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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

MARCEL W. FODOR
FOREIGN CORRESPONDENT

By Dan Durning
October 5, 2011 (version 1.1)

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH MARCEL W. FODOR, FOREIGN CORRESPONDENT By Dan Durning
October 5, 2011 (version 1.1)

Summary Marcel W. Fodor [January 17, 1890 – July 1, 1977] was a famed journalist based in Vienna who wrote about events in the Balkans and Central Europe during the 1920's and 1930s for the Manchester Guardian, several major newspapers in the United States, and many magazines, including The Nation, The New Republic, and American Mercury.[1] He also wrote two wellreviewed books about the history and politics of those regions.[2] After living nearly twenty years in Vienna, Fodor, with his wife Martha and son Denis, had to flee from the city when German troops invaded Austria in March, 1938. He and his family took refuge in the United States in 1940 after Germany occupied much of Western Europe. In the U.S., Fodor taught for a year at the Illinois Institute of Technology, then became a columnist for the Chicago Sun. Also, he traveled extensively as public speaker. Fodor received U.S. citizenship in 1943. Fodor resumed his career as foreign correspondent in August 1944, returning to Greece, the Balkans and Europe for the Chicago Sun syndicate and the Washington Post. He continued to write stories for the Washington Post until nearly the end of 1947. In early 1948, Fodor took a position with the United States occupation forces in Germany, settling in Berlin. From July 1949 through January 1955, he was editor-in-chief of the Berlin edition of Die Neue Zeitung, the American newspaper in Germany. After that newspaper ceased publishing on January 31, 1955, Fodor held different positions with Voice of America (VOA). Beginning in November 1955 until late summer 1958, he was policy advisor to the Munich VOA radio center. He then returned to Washington D.C. and continued working for U.S. Information Agency (the organizational home of VOA) until his retirement in 1964. Early Years Fodor was born and grew up in Hungary. According one person who interviewed his son, he came from a prosperous banking family.[3] Fodor wrote in his book South of Hitler that he first traveled to the Balkans in 1905, when he was 15, accompanied by his 12-year-old cousin.[4] John Gunther, a colleague and friend for decades, wrote about Fodor’s youth: Fodor’s own youth was remarkable. He will not discuss it himself, but I understand from members of his family that at the age of eleven he spoke five languages and had memorized the first fourteen volumes of The Encyclopedia Britannica.[5]

Fodor was educated as an engineer, graduating from the University of Budapest in 1911.[6] He undertook additional engineering studies in Zurich and perhaps in England and

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Germany.[7] Fodor’s specialty was metallurgical engineering, and he worked in this field before the beginning of World War I. According to one account, he was “assistant manager of the melting department of the Frodingham Iron and Steel Works Ltd in England, where he later established and directed the metallurgical research department.”[8] Fodor was in England when the World War I began, and he was, he said, interned “very comfortably” in England as an enemy alien. According to his son, Fodor was interned with others at the estate of the Duke of Norfolk.”[9] However, Frederick Scheu, a colleague of Fodor in Vienna, wrote that Fodor was interned on the Isle of Mann.[10] Whatever the circumstances of Fodor’s internment, a curious document in the files of the British Foreign Service Office documents a war-time exchange that England made with Hungary in 1918 of “Arthur Gordon Walker” for “Marcel Wilhelm Fodor.”[11]

Foreign Correspondent At the end of WW I, Fodor changed careers, becoming a journalist. His son, Denis, said that his father convinced the Manchester Guardian that his language abilities qualified him to write for that newspaper.[12] Time magazine described the transition a bit more colorfully: An engineer, fluent in five languages, he had been grumbling along as manager of a steel mill in the English Midlands. Postwar retrenchment shut the mill, freed Fodor. The Manchester Guardian liked his occasional letters from Middle Europe, asked for cables, soon hired the shy, whip-smart, “relentlessly honest” little man as a fulltime correspondent. Thereby the Guardian conferred a major boon on U.S. foreign correspondence.”[13]

Fodor began his work as a foreign correspondent in February 1919. According to his book South of Hitler, he arrived on Central European soil from Great Britain on February 15, 1919.[14] Apparently the first stop on his trip was Berlin (where he witnessed the Spartacist riots), and from there he took a train to Munich, then on to Passau and Vienna. On this trip, he encountered intense misery and desperate people; he wrote a vivid account of the smuggling that occurred as the train was crossing from Germany to Austria.[15] By the end of February, Fodor was in Budapest, where, within a month, he witnessed a Bolshevik regime take power. Based initially in Budapest and Vienna, then soon only in Vienna, Fodor became widely known for his encyclopedic knowledge of the Balkans and of Central Europe. A New York Times book reviewer wrote about him: "Mr. Fodor knows the fabulous Balkans almost as intimately as Toscanini knows the score of the Ninth Sympathy."[16] William Shirer, a famous foreign correspondent who spent several years in Vienna, observed that Fodor was a “walking dictionary on Central Europe.”[17] John Gunther wrote that Fodor “has the most acutely comprehensive knowledge of Central Europe of any journalist I know. All of Europe, for that matter.”[18] A review Fodor's first book in the Washington Post was titled, "Omniscient Fodor of the Balkan World." [19] Fodor also became known for sharing his extensive knowledge and advice with young reporters, colleagues, and others. He was an early mentor to Dorothy Thompson as she was launching her career in 1921 and to John Gunther who arrived in Vienna in 1930.[20] Gunther wrote, in his effusive manner, that Fodor had “educated Dorothy Thompson and me practically from the cradle.”[21]

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Though in a highly competitive occupation, Fodor consulted freely with his colleagues. According to Gunther, Fodor was “one of the true good men of this earth, generous to a fault and incredibly kind.”[22] William Shirer wrote of him, "I have never known a man and especially a journalist, who gave so much of himself and his knowledge to others." [23] Among those who benefited from Fodor's openness was J. William Fulbright, who decided to spend some time in Vienna after completing his studies at Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar.[24] He came to Vienna in late Summer, 1928, to stay some months there. Enjoying the café life in the city, he found his way to the Café Louvre, where many American and British correspondents hung out and transacted their business in the afternoon and evening. There, in October, Fulbright met Fodor, who – along with Robert Best of United Press – presided over the Stammtisch, the table perpetually reserved at the Café Louvre for journalists writing for American and British newspapers. Fodor and Fulbright took a liking to each other. Fulbright was impressed with Fodor’s knowledge, and Fodor was open to being a mentor to smart youngsters such as Fulbright. Years later, Fulbright recalled, with some exaggeration, life at the Café Louvre as follows: The correspondents would sit around there in the Cafe Louvre, 10 and 11 o'clock at night and old Fodor would tell them what had happened that day. They'd talk to Fodor for over an hour, and they'd all write it down and then send it off to the telegraph office across the street. I remember people would come in there from The New York Times and other papers, big papers in the U.S. and have a long conversation with Fodor. About two weeks later I'd read it all in The New York Times Magazine." Fulbright also told an interviewer that Fodor "is one of nicest, kindliest, most decent fellows I've ever known.[25] In Spring, 1929, Fodor invited Fulbright to accompany him on a reporting visit to the Balkans and Greece. He helped Fulbright obtain press credentials, and they interviewed diplomats and government leaders in several Balkan countries before arriving in Athens, Greece. There, Fulbright became ill with a throat infection and had to stay behind when Fodor went ahead to Albania for scheduled interviews. His health did not improve, and Fulbright headed back the United States. Although Fodor started his career reporting for the Manchester Guardian, he was hired as a correspondent for newspapers in the United States beginning in 1924. For a decade, he was the Central European correspondent for the Philadelphia Public Ledger and the New York Evening Post. From 1934 until 1940, he reported for the Chicago Daily News. Also during his reporting days from Vienna, he wrote analytical articles for several major magazines in the United States (see the bibliography that follows).[26] The normal world for foreign correspondents in Vienna came to an end in March 1938 when Germany annexed Austria. Fodor narrowly escaped from Vienna ahead of the arrival of German troops. Just before German soldiers occupied Vienna, he, his wife Martha (whom he married in 1922), and his 12-year-old son Denis were transported to the Czech-Austrian border with the assistance of John Wiley, the American charge' de affairs, even though they were not American citizens.[27] Fodor had similarly harrowing experiences with emergency departures from Czechoslovakia in September 1938 and from Belgium and France in May-June 1940.[28] Each involved tense dashes for the border just ahead of the invading forces.

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Fodor fled these countries because he feared what would happen to him if he fell into the hands of the invading Germans. In 1934, he and John Gunther had interviewed Hitler's poor relatives in Austria and had written about them.[29] Also, his antipathy for Nazism was evident in his reporting. In addition, according to Shirer, Fodor had Jewish roots, which alone would have made him vulnerable to imprisonment or execution by the Nazi regime.[30] Fodor was wise to avoid capture by the Germans: according to documents discovered after World War II, he was on a list of persons to be immediately arrested when Nazi Germany successfully invaded England.[31]

Refuge in the United States By late June 1940, Fodor had joined his family in the United States, where they took refuge, assisted by friends Dorothy Thompson, John Gunther, and others. After their arrival, the Fodor's spent the summer at Dorothy Thompson's farm in Vermont.[33]. Then, Fodor moved to Chicago, where he taught during the 1940-1941 academic year at the Illinois Institute of Technology [34]. Fodor taught both history and engineering courses. After a year in the classroom, Fodor was hired as a columnist for the newly created Chicago Sun (1941-1944).[35] Also, as a famed international correspondent, author, and sometimes radio commentator, Fodor was active during the war years on the U.S. lecture circuit, speaking to audiences throughout the United States.[36] On July, 27, 1943, Fodor became a United States citizen. In August 1944, Fodor returned to the Balkans to report on events for the Chicago Sun syndicate, which included the Washington Post.[37] In following two years, he covered the turmoil in Balkans, elections in Bulgaria, and other major stories in Central Europe, including Austria. During 1945, Fodor apparently spent at least some time working on the public relations staff of General Mark Clark, commander of the 5th army, whose headquarters was in Austria.[38] In 1947, Fodor took on a reporting assignment for the Washington Post, which hired him to travel to Greece to write a series of articles on the intense conflict over its future.[39] From May to November, Fodor's wrote numerous dispatches on the critical situation in Greece, which was threatened by a communist takeover. He also wrote several other articles for the Post from other locations in Europe. The last was published in late November.

Change of Jobs: Joining the U.S. Military Government for Germany Soon after his last article. Fodor took a new direction in his life, at the age of 58: he was hired by the U.S. Military Government for Germany. In a letter dated May 5, 1948, he wrote to Fulbright, who at the time was running for the U.S. Senate, that he was working for the Information Control Division of the Army of Occupation in Germany, and had been in Berlin since February 1948. He wrote, "Personally we are very happy in Berlin. We have a nice house with a garden."[40] In June 1948, Berlin became a hot point in the emerging cold war when the Soviet Union denied the other occupation forces the right to travel through its sector to reach the city. The blockade was an effort to force America, England, and France to withdraw from Berlin. The response was a massive air lift to bring needed goods and supplies to the city. The blockade, which ended in

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May 1949, gave Fodor a chance to see many of his old journalist colleagues when they came to Berlin to cover the story.[41] In February 1949, Fodor became involved in a controversy over the content of the Die Neue Zeitung, the newspaper for Germany operated and financed by the U.S. The editors of the newspaper were accused of publishing stories that were anti-allied forces and that had a German nationalist slant. One critic wrote an essay, published on January 27, 1949 in the New York Herald Tribune, accusing the paper of having former Nazis on its staff. Also, the paper was criticized for being insufficiently anti-communist.[42] Fodor was appointed to a three-person special board with the responsibility for overseeing the editorial policy and decisions of the editor of the paper. According to a researcher who wrote a history of Die Neue Zeitung, the paper, under the supervision of the board that had "a fierce anti-communist perspective," became more of a "pro-American mouthpiece of the U.S. military government."[43] When the board was dissolved in July, 1949, a headline in the New York Times declared, "U.S. German Organ Held Rid of Nazism."[44] In May 1949, Fodor became editor-in-chief of the Berlin edition of Die Neue Zeitung, which at the time published daily editions in Munich, Frankfurt and Berlin. The newspaper had a daily circulation of about 30,000, with 80,000 sold on Sunday[41]. In October 1951, the Munich and Frankfurt editions of Die Neue Zeitung merged, and after September 1953, only the Berlin edition of the paper was published.[45] The paper was published until January 31, 1955. Soon after Fodor had moved to Berlin, Frederick Scheu, an old Vienna colleague who had been, with Fodor, a member of the Society of Quakers, saw Fodor for the first time since they both had quickly exited Vienna during the Anschluss. Scheu wrote about the meeting, "[Fodor] wore an American uniform, which seemed strange on such as gentle man as him."[46] Not only had Fodor's appearance changed, his view of the world had altered. In his Vienna years, Fodor had been known for his liberal perspective, supporting democratic values and humane government policies. He was a fan of the Social Democrats in post-WW I Vienna who had provided extensive public housing and social programs for the workers of the city.[47] In the post-war period, Fodor's views took on different (but not wholly incompatible) orientation: he became a determined anti-Russian and anti-communist crusader. He viewed one of his main roles as editor-in-chief of Die Neue Zeitung in Berlin to be to combat Russian efforts to expand their empire in Germany and elsewhere.[48] Soon after Fodor returned to Europe in 1944, he sent a letter and a memorandum with some observations to Fulbright.[49] Then, after Fodor moved to Berlin in 1948, Fodor became a regular correspondent with Fulbright. From November, 1948 through November,1957, Fodor sent Fulbright about 65 to 70 memos with his views on and perspective of events in Germany, the Balkans, the Soviet Union, and elsewhere. Also, he wrote about 100 letters, many with his views, others with largely personal communication. Fulbright responded to most of Fodor's memos and letters, often asking questions or letting him know that he was sharing the letters with others[50]. Sen. Fulbright valued these memos and passed some of them on to Senate colleagues (Sen. Richard Russell and Sen. Lyndon Johnson). Also in 1953 and 1954, he provided copies of many of the memos to Allan Dulles, the head of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. In late 1956 and early 1957, Fodor wrote memos and letters concerning the Hungarian uprising, adamantly denouncing claims that the Voice of America had encouraged it by providing

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Hungarians with false hope that the U.S. would assist them. He noted that he had twice been to Vienna and had interviewed about 500 refugees there.[51] Fulbright forwarded Fodor's 1957 memos to Christian Herter, who was at the time Under Secretary of State, with a note stating: Fodor is an old timer in the field, having been engaged in newspaper work since the middle 20's and is now, as you can see, an employee of the Government. I believe his judgment is based upon as through a knowledge of conditions in the area as anyone I know.[52] After Die Neue Zeit was closed on January 31, 1955, Fodor and his wife moved briefly to Washington D.C. where he had a job with the United States Information Agency. Arriving in D.C. in April, by October they were back in Germany, living in Munich where he worked as policy advisor at the Munich Radio Center, which was the tactical branch of Voice of America.[53]. In late summer 1958, Fodor and Martha returned to Washington D.C., where he worked as a program evaluator for the VOA. In January 1959, Martha – to whom Fodor had been married for over 36 years – died. Born Marie Martha Roob in Miskolc Hungary, she had been spent most evenings with Fodor and his colleagues in Vienna's Café Louve during the late 1920's and the 1930's and had won their admiration. Scheu wrote about her, "Fodor's wife was a beautiful, slim woman..., whose quiet way I liked very much. She had the ability to sit for several hours by her husband in Café Louve and only occasionally to take part in the conversation." Shirer referred to her as "the beautiful Slovak."[54] By 1965, Fodor had retired and was living in Vienna when he had a serious illness. He returned to Chicago for treatment. Then, he lived for several years in New York near his son Denis.[55] He died in 1977 in Trostberg, German.[56]

NOTES The picture of M.W. Fodor on the title page is taken from the back cover of his 1940 book, The Revolution Is On. This head shot was a publicity photo that his speaker's bureau often sent to its clients for use in advertising. [1] Fodor used the name M. W. Fodor as the byline for his articles and books. His U.S. citizenship record (dated July 27, 1943) shows his full name at birth was Marcel Vilmos Fodor (record accessed on Ancestry.com). He was widely known to friends as Mike [William] Fodor. [2] The two books are Plot and Counterplot in Central Europe (1937) and The Revolution is On (1940). A third book, South of Hitler (1938) was a revision of Plot and Counterplot in Central Europe. [3] This assertion is made by Peter Kurth in his biography of Dorothy Thompson. He cites an interview with Denis Fodor, on October 1, 1987, in Munich, as the source of the information. See Kurth (1990), American Cassandra, p. 66. [4] Fodor, South of Hitler, p. 188. [5] John Gunther in the introduction to Fodor, Plot and Counterplot in Central Europe, p. xiv.

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[6] Tibor Szy (ed.). “M.W. Fodor,” Hungarians in America 1963. New York: Hungarian University Association, Inc., 1963, p. 119. [7] “Famed Writer to Teach Course Here,” [Illinois Institute of Technology] Technology News, October 1, 1940, p. 1. This article, about M.W. Fodor’s appointment to teach at ITT, stated: “Born in Budapest, Hungary, he received his primary and secondary engineering training in England and Hungary and did post-graduate work in Germany and Switzerland.” The entry in Hungarians in America 1963 did not mention study in England or Germany, but noted post-graduate study in Switzerland. The entry also included as education an Honorary LLD from Sheffield, England (no date) and study at Olivet College in Michigan (1942). [8] This quote is from “Famed Writer to Teach Course Here,” [Illinois Institute of Technology] Technology News, October 1, 1940, p. 1. [9] A passage in Kurth, American Cassandra states “at the outbreak of World War I, he was interned with other enemy aliens 'very comfortably' on the estate of the Duke of Norfolk.” A footnote indicates that this information came from Fodor’s son, Denis Fodor, who was interviewed on October 1, 1987 in Munich. [10] Scheu, Der Weg ins Ungewisse, p. 26. Scheu was a Viennese lawyer who became a correspondent for a London newspaper. According to him, both he and Fodor were for several years members of a Society of Quakers group in Vienna. The existence of internment centers on the Isle of Mann for “enemy aliens” is well documented. However, I have found no record or documentation of the use of “the estate of the Duke of Norfolk” as an internment center during World War I. [11] This exchange is not mentioned in any of Fodor’s writings or in any other book that I have searched. The discovery of the document is possible only because the British National Archives has digitized and indexed much of its collection of documents. I have not seen the actual document, just its title. The document title is: Foreign Office: Prisoners of War and Alien Correspondence Record Summary: Exchange of Arthur Gordon Walker for Marcel Wilhelm Fodor The document is located at the (British) National Archives; Foreign Office, Prisoners of War and Aliens Department, General Correspondence from 1906; Files 112975-119676, Covering dates: 1918. [12] From Cuthbertson, Inside: The Biography of John Gunther: “He convinced the Guardian’s editors that his ability to speak most of Europe’s principal languages would make him a first-rate correspondent.” p. 105. A footnote indicates that this statement was based on an interview by the author of Denis Fodor on December 1, 1986, in Munich, Germany. p. 391. [13] Back to the Balkans, Time, August 14, 1944 (assessed at http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,775195,00.html )

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[14] Fodor, South of Hitler, p. 129. Fodor described his journey into post-war Austria and Hungary in both South of Hitler and Plot and Counterplot. [15] Fodor was shocked by the desperate times and poor living conditions in Germany and Austria. See South of Hitler, pp. 129-131. [16] Charles Poole, Books of the Times, New York Times, March 11, 1938, p. 17 [17] William Shirer, Berlin Diary, p. 90. [18] Gunter in the Introduction to Fodor, Plot and Counter-Plot in Central Europe, p. 1. [19] Countess Waldeck. Omniscient Fodor of the Balkan World. Washington Post, May 9, 1938, p. B8. [20] The early relationship between Fodor and Dorothy Thompson is described in some detail by Peter Kurth in American Cassandra and by Marion Sander in Dorothy Thompson: A Legend in Her Time. The relationship included an early marriage proposal from Fodor (Kurth, p. 67). Fodor provided great assistance to Thompson early in the first few years of her meteoric career, and she assisted in many ways afterwards, especially when he and his family had to flee Europe as WWII began. The two remained friends throughout their lifetimes and were sharing memories in 1959, just before the end of Thompson’s life (Kurth, p. 460). [21] See Gunther's introduction to Fodor, Plot and Counter-Plot in Central Europe (p. 1). Gunther’s work with Fodor is nicely documented in an article, "Dateline Vienna," he wrote about his life as a correspondent in Vienna. It was published in Harper's Magazine, July 1935 Also, Fodor and his wife are characters in a roman à clef, The Lost City, originally written by Gunther in the late 1930s and revised and published in 1964. In the novel about foreign correspondents in Vienna during the 1930, one of the most sympathetic characters is a journalist named “Sandor,” who, thinly veiled, is Fodor. Gunther also provided assistance to Fodor and his family when they moved to the United States in 1940. [22] See Gunther's introduction to Fodor, Plot and Counter-Plot in Central Europe, p. 1. [23] William Shirer, Twentieth-Century Journey: The Start, 104-1930, p. 439 [24] The story of Fulbright's time in Vienna (late summer 1927 to Spring 1928) and his trip with Fodor to the Balkans is told in a similar way in each of Fulbright's biographies, including those by Brown (1985, p. 4 ), Coffin (1961, pp. 56-47), Johnson and Gwertzman (1968, pp. 30-31), Powell (1996, pp. 11-12),and Woods (1995, pp.36-37). Also see Cuthertson, Inside: The Biography of John Gunther, pp. 105-106, which includes some quotes from his interview with J.W. Fulbright. [25] The Fulbright quotes are from Johnson and Gwertzman, pp. 30-31. [26] Dorothy Thompson helped Fodor get positions with the Philadelphia Public Ledger and the New York Evening Post, for whom she reported from Vienna in the early 1920s. Fodor

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took over the jobs after she moved to the Berlin bureau of the papers. Similarly, John Gunther was the Vienna correspondent for the Chicago Daily News during the first part of the 1930s. When he moved on, Fodor was hired to replace him. [27] Shirer, Nightmare Years, p. 299 and G.E.R. Gedye, Betrayal in Central Europe, p. 322. According to Cuthberton, Inside: Biography of John Gunther, Fodor and family were "rescued by Jimmy Sheehan in a breakneck drive just hours ahead of Hitler's advancing army." (p. 170). Perhaps, he has substituted Vienna for Prague. Kurth, in American Cassandra, wrote, "The Fodors had been rescued from Czecholovakia by Jimmy and Dinah Sheean, literally in advance of the German armies, when the Nazis occupied Prague in the spring of 1939." p. 272. [28] The escape from Belgium, where he was visiting when the Germans started their Blitzkrieg, to France, and then to Spain is described in the first third of his book, The Revolution is On. To get out of Brussels, he and Spike Hunt, a reporter for the Chicago Tribune, purchased an old car they called "Ferdinand the Bull" for $200. It barely got them to Paris. When he had to leave Paris, Bob Casey, who also worked for the Chicago Daily News, drove him to Bordeaux. Then he took a train to Spain. [29] Gunther wrote about the interviews in "Hitler," Harper's Magazine, January 1936, p. 59 and in his bestselling book, Inside Europe. [30] Shirer, The Nightmare Years, p. 294. According to Scheu, Der Weg ins Ungewisse, before he became a journalist, he had known Fodor through the English speaking Society of Quakers. According to a short biographical note in the Saturday Review of Books, Nov. 30, 1937, Fodor was a "convinced Quaker." Katherine Storr wrote in her book, Excluded from the Record: Women, Refugees and Relief 1914-1929, that Fodor was a "Friend", p. 253. [31] William Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, p. 784 (footnote). Also, see Daniel De Luce, "Hitler Planned 2300 Arrests of Top Britons After Invasion," Washington Post, Sept. 14, 1945, p. 11. Fodor is mentioned as one to be arrested. [32] See Kurth, American Cassandra, p. 272. [33] Dorothy Thompson sent a letter to John Gunther on August 26, 1940, stating, "You and I have to do something about Fodor. He is going to have a much harder time in the country than he himself dreams of unless we do. The best solution for him will be if he can get a place in a University where he can teach the diplomatic and political history of Central Europe on which his information is second to none, as you know." Quoted in Kurth, American Cassandra, p. 508. When she was a young woman, Thompson had attended the Lewis Institute in Chicago , which was merged with the Illinois Institute of Technology in 1940. This is the institution that hired Fodor for the teaching position in 1940-1941. According to Sanders, Dorothy Thompson: A Legend in Her Time, Thompson and Gunther "helped finance a chair for him as a lecturer at her old school...." p. 239. [34] "Famed Writer to Teach Course Here," Technology News, October 1, 1940, p. 1. Accessed at this link: http://archives.iit.edu/technews/volume26/tnvol26no1.pdf#page=1 [35] In 1942, a sample of Fodor's columns were published in The Russian Riddle, a booklet issued by the newspaper.

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[36] Fodor lectured all over the United States, including the University of Arkansas on October 30, 1940. He was introduced at the University of Arkansas by J.W. Fulbright, who was, at the time, president of the institution. His topic was "The Three Mad Men of Europe." Northwest Arkansas Times, October 30, 1940, p. 3 (advertisement). His abilities as a public lecturer was assessed in Hance, Kenneith. 1944. The Contemporary Lecture Platform. Quarterly Journal of Speech, vol. 30 (1), pp. 41-47 [37] See Back to the Balkans. 1944. Time, August 14. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,775195,00.html [38] Sanders wrote in Dorothy Thompson: A Legend in Her Time that when Dorothy Thompson came to Europe for a visit as WWII was ending, she had an "unexpected reunion" with Fodor who was "serving on the public relations staff of General Mark Clark..." p. 318. [39] See the bibliography for examples of stories that he wrote for the Washington Post. [40] Correspondence between Fodor and Fulbright is in the J. William Fulbright Papers, located in the Special Collections Library of the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. Information about the Fulbright Collection can be found at the following link: http://scipio.uark.edu/cdm4/index_Fulbright.php?CISOROOT=/Fulbright#about Letter from Fodor to Fulbright dated May 10, 1948. UA Special Collections, Fulbright Papers, series 88:1, box 7, folder 3. A listing of "Key Military Government Personnel" published on June 29, 1948, includes Marcel W Fodor as a member of the "Film, Theater, and Speaker" unit of the Information Control Division. See this link: http://images.library.wisc.edu/History/EFacs/GerRecon/omg1948n138/reference/history.omg194 8n138.i0018.pdf Fodor's first position was director of editorial policy for the Munich and Berlin editions of Die Neue Zeitung. See "Fodor to Take Post in D.C. With USIA," Stars and Stripes, April 24, 1955, p. 3. [41] On November 9, 1944, Fodor wrote to Fulbright, "I was unhappy that while you were in Berlin I was not able to see you because my duties kept me absent in the zone. If, however, you would come once more to Berlin, don't forget to give me a ring. We have a nice house here and would like to invite you to our place. We had many of the old friends here recently, such as John Gunther, Raymond Swing, Bill Shirer, Edgar Mowrer and Bill Stoneman." UA Special Collections, Fulbright Papers, box 105, file 29. [42] See Jessica C. E. Gienow-Hecht, Transmission Impossible, pp. 159 -162, for information on this dispute. Also, this book provides a history of Die Neue Zeitung. [43] Gienow-Hecht, Transmission Impossible, p. 161. [44] Jack Raymond, U.S. German Organ Held Rid of Nazism. New York Times, July 3, 1949, p. 4.

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[45] HICOG to Halt Frankfurt Issue of Neue Zeitung, Keep Berlin's, Stars and Stripes, September 11, 1953. [46] Scheu, Der Weg ins Ungewisse, p. 295. [47] See Fodor, Plot and Counter-Plot, chapter 15. [48] See quotes on p. 161 in Gienow-Hecht, Transmission Impossible. Also his anticommunist views are evident in the memos and letters he sent to Fulbright from Berlin. An early example of his views is found in this excerpt from a memo he sent to Fulbright on January 11, 1949: It is absolutely essential to step up our program of information for Eastern Europe. The Soviets are conducting at present a "cold war" against the democratic forces in the world in general, and in Europe in particular. In this "cold war" the Soviets are, strangely, militarily on the defensive, but politically they are very much on the offensive. Our information attempts, for the time being, amount, in reality, to a mild counter-propaganda -- a decisively mistaken way of combating the Soviet torrent of violent abuse and misinformation. .... We may abhor the word: propaganda, but we must remember that even today the word can have a respectable meaning. The Holy See will maintain the "Congregatio pro propaganda fide" -- the congregation for the propagation of faith. In a world where Communist propaganda is poisoning the hearts and heads, we must have our "propaganda of the democratic faith." We cannot afford to remain on the defensive; we must hit back and hit very hard. Fodor then outlined propaganda steps that should be taken in Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria. UA Special Collections, Fulbright Papers, box 105, file 29. [49] The memo is referenced in a letter from Fulbright to Fodor dated February 9, 1945, UA Special Collections, Fulbright Papers, box 46, file 4. Fulbright stated that he had received a letter and memo, dated January 15, 1945, from Fodor. He also asked Fodor for his views of the situation in Greece. The Fodor memo referenced in the letter is not in the Fulbright Papers. . [50] A total of 63 of Fodor's memos are in the Fulbright Papers. Reference is made in a few letters to other memos that are not in the files. The letters exchanged by Fulbright and Fodor are in the Fulbright Papers, though a few items are still restricted. [51] Letter from Fodor to Fulbright dated December 12, 1956. UA Special Collections, Fulbright Papers, box 121, file 25. [52] Letter from Fulbright to Herter dated July 10, 1957. UA Special Collections, Fulbright Papers, box 121, no. 29. [53] Letter from Fodor to Fulbright, October 29, 1955. UA Special Collections, Fulbright Papers, box 105, file 27. [54] Obituary: Fodor, Maria Martha. Washington Post, February 11, 1959, p. B2; Scheu, Der Weg ins Ungewisse p. 26; Shirer, Nightmare Years, p. 299.

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[55] Letter from Fodor to Fulbright, August 1965 (no day given); letter from Fodor to Fulbright, January 10, 1967. Both are located at UA Special Collections, Fulbright Papers, series 88:1, box 7. folder 3. [56] The following is an excerpt from the obituary from the New York Times, July 2, 1977: M.W. FODOR IS DEAD AT 87, A FAMED CORRESPONDENT Trostberg, West Germany, July 1. M. W. Fodor, a well-known American foreign correspondent of the 1920's to 1940's who specialized in reporting on the Balkans and Central Europe, died Friday at the age of 87. ... Although Mr. Fodor was an authority on the Balkans and Central Europe, his knowledge of all Europe was vast. In his old age he could on request name the deputy police chief in Vienna at the time of the Nazi assassination of Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss in 1934. ... Mr. Fodor, born in Hungary, could speak Hungarian, English, German, French, and Italian fluently....

Bibliography Books by Fodor 1937. Plot and Counterplot in Central Europe. Houghton Mifflin 1939. South of Hitler. Houghton Mifflin Co, Boston 1940. The Revolution is On. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1942. The Russian Riddle (a compilation of columns written for the Chicago Sun). Chicago Sun Syndicate. 1967. VOA History: 1942 to 1967 (manuscript).

Magazine and Journal Articles by Fodor 1921. Green Rising. London Nation. (With Dorothy Thompson) 1922. The Menace of the Little Entente. The New Republic, April 19, vol. 30, pp. 215-218 (with Dorothy Thompson) 1923. The Death of Parliaments. The Nation, March 14, vol. 116, no. 3010, pp. 298-299. 1928. The Austrian Situation. The Messenger of Peace (Quaker), pp 53-57.

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1934. The Central European Mess. The American Mercury, August, vol. 32: 128, pp. 446-454. 1934. The Dilemma of Austria. The American Mercury, Oct., vol. 33: 130, pp. 221-230. 1934. Premier Goemboes of Hungary. The American Mercury, November, vol. 33: 131, pp. 352-362. 1934. Central Europe's Jigsaw Puzzle. The New Republic, November 14, vol. 81, pp.10-12. 1934. The Saar Plebiscite. American Mercury, Dec., 33, vol. 33: 132, pp 465-472. 1935. Roads to Rome. Nation. June 5, vol. 140, pp. 651-653 1935. Traffic in Kings. Nation. October 23, vol. 141, pp. 462-463. 1935. The Ascendancy of the Peasant. American Mercury, October, vol. 36: 141, pp. 200-206. 1935. Austria and the Ethiopian War. The New Republic, November 27, vol. 85, pp. 66-68. 1936. The Austrian Roots of Hitlerism. Foreign Affairs, vol. 14: 4, pp. 685-691. 1936. The Spread of Hitlerism. The Nation, Feb. 5, vol. 142, pp. 156-157. 1936. The Socialists' Trial in Vienna. The New Republic, April 22, vol. 86, pp. 311-312. 1936. The Austrian Volcano. Nation, May 27, The Nation, vol. 142: 673-674. 1938 Czech and German. The Atlanta Monthly, May, vol. 161: 5, pp. 623-629. 1938. The Czechs Stand Guard. Nation, vol. 144, June 4, 1938. 1938. Finis Austria. Foreign Affairs. July, vol. 16: 4, pp. 587- xxx. 1938. The Cemetery of Europe. The Atlantic Monthly, August, vol. 162: 2, pp. 185-190. 1938. Hitler will decide. The Nation, vol. 144, Sept. 10, pp. 239-241. 1938. Czechoslovakia as Jonah. The Nation. vol. 144, Dec. 3, pp. 584-585. 1939, What Happened in Vienna. Survey Graphic, February, vol. 28, pp. 69 - 71 1940 Blitzkrieg in the Low Countries. Foreign Affairs, Oct., vol. 19, pp. 193-206. 1940 Rehearsal on the Channel. The New Republic, October 21, vol. 103, pp. 551-553. 1941. Germany's Balkan War. The New Republic, April 14, vol. 104, p. 488. 1941. People of Yugoslavia. The New Republic. April 21, vol. 104, pp. 521-522. 1941. The Revolution Is on. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Defending America's Future, Vol. 216, July, pp. 1-8 1941. "Foreword" in Hitler's Counterfeit Reich: Behind the Scenes of Nazi Economy by Karl Robert. Alliance Book Corp. pp. 13-17. [Karl Robert is a pseudonym] 1942. Review of The Spoils of Europe by Thomas Reveille (Raymond Gram Swing), Annals of the American Academic of Political and Social Sciences, vol. 219, no. 1, pp. 178- 79.

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1943. "Pan-Europe, Old Style." Review of Victory is Not Enough by Egon Ranshofen-Wertheimer. Nation, January 30, vol. 156: 5, pp. 170-171. 1943. "When the Armistice Comes." Review of The Peace We Fight For by Hiram Motherwell. Nation, May 8, vol. 156: 19, pp. 674-5. 1944. "The Break-Through at the Meuse," in Curt Riess, They Were There: The Story of World War II and How It Came About. Ayer Publishing 1944. The Enemy and His Future. Saturday Review of Literature, 5 Feb., pp. 5-10, [includes articles by Dorothy Thompson, M.W. Fodor, Hans Kohn and Captain C. Brooks Peters] 1944. The Balkans. Nation. March 18, vol. 158: 12, pp. 338-339. 1946. Trouble Behind the Iron Curtain. Life Magazine, 1946. 1947. Hindus on the Czechs. Nation, April 26. vol. 164: 17, pp. 488-489. 1948. Along the Danube. The Yale Review, March, vol. XXXVI, no, 3, pp. 449 - 468,

Selected Newspaper Articles by Fodor 1937 November 28. "First Lady Writes Memoirs." Los Angeles Times. Nov. 28 1938 September 22. Suicide by Order. Manchester Guardian. Access at this link: http://www.guardian.co.uk/theguardian/2008/sep/22/2 September 26. Escape from Prague, Manchester Guardian. 1940 May 18. Refugees Fleeing Belgium Form 200-Mile-Long-File. Los Angeles Times. May 26. Bordeaux Bulges with Refugees. Los Angeles Times. June 26. Treachery caused Downfall of France. Canberra Times, p. 1. July 5. Hitler's Motorcycle Corps Gain High Ratings. Los Angeles Times. August 11. Conqueror's Manual [Review of They Wanted War by Otto D. Tolischus]. Washington Post. p. 28. 1941 December 14. Hitler Forces Japan Into War with United States. Technology News (Illinois Institute of Technology), vol 28: 11, pp 1-2. 1943 May 2. Aversions Are Costly, Afrika Korps Learns. Washington Post, May 2, p. B2.

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1945 March 25. Greece Again Proves Guns Can't Kill Idea. Washington Post, p. B6. April 22. U.S. Planes Aid Yugoslavia Starved Areas. Washington Post, B3 May 20. War-Torn Yugoslavia's Problems Complicated By Ideological Hatreds. Washington Post, p. B3. June 24. Tyrol Still Fears Nazis May Return. Washington Post, June 24, p. B3. July 15, Czechs Communistic? Vote to Tell. Washington Post, p. B3. October 21. Right Polls Biggest Vote in Budapest. Washington Post, p. B3. November 11. Vienna May Prove Europe Stabilizer as Result of Fine U.S. Control Job. Washington Post, p. B2. December 30. Soviet Troops Stay in Balkans in Order to East. Washington Post, Dec. 30, p. B1. 1946. January 20. Curse on Peter's Dynasty Fulfilled. Washington Post, p. B3. August 4. Today's Vienna Dances More to Six-Shooters Than Strauss. Washington Post, p. B2. September 15, 1946. Salzburg's'46 Festival First Hopeful Sign in Austria, Washington Post, p. S3.

1947 June 30. Swift Action of United States Saved Greece, Writer is Told. Washington Post, p. 2. May 23. Violent Contractions Mark Life in Struggling Greece. Washington Post. P. 9. July 10. Greek Police Charge Plot, Round Up Reds. Washington Post. p. 1 October 12. Vienna Years for Stale Bread; We Send Ham. Washington Post. p. B1. November 2. Athens' Suppression of Two Red Papers Augurs a Showdown. Washington Post, Nov. 2, p. B2. November 16. Italy WAS Showing An Amazing Pickup. Washington Post, Nov. 16, p. B2.

Reviews of Fodor's Books Untitled. 1938. American Sociology Review, vol. 3: 4, pp. 591-593 [review of Plot and Counter-Plot in Central Europe] Chambers, William H. 1940. Man-Made Earthquake. Saturday Review of Books. November 30, Vol. 23, no. 6, p. 10 [review of The Revolution is On] Chamberlin, William. 1940.The Muddy Streams of the Totalitarian Revolution. New York Times. Dec. 1, p. BR5. [Review of The Revolutation is On]

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Edwards, Lyford P. 1942. Review of "The Revolution Is On," by M. W. Fodor and Twelve Who Ruled. by R. R. Palmer. American Sociological Review, Vol. 7, No. 1, (Feb., 1942), pp. 128-129. Hanighen, Frank. 1938. Our Own Bookshelf, The Living Age, Mar-Aug, p.354. [Review of Plot and Counter-Plot in Central Europe] Howard, Harry N. 1938. Review of Plot and Counter-Plot in Central Europe; Conditions South of Hitler by M.W. Fodor. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, July, vol. 198, pp. 155. H.R.M. 1939. Book News of the Day: Munich Assessed. The Christian Science Monitor, March 9,, p. 20. [Review of South of Hitler] Keller, W. 1938. Balkan Storm. The New International, April, vol. 4, no. 4., pp. 124-125 [review of Plot and Counterplot in Central Europe] Lengyel, Emil. 1937. The Problems of Central Europe. New York Times, Nov. 28, p. 130. [Review of Plot and Counter-Plot in Central Europe] Lyons, Eugene. 1937. Between Two Axes. Saturday Review of Books. November 20, vol. XVII, no. 4, p. 5. [Review of Plot and Counterplot in Central Europe] Authors of the Week: Marcel Fodor. 1937. Saturday Review of Books. Nov. 20, vol. XVII, no. 4, p..21 Macartney, C. G. 1938. Review of South of Hitler. International Affairs (G.B.), Jan-June, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 441-442. Poore, Charles. 1938. Books of the Times. New York Times, March 11, p. 17 Timm, Charles. 1938. Book Review of The Revolution is On. American Political Science Review, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 593-594. Thompson, Ralph. 1940. Books of the Time, New York Times, Nov. 19, p. 21. [Review of The Revolution is On] Waldeck, Countess. 1938. Omniscient Fodor of the Balkan World. Washington Post, May 9, p. B8. [Review of Plot and Counterplot in Central Europe] W.H.C., 1940. The Bookshelf: Background of Revolution, Christian Science Monitor, Nov. 29th. [Review of The Revolution is On] Vambery, Rustem. 1943. Brutocracy versus Plutocracy. Nation, December 7, vol. 151, no 23, pp. 370372. [Review of The Revolution is On]

Other Books Brown, Eugene. 1985. J. William Fulbright: Advice and Dissent. University of Iowa Press. Coffin, Tristram. 1961. Senator Fulbright: Portrait of a Public Philosopher. E.P. Dutton Cuthbertson, Ken. 1992, Inside: The Biography of John Gunther. Bonus Books. Emery, Michael. 1995. On the Front Lines: Following America's Foreign Correspondents Across the Twentieth Century. American University Press. (Fodor on NBC radio as a correspondent)

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Gannone, Franklin Reid. The British Press and Germany, 1936-1939. Univ. of California Press, 1971. Gedye, G.E.R. 1939. Betrayal in Central Europe. Harper and Brother. Gienow-Hecht, Jessica C. E.. 1999, Transmission Impossible: American Journalism as Cultural Diplomacy in Postwar Germany, 1945-1955. Louisiana State University Press. Grünzweig Walter, 2000. Seeing the World as Others See It: J William Fulbright, International Exchange, and the Quest for Peace. Fulbright at Fifty: Austrian-American Educational Exchange 1950 - 2000. Fulbright Commission. Located at this link: http://www.fulbright.at/fileadmin/user_upload/news/festschrift.pdf Gunther, John. 1935. Dateline Vienna, Harper's Magazine, July, vol. 171, pp. 198-208. -----. 1936. Hitler. Harper's Magazine, November, pp. 59 - 63. -----. 1936. Inside Europe. Harper and Brothers. -----. 1964. The Lost City (a novel). Harper and Row. Hance, Kenneth. 1944. The Contemporary Lecture Platform. Quarterly Journal of Speech, vol. 30: 1, pp. 41-47. Hohenberg, John. 1995. The Pursuit of Excellence, University of Florida Press 1995 Johnson, Haynes and Bernard Gwertzman. 1968. Fulbright: The Dissenter. Doubleday & Co. Kurth, Peter. 1990. American Cassandra: The Life of Dorothy Thompson. Boston: Little, Brown, & Co. Powell, Lee Riley. 1996. J. William Fulbright and His Time. Guild Binding Press. Riess, Curt. 1944. "The Break-Through at the Meuse" pp. 187-191, chapter by MW Fodor in They Were There: The Story of World War II and How It Came About, Ayer Publishing. Sanders, Marion K. 1973. Dorothy Thompson: A Legend in Her Time. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. Scheu, Friedrich. 1972. Der Weg ins Ungewisse: Oesterrichs Schicksalskure 1929-1938. Verlag Fritz Molden Shirer, William L. 1941. Berlin Diary. NY: Knopf. -----, 1952. Midcentury Journey. NY: Farrar, Strauss, Young -----. 1960. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. NY: Simon and Schuster. -----. 1984. 20th Century Journey: The Nightmare Years: A Memoir of a Life and the Times. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co. -----. 1985. 20th Century Journey: The Start, 1904-1930. NY: Bantam Books. Storr, Katherine. 2009. Excluded from the Record: Women, Refugees and Relief, 1914-1929. Peter Lang. Szy, Tibor (ed.). 1963. Hungarians in America 1963. New York: Hungarian University Association, Inc.

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Woods, Randall. 1995. Fulbright: A Biography. Cambridge University Press.

Other Journal/Magazine Articles Back to the Balkans. 1944. Time, August 14. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,775195,00.html The Press: Broken Bottleneck. 1938. Time, March 28. [Fodor and other journalists depart Austria] http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,775195,00.html Daviess, Lawrence. 1941. Peace or War Stirs Debate at Forum. New York Times. April 5, p. 7. [Fodor on the panel] Demoralizing. 1940. Time. July 8 Edwards, John Carver. 1982. Bob Best Considered: An Expatriate's Long Road to Treason. North Dakota Quarterly, Winter, 50 (1): 73-90. Fanning, Jr. William J. 1997. The Origin of the Term "Blitzkrieg": Another View. The Journal of Military History, Vol. 61, No. 2, (Apr., 1997), pp. 283-302 Books: Fast Company. 1964. Time, September 11. [About John Gunther's novel"The Lost City"] http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,830693,00.html Famed Writer to Teach New Courses Here. 1941. Technology News. October 1, vol 26: 1, p. 1. Hance, Kenneth. 1944. The Contemporary Lecture Platform, Quarterly Journal of Speech, vol. 30: 1, pp. 41-47. Hollering, Franz. New Europe in the Making. The Nation. Dec. 4, 1937. [discusses Foder's Plot and Counter-Plot, plus I Know Hitler] Lynn, Kenneth. 1990. Double Portion [review of American Cassandra by Peter Kurth]. Commentary, October, pp. 61-64. Reunion in Vienna. 1945. Time. Sept. 10. [About G.E.R. Gedye's return to Vienna] http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,776091,00.html The Insider. 1958. Time. April 14. Worst Best. 1943. Time, February 15. [About journalist Robert Best who was convicted of treason] http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,774273,00.html

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