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Transmission modes

A given transmission on a communications channel between two machines can occur in several different ways. The transmission is characterised by:
  

the direction of the exchanges the transmission mode: the number of bits sent simultaneously synchronisation between the transmitter and receiver

here are 3 different transmission modes characterised according to the direction of the exchanges:

A simplex connection is a connection in which the data flows in only one direction, from the transmitter to the receiver. This type of connection is useful if the data do not need to flow in both directions (for example, from your computer to the printer or from the mouse to your computer...).

A half-duplex connection (sometimes called an alternating connection or semi-duplex) is a connection in which the data flows in one direction or the other, but not both at the same time. With this type of connection, each end of the connection transmits in turn. This type of connection makes it possible to have bidirectional communications using the full capacity of the line.

A full-duplex connection is a connection in which the data flow in both directions simultaneously. Each end of the line can thus transmit and receive at the same time, which means that the bandwidth is divided in two for each direction of data transmission if the same transmission medium is used for both directions of transmission.

Serial and parallel transmission
The transmission mode refers to the number of elementary units of information (bits) that can be simultaneously translated by the communications channel. In fact, processors (and therefore computers in general) never process (in the case of recent processors) a single bit at a time; generally they are able to process several (most of the time it is 8: one byte), and for this reason the basic connections on a computer are parallel connections.
Parallel connection

Parallel connection means simultaneous transmission of N bits. These bits are sent simultaneously over N different channels (a channel being, for example, a wire, a cable or any other physical medium). The parallel connection on PC-type computers generally requires 10 wires.

These channels may be:

the data are sent one bit at a time over the transmission channel. and then transmits the entire register in parallel when it is full: ... since most processors process data in parallel. interference can occur (particularly at high speeds) and degrade the signal quality. each bit is sent at a different frequency.  N physical lines: in which case each bit is sent on a physical line (which is why parallel cables are made up of several wires in a ribbon cable) one physical line divided into several sub-channels by dividing up the bandwidth. The shift register. The shift register shifts the register by one position to the left each time a bit is received. the transmitter needs to transform incoming parallel data into serial data and the receiver needs to do the opposite. working together with a clock. will shift the register (containing all of the data presented in parallel) by one position to the left. and then transmit the most significant bit (the leftmost one) and so on:  The serial-parallel transformation is done in almost the same way using a shift register. These operations are performed by a communications controller (normally a UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) chip). The communications controller works in the following manner:  The parallel-serial transformation is performed using a shift register. In this case. However. Serial connection In a serial connection... Since the conductive wires are close to each other in the ribbon cable.

Narrowband can also be used with the audio spectrum to describe sounds which occupy a narrow range of frequencies. acoustics and radio systems engineering.[1][2] However.Broadband The term broadband refers to a telecommunications signal or device of greater bandwidth. Communication requires a sender. where it had been used with a meaning similar to wideband. Its origin is in physics. and an intended recipient. It is a common misconception that narrowband refers to a channel which occupies only a "small" amount of space on the radio spectrum. although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication. Different criteria for "broad" have been applied in different contexts and at different times. This is usually used as an idealizing assumption. In telephony. a message. narrowband implies that the channel under consideration is sufficiently narrow that its frequency response can be considered flat. no channel has perfectly flat fading. but the analysis of many aspects of wireless systems is greatly simplified if flat fading can be assumed. thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. the term became popularized through the 1990s as a vague marketing term for Internet access. Narrowband In radio. . The message bandwidth will therefore be less than the coherence bandwidth of the channel. in some sense. narrowband is usually considered to cover frequencies 300–3400 Hz Communication Communication is the activity of conveying meaningful information. In the study of wireless channels. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. the greater the capacity for traffic). than another standard or usual signal or device (and the broader the band. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender. The opposite of narrowband is wideband. narrowband describes a channel in which the bandwidth of the message does not significantly exceed the channel's coherence bandwidth.

3) consists of 4 pairs of copper cabling that can be utilized for both voice and data transmission. magazines. On the other hand. media (singular medium) are the storage and transmission channels or tools used to store and deliver information or data. radio. Electronic media is becoming more and more famous everyday with more electronic devices that are being made. Wired technologies  Twisted pair wire is the most widely used medium for telecommunication. Ordinary telephone wires consist of two insulated copper wires twisted into pairs. cinema. Modern communication media now allow for intense long-distance exchanges between larger numbers of people (many-to-many communication via e-mail. The use of two wires twisted together helps to reduce crosstalk and electromagnetic induction. but may refer to a single medium used to communicate any data for any purpose. . telegraphy. The transmission speed ranges from 2 million bits per second to 10 billion bits per second.Media (communication) in communications. Computer networking cabling (wired Ethernet as defined by IEEE 802. a revolution in telecommunications has greatly altered communication by providing new media for long distance communication. Internet forums. Digital telecommunications allow for computer-mediated communication. Twisted pair cabling comes in two forms which are Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) and Shielded twisted-pair (STP) which are rated in categories which are manufactured in different increments for various scenarios. The first transatlantic two-way radio broadcast occurred in 1906 and led to common communication via analogue and digital media:   Analog telecommunications include traditional telephony. It is often referred to as synonymous with mass media or news media. newspaper. Electronic media In the last century. and TV broadcasts. radio. and computer networks. and also facebook). Twisted-pair cabling consist of copper wires that are twisted into pairs. and teleportation). many traditional broadcast media and mass media favor oneto-many communication (television.

hills.200 miles) (for geosynchronous satellites) above the equator. ITU-T G. 48 km (30 miles) apart. The cables consist of copper or aluminum wire wrapped with insulating layer typically of a flexible material with a high dielectric constant. this technology can carry multiple signals in a single fiber.   Wireless technologies  Terrestrial microwave – Terrestrial microwaves use Earth-based transmitter and receiver.11. and mountain peaks. office buildings. An example of open-standards wireless radio-wave technology is IEEE 802. These Earth-orbiting systems are capable of receiving and relaying voice. The equipment looks similar to satellite dishes.    . This capacity may be further increased by the use of colored light.hn technology uses existing home wiring (coaxial cable. phone lines and power lines) to create a high-speed (up to 1 Gigabit/s) local area network. Path between relay stations spaced approx. Wireless LANs – Wireless local area network use a high-frequency radio technology similar to digital cellular and a low-frequency radio technology. and other work-sites for local area networks. light of multiple wavelengths.400 km (22.. Wireless LANs use spread spectrum technology to enable communication between multiple devices in a limited area. Coaxial cable is widely used for cable television systems. Optical fiber cable consists of one or more filaments of glass fiber wrapped in protective layers that carries data by means of pulses of light. towers. Transmission speed range from 200 million to more than 500 million bits per second. Fiber-optic cables are not affected by electromagnetic radiation. and TV signals. It transmits light which can travel over extended distances. Terrestrial microwaves use low-gigahertz range. The satellites are stationed in space. Instead of carrying one message in a stream of monochromatic light impulses. The transmission speed of fiber optics is hundreds of times faster than for coaxial cables and thousands of times faster than a twisted-pair wire. Cellular and PCS systems – Use several radio communications technologies. Each area has a low-power transmitter or radio relay antenna device to relay calls from one area to the next area. The layers of insulation help minimize interference and distortion. all of which are surrounded by a conductive layer. data. Microwave antennas are usually placed on top of buildings. The systems are divided to different geographic areas. i. Transmission speed may reach trillions of bits per second.e. typically 35. which limits all communications to line-of-sight. Communications satellites – The satellites use microwave radio as their telecommunications medium which are not deflected by the Earth's atmosphere.

line-of-sight propagation is used. Infrared communication can transmit signals between devices within small distances of typically no more than 10 meters.[1] Information is transferred in this manner over both short and long distances. radio transmitters and receivers. broadcast television and cordless telephones. or long ranging from thousands to millions of kilometers for deep-space radio communications. network terminals. In IEEE Project 802. Consumer Two way radio including FRS Family Radio Service.[7]  Wireless Wireless telecommunications. radio receivers. Wireless services Common examples of wireless equipment include:         Telemetry control and traffic control systems Infrared and ultrasonic remote control devices Modulated laser light systems for point to point communications Professional LMR (Land Mobile Radio) and SMR (Specialized Mobile Radio) typically used by business. personal digital assistants (PDAs). wireless computer mice. Other examples of wireless technology include GPS units. and portable two-way radios. and wireless networking. Airband and radio navigation equipment used by aviators and air traffic control . The term is commonly used in the telecommunications industry to refer to telecommunications systems (e.) to transfer information without the use of wires. remote controls. computer networks. Distances can be short. etc. keyboards and Headset (telephone/computer). etc. A global area network (GAN) is a network used for supporting mobile communications across an arbitrary number of wireless LANs. radio frequency (RF). industrial and Public Safety entities.acoustic energy. mobile.g. which limits the physical positioning of communicating devices.) which use some form of energy (e. that are impossible or impractical to implement with the use of wires. The Amateur Radio Service (Ham radio). The key challenge in mobile communications is handing off the user communications from one local coverage area to the next. such as long range communications. In most cases. as a few meters as in television remote control. headphones. GMRS (General Mobile Radio Service) and Citizens band ("CB") radios. Introduction Wireless operations permits services. satellite television. this involves a succession of terrestrial wireless LANs. etc. cellular telephones. satellite coverage areas. Consumer and professional Marine VHF radios. It encompasses various types of fixed. Garage door openers or garage doors.g. is the transfer of information between two or more points that are physically not connected.

A wireless transmission method is a logical choice to network a LAN segment that must frequently change locations. Wireless networks Wireless networking (i. microwave communication.4 GHz WiFi devices) is used to meet many needs. for example long-range line-of-sight via highly directional antennas. cellular networks and other wireless networks. Cordless computer peripherals: the cordless mouse is a common example.e.     Cellular telephones and pagers: provide connectivity for portable and mobile applications. To overcome situations where normal cabling is difficult or financially impractical. To provide a backup communications link in case of normal network failure. for example from consumer IR devices such as remote controls or via Infrared Data Association (IrDA). Modes Wireless communications can be via:    radio frequency communication. and pilots of aircraft to ascertain their location anywhere on earth. point-to-multipoint communication. both personal and business. infrared (IR) short-range communication. Another common use is for mobile networks that connect via satellite. Typical services use direct broadcast satellite to provide multiple television channels to viewers. . To link portable or temporary workstations. Satellite television: Is broadcast from satellites in geostationary orbit. the various types of unlicensed 2. Perhaps the most common use is to connect laptop users who travel from location to location. captains of boats and ships. or To remotely connect mobile users or networks. keyboards and printers can also be linked to a computer via wireless using technology such as Wireless USB or Bluetooth Cordless telephone sets: these are limited-range devices. Applications may involve point-to-point communication. Global Positioning System (GPS): allows drivers of cars and trucks. not to be confused with cell phones. broadcasting. The following situations justify the use of wireless technology:      To span a distance beyond the capabilities of typical cabling. or short-range communication.

[1] The "electromagnetic spectrum" of an object is the characteristic distribution of electromagnetic radiation emitted or absorbed by that particular object.[2] The limit for long wavelength is the size of the universe itself. . although in principle the spectrum is infinite and continuous. It is for this reason that the electromagnetic spectrum is highly studied for spectroscopic purposes to characterize matter. while it is thought that the short wavelength limit is in the vicinity of the Planck length[citation needed]. thereby covering wavelengths from thousands of kilometres down to a fraction of the size of an atom. The electromagnetic spectrum extends from low frequencies used for modern radio communication to gamma radiation at the short-wavelength (high-frequency) end.Electromagnetic spectrum The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.

792.[6] . whereas wavelengths can be as long as the universe. or photon energy E. Frequencies range from 2.458 m/s is the speed of light in vacuum and h = 6. Photon energy is directly proportional to the wave frequency.13566733(10)×10−15 eV s is Planck's constant. wavelength λ. so gamma rays have the highest energy (around a billion electron volts) and radio waves have very low energy (around femto electron volts).Range of the spectrum EM waves are typically described by any of the following three physical properties: the frequency f. These relations are illustrated by the following equations: where:   c = 299.4×1023 Hz (1 GeV gamma rays) down to the local plasma frequency of the ionized interstellar medium (~1 kHz). Wavelength is inversely proportional to the wave frequency[2]. so gamma rays have very short wavelengths that are fractions of the size of atoms.62606896(33)×10−34 J s = 4.

gases. The types of interaction can be so different that it seems to be justified to refer to different types of radiation. the visible region we perceive as light. or even stars can be obtained from this type of device. frequencies of 30 Hz and below can be produced by and are important in the study of certain stellar nebulae[7] and frequencies as high as 2.[8] Rationale Electromagnetic radiation interacts with matter in different ways in different parts of the spectrum. plasma oscillation (in metals only) Molecular electron excitation (including pigment molecules found in the Visible human retina). Microwave Plasma oscillation. many hydrogen atoms emit a radio wave photon which has a wavelength of 21. excitation of atomic nuclei. Generally. their wavelength is decreased. its behaviour also depends on the amount of energy per quantum (photon) it carries.12 cm. although this is not always explicitly stated.9×1027 Hz have been detected from astrophysical sources. A common laboratory spectroscope can detect wavelengths from 2 nm to 2500 nm. plasma oscillations (in metals only) Excitation of molecular and atomic valence electrons. Detailed information about the physical properties of objects. The behavior of EM radiation depends on its wavelength. molecular rotation through far infrared Near infrared Molecular vibration. Spectroscopes are widely used in astrophysics. For example. Compton scattering (for X-rays low atomic numbers) Energetic ejection of core electrons in heavy elements. but divide it up based on the different interactions with matter. An example would be the oscillation of the electrons in an antenna. Wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. including dissociation Gamma rays of nuclei . including ejection of Ultraviolet the electrons (photoelectric effect) Excitation and ejection of core atomic electrons. microwave. X-rays and gamma rays. ultraviolet. infrared. are usually quoted in terms of the vacuum wavelength. When EM radiation interacts with single atoms and molecules.Whenever electromagnetic waves exist in a medium with matter. there is a continuum containing all these "different kinds" of electromagnetic radiation. EM radiation is classified by wavelength into radio wave. Spectroscopy can detect a much wider region of the EM spectrum than the visible range of 400 nm to 700 nm. Also. Region of the spectrum Radio Main interactions with matter Collective oscillation of charge carriers in bulk material (plasma oscillation). Thus we refer to a spectrum. no matter what medium they are traveling through. At the same time. Compton scattering (for all atomic numbers).

Gamma radiation X-ray radiation Ultraviolet radiation Visible radiation Infrared radiation Microwave radiation Radio waves . 6.High energy gamma rays Creation of particle-antiparticle pairs. 2. 7. 5. Types of radiation The types of electromagnetic radiation is broadly classified into the following classes[2]: 1. At very high energies a single photon can create a shower of high energy particles and antiparticles upon interaction with matter. 3. 4.

travels along it. Now this radiation has undergone enough cosmological red shift to put it into the microwave region of the spectrum for observers moving slowly (compared to the speed of light) with respect to the cosmos. These photons were from Lyman series transitions.96 pJ). mobile phones. Television. the region of the spectrum of the particular electromagnetic radiation is reference-frame dependent (on account of the Doppler shift for light) so EM radiation which one observer would say is in one region of the spectrum could appear to an observer moving at a substantial fraction of the speed of light with respect to the first to be in another part of the spectrum. The use of the radio spectrum is regulated by many governments through frequency allocation. although the latter is. Generally. This is the source of the GZK limit. and despite being one million-fold less energetic than some muonic X-rays. putting them in the ultraviolet (UV) part of the electromagnetic spectrum. not electromagnetic radiation at all (see near and far field) The distinction between X-rays and gamma rays is based on sources[citation needed]: gamma rays are the photons generated from nuclear decay or other nuclear and subnuclear/particle process. whereas X-rays are generated by electronic transitions involving highly energetic inner atomic electrons. which is characteristic of the type of radiation[2]. wireless networking and amateur radio all use radio waves. or may be ducted along wires as electric power. It was produced. this radiation will be blue-shifted in their rest frame. While the classification scheme is generally accurate. in reality there is often some overlap between neighboring types of electromagnetic energy. nuclear transitions are much more energetic than electronic transitions. with wavelengths ranging from hundreds of meters to about one millimeter. it couples to the conductor. by the de-excitation of hydrogen atoms to the ground state. in their rest frame. the 7. EM radiation may also cause certain molecules to absorb energy . SLF radio waves at 60 Hz may be received and studied by astronomers. consider the cosmic microwave background. this radiation is blueshifted to high energy gamma rays which interact with the proton to produce bound quark-antiquark pairs (pions).[9] whereas there are many (77 known to be less than 10 keV (1.This classification goes in the increasing order of wavelength.22 aJ) nuclear transition of thorium-229). They are used for transmission of data. so usually.g. and induces an electric current on the surface of that conductor by exciting the electrons of the conducting material. When EM radiation impinges upon a conductor. strictly speaking. However. frequency and phase of the wave within a frequency band. even though their energy may exceed 6 megaelectronvolts (0. Radio frequency Radio waves generally are utilized by antennas of appropriate size (according to the principle of resonance). This effect (the skin effect) is used in antennas. For example.6 fJ)) low-energy nuclear transitions (e. when matter and radiation decoupled. Radio waves can be made to carry information by varying a combination of the amplitude. but exceptions exist.6 eV (1. for particles moving near the speed of light. By analogy to electronic transitions. via modulation. The highest energy cosmic ray protons are moving such that.[10] Also. the emitted photons are still called gamma rays due to their nuclear origin. gamma-rays are more energetic than X-rays. For example. muonic atom transitions are also said to produce X-rays.

although this is at intensity levels unable to cause thermal heating. In a microwave oven. this effect is used to heat food. The benefit of this is a more uniform heating and reduced heating time. Microwaves are absorbed by molecules that have a dipole moment in liquids. Microwave energy is produced with klystron and magnetron tubes. transfers energy through the material electromagnetically. The super high frequency (SHF) and extremely high frequency (EHF) of microwaves come after radio waves. Low-intensity microwave radiation is used in Wi-Fi. microwaves can heat material in less than 1% of the time of conventional heating methods. not as a thermal heat flux. the average microwave oven is powerful enough to cause interference at close range with poorly shielded electromagnetic fields such as those found in mobile medical devices and cheap consumer electronics. This is exploited in microwave oven Microwaves Main article: Microwaves Plot of Earth's atmospheric transmittance (or opacity) to various wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. and with solid state diodes such as Gunn and IMPATT devices. Microwaves are waves which are typically short enough to employ tubular metal waveguides of reasonable diameter. . Volumetric heating.and thus to heat up. as used by microwaves. causing thermal effects and sometimes burns. When active.

reserving far infrared for wavelengths below 200 μm. This range is sometimes called the fingerprint region since the mid-infrared absorption spectrum of a compound is very specific for that compound. It can be divided into three parts[2]:    Far-infrared. there are certain wavelength ranges ("windows") within the opaque range which allow partial transmission. The water in the Earth's atmosphere absorbs so strongly in this range that it renders the atmosphere effectively opaque. Physical processes that are relevant for this range are similar to those for visible light. Electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength between 380 nm and 760 nm (790–400 terahertz) is detected by the human eye and perceived as visible light. and by phonons in solids. from 30 to 120 THz (10 to 2. especially near infrared (longer than 760 nm) and ultraviolet (shorter than 380 nm) are also sometimes referred . This is the range in which the sun and other stars emit most of their radiation[citation needed] and the spectrum that the human eye is the most sensitive to. but applications such as imaging and communications are now appearing. The light we see with our eyes is really a very small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Near-infrared. The lower part of this range may also be called microwaves. The wavelength range from approximately 200 μm up to a few mm is often referred to as "sub-millimetre" in astronomy. Other wavelengths. Hot objects (black-body radiators) can radiate strongly in this range.[11] [edit] Infrared radiation Main article: Infrared radiation The infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum covers the range from roughly 300 GHz (1 mm) to 400 THz (750 nm). Until recently. by molecular motions in liquids. Mid-infrared. where high frequency waves might be directed at enemy troops to incapacitate their electronic equipment.500 to 750 nm). where the different atoms in a molecule vibrate around their equilibrium positions. [edit] Visible radiation (light) Main article: Visible spectrum Above infrared in frequency comes visible light. It is absorbed by molecular vibrations. However. and can be used for astronomy. This radiation is typically absorbed by so-called rotational modes in gasphase molecules. from 120 to 400 THz (2. infrared (if you could see it) would be located just beyond the red side of the rainbow with ultraviolet appearing just beyond the violet end.Terahertz radiation Main article: Terahertz radiation Terahertz radiation is a region of the spectrum between far infrared and microwaves.5 μm). A rainbow shows the optical (visible) part of the electromagnetic spectrum. from 300 GHz (1 mm) to 30 THz (10 μm). Scientists are also looking to apply terahertz technology in the armed forces. Visible light (and near-infrared light) is typically absorbed and emitted by electrons in molecules and atoms that move from one energy level to another. the range was rarely studied and few sources existed for microwave energy at the high end of the band (sub-millimetre waves or so-called terahertz waves).

and our technology can also manipulate a broad range of wavelengths. for example. Optical fiber transmits light which. At most wavelengths. Our brain's visual system processes the multitude of reflected frequencies into different shades and hues. this results in our visual perception of the scene. The wavelength of UV rays is shorter than the violet end of the visible spectrum but longer than the X-ray. is caused by the disruptive effects of UV radiation on skin cells. Sunburn. Passing white light through a prism splits it up in to the several colors of light observed in the visible spectrum between 400 nm to 780 nm. the information carried by electromagnetic radiation is not directly detected by human senses. most of it is absorbed by the atmosphere's ozone layer before they reach the surface. although not necessarily in the visible part of the spectrum. can carry information.to as light. The sun emits a large amount of UV radiation. especially when the visibility to humans is not relevant. and through this not-entirely-understood psychophysical phenomenon. If radiation having a frequency in the visible region of the EM spectrum reflects off an object. UV rays can irreparably damage the complex DNA molecules in the cells producing thymine dimers making it a very potent mutagen. . Being very energetic. and then strikes our eyes. UV rays can break chemical bonds making molecules unusually reactive or ionizing them (see photoelectric effect) in general changing their physical behavior. Natural sources produce EM radiation across the spectrum. However. which is the main cause of skin cancer. a bowl of fruit. most people perceive a bowl of fruit. say. The modulation is similar to that used with radio waves. which could potentially turn Earth into a barren desert. however. [edit] Ultraviolet light Main article: Ultraviolet The amount of penetration of UV relative to altitude in Earth's ozone Next in frequency comes ultraviolet (UV). White light is a combination of lights of different wavelengths in the visible spectrum.

as well as for high-energy physics and astronomy.[edit] X-rays Main article: X-rays After UV come X-rays. and in medicine they are used in radiation cancer therapy and some kinds of diagnostic imaging such as PET scans. Neutron stars and accretion disks around black holes emit X-rays. [edit] Gamma rays Main article: Gamma rays After hard X-rays come gamma rays. Hard X-rays have shorter wavelengths than soft X-rays. These are the most energetic photons. Gamma rays are also used for the irradiation of food and seed for sterilization. For example. red light resembles infrared radiation in that it can resonate some chemical bonds. The wavelength of gamma rays can be measured with high accuracy by means of Compton scattering. They are useful to astronomers in the study of high energy objects or regions. Note that there are no precisely defined boundaries between the bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. which enable us to study them. RFID is a dedicated short range communication (DSRC) technology. which were discovered by Paul Villard in 1900. RFID technology is similar to the bar code identification systems we see in retail stores everyday. X-rays are given off by stars and are strongly emitted by some types of nebulae. The term RFID is used to describe various technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects. As they can pass through most substances. Radiation of some types have a mixture of the properties of those in two regions of the spectrum. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) radio frequency identification What is RFID Short for radio frequency identification. having no defined lower limit to their wavelength. which are also ionizing. but due to their higher energies they can also interact with matter by means of the Compton effect. most notably diagnostic X-ray images in medicine (a process known as radiography). and find a use with physicists thanks to their penetrative ability and their production from radioisotopes. however one big difference between RFID and bar code technology is that RFID does not rely on the line-of-sight reading that bar code scanning requires to work. . X-rays can be used to 'see through' objects.

or RF tag. Passive tags use the radio frequency from the reader to transmit their signal. virtual sprawl. In RFID systems. and even to control access to drugs. and more. and to provide realtime tracking of the location of doctors and nurses in the hospital. Not a Virtual Datacenter: Before you implement a private cloud. which contains the RF circuitry and information to be transmitted. RFID chips for animals are extremely small devices injected via syringe under skin.The Technology Behind RFID With RFID. although wavelengths in the 2. An RFID system consists of an antenna and a transceiver. which includes the human body. The antenna provides the means for the integrated circuit to transmit its information to the reader that converts the radio waves reflected back from the RFID tag into digital information that can then be passed on to computers that can analyze the data. the electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the RF (radio frequency) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is used to transmit signals. and therefore has limitations. Passive tags will generally have their data permanently burned into the tag when it is made. but because radio waves work and act differently at different frequencies. Common Uses of RFID RFID systems can be used just about anywhere. although some can be rewritten. Here are a few examples of how RFID technology is being used in everyday places:   RFID systems are being used in some hospitals to track a patient's location.4 GHz to 2. a frequency for a specific RFID system is often dependant on its application. find out what you need to know about automated delivery.4 GHz range are absorbed by water. the system can be used to track the whereabouts of expensive and critical equipment. Under a . which read the radio frequency and transfer the information to a processing device (reader) and a transponder. RFID systems can use a variety of frequencies to communicate. Much like tuning in to your favorite radio station. and other areas of the hospital that are considered "restricted access" areas. High frequency RFID systems (850 MHz to 950 MHz and 2. pediatrics. The tag can carry information as simple as a pet owners name and address or the cleaning instruction on a sweater to as complex as instructions on how to assemble a car.5 GHz) offer transmission ranges of more than 90 feet. In addition.anywhere that a unique identification system is needed. RFID tags and readers must be tuned into the same frequency to enable communications. the tags that hold the data are broken down into two different types. RFID Frequencies Sponsored Migrate to a Private Cloud. from clothing tags to missiles to pet tags to food .

a generic term for the process of capturing or collecting data via automatic means (i. as of yet unproven. With RFID.. benefit would ultimately be in the consumer goods supply chain where an RFID tag attached to a consumer product could be tracked from manufacturing to the retail store right to the consumer's home. When an RF current is supplied to an antenna. . smart cards. Key Terms To Understanding Radio Frequency Identification RFID (pronounced as separate letters) Short for radio frequency identification. which is an integrated circuit containing the RF circuitry and information to be transmitted.  government initiative to control rabies. the electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the RF portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is used to transmit signals. The Orlando/Orange County Expressway Authority (OOCEA) is using an RFID based trafficmonitoring system.e. Many see RFID as a technology in its infancy with an untapped potential. all Portuguese dogs must be RFID tagged by 2007. biometrics. which read the radio frequency and transfer the information to a processing device. The biggest. or collection. RFID in retail stores offer real-time inventory tracking that allows companies to monitor and control inventory supply at all times. any frequency within the electromagnetic spectrum associated with radio wave propagation. When scanned the tag can provide information relevant to the dog's history and its owner's information. a technology similar in theory to bar code identification. Many wireless technologies are based on RF field propagation. which uses roadside RFID readers to collect signals from transponders that are installed in about 1 million E-Pass and SunPass customer vehicles. until there are more standards set within the industry and the cost of RFID technology comes down we won't see RFID systems reaching near their full potential anytime soon. While we may talk of its existence and the amazing ways in which this technology can be put to use. OCR or magnetic strips. or tag. without the use of a keyboard). an electromagnetic field is created that then is able to propagate through space. such as a computer. An RFID system consists of an antenna and a transceiver. and subsequently storing that data in a microprocessor-controlled device. bar code scanning. such as RFID. RF Short for radio frequency. and a transponder. AIDC (pronounced as separate letters) Short for automatic identification and data capture. The Future of RFID RFID is said by many in the industry to be the frontrunner technology for automatic identification and data collection.

RFID readers are classified into two different types: fixed RFID and mobile RFID. RFID tags RFID tags can be either passive. also known as labels. the other is an antenna for receiving and transmitting the signal. active or battery assisted passive. Intermec. it is called fixed RFID. A battery assisted passive (BAP) has a small battery on board that is activated when in the presence of a RFID reader. it is called mobile RFID. as well as RFID software or RFID middleware. Fixed and Mobile RFID Depending on mobility. . while an active has an on-board battery that always broadcasts or beacons its signal. If the reader reads tags in a stationary position. Impinj. Sirit. Most RFID tags contain at least two parts: one is an integrated circuit for storing and processing information. if the reader is mobile when the reader reads tags. etc. Passive RFID does not use a battery. and other specialized functions. On the other hand.A radio-frequency identification system involves hardware known as interrogators or readers and tags. These fixed readers are set up specific interrogation zones and create a "bubble" of RF energy that can be tightly controlled if the physics is well engineered. Mobile readers include hand helds. modulating and demodulating a radio-frequency (RF) signal. This allows a very definitive reading area for when tags go in and out of the interrogation zone. carts and vehicle mounted RFID readers from manufacturers such as Motorola.