about reports that the Prophet had been killed in Missouri. Most of the non-Mormons in Clay County were cordial. Lyman Wight reported that the Prophet “said that he was now willing to return home. Later in the month a high council court heard the complaints of Sylvester Smith and others who were still bitter over Zion’s Camp. Sylvester admitted that he was in error and had behaved improperly. as much in one region as can be. “And behold. Ten men who had participated in Zion’s Camp disputed the charges of Sylvester Smith and testified that Joseph Smith was not guilty of improper conduct. On that same day. and the Saints enjoyed some prosperity. consistently with the feelings of the people. Joseph Smith discouraged the Missouri Saints from holding Church meetings. I will give unto you favor and grace in their eyes. but most of them returned to their families in the East. Collectively the members failed to observe the Lord’s counsel: “Talk not of judgments. Ten days later formal written discharges were prepared for each faithful member of the camp. 150 . This period was relatively free from persecution. neither boast of faith nor of mighty works. however. and they incited the old settlers with talk that their lands would eventually belong to the Saints. the Prophet organized a presidency and high council in Missouri to help Bishop Edward Partridge administer the affairs of the Church in that area. however. Joseph Smith divided Zion’s Camp into several small groups to demonstrate the Saints’ peaceful intent to the Missourians. in an attempt to allay the fears of local citizens. 3 July. Some people remained in Missouri in accordance with the Fishing River revelation (see D&C 105:20). and some returned to the mission field. Life in Clay County was easier for the Saints throughout the rest of 1834 and during 1835.

Reed A. p. pp. Smith. Brigham Young promptly replied. polished. When a skeptic asked what he had gained from his journey. all seven presidents of the Seventy’s quorum. “History of Brigham Young. “Autobiography of Hosea Stout. and others who led the exiled Saints from Missouri to Illinois and from Nauvoo across the plains to the Rocky Mountains. 151 . pp. 8. Jr. Heavens Resound. p. 455. and unfavorable publicity. Stout. In Orson F. The Prophet later explained: “God did not want you to fight. The observant and dedicated received invaluable practical training and spiritual experience that served them well in later struggles for the Church. and spiritually refined many of the Lord’s servants. Kimball. George A.. Previous four paragraphs derived from Backman. 4. Heavens Resound. Life of Heber C. pp.”42 ENDNOTES 1. apostasy. 3. History of the Church. p. The Heavens Resound: A History of the Latter-day Saints in Ohio. Salt Lake City. 13. 11.. and capitalization standardized. and all sixty-three other members of that quorum had served in the army of Israel that marched to western Missouri in 1834. 259–60. 2:48. ed. 6. p. Heavens Resound. The previous two paragraphs are derived from Milton V. 2:39. 173–75. or Elden Jay Watson. 3d ed.ZION’S CAMP ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF ZION’S CAMP Zion’s Camp failed to help the Missouri Saints regain their lands and was marred by some dissension. Salt Lake City. 180–85. 1968). 1962. and with seventy men under their direction to follow in their tracks. 7. Zion’s Camp chastened. unless he took them from a body of men who had offered their lives. Heber C. but a number of positive results came from the journey.” Millennial Star. Kimball. He could not organize his kingdom with twelve men to open the gospel door to the nations of the earth. the members demonstrated their faith in the Lord and his prophet and their earnest desire to comply with latter-day revelation. By volunteering. Wilford Woodruff Journals..” LDS Historical Department. 15. punctuation. 1806–1885. 179. 9. and who had made as great a sacrifice as did Abraham. Nine of the original Apostles. Joseph Holbrook. Smith. LDS Historical Department.” Utah Historical Quarterly. pp. 5.” 4 May 1834. 1801–1844 (Salt Lake City: Elden Jay Watson. Derived from Backman. 18 July 1863. p. 1830–1838 (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co. 1967). spelling and punctuation standardized. “Memoirs of George A. “History of Joseph Holbrook. Manuscript History of Brigham Young. 40. 12. 13. LDS Historical Department. 1983).”41 In February 1835 the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles and the First Quorum of the Seventy were organized. 1834. Whitney. Backman. In History of the Church. spelling. They showed their concern for the exiled Saints in Missouri by their willingness to lay down their lives if necessary to assist them. Previous two paragraphs derived from Backman. 8. (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft. The hardships and challenges experienced over its thousand miles provided invaluable training for Brigham Young. Salt Lake City. Heavens Resound.178–79. 1810 to 1835. This rugged journey served as a test to determine who was worthy to serve in positions of leadership and trust and to receive an endowment in the Kirtland Temple. p. 11 Apr. Derived from Backman. p. 2. 188. “I would not exchange the knowledge I have received this season for the whole of Geauga County. 10.

121. History of the Church. History of the Church. p. see also History of the Church. Journal of Moses Martin. 28. 2:73. History of the Church. Bradley. 189–91. Previous three paragraphs derived from Backman. p. paragraph derived from Backman. 33. 31. 1896). Derived from Backman. 2:68. See History of the Church. Heavens Resound. 26. in History of the Church. 21. In Journal of Discourses. Mo. Heavens Resound. 2:71. 190. 25. 2:80. History of the Church. 15. pp. 19. 32. Joseph Young. pp. 2:104n. History of the Church. Sacred Hymns. Salt Lake City. History of the Church.: Herald Publishing House. 283–85. Wilcox. 20. 37. In History of the Church. 16. 1878). 2:79. 191–92. n. Heavens Resound. 36. 2:120. History of the Church. p. 22. Heavens Resound. p. Lyman Wight. Heavens Resound. previous four paragraphs derived from Backman. cited in Pearl Wilcox. Heavens Resound. See History of the Church. Pratt. pp. Previous six paragraphs derived from Backman. Letter from J. 2:182n. Classics in Mormon Literature series (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co. spelling standardized. 34. 2:106. History of the Church. 2:102–3. 23. 2:106. “History of Joseph Holbrook.p. 1840. Smith. Smith. 27.. 42. M. 2:97–98. Wilford Woodruff. 17.CHURCH HISTORY IN THE FULNESS OF TIMES 14. 2:71–72. Henderson to Independence postmaster. Zion’s Camp 1834: Prelude to the Civil War (Salt Lake City: Publishers Press. 1985). 2:114. History of the Church. James L. See Parley P. See History of the Church. 1972). 1:515–16. 186–89. “Memoirs of George A. pp. 39. Backman. 38. 152 . 40. 2:80. LDS Historical Department. 24.: Pearl G. 2:104–5. 41. 207. 29. 17. punctuation standardized. In History of the Church. 15. History of the Organization of the Seventies (Salt Lake City: Deseret News. 2:105. The Latter Day Saints on the Missouri Frontier (Independence.” p.” p. 2:66–67. 1990). 14. Mo.. ed. 18. 94. or History of the Church.. 2:10. Pratt. p. 35. pp. History of the Church. 192–94. 197–99. Autobiography of Parley P. in The History of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Independence. 30. pp.