Sample Paper

Food and Beverage Operations Semester III BHMTT
by Ashish M. Dighe Exam conducted on: 25|04|2007

::25/04/2007 ::

:: Food and Beverage Service Operations ::

:: Semester 3 ::

Answer No: 1
a. Lees: The sediment that is left by the must during the fermentation process. The sediment is usually cleared from the wine using methods of racking, fining and filtration. b. Chaptalisation: Sometimes due to poor weather the grapes do not ripen properly resulting in insufficient sugar in the fruit. The addition of concentrated must or sugar to the grape juice before fermentation to achieve the final alcohol content is called chaptalization. c. Bodegas: Bodega means a ʻwineryʼ in Spanish.These are the places where the grapes are taken to be crushed after the initial plucking and drying process. d. Angels share: The quantity of an alcoholic liquor lost to evaporation during the distilling process. e. Must: It is the combination of juice, skins and pips after the grapes are crushed in the wine press. f. Mulled wine: Heated wine flavored with spices. In Germany it is called Glüwein. g. Humidor: A humidor is a storage container designed to allow controlled air flow and equipped with a device that maintains the internal humidity in the range of 70 to 75 percent; its internal temperature should be maintained in a narrow range of about 68 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit. The purpose of a humidor is to keep your cigars at their peak "smokability". h. Noble rot: It is a condition in grapes caused by a grey fungus called as botrytis cinerea. Grapes typically become infected with Botrytis when they are ripe, but when then exposed to drier conditions become shriveled and sweeter and the form of infection brought about by the partial drying process is known as noble rot. i. Bloom: The outer skin or cuticle of the grapes has a whitish downy or cloudy coat which is known as bloom. The waxy substance contains wild yeasts and wine yeasts. It also contains other microorganisms such as bacteria, principally the acetobacter. j. AOC: (Appellation dʼorigine Controlée) Wines from a particular area with many other restrictions, including grape varieties and vinification methods. This label denotes the highest quality standard in French wines.

:: Ashish Dighe ::

Page 2 of 13

::25/04/2007 ::

:: Food and Beverage Service Operations ::

:: Semester 3 ::

Answer No: 2 (A)
Red Grapes
The making of red wine encompasses : 1. Using black grapes such as a Cabernet Sauvignon, Nebiollo, Merlot etc.

De-stalking

2. De-stalking - where stalks of all the grapes are removed. 3. Pressing of the grapes - The process involves passing the destalked grapes from an Archimedes press or a pneumatic press. This process squashes the grapes by breaking the skins until all the juice is released. 4. The treatment and fermentation of the must - During this process, the must is usually treated with sulphur dioxide and then cleansed of any remaining skin, pips and other suspended matter. Cultured yeast may be added and the wines are fermented. When fermentation is complete, most of the liquid is run-off. The remaining pulp is pressed again, resulting in a very dark, tannic wine. These are matured separately. 5. Maturation - The wine is then left for maturing in casks for a short time.

Pressing

Fermentation

Maturation

Racking

6. Racking - Running the clear wine off its lees or sediment from one cask to another. 7. Fining - A further clarification of wine usually before bottling. A fining agent such as isinglass is added and this attracts the sediment suspended in the wine, causing it to coagulate and fall to the bottom of the container. 8. Filtration - The final clarification before bottling. It removes any remaining suspended matter and leaves the wine healthy and star bright in appearance. 9. Bottling - The clear bright wine is then bottled and ready to be transported to wine cellars for sale.

Fining

Filtration

Bottling

:: Ashish Dighe ::

Page 3 of 13

::25/04/2007 ::

:: Food and Beverage Service Operations ::

:: Semester 3 ::

Answer No: 2 (B)
The following factors and practices contribute to good cellar management • The cellar should be clean and well ventilated. • Even temperatures of 13-15 deg C (55-58 deg F) should be maintained, strong draughts and wide ranges of temperatures should be avoided. • On delivery all casks should be placed immediately on stillions, casks remaining on the floor should have the bung uppermost to withstand the pressure better. • Tappings should be carried out 24 hours before a cask is required. • Pipes and engines should be cleaned at regular intervals. • Beer left in pipes after closing time should be drawn off. • Care should be taken that the cellar is not overstocked. • All spiles (plugs on casks) removed during service should be replaced after closing time. • All cellar equipment must be kept scrupulously clean. • Any ullage should be returned to the brewery as soon as possible. • All beer lines should be cleaned weekly and the cellar floor washed down weekly with mild bleach. Wine should be stored in a wine cellar which is free from vibrations, excessive dampness, draughts and unwanted odors. The cellar should be absolutely clean, well ventilated, with only subdued lighting and a constant temperature of around 55 deg F (12 deg C) to help the wine develop gradually.

Answer No: 2 (C)
Size Chopine Demi Standard Magnum Jeroboam Rehoboam Methuselah Salmanazar Balthazar Nebuchadnezzar Melchior Capacity (ml) 250 ml 375 ml 750 ml 1500 ml 3000 ml 4500 ml 6000 ml 9000 ml 12000 ml 15000 ml 18000 ml Some of the Champagne bottle sizes and their capacity in ml are as listed.

:: Ashish Dighe ::

Page 4 of 13

::25/04/2007 ::

:: Food and Beverage Service Operations ::

:: Semester 3 ::

Answer No: 3 (A)
a) Cuve Close Method: The cuve close method is also known as the “Charmat” or “Tank” method. This process was developed by Eugene Charmat in 1909. Instead of the second fermentation taking place in individual bottles as in the traditional method for making sparkling wines, the second fermentation, which produces the bubbles in a sparkling wines, takes place in large, sealed tanks. The wine is then bottled under pressure so that the bubbles are retained. b) Gazifie method: In the injection method, known in France as methode pompe bicyclette, the carbon dioxide gas is pumped into the chilled wine under pressure. It is the quickest and cheapest method of all. The resulting large bubbles soon disappear once the wine is poured into a glass.

:: Ashish Dighe ::

Page 5 of 13

::25/04/2007 ::

:: Food and Beverage Service Operations ::

:: Semester 3 ::

Answer No: 3 (B)
Classification chart of alcoholic beverages. Alcoholic Beverages

Fermented

Distilled

Beer

Wine

Spirits

Liqueurs

Ales

Still

Grape Spirits

Herbs flavored

Lagers

Sparkling Fortified Grain Spirits Spirit flavored

Lambic

Aromatized

Other Spirits

Fruits, Nuts and other flavors

Alcoholic beverages can be broken down into 1) Fermented and 2) Distilled beverages. Fermented beverages: These can further be classified into two categories, namely beer and wine. Beer can be classified into top fermented (Ales),bottom fermented (Lagers) and spontaneously fermented lambics. Examples are Porter Stout (Ale),Heineken (Lager) and Geuze (Lambic) Wine can be classified into Still wines, Sparkling wines, Fortified wines and Aromatized wines. Examples are Chateau Mouton Rotschild (Red Still wine), Chablis (Still White wine), Anjou rose (Rose wine), Taittinger (Sparkling wine), Fino Sherry (Fortified wine) and Vermouth (Aromatized wine). Distilled beverages: These can further be classified into two categories, namely spirits and liqueurs. Spirits can be further classified into Grape spirits, Grain spirits and others.
:: Ashish Dighe :: Page 6 of 13

::25/04/2007 ::

:: Food and Beverage Service Operations ::

:: Semester 3 ::

Examples are Hennessy Cognac (Grape based), Glenfiddich Scotch (Grain based) and Tequila, Gin, Vodka ( Other Spirits). Liqueurs can be classified into Herb flavored, Spirit flavored and Fruits, Nuts and other flavorings. Examples are Benedictine and Creme de menthe (Herb flavored), Drambuie and Southern Comfort (Spirit flavored), Advocaat (Oranges, lemons and cherry), Amaretto (Almonds an Apricots), Tia Maria (coffee and spices).

Answer No: 3 (C)
Types of port are as follows: 1. Tawny port: Tawny ports are wines, made from red grapes, that are aged in wooden barrels, exposing them to gradual oxidation and evaporation. As a result, they gradually mellow to golden-brown color. The exposure to oxygen imparts "nutty" flavors to the wine, which is blended to match the house style. Tawny ports are sweet or medium dry and typically consumed as a dessert wine. 2. White port: White port is made from white grapes and can be made in a wide variety of styles, although until recently few shippers have produced anything other than a standard product. Ordinary white ports make an excellent basis for a cocktail while those of greater age are best served chilled on their own. 3. Crusted Port: Crusted port is usually a blend of port wine from several vintages, although single vintage crusted ports have sometimes been made in the past. Unlike vintage port, which has to be sourced from grapes from a single vintage, crusted port affords the port blender the opportunity to make best use of the varying characteristics of different vintages. 4. Vintage Port: Vintage port is made entirely from the grapes of a declared vintage year and accounts for about two percent of overall port production. Not every year is declared a vintage in the Douro.Vintage ports are aged in barrels for a maximum of two and a half years before bottling, and generally require another ten to forty years of aging in the bottle before reaching what is considered a proper drinking age. Since they are aged in barrels for only a short time, they retain their dark ruby color and fresh fruit flavors. Some prominent shippers of Port wine are: 1. Quinta do Noval 2. Churchill's 3. Niepoort 4. Quevedo 5. Ramos Pinto 6. Delaforce 7. Cálem 8. Ferreira 9. Sandeman 10.Graham's 11. Croft 12.Taylor and 13. Fonseca
:: Ashish Dighe :: Page 7 of 13

::25/04/2007 ::

:: Food and Beverage Service Operations ::

:: Semester 3 ::

Answer No: 4 (A)
The four major ingredients used in the beer making process are: 1. Water 2. Cereals (mainly Barley) 3. Hops and 4. Yeast

Steeping

1. Steeping: Before it can be used to brew beer, barley has to be made into malt, thereby transforming its starch content into fermentable sugars. 2. Kilning: After steeping in water, it is left to germinate in a warm environment, then heated in a process called as kilning, which gives a more or less dark color to the malt and likewise to the resulting beer. 3. Brewing: The malt obtained in this way is milled into a fine grist, then mixed with hot water: this is the brewing operation proper, lasting between one and two hours. It is performed in large mash tuns, some of which are made of copper, with a characteristic chimney serving to evacuate steam. 4. Addition of hops: Once the solid residues (known as returns) have been filtered out, the liquid, or wort is heated in a copper to over 100°C and hops are incorporated. 5. Fermentation: On cooling, yeast is added to the liquid and it is allowed to ferment in another vessel, until the sugars have been transformed into alcohol and carbon dioxide. 6. Filtration and Bottling: After further filtering the resulting ʻgreen beerʼ is left to rest and mature before being packaged into casks or bottles and in some cases pasteurized to improve its traveling qualities.

Kilning

Brewing

Addition of hops

Fermentation

Filtration and Bottling

:: Ashish Dighe ::

Page 8 of 13

::25/04/2007 ::

:: Food and Beverage Service Operations ::

:: Semester 3 ::

Answer No: 4 (B)
Following are some of the obvious faults found in wines: 1. Weeping: This seeping of the wine from the cork can be caused by a faulty cork or when the secondary fermentation pushes the cork loose. 2. Acetification: The wine has ben affected by acetobacters through over exposure to air. The vinegar microbe develops a film on the surface of the wine which produces acetic acid. The wine tastes sour, resembling vinegar (vin aigre = sour wine) 3. Cloudiness: This may be caused by extremes in storage temperature, excess protein, contact with metal or bacterial action or an unwanted continuation of fermentation. 4. Corked wine: This is a wine affected by a combination of chlorine present in cork and a fungus which results in formation of TCA (trichloroanisole) causing the wine to smell musty and rancid. 5. Sulphidization: It can be caused due to reduced oxygen supply which concentrates sulphurous smells arising from universal preservatives. 6. Crystalline deposits: Tartaric acid is solube in water but not in alcohol, so an excess of potassium bitartrate may precipitate in very cold temperatures as crystals. The sugar-like crystals or minute flakes, spoil the appearance of the wine but not the taste. 7. Foreign contamination: This may be caused when wines are stored in a badly kept cellar at incorrect temperatures or stored next to strong odors such as gasoline, vinegar or fish. Faulty bottling may also cause glass to splinter and get into the wine. 8. Oxidation: It is caused by too much absorption of air either before bottling or when bottled (loose cork). The wine may also have been stored in much too warm conditions. The wine tastes flat and musty, having lost its fruit and brilliance.

:: Ashish Dighe ::

Page 9 of 13

::25/04/2007 ::

:: Food and Beverage Service Operations ::

:: Semester 3 ::

Answer No: 4 (C)
Following is a German wine label with appropriate information labeled.

Name of the bottler or producer Vintage Sub-region Denotes the sweetness level Region

A.P. Nr (Amtliche Quality Standard Prüfnummer) Quality control number Volume Grape variety

Alcoholic content

:: Ashish Dighe ::

Page 10 of 13

::25/04/2007 ::

:: Food and Beverage Service Operations ::

:: Semester 3 ::

Answer No: 5 (A)
Guidelines that can be followed when contemplating wine and food partnerships are as follows: • Most foods can be successfully accompanied by several styles of wine. • White and Rose wines are usually more versatile than red wines. This is an important consideration if one wine is being chosen to accompany the complete meal. • Regional pairings are normally very successful. • The simpler the food the more the wine is likely to shine. • The finer the food the more it is likely to show up inferior wine. • Look at the complete dish and not just the main food component. Identify the principal flavors. Often the sauce will decide the wine. • The weight and body of the wine should match the character and flavor intensity of the food. • Serve light wine with delicate food. • Serve full-bodied wines with full-flavored, assertive foods. • Match dry with dry, rich with rich. • Food flavored with spices go best with aromatic or aggressively brash wines. • With sweets and puddings the food nearly comes off better than the wine. Sweet wines are probably the best bet. • When a particular food is served hot, it requires a more assertive wine than it does when served cold.

:: Ashish Dighe ::

Page 11 of 13

::25/04/2007 ::

:: Food and Beverage Service Operations ::

:: Semester 3 ::

Answer No: 5 (B)
The manufacturing of sherry encompasses the following steps. 1. Gathering of grapes: Grapes used to make sherry are the white varietals namely, Listan Palomino, Pedro Ximenez and the Muscat. 2. Drying: The grapes are left on esperanto mats to dry and take off the extra moisture. 3. Crushing: The grapes are crushed in presses and the juice collected. 4. Fermentation process begins in oak casks or steel tanks after the addition of yeast. 5. Storage in criaderas: The new wine is stored in a group of small casks called criaderas. 6. Development of flor (Saccharomyces beticus): The base wine awaits the development of flor. 7. Maturing: The base wine develops flor and sits for maturing for 1-2 years. 8. Fortification: The sherry is fortified by the addition of grape spirit to stop fermentation as well as increase the alcohol content. Fortified wines such as sherries usually have an alcoholic content of about 20% abv. 9. Selection: Selection of casks is made on the basis of which criaderas develop flor and which do not. The barrels that develop flor are destined to be finoʼs and the others to be olorosoʼs. 10. Classification into appropriate solera: The wines that develop florare separated into the appropriate solera further destined to be finos whereas wines that do not develop flor get separated into the oloroso solera. 11.Maturation: Maturation takes place in accordance with the solera system. The Solera System a. Casks placed on top of each other, 4 or more scales high. b. The oldest wines are always at the bottom with the youngest ʻcriaderaʼ wines forming the top row. c. It is a system of maturing and blending. d. The wine required for sale is partially drawn off the bottom casks. e. No more than 1/3 is extracted per year. f. This is replaced by similar amount of wine taken from casks in the scale immediately above. g. The younger wines take the characteristics of the old wines. 12. Bottling: Once the wines have matured 1/3 rd amount is extracted from the bottom casks for bottling and distribution.

:: Ashish Dighe ::

Page 12 of 13

::25/04/2007 ::

:: Food and Beverage Service Operations ::

:: Semester 3 ::

Answer No: 5 (C)
Aperitif means ʻto openʼ or drinks served at the start of a meal or before the meal to stimulate the appetite. Some of the most popular aperitifs are: 1. Campari - One of the most favored bitters and an excellent aperitif, it is usually served with ice and soda. The drink needs to be stirred or the ingredients may stay separate. When combined with sweet red vermouth it forms the refreshing Americano cocktail. It is pink and has a slight flavor of orange peel and quinine. The recipe is secret but it contains herbs and spirit and is oak aged. 2. Dubonnet - Modern versions have a wine base flavored with quinine and bitter herbs with additions of mistelle and spirit. This popular aperitif may be blonde (white) or rouge (red). 3. Lillet - A favorite in France, Lillet is made from white Bordeaux wine, herbs and fruit peel and fortified with Armagnac brandy. 4. Suze - Suze is a bright yellow French aperitif flavored with gentian and herbs. It is bitter in flavor with supposedly digestive properties. 5. Pineau des Charentes - This is an increasingly popular sweet aperitif from the Cognac area. Pineau is a heady mixture of Cognac and grape juice. 6. Ouzo - A pastis Greek in origin that may be described as an aniseed flavored brandy. 7. Pernod - French in origin, it is a clear liquid obtained my means of distillation of oils.

XXX

:: Ashish Dighe ::

Page 13 of 13

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful