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4, APRIL 1988


Modeling of the Frequency Modulation Response of Semiconductor Diode Lasers


Abstract-The modulation response of GaAlAs semiconductor diode lasers has been studied theoretically, with emphasis on wavelength modulation or frequency chirp. The laser model employed is a nonlinear rate equation model that incorporates the wave equation for the lateral waveguide modes of the laser. Lateral diffusion of carriers in the active layer of the laser is taken into account via a one-dimensional diffusion equation. We have performed a small-signal analysis of the model to obtain the modulation response. The calculated amplitude and phase of the wavelength modulation relative to the power modulation are in good agreement with experiments. We have found that carrier diffusion has only a moderate influence on the modulation response.

I. INTRODUCTION ODULATION of the output power of semiconductor diode lasers via direct modulation of the laser current is attractive due to its simplicity. However, the power modulation is inherently accompanied by wavelength modulation, also called frequency chirp. The chirp may result in dispersion penalties in optical communication systems, and is often undesirable. Qualitatively, the behavior is well understood. The wavelength modulation occurs because modulation of the laser current induces modulation of the refractive index of the laser medium. The index modulation is caused either by temperature modulation or carrier density modulation. The temperature modulation effect successfully explains the chirp for modulation frequencies below the order of 10 MHz [ l ] and is not considered in our work. The work reported here concerns modulation frequencies higher than the ones where temperature modulation occurs. The carrier density modulation effect dominates above 10 MHz and is frequently treated by the use of simple rate equation models. However, there are certain details of the wavelength modulation response which are hard to explain by these models. One such feature is a wavelength modulation that in some lasers [2], [3] is observed to be in phase with the power modulation and independent of modulation frequency for frequencies up to several hundred MHz. A possible explanation was suggested in [4]by introducing a lateral two-section laser model with


a spatially inhomogeneous linewidth enhancement factor. In [5], a different mechanism was proposed, by taking the wavefront curvature of the laser mode into account. Furthermore, the experimentally observed relaxation oscillation resonance is less sharply peaked than typically predicted by models. Carrier diffusion was proposed in [6] to account for the damping of the relaxation oscillations. Gain saturation has also been proposed [7] as a damping mechanism. A useful review and comparison of various laser models has been given by Buus [8]. In the present paper, we describe a laser diode model that in addition to the ideas discussed in [5], incorporates the effects discussed in [4]. The model predicts the inphase wavelength modulation at low modulation frequencies. This result is obtained even if the linewidth enhancement factor does not depend on the lateral position. We have also used our model to clarify the effects of carrier diffusion on the modulation response of diode lasers.

Our analysis is intended to apply to a commercially available channeled substrate planar (CSP) GaAlAs laser (Hitachi HLP 1400) [9], [ 101. Since we have not considered temperature-induced wavelength modulation, our analysis is only valid for modulation frequencies exceeding a few megahertz. A simplified diagram of the laser is shown in Fig. 1 . We employ the effective index approximation [ 111. The mathematical model is one dimensional only, i.e., possible variations of the carrier density and the optical field in the longitudinal direction will not be taken into account. Accordingly, we assume that the active layer of the laser is a longitudinally homogeneous waveguide, with a central region with effective refractive index slightly higher than in the rest of the layer.
A . General and Steady-State Equations Our model consists of 1) a nonlinear diffusion equation for the lateral distribution of camer density in the active layer of the laser 2) a rate equation for the total number of photons in the laser 3) a wave equation for the transverse modes of the laser waveguide. The various symbols that appear in the following derivation are defined in Table I. Derivation with respect to lateral direction x and time t will be denoted, respectively,

Manuscript received November 9, 1986; revised September 26, 1987. L. Hafskjzr is with the Norwegian Telecommunications Administration Research Department, N-2007 Kjeller, Norway. A. Sudbo is with the Norwegian Telecommunications Administration Research Department, N-2007 Kjeller, Norway and the Institute of Physics, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo 3, Norway. IEEE Log Number 8718957.

0018-9197/88/0400-0625$01 O 1988 IEEE .OO

real and imaginary parts of complex variables. some of the symbols appear with labels.83 3. 4.5 10-l6 1 . Symbol Meaning Cavity length Upper cladding layer thickness Active layer thickness Waveguide width Current stripe width Injected current Injected current distribution Carrier density distribution Complex field amplitude (normalized) Photon density distribution Total number photons of ( = (Lcl/r)j ” S ( x ) d x ) Complex effective dielectric function Free space wavelength Free space propagation constant ( = 2?r/h) Complex propagation constant of laser mode Refractive index in the active layer Effective index step at waveguide edge Imaginary part of effective index step Group index Mode confinement factor Gain coefficient Gain nonlinearity parameter Cavity loss Antiguiding factor Transparency carrier density Active layer doping density Diffusion constant Nonradiative recombination time Square recombination constant Spontaneous emission coefficient Electron charge Velocity of light Value Unit Reference 0. 1.98 x ioX4 IO2’ 6 x 8. APRIL 1988 stripe contact \ active layer with waveguide Fig. 24. respectively.3 0.63 0. Model of CSP diode laser.15 2.5 x IO-’’ ox 5 x 10’ -4. The subscript 0 denotes steady-state values. 6 x 10-l9 3 x lo8 .4 x IO-*’ 0. respectively. TABLE I DEFINITIONSYMBOLS OF In the text. VOL. NO. I percent 4. in-phase and quadrature deviations of quantities relative to the injection current modulation. The subscripts p and q denote. Single and double primes denote. I percent 0.626 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS.

) to be equal to -J(p2 . to take into account the fact that the numerical integration must end at a finite value x = x. E ( x . (7) g ( x ) = 2ckAn”/(I’ng) elsewhere.N(x) = J(x)/ed .. Thus. may be written a:E(x) + k2c(x)E ( x ) = p 2 E ( x ) a. Single and double primes will denote. The carrier depletion by stimulated recombination is given by the photon gain term G ( N ) discussed below in connection with the wave equation: G(N) = a(l n(x) = n and + An‘. We use a constant diffusion constant D as a parameter in our model. The linear laser gain G ( N ) [see (7)] is included in the wave equation via the imaginary part of the camer density-dependent dielectric function E ( x ) . and the gain term in the photon rate equation (8) is twice the imaginary part p” times the group velocity c/n. real and imaginary parts of complex variables.( x ) ) ] (5) where K is a normalization constant determined by the condition 2 S F j o ( x )dx = 1 . and a. ) / E ( x . for 1x1 < w/2 and + Y ( N .HAFSKJRR A N D S U D B B : MODELING FM RESPONSE OF DIODE LASERS 627 by a. -m io m I E ( x ) l dx = 1 2 (13) As shown in Appendix A. hence. (18) The time dependence of the laser power is given by the rate equation for the total number of photons 3: lom I N(x) [P + N ( x ) ] dx. We have used the lateral distribution of injected current density in [12] and [13]. the guiding in the laser is modeled by a complex dielectric function with a step both in the real and in the imaginary parts. Due to symmetry. When the cladding layer is highly resistive and of thickness h. we have included the term g(x) in (16). We will also need an expression for & / a N at N = N0(x): I ’sr/(u). (9) . (8) The distribution of intensity or photon density in the active layer of the laser is s(x) = ~ ( x ) The guiding mechanism in CSP lasers is such that the imaginary as well as the real part of the effective index of refraction in the laser vary with lateral position [9]. The nonlinear recombination in our model therefore leads to a diffusion length that depends on the carrier density. We write the effective dielectric function in the following way: ~ ’ ( x= n(x)’ ) + 2rnbN(x) (15) jo(.)) ( N .N ( x ) 1 / ~ B [ P + The optical field E ( x ) and the propagation constant 0 satisfy the wave equation which. Appendix 21.G ( N ( x ) ) s ( ~ ) subject to the boundary conditions a. [14. respectively.. using the effective index approximation [ l l ] . for 1x1 < w/2 n(x) = n elsewhere g ( x ) = 0. Instead of the boundary condition (3).) = K [ (1 + E + W )( 1 + E .k2c(oo)) as a boundary condition instead of (12).Nt). We assume that J ( x ) is given by (4)(6) also when the injection current I is modulated. we require a . The diffusion equation for the carrier density N ( x ) in the active layer of thickness d is written a.2zqx) .N. only positive x values need to be considered. In particular. an analytic solution of (1) may be obtained for large x. we actually require N ( x ) to join smoothly with the analytic solution at some finite value x. the distribution from a current stripe of width Wand length L can be expressed E ’ ( x )E “ ( x ) dx = J b ) 4&)/L = where (4) Actually. of x. the real part 6’ of the propagation constant is an integer multiple of a / L where L is the laser length.E(o) = x+m (10) subject to the boundary conditions [ + N(x)]} (1) (2) (3) rm o (11) + Da. i JO m I E ( x ) l dx 2 = 2 0. The complex propagation constant obtained from the wave equation yields the laser wavelength and the mode gain.. Values of the linear decay time T and the binary recombination coefficient B used in the calculations (Table I) are such that the binary recombination term in (1) dominates over the linear term except for large x values.N(O) x+m lim E ( x ) = 0 (12) and the normalization conditions = 0 lim N ( x ) = 0.

(x) = R.N q ( x ) sin u t s = So + sP cos u t . However. In Appendix A. are all complex. i. APRIL 1988 0. and (10) around the steadystate solutions... The linearization of (8) gives 2c -usp + psq + -#So nx where + vq = 0 (34) + I.N. We may then assume that the physical quantities under consideration are also sinusoidally modulated. is then allowed the spatial dependence invoked in [4] to explain the wavelength modulation response. When the modulation is small. oa. indeed. The calculation of S ( x ) and p is based on an adiabatic approximation. numerical integration must end at a finite x value. our calculations indicate that this is a valid approach. and hence with position x . depend nonlinearly on carrier density. First-order . In most laser diode models [ l ] .q(x) = G ( N o ( x ) )S.. The boundary conditions for N p ( x ) and Nq ( x ) may be expressed as given by (2) and (3). In the following. 2 shows gain versus carrier density in our model for three different values of y. .e.S. Gain versus carrier density for three different values of the nonlinearity parameter y.. Note that the effective dielectric function E ( x ) is time dependent through its dependence on N ( x ) . NO. I = Io (23) (24) (25) (26) (27) (28) p. ) ) . ( x ) and Nq ( x ) . cos u t N ( x ) = N o ( x ) + N. the linewidth enhancement factor [ 161 G N ( N ) = ~ ( +l 2y(N . Cf. VOL. (7). the propagation constant p and the shape of the intensity distribution S ( x ) will vary with time. 2 G ( N ) is given by (7) and G N ( N )by (21).q is given by (see Ap- .I . j o ( x ) / ( e W Da:N. Fig. a will vary with N o ( x ) .pq sin u t k = ko + kp cos ut . . 2 . whereas E " ( N . and as discussed below. Note that ~ ( x ) e p ( x ) . e q ( x ) . The subscripts p and q will denote.IEo(x) I~l(W.(x)N. x ) depend linearly on N ( x ) .(x) = u N p ( x ) + R o ( x ) N . 24. up. in-phase and quadrature deviations of quantities relative to the injection current modulation. Therefore. sin u t E ( X ) = e O ( x ) + c P ( x ) cos u t .kq sin u t .N . @).. We write (see Table I for definition of symbols) and quadrature components by a single complex number must be treated with caution. . we derive a more convenient boundary condition than (3). Hence. and more so the greater I y I is.(x) u ~ q ( ~ ) + T. 0' and 6. perturbation theory from quantum mechanics applied to (10) implies that the complex pp. Measurements of gain as a function of carrier density [ 151 indicate that the gain does. let the injection current distribution be sinusoidally modulated with angular frequency W. respectively.(x) + + B [ P + 2No(x)] (31) (32) Tp. Fig. B. ( x ) where &(x) = U G N ( N ~ ( X ) ) & ( X )1/7 (29) (30) + T.628 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS. 4.e q ( x ) sin u t /3 = Po + p p cos u t . The Linearized Time-Dependent Equations Now. the usual representation of a pair of in-phase and uq all vanish when 6 vanishes.' 3 'I where (21) We have chosen to let E' ( N .(x) . steady-state solutions will be denoted by the subscript 0.. . the functional form of S ( x ) and the value of p are at any one time given by the solution of the static wave equation (10) using the instantaneous value of e ( x ) . x ) is allowed a nonlinear dependence on N ( x ) by the introduction of a nonlinearity parameter y. [6].. Furthermore. the response of the laser may be obtained by linearizing (l). The linearization of (1) results in the following two differential equations for N. a fixed shape is assumed for the intensity distribution.(x) cos u t . If the nonlinearity parameter y is nonzero. p. We have chosen to work with the components written explicitly.

The iteration process converges if the sequence of RS values approaches zero and is cut off when RS becomes sufficiently small. and k. we have tried to be consistent in using the phrase ‘‘wavelength modulation” instead of ‘‘frequency modulation” to avoid confusion of ‘‘optical frequency” . N p (0). 3) Calculating RS.HAFSKJER A N D SUDBB: MODELING FM RESPONSE OF DIODE LASERS 629 pendix B) where & / a N is given by (19) and (20) for N = N o ( x ) . from (33) and (34). the results of our calculations of the modulation response were. ( 0 ) by using standard library routines [17]. ( x ) and N . as explained in Appendix A. In conversion of photon density to power output. 3(b). Since p‘ is an integer multiple of n / L . The system of equations (29). 0. yielding the amplitude and the phase of the laser power modulation directly. the magnitude of the carrier modulation is substantially larger at the resonance frequency than at low frequencies.. and N . S ( x ) is the steadystate intensity distribution of light in the laser. when taken into account. N.(O). The routine used for the purpose works iteratively. The calculation above is done with one particular angular frequency w and usually takes a few seconds on our computer. We have found in our computer simulations. p.. As can be seen. with an injection current that leads to 15 mW output power per facet. One complete iteration cycle consists of three main steps.. less power emerges. 2) Solving the camer density rate equation (1) using the photon distribution S ( x ) that is based on 3 from the previous iteration cycle and E ( x ) from the current cycle (a guess value of 3 must be supplied in the first cycle). (33). and they are therefore omitted from our model as presented here. in general.. thus leading to a net decrease of the carrier density. (30). Actually. Now let us turn to the problem of solving the dynamic equations. they may be found by standard routines designed for finding real zeros of continuous real functions of several variables. Thus. we have assumed that all power lost from the laser via the term K S emerges as output power. the number of iterations may sometimes be somewhat larger. several of our figures depict the modulation of optical frequency.6 GHz being the resonance frequency of the relaxation oscillations. S. and takes a few minutes. we present results of the calculations based on the parameter values given in Table I. Since N. respectively. The photon distribution and the corresponding optical field functions are shown in Fig. To obtain the modulation response. AND DISCUSSION IV. (33) and (34) are linear. to values as high as steady-state carrier density distribution is depicted in Fig. For this output power. 3(c) displays the carrier density modulation for two different frequencies. Fig.. ( x ) depend linearly on S.1 MHz representing the low-frequency region. Then one needs to find the static solution for two levels of the injection current in order to find the threshold current. and due to truncation errors. RESULTS In Figs. The unknowns must satisfy (33) and (34) in addition to two equations reflecting the right-hand boundary conditions. In a real laser. and 2. Fig. NUMERICAL METHODS The steady-state solution of the set of equations (1)(12) is found by iteration. that the effect of the modulation of E’ and E” on the modulation response of the laser is negligible. However. As expected. and N. Hence. The differential equations (29) and (30) are readily solved for a given set of the four unknown parameters S. must be zero. and in addition. The solution is checked to ensure that it is the fundamental laser mode that has been found. Based on the current and the previous RS values. The solution P2 and E ( x ) is found by a shooting method using standard numerical library routines [ 171. The figure shows the broadening of the carrier distribution due to the lateral diffusion of carriers. 111. the right-hand side of the photon rate equation (8) using 3 from the previous iteration cycle and N ( x ) from the current cycle. and . it should suffice to integrate (29) and (30) exactly five times in order to arrive at the final solution. In the derivation of the small-signal equations. the calculation must be done for some 20-50 values of U . the power (intensity) modulation response and the wavelength modulation response. (34) may then be solved for S and S. 1) Solving the wave equation (10) with E ( X ) given by N ( x ) from the previous iteration cycle (a trial or guess solution forN(x) must be provided in the first cycle)... The low-frequency curve is negative close to the origin since an increased rate of carrier injection will cause an even greater increase of stimulated recombination. Equation (37) is used to eliminate 0 and . 4(a) and 4(b) give. not The affected by increase of p. most photons are confined by index guiding within the high-index region reaching 3 pm from the center. 3 and 4. we have neglected the perturbations in the field functions E’ and E” that will accompany the modulation. and (37) then yields the amplitude and the phase of the wavelength modulation via the quantities k. It typically takes a few minutes time to get this solution on a Norsk Data ND-500 minicomputer. . The results of the calculations presented here were obtained with 3 = 0 and /. not wavelength.. S.(O). The threshold injection current is calculated assuming a linear dependence of the photon number on the injection current above threshold. 3(a) together with the injection current distribution. These perturbations will. the current 3 is calculated in the same manner as in Newton’s iteration method. appear as additional terms in (32) coupling (29) and (30) to the set of differential equations for these perturbations. half of it from each facet.. in the text.

0 .? i - . In a CSP laser. : 6 S. and hence not in accordance with experiments. [3]. 5 covers the range from gain guiding (both steps equal to zero or nearly so) to index guiding.______ discuss each of these mechanisms separately.x : gain saturation mechanism invoked for InGaAsP lasers b [7].3 . The negative values obtained in the gain-guiding situation correspond to outof-phase modulation. As discussed above. At low modu-8k lation frequencies. we notice that the wavelength modulation and the injection current modulation are in phase up to a modulation frequency exceeding 100 MHz. NO. The positive values of the CPR in Fig. \\ P '\ '\ j . VOL. 5(a) shows the CPR as a function of the real part of the step. With the help of the figures. [19]. The increase in wavelength modulation with an increasing value of the imaginary part of the step is due to the increased wavefront curvature due to such a step. the ratio is proportional to the frequency and '01 E the phase is 90". and current modulations being in phase. 4-7 show the effect on the modu(c) lation response of variation in a number of laser parameters. (a) . The results are shown in Fig. the optical frequency of the laser light is at its maximum when the injection current is at its minimum "s and vice versa. APRIL 1988 3 5 i --.CanC. Fig. In the following. 7 9 B. but also the step in the gaidabsorption (imaginary part) present in CSP lasers [ 101. Furthermore. 24. this allows for a spatial dependence of the linewidth enhancement factor a [see (22)]. 4. the ratio is on the order of 100 -8. 5 . Otherwise. and Fig. we will ---_____________. power. the values A n ' / n = A n f r / n = used to obtain the results in Fig.9 - bo i5 m --/ words. as also predicted by the simplest rate equation model.\ -. \ ^ I 5 5 '. Figs. we must take into account not only the real part of a step in the refractive index. and the various curves correspond to different values of the imaginary part. the real and imaginary parts of the step are of the same order of magnitude [9]. Fig. 4 is calculated with A n f/ n = A n f f n = / We have investigated how this step influences the low-frequency wavelength modulation. Spatially Inhomogeneous Linewidth Enhancement Factor According to (7). Lateral Guiding The real and imaginary parts of the step in the dielectric function (15) and (16) depend on the detailed laser design. 0L. referred to (b) as chirp-to-power ratio (CPR) [18]. this phase relation. and may not be independently adjusted. 4 represent a clear index-guiding situation. For instance. we will obtain a value of the CPR which is more than one order of magnitude less. The results show that in our model of index-guided lasers. 5(a) correspond to the wavelength. 4(c) depicts the ratio between the wavelength modulation and the power modulation. we have allowed the gain in our model a nonlinear dependence on the carrier density. suggested in . 5(b) shows the corresponding values of the threshold current. As mentioned before. --_-.. as discussed in Appendix B. 5 . [18]. From Fig. Fig. Fig. In other 6 A .e$ ship has been observed for several GaAlAs laser types '. we draw the general conclusion that both the amplitude and phase of the wavelength modulation depend strongly on the waveguiding situation. we note that the calculation predicts a finite wavelength modulation response independent of modulation frequency at low frequencies.630 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS.-_? : [2].P form I*ml : 4 0 E i/ with 'modulation frequency. Such a relative phase cannot be explained by the -_ . At high modulation fres quencies. MHz/mW and the phase is 180". the importance of several proposed mechanisms underlying wavelength modulation may be clarified.nC.

The solid lines correspond to index guiding ( A n ' / n = A n " / n = lo-').I Fig.? ) . (a) Low-frequency CPR and (b) threshold current as functions of the real part ( A n ' l n ) of the step in the refractive index. 7. Fig.+ 0.1 0 . 6(b) the threshold current. 6. and hence the relaxation oscillation frequency .2 0. Analysis of the simplest rate equation model of diode lasers indicates that the relaxation oscillation frequency increases when the slope of the gain coefficient G increases.4 0. (a) Low-frequency CPR. This effect explains why the threshold current increases with decreasing y. however. The labels should be multiplied with IO-'. the slope of the gain coefficient G as a function of carrier density at threshold increases with increasing y. 6 .2 /II / -0. We note that the response reported in [20] is different from the one observed in our laboratory [3] and in [2]. to reach a certain positive gain. however. the dashed lines to gain guiding ( A n ' / n = A n " / n = [4] to give rise to wavelength modulation. We also want to make it clear that the results shown in Figs. Despite repeated attempts with various laser structures and a range of laser parameters. 2. 6(b).5 1 *'. 3-5 were all obtained with y = 0. -I 2 5: -0. as we have done for both a gain-guided ( A n r / n = A n r r/ n = lop4) and an index-guided laser ( A n r / n = A n r r / n = [The reasons for performing the calculations on a gain-guided laser with a weak. The gain in the center of the laser above threshold is approximately clamped at the threshold value determined by the loss term K . The various curves correspond to different values of the imaginary part ( A n " / n ) of the step. that the phase of the low-modulation-frequency CPR depends sensitively on the waveguide properties.HAFSKJRR A N D S U D B B : MODELING FM RESPONSE OF DIODE LASERS 0 63 1 I I I I I .8 4. and Fig.0 \ 0 E \ Q I rI n o - a % 0 0 0. (a) Frequency modulation (chirp) with (b) phase advance under index-guiding conditions ( A n ' / n = A n " / n = I O .] The results are shown in Fig. the carrier density and hence the injection current have to be increased when the parameter y is decreased. 6(a) shows the low-modulation-frequency CPR. Be aware. Furthermore. Fig. but finite waveguiding present was that the numerical calculations were then considerably easier to carry out.1 1 IO* 0. 0. 5(a). 5 . Our calculations indicate that waveguiding effects have a greater influence on wavelength modulation than a spatially inhomogeneous linewidth enhancement factor. Fig. The various curves correspond to different values of the diffusion coefficient measured in units of IO-' m'/s. Fig. and (c) resonance frequency as a function of the gain nonlinearity parameter y in (7).3 o.0 hn'/n (~o*I ModuCatcon frequency ( M t I I Fig.6 0. As evident from Fig. as seen in Fig. 6 shows that the modulation response indeed depends on the nonlinearity parameter y and the accompanying spatial variation of the linewidth enhancement factor a. as seen in Fig. unable to reproduce in our model calculations a modulation response similar to the one reported in [20] to be observed in experiments on a CSP laser.2 0. The effect is investigated by calculating the modulation response for different values of the nonlinearity parameter y. we were. 6(c) the relaxation oscillation resonance frequency as a function of the nonlinearity parameter y. (b) threshold current.

should increase with increasing y . u 2 . The model includes a complex refractive index with steps both in the real and the imaginary part. and where we have included for generality the term u 3 y 3that is absent in (1). an effect that we have excluded from consideration in this work. Fig. a l > 0. we conclude that there is a tendency of carrier diffusion to reduce the height of the resonance peak and to lower the wavelength modulation amplitude at low frequencies. 7-8. We have found that lateral diffusion of carriers tends to reduce the relaxation oscillation peak and the wavelength modulation at low modulation frequencies. The magnitude of the steps is a measure of the strength of the guiding. In particular. 24. Since y' and y must tend to zero as x tends to infinity. the effects due to diffusion are rather small. u l . and has a strong influence on the frequency modulation response. [24]. Gain saturation. VOL. as is evident in Fig. We are not able to reproduce the strong depression of the power modulation response that is predicted in [ 141 for modulation frequencies extending from high frequencies down to well below the relaxation oscillation resonance frequency. APRIL 1988 ture of the laser and the lateral diffusion of carriers. 8. 7 shows the result for an index-guided laser ( A n f/ n = A n " / n = l o p 3 ) . In the steady state. The model leads to a finite. 8 for a gain-guided laser ( A n ' l n = An'' / n = From these figures. Equation (A4) may be inverted to yield where we have introduced L = 1/&. C = 0. C. while a sublinear dependence tends to increase the modulation. Integrating ( A l ) once. CONCLUSION We have developed a laser rate equation model for injection lasers which takes into account the waveguide na- = aly2 + u2y3 + 1 u3y4 + C (A2) where C is a constant of integration. Equation (A2) may then be written Y' Y(Ul + +2Y = +1 (A3) + +3Y) which again may be integrated to yield 1 -=In Y = * (x . both the injected current J ( x ) and the optical field S ( x ) are negligible far from the center of an index-guided laser. the modulation response obtained for these values of the diffusion constant differ little from the response obtained with no diffusion ( D = 0 ) . our results differ qualitatively from the results presented in Thompson's book [14] for lasers without lateral carrier confinement. On the other hand. [21]-[23]. the diffusion equation (1) then takes the general form y" = u l y + u2y 2 + a3y3 where y ( x ) is the carrier density. A superlinear dependence of the gain on the carrier density tends to reduce the wavelength modulation. Influence o Carrier Diffusion f We have studied the influence of lateral carrier diffusion by comparing the frequency modulation responses for different values of the diffusion coefficient ranging from D = 0 to D = 200 x lop3m2/s. the diffusion length when u2 = u3 = 0. 4 . In the case u3 = 0. As can be seen from Figs. we obtain (y') 2 Modulatcon frequency (MHzl Fig.632 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS. V . frequency-independent inphase wavelength modulation at low modulation frequencies. experiments [ l ] . [25] show that the relaxation oscillations are substantially damped. in agreement with experiments.xo) ('44) where xo is a constant of integration. (a) Frequency modulation (chirp) with (b) phase advance under gain-guiding conditions ( A n ' l n = A n " / n = The various curves correspond i o different values of the dlffusion coefficient measured in units of IO-' m*/s.x 0 1 / 2 ~ ) ' (A6) . xo may be redefined so that the solution may be written Y = 3a1 2a2 s i h 2 ( I x . However. may explain the damping [7]. However. APPENDIX A ANALYTIC SOLUTION NONLINEAR OF DIFFUSION EQUATION REGIONS IN WITHOUT SOURCES In the diffusion equation ( l ) . NO. and u3 are constants. 6(c). a realistic value for D is expected to be in the range from 3 to 6 X m2/s for AlGaAs lasers [13]. and Fig.

E. Assuming. the ratio N .(x)’ ( n [ / n . that E ( X . using the steadystate solution N o ( x ) of the form (A6). ( x ) E $ ( x ) dx = 0 (B3) the in-phase and quadrature components of the small-signal perturbations Pp and P. k ) E ( x ) = p 2 E ( x ) . Specializing to the case Np. The quadrature component Nq of the carrier density modulation then vanishes.. However. 034) First-order perturbation theory from quantum mechanics has been used in obtaining (B4). furthermore. In [5]. E ( x ) + k2E(x. ) (B2) . the modal phase index no and the group index ng are assumed to be equal. For a strongly index-guided laser. Equation (B6) shows that gain modulation P.HAFSKJER A N D SUDBB: MODELING FM RESPONSE OF DIODE LASERS 633 A convenient boundary condition in the diffusion equation (1) for large x is obtained by requiring that N ( x ) for some large x = x . is on the order nKL. ( x ) is uniquely determined once the steady-state solution N o ( x ) is given. ko. ( B l ) The steady-state solutions Eo. For a nonzero modulation frequency. are intimately coupled. N ( x ) . act + k&o(x) E o ( x ) = P $ W .$o(X) + 2 n. In this Appendix. the dispersion (the k dependence) of E is taken into account. (B10) + ki ak ”) d x ) / S E0(x)’ d x . to /3 may be expressed via aE + k i . and Po discussed in Section 11-B satisfy a. PP. in the limit of zero mcfdulation frequency. S E o ( x ) d x is then close to unity. can be smoothly matched to a function of the form (A6). Furthermore. = 0. we obtain where the mode index is no = P o / k o . Equations (29) and (30) combined are one inhomogeneous linear differential equation for the complex quantity N c ( x ) = N p ( x ) + i N q ( x ) . the gain modulation P. Equation (10) is Combining (B4) and (B5). . we obtain the modal group index nR = a p / a k from (B4): The wavelength modulation kp. because &’L (where L is the length of the laser) is on the order of 1 (assuming mirror reflectivity not close to l). the gain is clamped and P. The boundary condition for the small-signal perturbations N p ( x ) and N q ( x ) in (29) and (30) can also be determined from the steady-state solution (A6) as follows. and n$ /& to yield ’ a .Thus.. E(.!. The partial derivatives & / a N and & / a k are evaluated at N = N o ( x ) and k = ko.. the wavelength modulation kp may in the limit of zero modulation frequency be written kp = y--( 1 no ng k0 + C Y ’ ) EhEl s aErr ~ aN Np d x (B9) where we have used (B8) with 0 = 0: .g = 0. in general.’ is small compared to E. 1 With the normalization s 2 IEo(x)l d x = 1 .Np. both in-phase and quadrature components relative to the injection current modulation are considered. and thus that @L. Because the laser operates close to the gain peak. 1 aN E .. and in addition. and with the normalization (B3). (B5) and where we have introduced Henry’s linewidth en) hancement factor [16] CY = ( a E r / a N ) / ( a E r r / a N [see .qd x .. APPENDIX B PERTURBATION EXPANSION THE PROPAGATION FOR CONSTANT P The perturbation of the propagation constant due to a perturbation of the dielectric function E is analyzed and discussed in [5]. ( x ) / N .Np. This ratio may then be computed for a particular value x.q = 0.. + k i aN Eo(x)’ d x . s [2EbE..q is. N .q and wavelength modulation kP. may then be expanded in E l / E . for allx sufficiently large that the optical field is negligible. k ) depends linearly on N [(15) and (16)]. the imaginary part of ng may be neglected compared to the imaginary part of no. of x by integration of (29) and (30) from a very large x inwards to x = x . nonzero.’ ..qis given by (B7) Gince the cavity resonance condition implies that 0’is an integer multiple of ?r/L. N o .

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