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b) Burning of magnesium ribbon

ENDOTHERMIC REACTION  Endothermic reaction occurs when the reaction taken in (absorbs) heat from the surrounding.  The temperature of the surroundings goes down because the surroundings lost heat to the reacting system.  Although the reaction has gained heat, this gain in heat does not raise its temperature but goes to form new chemical bonds.  Therefore, the temperature drop.  Example of endothermic reaction: 1. Dissolving ammonium nitrate in water. Equation:

c) Burning of carbon  The changes of energy show that a chemical reaction is taking place.  When the heat energy is given out, the reaction gets hotter. This is called___________________  When the heat energy is taken in, the reaction gets colder. This is called___________________ EXOTHERMIC REACTION  Exothermic reaction occur when the reaction given out (release) heat to the surrounding.  Properties of exothermic reaction: a) Chemical energy is changed to heat energy. b) The temperature of the surrounding increases. c) Heat is liberated.  Example of exothermic reaction: 1. Dissolving solid alkali in water, the temperature rises. Eg: dissolve solid sodium hydroxide in water. 2. Displacement reaction between zinc and copper sulphate. Equation: 8. Adding water to the oxides of very reactive metals such as sodium and potassium. Equation: 5. Diluting concentrated sulphuric acid. Equation:

4. Neutralisation reaction Eg:

6. Adding water to anhydrous copper sulphate. Equation: 2. Dissolving ammonium sulphate in water. Equation:

7. Reaction between active metal and dilute acids. Equation:

3. The dissociation of blue copper sulphate crystals into white powder and steam. Equation:

9. Reaction between acids and carbonates. Equation:

3. Combustion reaction. a) Burning of methane

10. Reaction between active metals and water. Equation:

4. Photosynthesis process. Leaves of the tree take in light energy from sun. This energy is used to combine carbon dioxide with water. This process absorbs energy.

.ENERGY LEVEL DIAGRAM Exothermic reaction: b) The reaction between sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid.  The change in energy is negative. the energy content of the system goes up.  Heat energy can be measured in units called joules (J) or kilojoules (kJ).  Example: a) The breaking of hydrogen molecules into hydrogen atoms.  The energy is release to form the bond of the product.  The product lower down has less energy.  Example: a) The burning of magnesium  The reactants have lower energy content. They are used lo lessen pain for injuries in the field.  During the reaction. The type of salt used will be different such as: . b) The dehydration of magnesium sulphate.  A similar principle is used to make hot packs and the exothermic reaction will take place. the membrane is broken and allows the salt to react with water to absorb heat from surroundings and the endothermic reaction is take place.  The change in energy is positive.  The energy is absorbs to break down the bond of the reactants to form the products.  The products have higher content.Hydrogen molecules have lower energy content than the hydrogen atoms. Endothermic reaction:  The reactants high up have a lot of stored chemical energy. Therefore. Example of salt used:  When the pack is needed. heat is absorbed by the reacting system.  Heat energy is given off as the reactants reacts to give the products.  The principle of endothermic and exothermic reaction used for cold and hot packs.  Inside the cold pack a salt and water are packed separately by a membrane.

Heat of precipitate 2.  Example: a) Formation of AgCl  Exercise: formation of barium sulphate Determine the heat of precipitation of barium sulphate and show the energy level diagram.  Step 4: calculate the heat of precipitate and draw energy level diagram  Step 1: construct the thermochemical equation  Step 2: calculate the number of moles of barium sulphate  Step 3: calculate the energy change Heat change = mc∆θ b) Formation of lead (II) sulphate . Heat of neutralization 4. the solid appears in the solution is called a precipitate.  Heat of precipitation is the heat change when one mole of precipitate is formed from the reacting solutions under standard conditions. Heat of combustion HEAT OF PRECIPITATION  After a reaction.  There are 4 types of heat of reaction: 1. Heat of displacement 3.HEAT OF REACTION  Example of thermochemical equation:  The standard condition for heat of reaction: a) The pressure of reaction is 1 atmosphere b) The temperature of reaction is 25oC or 298K c) The reactants and products are in their usual physical state at 25oC d) The concentration should be at 1 mol dm-3  The equation is a thermochemical equation if all the conditions above are satisfied. Types of heat of reaction  Different types of chemical reaction will give different values of heat of reaction.

The heat of displacement. iii.  The heat of displacement is the heat change when 1 mole of a metal is displaced from its solution by another metal. 25 cm3 of silver nitrate 0. under standard conditions. the number of moles of silver ions in the solution. . ii.2 mol dm-3 was reacted with 0. The reaction produced a rise in temperature of 35oC.7g copper powder.  Example: Exercise: In an experiment. (a) Write down the equation for the reaction (b) Calculate: i. The total heat energy liberated.HEAT OF DISPLACEMENT  The more electropositive ions will displace the less electropositive ions form the solution. The copper powder used was more than what is required.

 Thus for the same concentration. Heat of neutralization for weak acid  Example of weak acid: ethanoic acid and hydrocyanide acid. In an experiment.  Example: a) Reaction of HCl with NaOH HCl is a strong acid.  Example:  Their weak ionization causes them to have low heat of neutralization reacting with sodium hydroxide. This is called neutralization. The quantity of the acid and alkali 3. 1 mole of HCl will react with 1 mole of NaOH to produce 57 kJ of heat.  Example: Quantity of the acid and alkali  A larger quantity of acid means that it has more moles of the acid in the solution. when react with NaOH will produce only 55 kJ of heat.ions from an alkali to form 2 moles of water.  They ionize weakly in water. Exercise: 1. NaOH is a strong alkali.  All neutralization reactions are exothermic reactions.  Before the neutralization take place.  1 mole of H+ will combine with 1 mole of OHfrom alkali to form water.  The higher the quantity of acid used.  This energy is taken from the heat of neutralization (57kJ) that is produced during neutralization. Total mass of reacting mixture: Total heat liberated: = mc∆θ Number of moles of HCl: .  HCl is a monobasic acid that will produce one mole of H+ ions.HEAT OF NEUTRALISATION  Acid will react with alkali to form salt and water.ions combine with 1 mole of H+ ion to form 1 mole of H2O  All heat of neutralization are always equal to -57oC kJ mol-1 which is an exothermic reaction. The basicity of the acid The strength of acid or alkali  Neutralization reaction between a strong acid and a strong alkali will produce more heat than reaction between a weak acid and a weak alkali. The initial temperature of both solutions was 29oC and the final temperature of the reacting mixture was 42oC. (a) Calculate the heat of neutralization (b) Why was the experimental value of the heat of neutralization lower than the theoretical value? Solution: (a) Rise in temperature:  Factors that effect the amount of heat produced during neutralization reactions: 1. energy is needed to break the bonds of the unionized weak acid molecules.0 mol dm-3 HCl was neutralized by 500 cm3 of 2.  2 moles of H+ ions from the acid will combine with 2 moles of OH.  Heat of neutralization is the heat energy produced when 1 mol of OH. b) Reaction of ethanoic acid with NaOH ethanoic acid is a weak acid. 500 cm3 of 2.  H2SO4 is a dibasic acid. It has 2 moles of H+ ions in 1 mole of acid. The basicity of the acid  The basicity of acid measures the number of mole ions of H+ present in one mole of an acid. the higher will be the heat of neutralization.0 mol dm-3 NaOH. neutralization of a dibasic acid will produce more heat energy than a monobasic acid. The concentration of the acid or alkali 2.

What is the heat of combustion for sulphur? [ Relative atomic mass: S = 32] 2. the heat of combustion of methane is 890 kJ mol-1. an excess supply of oxygen is required.  Example of heat of combustion for different fuels commonly used: Fuel Reacting equation Heat of combustion Hydrogen Ethanol Carbon Methane  During combustion. If the heat of neutralization is -57 kJ mol-1. If the supply of oxygen is restricted.0 mol dm-3 KOH reacted with 100 cm3 of HNO3. Therefore. what is the rise in temperature?  Combustion reaction is always exothermic. the heat liberated will be lower.  Heat of combustion is the energy that given out when 1 mole of fuel burns. the heat of neutralization is: HEAT OF COMBUSTION  Any substance of fuel that burns in oxygen to produce heat energy is called burning or combustion. . ∆H is always negative. (b) The experimental value of the heat of neutralization is less than the theoretical value because heat is lost to: Exercise: 5 g of sulphur is burnt in a calorimeter. Therefore.Thus.  Example: The burning of 1 mole of methane in oxygen will produce 890 kJ of heat energy. In an experiment 100 cm3 of 2. The heat generated increase the temperature of 500 g of water by 21oC.

1. the heat combustion increases up the series. Non polluting VARIOUS ENERGY SOURCE  There are two main type of energy: 1. Easily available 2. High heat value 3. Cheap 4. and nuclear fission 2.6g of ethanol was burnt in oxygen. heat of combustion is____________________ . In an experiment.  We choose fuels which are: 1.  Different types of fuel will give out different heat of combustion. solar. What is the heat combustion for alcohol? [relative atomic mass: C:12 O:6 H:1] Solution: Step1 : amount of heat Heat given off = 2. Renewable energy – such as: wind. the heat of combustion increases as the alkane rise in the series.  In alcohol series. oil and gas.3 g of hydrocarbon was burnt in a rich supply of air.  This is because: Step 2: molar mass and mole of ethanol Step3: equation ________ mole of ethanol . Therefore.  In alkane. geothermal. If the relative molecular mass of the hydrocarbon is 6. biomass. Non-renewable energy – such as: coal. liberated _______kJ of heat Step 4: heat for one mole Fuel values  Fuel values show the amount of heat given off by one kilogram (for solid) or one cubic meter (for gas).EXERCISE 1. what is the heat of combustion for this hydrocarbon? Solution: HEAT OF COMBUSTION FOR DIFFERENT FUELS  All fuels can be burnt in air. hydroelectric. The heat energy from the combustion raised the temperature of 500 cm3 of water by 36oC. The heat given off was enough to raise the temperature of 1600 cm3 of water from 30 oC to 50 oC. They produce heat energy during combustion. 4.

and nuclear fission 2. Renewable energy – such as: wind. biomass. oil and gas. hydroelectric.VARIOUS ENERGY SOURCE ➢ There are two main type of energy: 1. Non-renewable energy – such as: coal. solar. geothermal. .