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UNIT 6 JOB EVALUATION: CONCEPT, SCOPE AND LIMITATION

6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 Objectives Introduction Need for a Rational and Equitable Pay Structure Job Evaluation and Its Objectives Anomalies in Salaries and Theory of Relative Values Basic Assumptions in Job Evaluation Trigger Points Advantages of Job Evaluation Areas of Application and Evaluatory Phases Problems Associated with Job Evaluation Let Us Sum Up Clues to Answers

6.0 OBJECTIVES
After reading this Unit you will be able to: develop an understanding of the concept of job evaluation, its scope and limitations, appreciate the need for a rational and equitable pay structure, and take note of the historical developments with regard to the application of the technique of job evaluation.

6.1 INTRODUCTION
Productivity for any organisation or enterprise depends, to a great extent, on the morale and motivation of the employees of that organisation1 enterprise. One of the principal factors affecting the morale and motivation is the "pay policy" and "pay structure" of the organisation. Assuming, we have two sections or categories of employees, say Category A and Category B. The former has a salary structure higher than that of the latter. The latter category has a feeling (real or imaginary) that the duties and responsibilities of the former are not more onerous than theirs. This feeling could lead to frustration and lowering of morale, productivity and poor service. An organisation needs a system which will attempt to prevent such situations to develop and to resolve them to the satisfaction of all concerned where such situations discern themselves. This sort of system is specially needed in case of hospitality sector, where many pkople are employed according to the need and specifications of a particular service. Disgruntled employeed in contact with customers will end-up projecting a poor image not only of the organisation but also of the destination as a whole. This Unit is intended to identify such a system. It starts with highlighting the need for a rational pay structure and goes on to deal with other issues like setting the objectives for job evaluation, relationship with wages, advantages and areas of applications, etc. It also takes into account the problems related with job evaluatian.

6.2 NEED FOR A RATIONAL AND EQUITABLE PAY STRUCTURE
As wages are probably the most important single element in conditions of employment, they have naturally always raised difficult issues in negotiations between employers and

B I O C ~I

Human Resource Development

employees. These issues concern not just the general level of salary received by employees but also the differences in wages amongst them. These differences are of many kinds. They exist as between countries and, within each country, as between industries or groups of industries. Moreover, within any industry there are usually salary differences as between individual, regions, firms or plants and within the latter as between different departments. Many of these differences may reflect differences in occupational content - quite apart from the fact that employees engaged in the same type of work may receive quite different salary according to their length of service, working conditions, personal performance or for a host of other reasons. Among the many pay problems regularly confronting enterprises throughout the world, those associated with internal pay differentials are amongst the most common. The difficulties normally arise from the belief by certain employees that the position they occupy in the existing jobs. But responding to such concern by means of upward pay adjustments does not necessarily represent a solution as other employees with whom comparisons are traditionally made, may not accept having their relative position deteriorate in this way. Continuing ad hoc modifications to pay structures risk undermining faith in their rationality and initiating a series of conflicting pay claims. The way to resolve such difficulties lies in planning and developing to the extent possible, a common understanding amongst all the employees and the management concerned on what the pay structure shquld be. This is especially true in the case of various segments of the hospitality industry, where, as you know, a large number of people are employed on a seasonal or temporary basis. This employment can be only during the peak season or for a special delegation or for a special event and so on. A pay structure has to be followed so that no bad feeling is there between these temporarytpart time employees and permanent -employees. A few professionals working as specialists/consultantson a contract basis with one or more organisations would employ them in case of a need for such professionals. A uniform pay structure is a morhl booster for all involved.

6.3 JOB EVALUATION AND ITS OBJECTIVES
Job evaluation is thi process of establishing the value of jobs in a job hierarchy. Job values may be determined by negotiation or fixed on the basis of broad assumptions about market rates and internal relativities. Job evaluation is a comparative process based on a whole series of tasks, responsibilities and obligations, including the skills, knowledge and mental agility required, qualities of initiative, reliability of the employee and so on. It aims at establishing pay structures that are fair and equitable in the sense of ensuring equal pay for jobs demanding what are considered to be broadly similar sacrifices and of rewarding appropriately the greater efforts and hardships involved is some jobs as compared with others. Through the process of job evaluation one will be able to compare jobs by using a common criteria to define the relationship of one job to another. This gives us the basis for grading jobs and developing a pay structure. In this way, it seeks to minimise the dissatisfaction associated with pay differentials and thus to contribute to more harmonious human relations at the work place. In short, job evaluation concerns itself with pricing a job in relation to other jobs on the basis of a consistent, fair, logical and equitable criteria and not on the basis of arbitrary; variable judgements dictated by short-term expediency or arrived at through rule of thumb methods. While one may get the impression that as a technique, job evaluation is invariable and inviolate and it also possesses first-degree precision of scientific variety, it is not so in practice; for, in the ultimate analysis, it is essentially a way of applying judgement, and since no evaluatory process can eliminate the need for exercising judgement, howsoever systematic it is or may be, it will always remain captive to human traffics; additionally so because the technique is to be administered by

people and for people in the live-organisation world of work. We must remember that job evaluation is about relationships, and not absolutes. Therefore, job evaluation cannot be the sole-determining factor for deciding pay structures. Jobs have intrinsic value such as, whether the tourist guide is worthy of his or her services being hired. Still, it is not possible for us to determine what that value is in monetary terms unless we take into account the pressure of supply and demand, internal differentials and feelings about equity, in that order. Job evaluation is, therefore, an attempt to find a measure by which the relative payments made to different jobs are internally consistent. Therefore, the primary objective of job evaluation is also to find out the value of work. But this is a value which varies from time to time and from place to place under the influence of certain economic pressures, not least of which is the worth of money itself. Nevertheless, the value of work at a specific time and place is absolute, governed by supply and demand, and related to the value of all other work. The aim of job evaluation is not to create a rate, but to discover what that rate is at that time and in that place.

~ o Evaluation: Concept. b Scope and Limitation

6.4

ANOMALIES IN SALARIES AND THEORY OF RELATIVE VALUES

You have been told earlier that the most common anomaly is related to irregularity between salary paid and work done by an employee. While this may be a source of dissatisfaction and may appear to be anomalous, it is in fact only anomalous if transference from one job to another is excluded from the criteria. For instance, the case of the old employee who is retained at a salary i" excess of the value of the work he or she does is not anomalous unless we expressly exclude 'length of service' from the criteria. This goes to prove how important it is that the criteria should be properly defined and understood lest every difference should be thought to be anomalous. The concept of job evaluation is based on the theory of relative values, a theory which broadly implies that the value of anything depends on and is influenced by the values of other things. Thus, the value of work is relative to the value of other work, and so can be determined only by comparisons between different kinds of work. The effect of this is seen when, if the salary for a job is raised, then the value of the salary paid to another job not so treated, is lowered. To restore the status quo ante it is necessary to raise the wage of the second job proportionately. Another part of this theory is that because of the internal and external economic pressures, the salaries that are to be used as indicators for finding out what work is worth should not by themselves be anomalous, otherwise, the evaluation will be affected by the anomalies themselves and so would become unreliable.

6.5
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BASIC ASSUMPTIONS IN JOB EVALUATION

Job evaluation is based on certain basic postulates, i.e., claims/assumptions: The work must have some intrinsic worth when judged against certain criteria, but that whatever this worth may be it will not necessarily be the same as the dalary. Implicit in this assumption is that these criteria can be identified, specified and quantified. These criteria are in terms of the human characteristics or qualities that are required to do the work satisfactorily. Further, these characteristics are supposed to be in short supply in relation to the demand placed on them. The usual characteristics or factors are skill, responsibility, physical effort, mental effort and working conditions. It is logical to pay the most for jobs which contribute most to attain the organisational objective(s).

skill scarcity. Payments associated with reward according to performance (payment by result scheme. Once the differential has been determined between job and job. it remains unchanged as long as the system itself endures. the most important element in job price is the content factor.) The economic pressures affect the salaries and they have to be altered accordingly. worth of job. pensions. 6. Special or personal allowances connected with long service. The evaluation depends upon the criteria and so long as the criteria do not change. - . and can be kept in good order only by carefit1 maintenance. Like everything job evaluation decays. Besides these two the: a technology-change brings about variation in job nature. and the mental and physical demands made on the job incumbent. such as. By far. hence. recompense for personal or social inconvenience. But once a system has begun to collapse the best maintenance possible will not restore it and it will need to be replaced by another system. merit rating or profit sharing schemes. share of production plan. sharing of commission in the hospitality sector. car. .6 TRIGGER POINTS The trigger points for initiating job evaluation exercises in an organisation are basically disillusion with the existing remuneration patterns. etc. It might begin to decay even before-pit is completed and implemented. Pay or salary structure may thus be seen to consist of the following: The job rate which is relatable to the importance of the job. demands that are made by the post on job holder in terms of mental. intellectual. and . These obviously are central points related to the post and. the difficulty level(s) encountered by the incumbents. and difficulty levels. The content consists of duties and responsibilities of the post.Block 1 Human Resource Development a The enterprise goals are better served and furthered by installing and maintaining a job-cum-pay structure based on relative job worth. Fringe benefits like holidays with pay. the responsibilities involved in it. and a realisation that prevalent salary structure will soon lose validity or situational conditions of growth or shrinkage. skill levels and pattern of experience needed for adequate job performance. are basic to the determination of the base rate for the job. etc. life insurance. . consistency between pay structures in an organisation evolved on the basis of job evaluation and that in the outer community The relative worth of jobs is not easy to gauge. physical and environmental requirements for the due discharge of the duties attached to the post. the evaluation should remain as it were. The basic evaluations of the work are not affected by such pressures. if not critical.There is a broad.

inadequate or unfair leading often to management-employee bickering about pay. how should one relate the values of similar jobs between the tours and travel departments? and so on. and mutually profitable partnership programmes are Job evaluation deals with actual facts. for example. but to also promote positive acceptance of such decisions.7 ADVANTAGES OF JOB EVALUATION The management-employee relationships are improved and strengthened by increasing the appreciation of each side's aspirations and viewpoints. Further.organisations face difficulty in attracting potential recruits or retaining the existing ones because of a feeling that the remuneration system is too complex. i. they are rewarded suitably. it seeks to avoid all ad hocism. How much more. the need for job evaluation arises because of technology change and organisational growth.e. Several other byproduct benefits also accrue from the data gathered (for job evaluation) through job . thus. the organisational goals are more effectively realised. the pattern of payment and overall compensation structure. because it helps to prevent An additional rationale for reforming the payment systems through this technique stems from the important fact that it. should the Senior Tour Executive be paid than Tour Executive? The second dimension is the lateral relationship between jobs of a different nature. The job evaluation~process thus initiated has to take care of the factors affecting the jdb value in the organisation concerned. ' Job Evaluation: Concept. but the spacing of the rungs on the seniority ladder needs to be established. negotiated pay scales and internal relativities and feelings In general terms job evaluation is used to create two dimensions of relationships. employees. 3) Everyone benefits from a system which enables the pay for new and revised jobs to be settled in the same way as pay for existing jobs. and improves morale. personnel growth and development stimulated. .. When there is a pervasive goodwill in the organisation based on mutual understanding of management-andemployee over the principle irritant. not only to provide a disciplined framework for all organisational pay decisions. In short. The advantages flowing from it benefit all in the organisation . The main factors affecting job values or pay structures are market rates. and not what is thought of (by management or employees) as facts regarding jobs. The first is the vertical relationship within a sector of an organisation where the basic skill is similar.management. and benefits from looking at its pay problems in a more disciplined way. reduction in salary anomalies and a number of salary disputes. arbitrariness and expediency in dealing with pay matters. 2) Employees benefit because job evaluation provides an agreed framework for settling questions affecting jobs and so helps to prevent arbitrary. it centres around commonality of previously determined criteria so as to enhance objectivity and consistency in factor analysis and value assessment. leads to reduction of lost time. that is. Scope and Limitation 6. For example. 1) Management has the advantage of greater order in its pay arrangements h d more stable pay structure. random decisions. It also helps to ensure that differences in skills and responsibilities are properly recognised and that when people increase their skills or take on more responsibilities. Here the order of seniority may be obvious.

9 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH JOB EVALUATION At the inception of a job evaluation application. b) Description analysis. negotiation of the new pay structure. A lot of the problems will depend on the history of employeemanagement relationships in the establishment. many problems will arise . so that difficulties encountered in one organisation will not necessarily be found in another. Implementation and Control a) Where applicable. executives. Another important problem confronts the employees who cannot resolve whether to cooperate in an application ornot. Quite understandably they feel that once they accept the idea they will find themselves constrained by the system. What is essential here is that everyone should regard the evaluation simply as a basis for negotiation rather than the actual salary? . c) Establishment of the necessary procedures and training of those applying the scheme. Nevertheless. Sometimes job evaluation forms part of a productivity deal. programme. unable to'argue objectively against 'the book'.-Block 1 Human Resource Development -- 6. This is typical of the confusion that exists between salary and job values. Phase IV : Negotiation. There are many instances where employees have literally been bribed to accept job evaluation in return for an increase in wages. b) Financial evaluation of grades. planning and communications. and evaluation of jobs to define job relationships. If people are ignorant as to what job evaluation holds for them it must be because the technique of communication has failed. If as a result of the application people are worse off than they expected to be. though it is hard to see just what the two things have in common. perhaps on phased basis. there are bound to be some human problems which are not entirely technical in their origin. Phase I1 : Analysis and Assessment a) Indication to the employees concerned what the objectives of the job evaluation exercise are and how the exercise will be carried out. technicians and professionals. c) Establishment of procedures to evaluate new and revised jobs and for maintenance of the system. Areas of application can be summarised as: Phase I : Preparatory a) Preparatory work concerned with policy. Phase I11 : Building and Pricing the Structure a) Positioning ofjobs into a number of grades. or not so well off as they hoped to be. something could not have been made clear in the first place.8 AREAS OF APPLICATION AND EVALUATORY PHASES It is now an established fact that job evaluation can be used to developgay structures for hourly or weekly paid clerical employees as much as for managers. b) Implementation of the new pay structure.human. technical and economic. Experience shows that most of the human problems are based on or stem from the economic and technical ones. 6. b) Selection of the job evaluation method most appropriate to the circumstances of an organisation and tailoring it to fit the requirements of that organisation.

................ s .. ........................................................................... b Scope and Limitation Check Your Progress 1 ) What do you understand by Job Evaluation? What is its objective? ....................... is difficult to see why it should... Apart from the cost of introducing and running the scheme there may be wage adjustments......................... Tailoring a particular system to suit individual circumstances is often the most difficult part of the introduction.................................................................... .......... yet it would be extremely foolish to guarantee that it will not (or indeed that the use of any management technique will not).................................................... ................. ~ o Evaluation: Concept.................................................................................... when shall we start and how long will it take?..................................................................................................... 3) When do most organisations take a fresh look at their wage structure? ................................................. ..................... ..... ................................................................................... do we have employee participation and if so how do we go about it?........................................... 2) What is the "Theory of Relative Values"? .............. The economic problems will be of concern to all.................................... Management will be anxious about the cost of the application (for obviously the amount of work involved is quite considerable) and about the proceeds................................................................................................................................ .. .................................................................................................. The sooner they are answered the better and certainly before the concern become too much involved..............................to install it?...... although nf course if employees' representatives are to be included they too will need to understand the technique that is to be used....................................................................................................The technical problems will mainly concern the management................................................................................................. Such questions as: which is the best system?........................ Will job evaluations cause redundancy? It ..................................... though for different reasons........ tangible and intangible........ ........ will all require to be resolved........ So far as the employees are concerned they will want to know what happens to the jobs that are underpaid compared to their evaluation.................................................................................................................................................................................................. what problem are we likely to find in running and maintaining the scheme?............................ who is going .................................... who is going to operate it?..................................................................................................... that are likely to accrue................................................................................ ...................................... ......................................................... If their rates are raised then the others will by comparison be automatically lowered............... Seldom is it possible to find a readymade system which does not require some moulding and reshaping if it is to work satisfactorily............................. which can be quite expensive................................... based on the evaluation.................................... ......................... Not least of the technical problems will be to design the system's0 that it fits the complex shape of the organisation in which it is to be used.......................................... ...........................................

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Job Specifications and Job Analysis: Linkages Job Requirements versus Personal Qualities of Job Holder Information Collection Methods Design of Job Description Uses of a Job Description Let Us Sum Up Clues to Answers 7. Job analysis viewed thus will act as a tool which provides the informational base for a wide range of organisational and managerial functions. This should. There exists a wide range ofjob evaluation methods. knowledge and skills.as a manager. .2 JOB ANALYSIS AND RELATED TERMS: DEFINITION AND USES Job analysis refers to the process of examining a job to identify its component parts and circumstances in which it is to be performed. responsibility. However. it will also be imperative for you to have an adequate understanding of the jobs assigned to them as also the relative job differentials in terms of their level of difficulty. This -information is extremely valuable to make decisions relating to organisational plarming and design. recruitment and selection of personnel. 7. The choice of an evaluation method is dependent on the number and kind of jobs to be evaluated. and identify the structure and uses of job description. the cost of the operation. especially as a manager of people working at different levels in hospitality industry. Job analysis is the foundation for both job description and job evaluation. identify the process ofjob analysis. undoubtedly improve your skills. the degree of precision required and the organisations' environments .UNIT 7 JOB ANALYSIS AND JOB DESCRIPTION Structure Objectives Introduction Job Analysis and Related Terms: Definition and Uses Job Description. analyse and utilise information about jobs. The central concern for a job analyst should be to treat jobs as units of organisation. In this Unit. in this sense. You will also appreciate that an effective manager is one who is able to handle his or her people efficiently. The purpose is to gather. One of the aims of this course is to acquire or enhance your knowledge about the modern Human Resource Management concepts and techniques. In order to be a good manager of people. Job analysis. available resources.both internal and external. appraisal and development and other managerial functions. whatever be the chosen method. Thus.0 OBJECTIVES After going through this Unit. systematic gathering and analysis of information about jobs is a prerequisite. should be purposeful and performed professionally as an ongoing organisational activity. you should be able to: define the concepts ofjob analysis and job description. their training. we shall be dealing with the concepts and techniques ofjob analysis and job description.

job analysis involves a systematic examination of jobs in order to uncover the nature of the Easks performed. in all cases they must be standardised and uniform phraseology should be used. However. working environment and other requirements of a job are and to present these in a clear. viz. responsibilities. however. task analysis also helps in the human resource development. In other words.. It is indeed an essential part of any modern personnel management system. This is also relevant for customer care which is crucial in any service-based industry like hospitality.lock 1 Human Resource Development The job analysis process involves gathering of such information as: a) What the employee does? b) How the employee does it? c) Why the employee does it? d) The materials. the design of training programmes and organisational analysis. Formerly. promotion and transfer of staff. the recruitment. 7. performance review and appraisal. concise and systematic way. selection. Apart fiom job evaluation. Job analysis should be undertaken by trained job analysts working in close collaboration with managers and jobholders. depending on the specific uses to be made of it. These usually involve a listing of the personal qualifications regarded as necessary for satisfactory performance. duties and responsibilities of a j ~ b position. Accordingly. Before we examine in detail the two cornerstones of job evaluation. job analysis was the only way to analyse a job and help in human resource planning. e) The physical activities involved in the performance of the work. the working conditions under which they are carried out. we should mention a complementary means of describing jobs. The kind of information gathered through job analysis varies considerably.3 JOB DESCRIPTION. g) Typical work incidents and work patterns. such as. skill and abilities needed to perform them to an acceptable level of proficiency. manpower planning. If job characteristics are set out differently from one job to another. jobs are subjected to analysis to find out precisely what the duties. As explained earlier. job analysis and job descriptions. JOB SPECIFICATIO.NSAND JOB ANALYSIS: LINKAGES Job description is a broad statement of the purpose. namely by job specifications. systematic comparisons are likely to be hampered and one of the main advantages of job evaluation will be lost right fiom the beginning. job analysis programmes are usually tailor-made for the purposes in view. The kind of information and amount of details contained in the job descriptions depend on the job evaluation plan to be used. The process of assembling and recording information on such essential characteristics of jobs is known as job analysis. the responsibilities entailed and the skill required. Job specifications are mainly used in . In practice. etc. f) The conditions under which the work is performed. (You will read about task analysis in a subsequent Unit). It describes the main tasks and responsibilities of the job clearly and concisely in order to facilitate the systematic comparison of jobs for evaluation purposes. Nowadays. tools and procedures used in the conduct of the work. their main use is most often job evaluation. Each of these pieces of information is essential in determining the level of work and responsibility and the knowledge. the information gathered through job analysis may be used for a wide range of personnel and general management decisions. A job description is based on a detailed job analysis and usually or summarises the essential information gathered through job analysis.

A jobholder can be thought of as bringing to his or her work-knowledge. . Of course. very rare for job content to be so rigidly fixed that it leaves no room for any personal influence by the jobholder. since it can elicit information from a wide number of employees and their immediate superiors in a relatively short period of time. for example. (ii) an interview with the employee and his or her supervisors. Since job analysis focuses on the job and its requirements. This procedure of "distilling" from the activities involved in the iob those qualifications deemed necessary and sufficient for the job. namely (i) questionnaire to be filled-in by the employee and his or her immediate supervisor. But irrespective of individual differences related to innate ability. those personal qualities and characteristics of the incumbent not directly required by the job have to be disregarded. the nature of the job makes certain demands on him or her. The relative advantages and disadvantages of these three methods are discussed below: i) The Questionnaire The use of a questionnaire has a number of advantages. motivation. questionnaires. employees take an active part in completing the questionnaire. it is the most costeffective method. There are also other sources of information which help the analysts to get a complete and clear picture of the job in question. the job description as well as the job specification.4 JOB REQUIREMENTS VERSUS PERSONAL QUALITIES OF JOB HOLDER It needs to be kept constantly in mind that job analysis seeks to determine job requirements as opposed to the personal skills of the incumbent. Generally speaking. Thirdly. age and character. education and aptitude. diaries. It is.5 INFORMATION COLLECTION METHODS A variety of methods are available for gathering job information. Conversely. is essential to job analysis. such as experience. and other personal attributes. has certain basic requirements. First of all. initiative and assiduity. physical and mental abilities. It is these basic requirements that are the focus ofjob analysis. independent work encourages personal influence on job content whereas team work or work entailing the use of elaborate equipment reduces it. however. level of education. The job analyst could use one of these methods or a combination of more than one of these methods depending on the work situation. The job of a marketing manager. and this facilitates the processing of the 1 . which are definable quite irrespective of the qualities of the incumbent. Many job evaluation plans accordingly use job specifications to complement job description. which one is called upon to use as the work may demand. may occur in both. The main task of the analyst becomes one of planning the questionnaire well and checking the responses provided. and (iii) direct observations at the work place.systematic abstraction of the incumbent from the job. Secondly. In recent years. such as tact. 7. and a simultaneous. self-reports by employees and checklists have been experimented with different degrees of success. There are three main methods to gather and verify information needed for each job. a job is rarely so extensively affected (this may not be true in certain jobs in hospitality and tourism) by the holder that it is impossible to arrive at any idea of its content without considering his or her personal attributes. Job Analysis and Job Description 7. the questionnaire has to be structured in advance. job content and jobholder's aptitudes often tend to influence each other. The method that was historically linked to the concept of job analysis was observation which was supplemented by the interview. But certain personal attributes. providing intimate detailed knowledge of their jobs which is not available elsewhere.selecting and recruiting staff and are accordingly not essential to job evaluations.

the job analysis consists of a simple description of actions taken in order to complete the job. the issues become more complex and hence the need for job analysis is definitely greater. The role of the night clerk. "too many imagine interviewing to be relatively simple whereas nothing could be farther from the truth. To know the full extent of a job through the interview. which effectively speeds up the preparatory work of job evaluation. To start with. The purpose should show the necessity for the above is to act as an intermediate and coordinating link in the management chain. however. For example. and it ceases to be self-explanatory. for example. such as: the title of the job holder. It is not always easy to separate purpose Erom a description of activities. above and below him or her are not self-evident. the title of the job holder's superior. The interview conducted by the analyst is an effective way of checking on the information already available on job. The questionnaire method does. a plain narrative statement would serve the purpose of job analysis. At the manual or unskilled employees' level such as cleaner. There is less risk of this with a detailed questionnaire that includes a checklist of points. once the responses to the questionnaire have been verified. The analyst usually drafts the report in the form of a job description. both alongside. as one moves up in the hierarchy of the organisation. and this method is generally used in combination with interviews and direct observation. the people required to complete it must have a certain level of education. have disadvantages . not everyone is able to describe fully and exactly the tasks that constitute their job. etc. In some cases. but it is important for an analyst-to do so. After the interview. A similar situation exists in the case of service sector where the employees are in direct touch with the consumers. While designing a questionnaire. All this requires to be clearly put down. One may. over-emphasise some features of it and completely ignore others even when they are important. generally working from a previously prepared list of questions as with a questionnaire. it is virtually impossible to get complete comparable information solely by questionnaire.. the complexity of the job increases. At a higher or managerial level. an interview is almost always necessary in order to obtain precise. It is a fundamental question and is not always clearly understood by the jobholder. one might describe that the job of the manager is to supervise the range of activities taking place in lobby of a hotel. In this case. the job titles and numbers of staff reporting to the job holder (This information can best be recorded by means of an organisation chart) and a brief description of the overall role or purpose of a job. Interviews are not only time consuming but also a difficult task of finding high quality analysts who can win the jobholder's confidence. so that the general manager of hotel operations can adequately control the whole operation through a team of a manageable size. complete and comparable information. It would be wrong on the analysts' part to describe this as the purpose of the job. the analyst draws up a report which is shown to the jobholder and his or her immediate superior for approval. this way deals straightway with the question of why the job exists at all. for example. but questionnaire suited to all jobs is not easily drawn up and may be unduly long." . . But. they can conveniently be used with little further processing to prepare a job description. his or her place in the organisation and the implications of the work and its effects on others. and even then questions may be interpreted in different ways so that the answers may be beside the point.B I O C ~1 Human Resource Development results.some of them serious. ii) Interview . while a well-structured questionnaire can get essential information quickly. The analyst. the analyst aims to obtain all the relevant facts about the job. nature of jobs to be evaluated and the job evaluation plans/methods are to be considered. housekeeping attendants. In practice. As has been noted. Furthermore. In practice. The analyst asks the jobholders on the duties and main tasks on their job.

such as essential tasks. and the context in which the action takes place. Direct observation by the analyst can clear up points left unclear by the interview or questionnaire and give him or her an idea of the personal qualifications required. the work performed. rightly contain three categories of information: job mission and location. it cannot possibly comprehend all the tasks in a work cycle that covers a week or month or that entails changes of tasks only at long intervals. 'handle'. untrained and inexperienced person can make an easy task look difficult. therefore. knowledge. factual and precise as far as possible. but the sight of an analyst in the work may well cause some stress and workers may dislike being observed. responsibilities and working conditions. Personal pronouns should be avoided if it is necessary to refer to the employee. Information obtained by job analysis is shifted and recorded concisely. Do not describe only one phase of the job and give the impression that all phases are Generalised or ambiguous expressions. It is accordingly essential to have a well trained and experienced team of analysts if the interview is to be the only method used. etc. much of it useless. Omit expressions which are attributes . Observation is almost useless where the job calls for considerable personal judgement or intellectual ability. 'assist'. the title of the job and its position in the organisation. summarise the tasks performed and list the skills and abilities required. should be omitted unless supported by data that will clarifj. Other than this a skilled and experienced person might make a difficult task look easy whereas. There is no universally accepted standard format for job description for the reason that the form and structure of the job descriptions must depend on the kind of work being analysed and the job evaluation plan being used.such as uninteresting. it follows that job description should be structured to reflect these factors so as to facilitate factor by factor comparison and evaluation of jobs. . them. With non-analytical methods. Many workers show a natural distrust of the analyst who comes tol examine their work. Job Analysis and Job Description 7. such as 'prepare'. A complete job description should. It will be helpful to follow the following guidelines while writing a job description: 1) Always be accurate about what is expressed. responsibilities.description one should be brief. etc. skills. job descriptions may be more flexible and simpler but must specify the title of the job and its position in the organisation. 2) 3) 4) - 5) . as in managerial or administrative jobs. the work 'operator' or 'so and so executive' may be used. summarise the tasks performed and list the skills and abilities required. iii) Observation Repetitive work is most suitable for direct observation of what the jobholder actually does. The job description must assemble all the important elements of a job. distasteful. qualifications required and the functional relation of the job to other jobs.Obtaining information from a jobholder about his or her job is not an easy task. whilst others will give a lot of information. job descriptions may be more flexible and simpler but must specifj. For example. While writing a job .6 DESIGN OF JOB DESCRIPTION --- - ' A primary output or result of job analysis is a job description.. clearly and fully in the job description. if the job evaluation plan comprises factors such as physical and intellectual effort. With non-analytical methods.

he or she should stop until sufficient data is available. they also agree on the criteria to be used to determine the extent to which the goals have been attained. The job description showing. Furthermore. promotion and transfer. should establish the team I 7) 8) 9) 10) The length of description is immaterial. selection. the employee and the supervisor agree on work performance goals for the peridd to be covered by the subsequent evaluation report. in specific terms. using each duty as the basis for discussion. b) Recruitment. as part of manpower planning. Selection. the results are more factual. Hence. valid and defensible than is the case in other types of systems. it helps employees to understand just what work their associates are expected to perform. 13) Job description should have the concurrence of the concerned supervisor. such work is indicated by the duties in the job description. I These three processes are closely interrelated. As a csnsequence. 12) Put the date of completion of each description and revise it as often as changes in jobs and occupation require. 14) Description should contain the initials of the persons who compile them. the job descriptions can be put to many uses. a performance appraisal system must be rooted in the work performed by the employees. habits or practices of the employee. Write in simple language . The reports resultink from this methodology minimize subjectLvity by focussing attention on the job. by the majority of workers holding the designation. These are as under: a) Supervisor . Describe the job as is being done. skill and ability.promiscuous use of adjectives only reflects one's own opinion. it is not expected even with printed forms that all job descriptions should be of equal length but write concisely. it will also indicate the gap to be bridged in terms of knowledge. Analysis of various types of jobs at progressively more senior levels will indicate logical sources of supply for more senior posts. it is an extremely useful document for both the supervisor and the subordinate for purposes of communication. skill and ability requirements for effective performance of the duties. .Employee Communication The information contained in the Job Description outlines the work which the incumbent is expected to perform. 77 USES OF A JOB DESCRIPTION . Promotion. thus providing a sound basis for preparing job-related training and development programmes. skills and abilities required to perform the work to an acceptable standard. facilitating integration of efforts at the work-site by the employees themselves. In such an approach. is a sound and rational basis for each of these processes. Transfer Information pertaining to the knowledge. 1 1) When the job analyst finds that the data he or she has to work with is insufficient. Description of a job which is part of teamwork. can be used as a sound basis on which to base standards are procedures for recruitment. the knowledge. To be sound and objective.explain unusual technical terms. Apart from being a basis for job evaluation.Block 1 Human Resource Development 6) All statements should be clearly and simply set down . as distinct from the personality traits. c) Work Performance Appraisal. thus.

................................................................. .................................................... Check Your Progress 1) Define Job Analysis............................................................................................. ....... because they reveal how the work is organised.................................. ................................. 2) What are the uses of Job 'Analysis? ..... .............. working environment and other requirements of a job are and to present these in a clear..................................................................................................................................................................... 7 8 LET US SUM L P . .......... f) Organisation and Procedure Analysis The duties and responsibilities outlined in the job description may be used to great advantage by management in analysing organisation and procedures....................................... Job analysis is also a prerequisite to preparing job descriptions................... In these instances the job description may be used to form a factual basis for discussion and problem resolution............. concise and systematic way.......................... .. The information gathered through job analysis can be used for a wide range of personnel and general management decisions.................................... how the procedures operate and how authority and responsibility are apportioned......................... ........................................................ ............................. In fact............................................ ................................. T Jobs are subjected to analysis to find out precisely what the duties............................................... responsibilities.................... 4) Mention some guidelines for writing a job description...... ................................... The various concepts and methods discussed in this Unit are useful in tourism industry as they are in any other...........................e) Industrial Relations I Job Analysis and Job Description Frequently issues arise in the industrial relations field wllich have their origin in the work to be undertaken............. 3) How would you gather job information? ................................. job descriptions summarise the essential information gathered through job analysis..........................................................

9 and list a few more guidelines. such as. a) Tourist Guide (Wildlife) b) Travel Agency Sales Manager c) Public Relations Officer (Hotel) . C 1). Read Sec.. uninteresting. Read Sec. 3) There are three main methods to gather and verify information needed for each job. 7. Read Sec.9 CLUES TO ANSWERS Check Your Progress 1) Job analysis refers to the process of examining a job to identify its component parts and circumstances in which it is to be performed. iii) do not describe only one phase of the job and give the impression that all phases are covered. 7. 4) A few guidelines while writing a job description are: i) always be accurate about what is expressed. Apart from job evaluation. namely: a) questionnaire to be filled in by the employee and his or her immediate supervisor. Make job analysis questionnaire for following jobs: a) Lobby Manager b) Coach Driver 2) Give job description of following: . 7.7 and expand the above answer. Activity .Block 1 Human Resource Development 7. distasteful. 2) The main use of job analysis is job evaluation. etc. b) an interyiew with the employee and his or her supervisors.3 and answer. ii) quit expressions which are attributes. Read Sec. the information gathered through job analysis may be used for a wide range of personnel and general management decisions. 7. and c) direct observation at the work place.2.

8. and have a knowledge of the recent developments in job evaluation. The general principle of job evaluation.4.0 OBJECTIVES After reading this Unit. and Analytical 87 . It should also be entirely compatible with prevailing of economic and political philosophy. Grouping of positions in an organisation into relatively few groups of similar positions or classes simplify the job of managing people in many respects and helps to develop a rational wage structure for different categories of employees in an organisation. namely. as you have been told in previous Units.2 Advantages and Disadvantages The Factor of Comparison Method Recent Developments in Job Evaluation Let Us Sum Up Clues to Answers 8.1 Preparing an Evaluation Plan . responsibility and qualifications r~quirements the work performed. should be "equal pay for substantially equal work" and its corollary of variation in rates of base pay in proportion to subitantial differences in the difficulty.2 JOB EVALUATION METHODS AND JOB RANKING 4 After job analysis and preparation of job descriptions comes the essential stage of job evaluation. you should be able to : identify and develop an understanding of the methods of job evaluation. the systematic comparison of jobs in order to establish a job hierarchy.4. The techniques which have been commonly used tend to fall into one of the two main categories: Non analytical. 8.1 INTRODUCTION Inequidble salary relationships affect adversely employee motivation and morale with severe loss to the organisation's economy and effectiveness of operations. 8. appreciate the relative advantages and disadvantages of various job evaluation methods. I UNIT 8 JOB EVALUATIONMETHODS Structure Objectives Introduction Job Evaluation Methods and Job Ranking Job Classification or Grade Description Point Rating 8. know about the steps involved in the application of various methods. This Unit attempts to identify and discuss various methods that have been in use in identifying job similarities and job differentials..

Finally. such as : * Decisions .. Analytical methods are: a) Point rating or assessment. Physical effort required to carry out the job. This procedure is followed for jobs in each department and an attempt is then made to equate or compare jobs at various levels among the several departments. one must also consider other facets of the job. it receives no point. and if it is regarded as less important.what the jobholder is required to know and be able to do. b) Job classification. It is considered to be less important than Job B and C and received no points in both the cases. one can then total the scores as shown below: Job A A B 0 C D 1 2 2 E 2 2 Total Score 3 6 8 2 2 1 0 0 0 B C 2 0 0 0 . grade levels are defined and salary groups formed. The same procedure is adopted for Jobs B to E. but the aim is rather to judge the job as a whole and determine the relative values by ranking one whole job against$another whole job. but 'in many cases even this is omitted. This is usually done by using a narrative position description. b) Factor comparison. In future. if it is thought to be equally important. 1 ) Advantages a) Easily understood and easy to administer. When this is completed. The simplest and least formal of all job evaluation systems is known as the Ranking Method. The higher the score. In order to achieve proper utilisation of the ranking system.range of tasks to be carried out or skills to be used.difficulty. judgement required. With or without information concerning the job at hand. Complexity .t Block 1 Human Resource Development Non-analytical methods are: a) Job ranking. new jobs can be graded or existing jobs regraded with reference to the established gradings on a job-tojob basis. Knowledge and skills . Under this method no effort is made to break a job down into its elements or factors. and more important than Job E and received two points. Job A is compared with Jobs B to E. . A matrix can be built showing the scores for each job against all other jobs being ranked. It is advisable to use the statistical technique of paired comparisons. The total score is three. If a job is considered to be more important than the one with which it is being compared. equally important to Job D and received one point. the higher is the rank. it receives two points. an individual or group of individuals rank the jobs in the order of their difficulties or value to the Company. While using the technique of paired comparison one must compare each job separately with every other job. it receives one point. The assumption is that it is always easier to compare one job with another than to consider a number of jobs and attempt to build up a rank order by multiple comparisons.2 1 D E 1 2 1 0 - In this example.

but only indicates that one job is more or less important than another one. the evaluation process is comparatively quick and simple. 2) Disadvantages Evaluation Meth a) The classification is in general terms and only an overall assessment is possible. There are no definite standards of judgement. ' c) Placing of jobs in classes is very much influenced by the existing salary rates. once the structure and definition of grades are fixed.3 JOB CLASSIFICATION OR GRADE DESCRIPTION This method is similar to ranking as in both the methods neither points nor money values are used to classify jobs. The factors are used to provide general guidance for the decisions but are not weighed and not scored. it is not possible to be familiar with all the jobs and thus general descriptions must not enable correct assessment of the relative importance of all the jobs. although there is also some evidence of its use in the industry. Before defining the requirements of the various grades it is usual to select those factors which constitute essential aspects of the jobs. In this method the most difficult and important operation is defining the grades. 2) Disadvantages a) Classification is in general terms and only an overall assessment is possible. Skills. however. The primary task is to describe each of the classes so that no difficulty is experienced in fitting each job into its proper "niche". the grades are determ'ined and then the jobs are graded by reference to their content. that whilst the classification method may rely on selected general factors. etc. First of all.they are not broken down into their component elements. c) The grading is very much influenced by the existing salary rates. the method may be described as a series of carefully labelled shelves in a bookcase. responsibility. Figuratively. particularly in government and service occupations. No complicated procedures are involved. 8. experience and responsibility required are generally used as basic factors. Sets a better rate than the arbitrary rate based pprely on judgement and experience. It should be noted. b) It is very difficult to make comprehensive class specifications for a complex organisation. and it is difficult to decide which class a particular job belongs. but the choice and number of factors depend on the nature of the organisation's activities. However. b) Since written job descriptions are used evaluation of jobs tend to be more accurate than under ranking system. Jobs are then classified by comparing each job to the descriptions provided. d) It does not indicate the degree of difference between jobs. it should be done so as to bring out perceptible differences between levels of skill. The classification method has historically been the one most widely used for salaried jobs.b). 'The specifications tend to overlap specially in the case of senior jobs. the evaluation itself is carried out on the basis of whole jobs . . classification differs from ranking as here the order of operations is reversed. 1 ) Advantages a) Comparatively simple and easily administered. b) In a complex indu!trial organisation. knowledge.

1 Preparing an Evaluation Plan The preparation of the evaluation plan involves the following steps : i) Selecting aqd defining factors. By and large. Therefore. However. ii) Dividing the factors into degrees Once thefactors are selected they must be diLided into degrees to make them operational. It employs clearly defined factors and allots numerical points. ii) Dividing the factors into degrees. Prepare a preliminary definition of each factor and divide it into degrees of levels each of . Different point rating plans may select different factors ind weigh each factor differently.the number of levels to five or six. iii) Weighting the factors. For each factor. resources controlled (managerial and supervisory jobs). Then add up the scores for each factor to produce a total score and allocate them into job grades according to the points range determined for each grade. namely preparing an evaluation plan and schedule (by defining and weighting factors) and grading jobs by reference to this schedule. iv) Allocating points to each degree.4 POINT RATING Point rating is probably now the most common mt?thod used for job evaluation in many countries. which is also defined. The relative importance of "weighting" of a factor can be determined by the maximum number of points given to it. representative sample of benchmark jobs covering all the major occupations and levels of responsibility are covered under this scheme. but it is important that the degrees should enable all jobs from the highest to the lowest to be placed in an order of importance that everybody will recognise. ' as far as the number of degrees is concerned. and even whilst a scheme having only two or three degrees will not sufficiently differentiate jobs from each other. and v) Validating the factor plan. One can evaluate the jobs by comparing job descriptions containing analyses of the extent to which the factor is present in the job with the factor degree definitions. one must divide the total range of points into degrees according to the level at which the factor is present in the job. The points rating procedure has to be clearly defined from the very start. one must remember that too many degrees will somplicate the evaluation process unnecessarily. . It is evident that the degree must be clearly defined and graduated. contacts (managerial and clerical jobs). 90 . One must grade the jobs for each factor and give a factor score in accordance with the points value attached to each factor degree. The points rating scheme is based on an analysis of separately defined characteristics or factors which are assumed to be common to all the jobs. i) Selecting and defining factors While selecting factors.4. 8. One has to assume that differences in the extent to which the characteristics are found in the jobs will measure differences between the levels of the job. It is not always necessary for each factor 'to have the same number of degrees. Each one of the above factors has a range of points allocated to it so that a maximum number of points are available. which is largely a matter of common sense. and physical effort (manual jobs). its steps fall into two distinct stages. when the factors in the points scheme are selected one should ensure that they are considered as most important in determining the relative degrees of difficulty or responsibility for the work of others working conditions. It i s useful to restrict .Block 1 Human Resource Development 8.

and responsibility is the most important factor in managerial jobs. . once it is officially adopted. responsibility and working conditions are chosen. four generic factors such as skill. Variable progression can be used where there is sufficient difference when moving between degrees. Generally speaking. geometrical or variable progression. One way of arriving at a preliminary weighting is to rank factors in order of importance and allot each of them a percentage arrivkd at by discussion in the evaluating committee or between the analyst and the persons involved. or a summary of it. v) Validating the factor plan . These are the values that will be used in determining the total point values ofjobs. If necessary. it is usual to prepare an evaluation handbook explaining the procedure to be followed and summarising all the elements required for evaluation. Geometrical progression is sometimes preferred because it gives a wider points range at higher levels. The point values ascribed to the degrees may follow and arithmetical. The advantage of arithmetical progression issthat it can be simply and easily explained to the employees. the weighting or definitions of degrees must be amended and the test repeated several times until it gives a completely satisfactory result. As a general rule. The factor plan plays a decisive role in all point rating schemes. the factors must be weighted.iii) Weighting the factors It is unlikely that each factor will be of equal significance. is usually distributed to all staff covered by the job evaluation sclieme. Table 1 : Methods of points progressions for the "skills" factor Progression Sub-factors 1 Degrees (points) 3 4 45 60 60 100 30 45 60 80 120 200 45 65 Job Evaluation Methods e2 5 75 100 240 400 75 100 Arithmetical progression Geometrical progression Variable progression Education Experience Education Experience Education Experience 15 20 15 25 15 20 30 40 30 50 20 30 The choice of a method of points progression is also a matter of preference. Therefore. The tested factor pian is then submitted to the evaluating committee or other decision-making organ for adoption. for example. skills are more important than effort in technical occupations. Therefore. no major amendment may be made to it. iv) Allocating points to each degree Once the relative importance of the factors has been determined in a preliminary way and the factors suitably divided into degrees. effort. If. however. These test samples must comprise a sufficient number of jobs in order to verify whether the plan results. Table 1 illustrates the difference between these three forms by an example of the "skills" factor. all the factors and sub-factors must be precisely defined and the meaning of all terms clarified. each degree must be assigned a numerical value. Experience shows. the relative importance of each of the factors selected has to be determined in other words. in particular the definition of the selected factors and the points allotted. that employees are not easily convinced that geometrical or variable progression is fair. Once the factor plan is adopted. At this stage. This handbook. the relative importance of each of them will vary a great deal depending on the wurk done and occupations concerned. it is essential that proposed plans should be carefully tested on a number ofjob descriptions.in the desired spread of points and an acceptable hierarchy.

Thus. these rates should be regarded as appropriate by all concerned. This method therefore incorporates some of the principles of point rating but differs substantially from it in its use of benchmark jobs and its method of comparing jobs and fixing wage rates. defining degrees and factors. and wage fixing. degrees assigned and points scored. Collecting job descriptions. If the workers do not understand the system clearly it may have adverse effect. which is the aim of all job evaluation systems are easily set up. 8. These factors which the parties decide as important can be used. 1) Selecting bench-mark jobs 92 The jobs selected as a benchmark jobs must satisfy a number of conditions.2 Advantages and Disadvantages The point rating method also has its advantages and disadvantages: a) The graphic and descriptive types of rating scales used have been accepted as most reliable and valid. requires careful and detailed study. b) Compensable factors are not limited to any particular number. b) Assigning proper weightages to each factor and then assigning point values to each degree without being unfair to either the easy or the difficult jobs.4. Considerable clerical work is also involved in preparing the job descriptions. Firstly they should be capable of clear descriptions and analysis in terms of the factors used. . 2) Disadvantages a) It is difficult to develop a point-rating scheme. d) Point rating scheme is certainly a time consuming process. Job classes are simply determined in terms of arbitrary point ranges or on agreed point ranges. c) Job classes. final table of jobs evaluated. the factor comparison method involves four steps: 1) Selecting bench-mark jobs. The concept of factors. secondly they must be representative of hierarchy. thirdly when the rates for the bench-mark jobs are to be used as the standard for fixing the wages.B I O C ~I Human Resource Development 8. Agreement among rates is usually quite close. co-relating them with points and then ultimately with money value unanimously by evaluation committee is a long process.5 THE FACTOR OF COMPARISON METHOD The method was originally developed in 1926 as an offshoot of point rating. 3) Allocating money values to factors. degrees relative weights and points 'and relating points to money value caflnot be easily interpreted to employees. Defining factors and their degrees in such a fashion that all rates will have the same meaning needs considerable amount of skill. 2) Ranking bench-mark jobs by factors. c) The point system is difficult to explain. allocating degrees to each factor of each job. and 4) Ranking the otherjobs.

two to physical requirements. three to responsibility and one to working*conditions. the helper ranks above the mechanic as regards skill requirements. eight of these may be allotted to skill.Similarly. it may be decided to assign nine of these to skill. and so on. but below the mechanic if the jobs are ranked on the basis of working conditions. Table 3: Allocation of Money Values to the Different Factors and Ranking ofJobs Under the Factor Comparison Methods . for example that of a clerk. The salary rate far each bench-mark job is broken down and distributed among the factors in the proportions in which these are considered to contribute to the total price paid for each bench-mark job in the form of its wage rate. five to mental requirements. the allocation of wage rates and the ranking by factors of the jobs covered for Table 2 might work out as indicated in Table 3. When the ranking is done by a committee each member must make his or her own ranking and the results then being averaged. When the rates for all benchmark jobs have been divided in this way the jobs have implicitly been ranked again with respect to each of the factors. Table 2: Ranking Jobs by Factors Under the Factor Comparison Method in a Transport Department of a Travel Agency Job Skill 1 1 Mental requirements Physical requirements Responsibility requirements Working condition Cleaner Desk Clerk Accountant Lobby Manager 2 3 4 Chef 5 3) Allocating money values to factors The factor comparison method may also be used for fixing up salary in money units by ranking the jobs according to a procedure different from the one shown above. amounts to 18 money units. A typical example of ranking of jobs in a hotel by factors under the comparison method is given in Table 2. three to working conditions. if the wage rate for another bench-mark job. For example. In the example given. if cleaner is a bench-mark job and its wage rate is 20 money units. After the results have been averaged by a committee in the manner described above.2 ) Ranking bench-mark jobs by factors Job Evaluation Methods Once a number of benchmark jobs are chosen they are ranked successively by reference to each of the factors chosen.

c) Analysis of benchmark jobs is very comprehensive. 2) Disadvantages a) This method is comparatively complicated to apply and it is difficult to explain to workers. I Advantages and Disadvantages The advantages and disadvantages under the Factor Comparison Method are as follows: a) Factor comparison method-permits a more systematic comparison of jobs than the non-analytical methods. as a set of si*ilar jobs are compared and ranked against each other.Block 1 Human Resource Development The two rankings of the benchmark jobs are undertaken independently of each other and need not coincide. d) In a scheme that incorporates money values. and . It will be noted that there are differences in ranking received in Table 4. These differences have to be removed either by increasing or decreasing the money value of the different factors for the jobs concerned of by examining the job contents again. it is eliminated from the list of benchmark jobs. each job is analysed and compared with the. determination of wage rates is automatic. b) Evaluation is easier than. b) The wage rates for the bench-mark jobs are presumed to be correct and definitive and all other rates are determined by reference to them. Their respective results as illustrated by Tables 2 and 3 are compared in Table 4. and e) Reliance of the method on benchmark jobs guarantees that the scheme is tailormade and that the ranking necessarily reflects the actual structure while eliminating anomalies.3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 2 4 1 3 5 3 5 4 4 4 5 2 1 I 2 Chef 5 5 5 4 4) Ranking other jobs On the basis of job descriptions.c) It goes against the common belief that the procedures of evaluating jobs and fixing their wages should be kept separate. by the point method. . If it is not possible to reconcile the ranking of a particular job. Table 4: Comparison of Rankings by Factors and Money Values under the Factor Comparison Method Skill Mental requirements requirements Responsibility Working condition Job h w Cleaner Clerk Accountant Lobby Manager 1 1 1 1 2 3 5 1 1 2 4 3 5 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 2 . .benchmark jobs in terms of each of the factors separately.

comprises several degrees.6 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN JOB EVALUATION Job Ev'aluation Method. taken within the limits fixed by the policy decisions in Band E. concerned with carrying out Band C decisions that is how the work is to be done. This method assumes that the only factor common to all jobs whatever the work involved is "decision-making". the kind of machine and number of staff required to work in kitchen. Husband. each with its own timespa? of discretion. as indicated below: Band E Policy decisions made by top management in general terms that direct and guide the enterprise. The margin of discretion is very narrow at this level of decision-making. This method. and others categorised as vague and confused because of too many factors and sub-factors. The "time span'' at the disposal of each worker. Jaques in the 1950s and early 1960s and was tried. This time span of discretion is claimed to show the worker's ability and the nature and difficulty of the job and is believed to conform to the norms of equality on which each worker bases his or her own idea of what should be the job hierarchy. Band 0 Defined decision. for example. Some job evaluation schemes are rejected because of the factors chosen. in practice. some researchers and practitioners of job evaluation have proposed and experimented with single-factor schemes which are briefly outlined below. Band C Interpretative decisions. The time span of discretion is defined as the longest period of time for which a jobholder can exercise his or her own discretion without supervision from senior regarding the quality of work. The question of choosing and weighing of factors is one of the most difficult issues encountered in the basic qualitative methods. Each grade. Jaques' approach differs substantially from that of conventional methods by focussing on the individual rather than on the job requirements. of course. 1) The time span of discretion method This method was developed by E. Band A Automatic decisions. Moreover. whether time spans can be'measured accurately is also controversial. jobs are grouped into five major grades. Paterson and his colleague T.8. in which the time span of discretion is less than one month. It has often been rejected by employees as well as management because no formal proof is offered of any connection between the time span of discretion and the norms of equity accepted by the employees. Band D Programming decision. been applied only to a very limited extent and is really still in the experimental stage. usually made by unskilled workers. deciding how to do the work within the limits set at Band D.T. As a result. to grade 5. This method has been developed by T. from grade 1. Band B Routine decisions.out in a London Engineering firm. In Jaques' original method. . on the way the worker carries out instructions. in which it is more than five years. Decisions are placed according to their level and nature in six groups known as "decision bands". Its special feature is that it uses only one factor viz. has.

... A fourth basic factor... the computer programme establishes the best possible correlation between their assessments without the need for prolonged discussion in committee to reach a consensus.... 4) The Direct Consensus Method This method.... working conditions.............. ......................... ICheck Your Progress I I) What do you understand by job evaluation? Explain job-ranking method of job evaluation.............. experience etc................... . Each basic factor is depicted in a guide-chart which breaks down the relevant sub-factor into different degree levels..................................................... developed by the firm of Inbucon AIC....... The upper-level jobholder in any decision band coordinates the work of the persons in the lower level in that band and has structural authority over them............... ... 3) The Hay and MSL guide-chart profile method This method was developed by a firm of consultants in the United States in 1950s................. It is used mainly for managerial....Block I Human Resource Development In recognition that within each decision band there may be a deed to coordinate work.... pmfessional and technical jobs in about 30 countries and it is particularly widespread in the United States and the United Kingdom.................. is also sometimes used for jobs having hazards............. .................. 2) List the advantages and disadvantages of job classification or grade description........... . In theory..... each band. The basic factors are clarified by reference to a list of 8 elements or sub-factors....... an unpleasant working environment and high physical demands............. problem solving and accountability... relies on the parried comparison technique................ 3) Explain the steps involved in preparing an evaluation plan for Point Ranking............................................................... Know-how or skill........ is divided into two levels.................. Basically...... This method evaluates jobs by reference to three basic factors viz..... except Band 0...... ..... it Comb'ines the features of the point rating and factor comparison methods................................ .......................... 4) What do you understand by description method ? .............................. the decision-banding method offers the disadvantages of simplicity and university but in practice it is sparingly used because employees do not readily accept any scheme that does not take into account such factors as skills..... In cases where the assessors do not agree on the job rankings... An important feature of this method is that members of the valuation panel record their individual assessments of while job rankings and these assessments are fed into a computer............................................

iv) allocating points to each degree. Depending on its needs and ethos. 2) Advantages and disadvantages ofjob classification method are: Advantages a) Comparatively simple and easily administered. Read Sub-sec. 8. 8. Under this. It is also open to an organisation to develop a method that may combine the features of two or more than two methods.8 CLUES TO ANSWERS /check Your Progress 1 1) The systematic comparison of jobs in order to establish a job hierarchy is known as job evaluation. ii) dividing the factors into degrees.e. The specialisations tend to overlap specially in the case of senior jobs and it is difficult to decide which class a particular job belongs. i. iii) weighting the factors. namely the management. 3) Preparing an evaluation plan for Point Ranking involved the following steps : i) selecting and defining factors. b) It is very difficult to make comprehensive class specifications for a complex organisation. . c) Placing ofjobs in classes is very much influenced by the existing salary rates. an organisation could pick up any of the available methods.8.7 LET US SUM UP Job Evaluation Method> Job evaluation proceeds job analysis and job description. See Sec.2 and answer in detail. 8. What is important is that. Jaques in the 1950s and early 1960s. b) Since written job descriptions are used evaluation of jobs tend to be more accurate than under ranking system. Read Sec. V) validating the factor plan. the einployees and the unions. Its special feature is that it uses only one factor.method no effort is made to break a job drawn into its elements or factors but the aim is rather to judge the job as a whole and determine the relative values by ranking one whole job against another whole job. the "time span" at the disposal of each worker. Read Sec.6. This usually is done by using a narrative position description but in many cases even this is omitted. 8.1 and explain the above points.3. the chosen method should secure theasatisfaction of all concerned. Disadvantages a) Classification is in general term and only an overall assessment is possible. With or without information concerning the job at hand. - 8. and also ensure the supply of right skills to the organisation for carrying out its operations efficiently and effectively. Quite a few methods are now available for systematic comparison of jobs in order to establish a job hierarchy in an organisation. 4) The discretion method was developed by E. an individual or group of individuals rank the job in the order of their difficulties or value to the company.4. The simplest and least formal of all job evaluation systems is known as Ranking Methods.

h particular. Though job analysis is popular in consideration for HR planning.6 9.7 9. however that the traditional approach to task analysis is not suitable for the increasingly complex reality of organisational 'work. The British model bas emphasized analysis in terms of specific activities for which the jobholder is held responsible whereas the American model has included an emphasis on the competencies needed for the job.1 INTRODUCTION Earlier in this Block you have read about job analysis and evaluation. and . 98 . more and more organisations are opting for task analysis to find ways of delineating tasks.9 9. Job is a broad term as a job constitutes many tasks.0 OBJECTIVES After going through the Unit you should be able to: understand the significance of Task Analysis as a poterttial HRD tool. do Task Analysis of key jobs. In this Unit you will learn about the uses of task analysis in HRD.1 1 Competency Analysis Performance Analysis Discrepancy Analysis Task Analysis as a Supervisory Tool Let Us Sum Up Clues to Answers 9. With both models the analysis is usually carried out by management with the help of experts. It is becoming obvious. 9. The two models are quite similar in many respects. and . combining the two traditional models have been dealt with in the Unit. they are using task analysis for HRD. 9.2 WHAT IS TASK ANALYSIS? The traditional approach to task analysis is characterized by two models: the British model and the American model. Hence.10 9. use Task Analysis for improving performance of individual employees and firms.9. this approach is inadequate when it is applied to: Managing jobs that are more complex than those previously subjected to analysis. The job analysis process is becoming more and more difficult with the changes and complex nature of modern day jobs. Both its traditional forms (British and American) and proposed guidelines for successful task analysis.8 9. Both have been found to be useful in analysing semi-skilled and skilled work. performance appraisal and employee motivation. Jobs in public systems that are characterised by complex responsibilities.

which is based on the concept of task suggested by the Tavistock School. indicates the following guidelines for successful task analysis: I ) Analysis should be under taken only after developing an understanding of a particular organisational context involved.Analysis suggested here may be useful to the organisation and the individual employees in several ways: 1) Selection and placement: Better recruitment and selection devices can be prepared on the basis of a task analysis (especially competency analysis). What is needed . a A duty is number of tasks. - Task analysis can be defined as the process of identifying the tasks of a particular job in a particular organisational context by analysing activities. 3) The activities should be grouped into tasks. vacancies may create more positions than employees. front office executive's duties include meeting'and welcoming the client and explaining the features of the hotel and its surroundings. 6) The discrepancies between perceived and actual performance and between importance attributed and importance reflected in time spent shouId be identified.3 USES OF TASK ANALYSIS The type of Task. should be broken down into specific activities performed and expected to be performed by the jobholder or incumbent. 9. . 2) The job. Before we go ally further.a . Robbins: a Task Analysis An Activity or an Element: A Job element is the smallest unit into which work can be divided. According to Stephen P. one must get a comprehensive understanding of a few definitions to understand task analysis better. then there are a dozen positions but just one front office executive job. Competency analysis can also help an organisation to place people in jobs in which they can be more effective (matching the roleljob with people). room rent costing is a task of front office executive. There are at least as many positions as there are workers in the organisation. For example.in order to address the more complex jobs that characterise today's organisations is a different approach to task analysis. A position refers to one or more duties performed by one person in an organisation. function that makes a distinct contribution to organisational goals. example. a hotel may employ a dozen front office executives.Group or team tasks. establishing performance criteria. which are increasingly emerging as a way of organising work in industries. or a A'job is a type of position within an organisation. determining required competencies. and analyzing any discrepancies uncovered by this process: This definition. 4) Performance criteria and their indicates should be established. 5) The competencies required for effective performance of each task should be identified. A "task" is a set of related activities . A task is a distinct set of work activity carried out for a distinct purpose. For example.

. including: a) Feedback on strength and weaknesses b) Performance counselling c) Training 6) ' ~ e a m building. and actual potential. and 6) Discrepancy analysis. we can say that task analysis involves the following steps: 1) Contextual analysis.Block 1: Human Resource Development 2) Work planning. 5) Employee development. 3) Task delineation. 4) Competency analysis. including: a) Negotiated tasks and activities to be performed b) Evaluation (by self and the supervisor) of the qualitylquantity standards of task performance (both process and outcomes effectiveness) c) Analysis of factors helping and hindering task performances '4) Potential appraisal. the observers may not "see" activities involving psychological support. the mission of a hotel may be defined as providing effective hospitality services and related support to the guests wishing to use the hotel. especially: a) Better understanding of each other b) Locating areas of task conflicts and dealing 'with them c) Building linkages and mutuality between jobs 9. 2) Activity analysis. For example. orientation.. The term "related support" may be an important dimension of the mission of the hptel and it may imply that the jobs of the managers and other staffers also need to include "psychological support" as a task. including preparation of a system on the basis of the competency analysis. . 5) Performance analysis.appraisa1 work.4 CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS On the basis of the guidelines stated above. and goals of the organisation of which the job is a part. including the following: a) Setting individual tasks for a specific period b) Helping a job incumbent to decide priorities of task c) Minimising overlap between jobs d) identifying neglected tasks in a work unit e) Planning delegation f) Job enrichment 3) Performance appraisal. It is essential to know the mission. An understanding of the organisational context also helps in clarifying the general arientation of the job. If task analysis were undertaken in this situation without the development of this understanding.

those responsible for task analysis should summarize the mission in a one-sentence statement and should keep this statement handy throughout the process of task analysis. but that anyone reading the written record of all observers' descriptions of an activity would interpret these descriptions to be of the same activity. The successful completion of this step is dependent on a clear understanding of the qualities of an activity. Regardless of whether a formal mission statement exists. . These goals may or may not be a part of the mission statement. An activity has three characteristics: 1) It is observable. an optional one. treatment of employees and customers. 9. and so forth. liquidity. is to identify the main tasks of the organisation. which is the direction or combination of directions in which the organisation is moving. if the same behaviour were recorded as doing diagnosis. The mission includes such elements as a definition of the organisation's basic business how it markets its products or services and to whom. and then these various statements may be compared with any goal statement that exists in formal documents. An activity is a behaviour undertaken to accomplish a task. A sampling of employees may be asked to state these goals. The last phase of contextual analysis. a distinction should be made between an activity and a sub-activity. Task Ana!ysis Those who undertake task analysis must first develop an understanding of the organisation's mission. if a behaviour on the part of a nurse is recorded as taking a patient's temperature. The behaviour concerned must be capable of being stated specifically in terms that describe rather than evaluate or interpret. while a sub-activity is one of a set of behaviours undertaken to complete an activity. when observed by more than one person. This exercise also helps in clarifying goals and tasks and in increasing employee's commitment to them. In addition. values. this behaviour qualifies as an activity. groups of employees may be asked to identify the tasks that pertain to each goal and to identify the jobs mainly responsible for these tasks. . 2) It is descriptive. 3) It is objective. as'a task. The organisation's broad goals or objectives also must be identified.5 ACTIVITY ANALYSIS The second step is activity analysis.The mission of a hotel may be defined as providing comfortable accommodation and customer care to the guests wishing to stay at the hotel. and its intentions with regard to profitability. however. should be capable of being recorded in written form in the same way by all observers. These employee statements then may be compiled and discussed. lifting a pen. this phrase would be an interpretation of what had occurred and would not qualify as an activity. planning is not regarded as an activity because it cannot be observed where as serving a guest is an observable activity. the observers may not "see" activities involving customer care. The "Customer care" term may be an important dimension of the mission of the hotel as it may imply that the job of the hotel staff includes undersfanding the needs of each guest and make them feel comfortable and relaxed. For example. For example. This is not to say that all observers will record all activities in the same way. If task analysis were taken in this situation without development of this understanding. For example. An activity. growth. Again. opening the ledger. Sometimes an organisation's mission exists in written and published form. when a front office employee makes an entry in a guest register he or she is performing an activity whose sub-activity might include taking the ledger from the shelf. This exercise is also helpful in terms of testing whether the employees know the organisation's formally stated goals or whether the goals have changed since they were originally stated in documents. Such an exercise is also useful to analyse employee statements. and its stature in its field.

colleagues.Block I : Human Resource Development Source of information about activities I There are three main contributors of information for activity analysis: (I). Providing a combination of instructions and examples may be helpful in this regard. a role-set member might say. logbooks. known as task delineation. what she actually does. the job b incumbent. when interviewed about what a airhostess does. educators. and their assessments of activities that the job incumbent is or should be expected to complete. however. there should not be so many that the differences among the activities are not readily apparent and that their numbers become cumbersome for performance appraisal and other purposes. (2) those who interact with the j ~ incumbent (called "role-set members"). Sometimes. the next step is to group the activities into tasks and to name these tasks. the role-set members. 9. Generally the respondent is simply asked to report observations and expectations.in the field. Similarly. diaries. their reports of the activities that the job incumbent actually completes. Collecting ihformation on activities Several methods can be used to prepare a comprehensive list of activities. The outside experts may be task analysts. There is no set rule regarding the number of tasks to be delineated. 3) Questionnaire: A questionnaire may be devised and administered to the job incumbent. You may prepare r)s many such lists for various job incumbents in hospitality sector. and (3) outside experts. and in some cases others who interact with the incumbent (for example. This process. However. and questionnaires. After questioning the respondent becomes "educated" about the concept of an activity. . she takes care of passengers. 2) Logbooks: A logbook is a record that someone else keeps while' observing a job incumbent. as job incumbent). 1 ) Interview: The interview is the most widely used and useful method of collecting information for activity analysis. "Well. specialists . It then becomes necessary to ask how the airhostess takes care of passengers. subordinates. it may be useful to ask specifically what the job incumbent did on a particular day. The Product After one or more of the suggested methods has been used for activity analysis the product will be a long list of activities. it is necessary to probe in an interview so that actual activities are revealed. they should not be so few that one cannot review them and form a clear picture of a job. For this reason interviews require patience on the part of the interviewer. The most commonly used methods are interviews. These three sets of contributors can produce a great deal of usable information based on their observations. At this point the list is comprehensive and has not been subjected to any kind of sorting. minor passenger travelling alone and his or her family or relatives in the case of air hostess. Because respondents tend to give general answers. and his or her answers become more pertinent and require less intervention from the interviewer. it includes a number of essentially redundant items as well as both highly specific and less-specific items. it may be useful ta discuss the potential contents ~f the log with the person keeping it. and/ or outside experts. Again. The role-set members include the incumbent's supervisor. or the organisation's top management. involves subjective decision-making and should be undertaken only by people who know and understand the job.5 TASK DELINEATION After activity analysis has been completed. For example.

Orientation Description for the Position of District Health Officer With the increasing government emphasis on community participation and collaborative work in matters concerning health.The tasks should be balanced in terms of the number of activities each comprises. been done. orientation.6 COMPETENCY ANALYSIS . knowledge. Orientation is a general attitude reflecting the values of the jobholder. After the tasks have been delineated. the district health oficer should be willing to learn and experiment in this position. Of these five types. Following is an example of an orientation description. Activity: Give Orientation Description for hotel industry jobholders.may make this assessment. the district health manager needs to see the community and its various health agencies as resources. the district health manager should be proactive in identifying and seeking community resources that can be harnessed for promoting health programmes. A five-point scale is recommended for this purpose. it is a good idea to rate the importance of each to the job and to assess the percentage of time spent by the job incumbent on each. skills. For example. or the end result. . including those on staff at the district heath clinics and hospitals. or how it is performed.Hard data may be gathered indicating both kinds of effectiveness. This step consists of assessing how well the job incumbent has performed the tasks for which he or she is responsible. in the case of a front office assistant. orientation may require some explanation. The same group that establishes competencies . For example. creative leadership for subordinates. and experience. He or she needs to respect and be willing to use community traditions and customs that promoti good health. respect for the guest may be deemed to be an important orientation.7 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS The main purpose of performance analysis is to evaluate the impact of a job .with the possible exclusion of the job incumbent. Finally. He or she should be oriented towards innovation and experimentation in solving problems and should encourage the doctors and other staff members in the . A job incumbent needs different types and levels of competencies in order to perform job tasks well. as well as in terms of its process. . He or she needs to be dedicated to providing strong. when delineating a tour executive's tasks one should not call "handling tours" a task because too many activities are covered by this term. The effectiveness of a task can be measured in terns of its outcome. 9. it needs to be divided into two or more tasks.how effective it is being done or has. abilities. tour activities requiring few skills (such as getting the reconfirmation of hotel booking) and customer support. one can evaluate the task of taking customer orders with regard to the number of orders taken (outcome) as well as with regard to the time spent on the task or the number of mistakes made (process). handling tours should be broken down into requiring special skills (such as tour costing). depending on his or her level of insight . in addition. For example. Another process that may be completed is the identifying of the job incumbent's present level of each identified competency. Instead.district health clinics and hospitals to be similarly oriented. Competencies can be divided into five main types. If one task has too many activities. Task Analysis 9. Competency analysis helps in identifying the competencies that are necessary for the tasks that have been delineated.

.... '... training...... or at least training programmes to upgrade the competencies which seem to be at a lower level........ It is a good idea to check periodically for discrepancies between the job definition as reflected in the delineated tasks and actual job performance.. Information about performance can be obtained by any one or a combination of the following methods: The job incumbent may monitor the time spent on each activity... Such information may help in indicating the training..... such as redefining the role... ........... Information about the importance of the various tasks may also help in designing training programmes for high priority task.......... increased monitoring... Some of these indicators can be used in designing a format or a system of meetings for purposes of performance monitoring... 3) Work planning: Analysis of the discrepancy between expected and reported activities. so that each employee can maximise hisfher contribution to the organisational goals. as briefly described in this Unit.... Discrepancies between desired activities or tasks and actual performance may then be noted and acted on accordingly. One reason for not spending enough time on a task may be lack of competency required to do the task. I Check Your Progress I 1) What do you understand by Task Analysis? .......8 DISCREPANCY ANALYSIS Discrepancy analysis is the identification of any discrepancies that become obvious as a result of the previous five steps...Block 1 Human Resource Development 9.............. discrepancies may exist between activities reported by the job incumbent and those reported by the role-set numbers...... The concerned employees may also work in a group with the supervisor in redistribution of tasks.....9 TASK ANALYSIS AS A SUPERVISORY TOOL Task analysis.... The concerned employees may work in a group with the supervisor in redistribution of work among various jobs in a work unit... Similarly....... 9..*.......... and then designing a training strategy............ 2) Performance monitoring: A performance monitoring system can be developed based on the indicators of process and outcomes effectiveness for the various tasks. between the importance of a task and the time spent completing it..... andlor Trained observers may observe the job incumbent for a few days. A few are focused below: 1 ) Designing training: Discrepancy analysis of the required competencies and the present level of these competencies in the employees concerned will help in identifying training needs...... the discrepancy between the importance of a task and the time spent on it may give some useful information. Some uses of Task Analysis have already been suggested..... .... delegating.. or counselling..... or importance of the tasks and time spent on them......... between activities reported and those observed or expected........ The role-set members may analyse the importance attributed to various tasks versus the time spent on them...... and so on.................. including delegation and redistribution of work among various jobs in a work unit.......... For example......... may indicate the need of work planning. between needed competencies and existing competencies. additional work planning........ can also be used as a supervisory tool to improve the functioning of an organisation.. These gaps may indicate a need for certain remedial measures.

. 2) Activity analysis is based on information. Performance of the employees can be better monitored and also work planning can be done keeping in mind the various tasks to be completed. 3) Task analysis can help supervisors in designing training programmes. Performance Analysis and Discrepancy Analysis. Read Sec. and job the type of position within an organisation.10 LET US SUM UP In this Unit. the distinct set of work activity carried out for a distinct purpose. 9. task. 9.2) Discuss Activity Analysis. 9. Task Analysis can also be used as a supervisory tool to improve functioning of the employees as training modules can be designed keeping the various tasks in mind. These are three main contributions of information for activity analysis.4 and answer in detail. And these are several 'methods of collecting information from the contributors. .9 and expand the above answer. also it is an observable action often bound by time.2 and answer.Contextual Analysis. for performance appraisal and also for planning for work. Read Sec. you have read about Task Analysis and proposed guidelines for successful task analysis. It is very important to understand the difference between the three activity. The analysis can be said to involve the following steps. 9. Task Analysis 3) Explain why Task Analysis is seen as a Supervisory Tool.11 CLUES TO ANSWERS I ) Task Analysis can be defined as the process of identifying the tasks of a particular job in a particular organisational context by analysing any discrepancies uncovered by this process. 9. Read Sec. the smallest unit into which work can be divided.

wage administration. though they always keep complaining* about not getting the properly trained employees. identify the objectives of personnel management. However. dismissal. Thus. this is the most difficult of all the management tasks in an organisation. This is equally true in the case of hospitality organisations. However. Machines. and appreciate the necessity of a personnel department in an organisation. describe the key characteristics of personnel management. . training. discipline.UNIT 10 PERSONNEL OFFICE: FUNCTIONS AND OPERATIONS Structure Objectives Introduction Characteristics and Objectives of Personnel Management Functions and Operations of Personnel Management Organisation of a Personnel Office Personnel Manager's Role Position of Personnel Department in the Organisation Let Us Sum Up Clues to Answers 10. One often comes into contact with the personnel department of an organisation handling selection. money and natural resources etc. learn how a personnel office is organised. development of a given geographical area. In the case of hospitality and hotel management this is not just essential but is the key for success because of the very nature of the services product. But these tools are operated by persons at different levels with different skills. or supplying to the public some essential goods or services. INTRODUCTION An organisation is formed for the fulfilment of certain objectives like earning a desired rate of profit on investment. their tactful handling and proper management is essential for the success of any organisation. Yet many organisations hardly pay any attention in this area. materials. placement. In this Unit an attempt has been made to familiarise you with various issues related to personnel management. Some people also say that 'management' means 'managing men tactfully'. etc. 1 0 . a proper selection of personnel. List the various functions of personnel management.0 OBJECTIVES After reading this Unit you will be able to: explain the concept of personnel management. there are certain aspects of the work of a personnel department which may not be very obvious. exploitation of certain natural resources. grievance handling. are the tools used to achieve the organisational goals. understand the various roles of a personnel manager and the skills required to be a successful personnel manager.

and protection against such hazards of life as illness. workers. likewise. Industrial Relations Manager. Labour Relations Manager. In its absence employees will face frictions. These are Personnel Administration. 2) To establish and maintain an adequate organisationall structure and a desirable working relationship among all the members of an organisation by dividing the organisational tasks into functions. managers. etc.10. etc. The following are the basic facts and characteristics of Personnel Management can be summed u p as: Personnel Ofice: Functions and Operations I ) It is concerned with employees: Personnel Management is concerned with employees both as individuals and also as a group. disability.etc. Employee Relations Officer and Industrial Relations Officer. 2) It covers all levels of personnel: It refers not only to unskilled or semi-skilled or.2 CHARACTERISTICS AND OBJECTIVES OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Personnel Management is known by various names . marketing management. Manpower Management.over different periods of time. housekeeping attendants. authority for each job and its relation with other jobs/personnel in the organisation. sales -. Industrial Relations. called by various names. Personnel Management is a function or activity aiding and directing employees. officials. economic and social security in the form of monetary compensation. Employee Relations. old age. jobs and by defining the responsibility. death. like doorman. The objectives of Personnel Management are given below: 1) To achieve an effective utilisation of human resources for the achievement of organisation goals. waiters and drivers etc. 5) To recognise and satisfy individual needs and group goals by offering an adequate and equitable remuneration. With ade'quate compensation and security. bringing them an equitable. Labour Officer. employees work willingly and cooperate to achieve an organisation's goals.in maximising their personal contrib~~tion satisfaction in employment. personal jealousies and rivalries. commitment and loyalty towards it. clerical workers. I 3) It is inherent in all organisations: It is as useful and effective in government departments and non-profit organisations as in a business organisation. Labour Welfare Officer. 4) To generate maximum development of individualls/groups within an organisation by providing opportunities for advancement to employees through training and on the job education or by offering transfers or by providing retraining facilities. positions. just and and humane treatment. 3) To secure the integration of the individuals and groups with the organisation by reconciling individual/group goals with those of an organisation in such a manner that the employees feel a sense of involvement. etc. Labour Management. and adequate security from employment. Personnel Officer. but also the 'white collared' employees. it coveis all types of hnctional areas of management such as production management. . 4) It is of a continuous nature: Personnel management requires constant alertness and awareness of human relations and their importance in everyday operations. like Personnel Manager. like professional and technical workers. unemployment . The manager who performs this function is also. Employee Relations Manager. Moreover. accountability. concierge. 5) It attempts at getting the willing cooperation of the people for the attainment of the desired goals: This is necessary because work cannot be effectively performed in isolation without the promotion and development of an esprit de corps. what you may call 'blue collared' employees. financial management. Irrespective of the size of the organisation these functions exist in every firm and hospitality establishment are no exception.

. Considering employees as co-workers rather than as subordinates. 2) Plans for effective utilisation of efforts and potentialities of individuals and groups for appreciation of work well done and for future advancement and training. This will be clear from Chart-1 which shows various functions classified under the broad hnctions of management. 1 Anticipating deaths. what is expected of them and as a result may not even do it properly.e. If managers at any level do not understand the objectives. responsibility and duties as also relationship of one position with another. chart-1: Functions of Personnel Management (A) PLANNING MANPOWER REQUIREMENT Anticipating Vacancies Function: Objective: Operations: To anticipate and provide for fUture openings. viz. and members of the organisation itself. 4) A proper division of tasks of an organisation in accordance with a sound plan into functions and positions. the consumers of its goods and services. Motivating and Controlling. including groups who may belong to unions. and resignations 2 Anticipating. In the absence of such a division. Each function is part of a management plan and has to be given practical shape at the operational level. It also gives objectives in relation to each.e. 5) The formulation of objectives must be formulated in consultation with senior persons in the organisation and common understanding among managers at all levels of the objectives. 10. If objectives to all concerned are not clear and if people. they will not know why they are doing a given work. chaotic conditions will prevail and no work will be done properly or even done at a1I. they cannot be expected to achieve them. dismissals. the community. These are described below: 1) Existence of capable people in the organisation pCicked up on the basis of their merits and not on other considerations. Considering these objectives. i. In fact. Staffing. For enabling the Persoonel Manager to fulfil these objectives the top management has to create some conditions as the prerequisites.lock 1 Human Resource 6 ) . concerned. what may be called managerial function. retirements. these are two levels at which each function is to be performed. who are expected to work for achieving these. Organising. owners of enterprise.3 FUNCTIONS AND OPERATIONS OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Personnel functions are generally divided into two categories. 6 ) The presence of clearly defined and comprehensive objectives and' proper ' communication to all. Under each objective are given operations performed for achieving the objective concerned. Planning. 3 ) . each indicating a clear-cut authority.To maintain high morale and better human relations inside an organisation by sustaining and improving the conditions so that employees may stick to their jobs for a longer period. Managerial and Operational. you will perhaps agree that the objectives are in the best interests of all those to whom management is responsible i.future promotions 3 Anticipating future transfers 4 Estimating future vacancies from the above causes 5 Estimating additional future positions . do not know about these. If the senior staff or personnel are not involved in the formulation of objectives they may not feel any real responsibility for achieving these.

where necessary Investigating their references Arranging medical examination. if necessary Evaluating the applicants and making the final selection Function: Objective: Operations: Classification of Employees To assign officially each employee to an appropriate position clearly defmed regarding its responsibilities. Objective: Operations: Analysing organisational structure Forecasting manpower requirements Recommending organisational changes Analysing key position requirements Function: Objective: Operations: Selection To analyse applicants' qualifications for determining their suitability 1 2 3 4. 1 2. 3 4 Function: . 1 Function: Objective: Operations: 2 3 Orienting new employees into their jobs Ascertaining training requirements of such employees to make them'more competent for their jobs Providing facilities for their future education and development Function: Objective: Operations: Trarisfer and Promotion To provide for increasing the utilisation of the employee's capabilities 1 2 3 4 Continuously analysing job descriptions Evaluating employee qualifications Determining training requirements Promotion according to employee's development Function: Objective: Operations: Manpower Development To provide for the individual employee's development 1 2 3 Developing performance standards Appraising performance Planning individual development programmes . 1 2 3 Preparing the job descriptions Assigning of proper title to each position Reviewing periodically the correctness of job descriptions (C) STAFFING Induction To ensure that new recruits are provided with appropriate training and information to enable them to perform their duties effectively. 5 6 7 Preparing questionnaires Weeding out undesirables through analysis or questionnaires Interviewing the applicants Testing the applicants psychologically.Function: Recruitment To seek and attract qualified applicants to fill vacancies 1 2 3 4 1 Personnel Ofice: Functions and Operations Objective: Operations: Preparing job analysis Preparing job specifications Analysing the sources of potential employees Attracting potential employees (B) ORGANISING THE MANPOWER RESOURCES Organisational Planning To determine the organisational structure and manpower needed to effectively meet the company objectives.

1 2 3 Function: Objective: Operations: Developing performance evaluation Conducting performanceevaluation interviews Analysing performance evaluation results Employee Counselling To help employees solve their personal problems. . Function: Objective: Operations: Recreation To provide facilities for employee's enjoyment of the job and make the company more attractive and satisfying as a work place.. where necessary Performance Evaluation To appraise objectively each employee's performance in relation to the duties and responsibilities assigned. 1 2 Establishing rules for conduct ~dmibisterin~ disciplinary measures. 1 2 3 4 Developing channels and media for information presentation to employees Introducing and administering suggestion scheme Conducting opinion surveys Developing grievance redressal procedures Function: Objective: Operations: Function: Objective: Operations:. 1 2 3 Analysing jobs and giving job descriptions Evaluating such jobs Developing wage scales . Function: Objective: Operations: Collective Bargaining To build up rapport with officially recognised and legally established employee organisations in the best interests of both the company and its employees. 1 2 3 Function: Objective: Operations: Conducting social activities Conducting recreational activities Providing recreational facilities for employees Communications To provide the needed exchange of information throughout the organisation.- - ~ l o c k ' lHuman Resource Function: Objective: Operations: Training To arrange programmes as required for developing existing personnel 1 2 3 4 Planning and preparing training programmes Providing training staff and faculty resources Conducting the training programmes Evaluating the training results (D) MOTIVATING Function: Objective: Operations: Rate Determination To set rupee values on job positions that are fair and equitable when compared with the other positions in the company as well as what prevails outside. 1 2 ~ e ~ o t i a iagreements in~ Interpreting and administering such agreements - Employee Discipline To develop effective work regulations and harmonious working relationships. 1 2 3 Selecting and training counsellors Arranging counselling interviews Assessing extent of help actually rendered Function: Objective: Safety To develop facilitieq and procedures for prevention of on-the-job accidents.

Personnel t Manager can also depute some persons to advise him or her. It may be noticed that not all the personnel functions are equally important to all organisations at all times. 1 2 3 Developing and administering security regulations Organising fire fighting services Providing guard or watchman service Function: Objective: Operations: Personnel Research To develop improved employee attitudes and conditions of work 1 2 i Analysing personnel problems Recommending improved practices The chart above gives us one way of classifying the functions of Personnel Management. economic. The activities should then be grouped function-wise and put under the ' concerned functions. as given in Figure 11. A group of related functions should be put under a particular Section and the various Sections under the Personnel Manager. Some of these factors are the size. These factors not only vary from organisation to organisation but also from country to country. In a smaller organisation the Organisation Chart is simpler. The less important of these factors may be suitably combined with the closely related important ones. the m a n a g e m ~philosophy and management appreciation of personnel functions. This depends on the relative amount of work in or importance of a function. Different experts of Personnel Managdment. cultural. its social. Depending upon the number of Sections and functions. Much will depend upon the size of the organisation. etc. 10. the nature. political and legal environment. Function: Objective: Operations: Protection and Security To provide precautionary measures for safeguarding the company and its property from theft. You will notice here that for some functions the Personnel.Operations: 1 2 3 4 Establishing safety rules Investigating accidents Conducting safety inspections Preventing or eliminating hazards Personnel Office: Functions and Operations Function: Objective: Operations: Medical Services To prevent diseases and physical ailments as well as care for diseases. Maflager is helped by the Deputy Personnel Manager but for others by an Assistant Personnel Manager or an Officer. I 2 3 4 Developing and administering prevention programmes Examining employees and job applicants Providing medical treatment Educating in health matters . ailments. Their relative importance would differ from each other depending upon various factors. have classified these functions differently. and injuries sustained by employees on the job. and Institutions like the Indian Institute of Personnel Management. and the overall philosophy of business. ' . the Personnel Manager can have one or more Deputy Managers or Assistant Managers. fire. These future requirements shall be well assessed and based on authentic sources of information.4 ORGANISATION OF A PERSONNEL OFFICE The first step in the organisation of a personnel office is to list all the activities that are performed keeping in view not only the present requirements of the organisation but also the future requirements. the mental makeup of personnel officers.