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Integrated Urban Mass Transit System for Sustainable Development
Presented by Prof. S.L. Dhingra Transportation Systems Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay

“First Indo-US Symposium on Advances in Mass Transit and Travel Behavior Research (MTTBR08)”, IIT Guwahati, February 12-15, 2008.

Overview
 Introduction

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 Vision Statement
 Sustainable Development Concept  Integration of mass Transit modes for Sustainable Development

 Parameters Required for Efficient Integration
 An Example of Singapore Integration  Case Study – Mumbai (India)

 Other Policy measures for Sustainable development  Intelligent Transportation System
 Alternative Fuels  Conclusions

Introduction
   
Growth of population
Growth of vehicles Horizontal Growth of towns and cities (Urban Sprawl)

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Limitation of mobility of the vehicular traffic in town

    

Congestion / Delays
Environmental Pollution Safety

Parking
Disaster Management – (ITS area)

93 109.71 17.11 159.Urbanisation trends in INDIA Census Year 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 Number of UAs/Towns 1827 1815 1949 2072 2250 2843 Urban Population (in million) 25.18 11.29 11.84 10.45 44.57 19.46 217.44 Level of Urbanization % 10.34 25.15 62.72 Source: Census of India Report .29 4 1961 1971 1981 1991 2365 2590 3378 3368 78.08 33.20 28.85 25.86 17.99 13.91 23.

1 11.2 9.0 16.6 15.4 5.2 15.1 3.0 1.1 8.5 59.1 2.1 5.4 4.3 7.2 36.7 5.3 16.7 46.6 4.7 6.7 14.7 1961 41.5 3.0 6.8 23.3 5 .1 4.4 12.0 10.7 74.2 7.1 12.4 91/9 57.1 1.1 7.4 11.2 11.5 16.0 4.2 83.1 13.8 2.7 109.6 10.3 42.6 19.7 18.3 11.4 11.7 1.4 10.4 15.1 1971 59.1 7.7 6. 1 Greater Bombay 2 Calcutta 3 Delhi 4 Madras 5 Hyderabad 6 Banglore 7 Ahmedabad 8 Pune 9 Kanpur 10 Lucknow 11 Nagpur 12 Surat 13 Jaipur 14 Kochi 15 Coimbatore 16 Vadodara 17 Indore 18 Patna 19 Madurai 20 Bhopal 21 Vishakhapattnam 22 Ludhiyana 23 Varanasi All figures are in lakhs Source: Census of India 1951 29.0 9.8 3.9 4.4 3.0 1991 125.1 6.9 2.8 53.7 16.1 10.2 4.No.2 25.3 3.5 11.6 17.Growth of population of 35 largest cities in India City S.6 5.5 10.5 29.1 9.3 9.2 2.5 7.4 1981 82.7 25.4 8.9 8.9 33.9 2.3 4.8 8.5 31.0 6.9 3.4 12.8 20.9 9.4 10.1 3.4 5.5 12.6 42.1 3.4 11.2 6.9 10.1 24.9 6.6 6.8 6.0 1.9 2.8 40.9 9.1 7.5 3.1 2.1 3.9 16.9 4.

5 10.0 10.1 10.Growth of population of 35 largest cities in India S No.5 10.2 11. Cities 24 Agra 25 Meerat 26 Nashik 27 Jabalpur 28 Jamshedpur 29 Asansol 30 Dhanbad 31 Faridabad 32 Allahabad 33 Amritsar 34 Vijayawada 35 Rajkot All figures are in Lakhs 2001 13.0 11.5 11.7 11.21 11.1 10.0 6 .6 10.

Jeep and Taxis 159 203 Buses 34 47 Goods Vehicles 82 119 Others 4 16 7 1961 1966 665 1099 88 226 310 456 57 73 168 259 42 85 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1992 1993 1865 2700 5391 10577 21374 23507 25505 576 1057 268 6245 14200 15661 17183 682 779 1160 1780 2954 3205 3361 94 15 162 227 331 358 364 343 351 554 863 1356 1514 1603 170 398 897 1462 2533 2769 2994 1994 1995 1996 1997 27660 30295 33783 3731 18899 20831 23252 25693 3569 3841 4204 4662 392 423 449 488 1691 1794 2031 2260 3109 3406 3847** 4128** 1998 40939 28342 5056 535@ 2529 4477 Others include tractors. ** Excludes light motor vehicles (three wheelers and four wheelers) which have been shown under goods vehicles. three wheelers(passenger vehicles) and other miscellaneous vehicles which are not separately classified.Total Registered Motor Vehicles In India: 1951-98 Year 1951 1956 All vehicles 306 426 Two wheelers 27 41 Cars. @ Includes omni buses. . trailors.

Total Registered Motor Vehicles In Metropolitan Cities of India (1992-98) Metro Cities 1992 Ahmedabad 419 Banglore 605 Bhopal 144 Calcutta 497 Chennai 604 Cochin 32 Coimbatore 74 Delhi 1963 Hayderabad 485 Indore 238 Jaipur 292 Kanpur 186 Lucknow 235 Ludhiyana 220 Madurai 42 Mumbai 647 Nagpur 168 Patna 191 Pune 296 Surat 223 Badodara 179 Varanasi 126 Vishakhapatna 163 m Data relates to distict 1993 1994 449 478 654 716 154 165 517 545 641 689 36 42 93 115 2097 2239 520 543 253 267 314 339 196 209 249 266 238 258 50 57 546 608 176 185 197 201 313 331 243 271 193 212 135 146 163 165 N.A: Not Available 1995 510 796 179 561 768 52 172 2432 557 289 368 223 282 291 81 667 198 209 358 301 235 157 183 1996 572 900 223 588 812 197 241 2630 764 325 405 247 303 321 117 724 213 220 412 331 275 169 201 1997 631 972 242 588 890 226 256 2848 769 361 449 247 331 359 122 797 239 220 468 362 332 184 207 1998 686 1130 237 664 975 NA 310 3033 887 399 492 282 360 NA 156 860 270 245 527 399 361 199 219 8 .

where urbanization and motorisation trends are on the increase. mass transit systems like commuter rails and bus transportation are mostly unavoidable  An integrated transportation strategy is most needed so that these modes of transport are integrated efficiently to facilitate the sustainable transportation .Introduction (Contd.) 9  Developing countries like India.

reliable and sustainable mobility for all in our towns and cities . affordable. comfortable. quick. safe.Vision Statement 10 To ensure easily accessible.

Proposed Policies Approaches  Attempts to take care of prolonged energy crisis (depletion of oil reserves)  Attending to the problems of Increased number and sizes of towns & cities and constant increase/explosion in motorized cities 11  Augment the urban circulation space leading to constant decrease in congestion/delays and pollution levels  Use of alternate fuels will accelerate the development of furthergenerations of vehicular technologies using hybrid/fuel cell powered ecofriendly vehicles (30%-40%) To encourage High capacity Transit vehicles.  .

will arrest migration to cities (20-30%).MRT)  For all these.LRT. work and invest in .IPT.Proposed Policies Approaches  Transportation of rural India through provision of total connectivity along with planned job creation . will help to work from houses (30-40%) leading to reduction in travel demand in cities.  All the future small and big cities will need eco-friendly mass transportation facilities (PRT. an efficient institutional set-up constitutionally empowered to do the neighbourhood planning along the integrated demand -oriented well planned mass transit systems corridors to make the future cities better places to live. 12  Exploitation of communication and information technologies.

Mass Transit  Available for use by all persons who pay the established fares 13  Common-carrier Urban Passenger Transport with fixed routes & schedules  They are described as fixed route and fixed schedule service .

Mass Transit Modes 14 Street Transit Mini Bus Semi rapid Transit Rapid Transit RTR RRT Special Transit Monorails Maglev Regular Bus Double-Decker Bus Semi rapid Bus Light Rail Transit RGR Articulated Bus Express Bus Trolley Bus Tramways Guided Bus Battery Operated Bus Water Borne Transport AGT .

and not limit to the economic. ecological. and social choices available to future generations Sustainable Transport Supportive system of conveying people & goods which has ability to bear the traffic volume for long time both quantitatively & qualitatively .Sustainable Development Concept Sustainability achieved for both social & physical systems by satisfying present needs without compromising need of future generations 15 Our transportation decisions and investments today should expand.

Air Pollution in Mumbai Sectorwise distribution of Pollution: Transport 64% Power 04% Domestic 15% Industrial 17% 16 Ambient Air Quality at Mahim Junction Item Observed Limits (µgm/Nm3) (µgm/Nm3) SO2 43 – 120 80 Nox 90 – 107 80 SPM 1144 – 3170 200 .

Moving Towards Sustainability 17  Smoother traffic flow and reduced congestion  Reduced fuel consumption  Reduced emissions  Encourage use of public transport  Improve highway safety  Reduced delays and increased efficiency .

support Transp.Main Components of Sustainable Development SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT MAIN COMPONENTS & INDICATIVE ISSUES SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT : :MAIN COMPONENTS & INDICATIVE ISSUES Technology Technology Fuels Fuels Economic Economic Regulation Regulation Laws Laws Investment Investment in Transp.phic phic Equity Equity EnvironEnvironEnvironmental mental Air Pollution Air Pollution 18 Social Social Health Health Implications Implications Pricing & Policies to Pricing & Policies to support Transp. Land use Planning and Transportation Infrastructure is the central idea of sustainable development Concept . Infrastructure Infrastructure Land Use Land Use Planning Planning Policies Policies Political Political DemograDemogra Demogra. in Transp.

1 – 0.Cost of EIA 19  One of the great uncertainties of EIA  Taken as 1 % of the project cost  May vary as per size of the projects  For small projects it may be 5 -10 % of the project cost  Large projects it may go down to 0.5 % .

Bilbao (Spain).fi/spartacus/ ) . Naples (Italy) Environment Society  Essentially adds Environmental & societal parameters in old system SPARTACUS System (Source: http:// www.SPARTACUS System 20  SPARTACUS – System for Planning & Research in Towns and Cities for Urban Sustainability Old System  Funded by European Commission  Tested in : Helsinki (Finland).ltcon.

/a Emissions of organic Compounds from transport EAOC t/1000inh.Spartacus System Environmental indicators Air Pollution Emissions of greenhouse gases from transport Emissions of acidifying cases from transport 21 EAGT t/1000 in h/a EAAT Meq/1000inh./a Consumption of natural resources Consumption of mineral oil products Land coverage ERMO ERLC ERCM 1000 t/1000 inh./a %points 1000 m2/1000 inh./a Consumptions of construction material .

/a #1000inh.Social indicators Exposure to particulate matter in the living environment Exposure to nitrogen dioxide in the living environment 22 SHEP %points SHED %points Health Exposure to carbon monoxide in the living environment Exposure to noise in the living environment Traffic deaths Traffic injuries Justice of exposure to particular SHEN %points SHEN %points SHTD SHTI SEJP #1000inh./a - Equity Justice of exposure to CO Justice of exposure to noise Segregation SEJD SEJN SES %points .

/a EAOC t/1000inh.23 Social indicators Emissions of greenhouse gases from transport Emissions of acidifying cases from transport EAGT t/1000 inh/a EAAT Opportunities Meq/1000inh./a Emissions of organic Compounds from transport Economic indicators Total benefit ECU/capita/a .

Methodology for EIA: Intra-city Projects  Sectoral Level  Programmatic Level (Replicable projects)  Project Level (Micro level) Impacts During • Construction 24  Travel  Economic  Social • Operation  Environmental / Ecological .

Concept of Integrated City Growth  Multi-Focus Growth/ Multi Central Business District  Availability of Mass Public Transit at walking distances 25  Intelligent Transport system for increased efficiency of Public Transport  Well-planned Land use Policies favoring Clustered development  Use of Alternative fuels and electric vehicles for improved environmental Implications  Planning of enough natural landscapes within the city area  Provisions of walk ways and bicycle lanes .

26 Integration of Transportation Modes (Essential Input in Integrated City Growth) .

Integration for Sustainable Development 27 an integrated transportation strategy is most needed so that these modes of transport work together efficiently to facilitate the sustainable transportation by supporting the system of conveying people & goods which has ability to bear the traffic volume for long time both quantitatively & qualitatively .

Advantages of the Integration  Demand is sliced in each mode with route integration  Proposed integrated systems can • drastically reduce the time of travel for the cross railway stations • increase the accessibility of the system • increase the safety of users • reduce the fuel consumption and emissions • reduce operation cost and user cost • be proved environmentally. economically and socially viable  Similar approach can be implemented to other growing or mega cities of India 28 .

BEST authorities.Types of Public Transit Integration 29 Physical integration. at the intermediate points or at the terminals with interchange facilities so that different modes can be switched over as per requirements & convenience Institutional integration is an arrangement which can be established among policies of different operating agencies like railways. BEST buses and Para transit etc. so that they can work in unison Operational integration is related in terms of scheduling and routing of different modes . local transport unions etc. in terms of integrating transport modes like rails.

Parameters Required for Efficient Integration Information Availability of comprehensive and real time information before the journey. at the 30 start of the journey and during it to increase attractiveness of multi-modal journeys Local Transport Forums Benefits of integration of varying transport modes can be recognized by these forums which may also provide a very effective mechanism to focus spending of funds and also enable effective consultation among the different transport groups Routing and Scheduling of Transit Network Planning of route network and operational planning of schedules is done by modelling which is most important phase of integrated urban mass transit network planning in a large urban area .

 Passengers can transfer freely and conveniently between transport modes Demarcation of service areas for each mode.Efficient Co-ordination at Transfer Points 31 Co-ordination implies presence of following attributes. . thereby minimizing duplication   Adjustments & interrelationships of schedules leading to operational integration  Joint fare structure.

of Integrated city Growth) 32 http://www.smrt.Singapore (Best Ex.sg/ .com.

customer-oriented Bus transit that delivers fast.Singapore   Supporting public transport and restricting the car usage altogether by providing 33 excellent customer care services.friendly mode of motorized travel     Enhanced Integrated Fare System Bus shelters upgraded to enhance the safety.Example. comfortable and lowcost urban mobility & also space-efficient. comfort and capacity Bus interchanges integrated with the MRT station and commercial buildings Covered link ways have been built to link MRT stations to buildings  Para-transit services are improved to supplement major public transport modes . terminal & intermediate facilities High quality. eco.

34 Case Study Proposed Integration in Mumbai .

99) Rail (1998 .91 Nil 1 5.8 5.4 NA NA .887 35 11.) Population (in million) (Census 2001 Provisional ) Greater Mumbai 468 Rest of MMR 3.99) 4. Km.90 982 6 Villages (1991) Municipal Corporations (December 2001) Municipal Councils (December 2001) Motor vehicles in March 2000 (in '000) Nil 970 13 NA Mass transport daily one way trips (in millions): Bus (1998 .Brief Description of Study Area Basic information on MMR AREA (Sq.

36 Western Suburbs Eastern Suburbs Greater Bombay Island City .

37 Suburbs .

Island City 38 .

5)    Limited road space and heavy growth in traffic has resulted into traffic congestion. there are about 4500 to 5400 passengers on a train against the capacity 1750 (load factor=3. three wheelers & private vehicles Bombay Suburban Train Service (BSTS) accounts for more than 20% of 39 passengers’ traffic carried by entire Indian Railway system In peak hours. reduced travel speed and poor level of service Large no of commuters are forced to walk for longer distances also from railway stations to their destinations Lack of co-ordination between public transit modes has led to very high individuals’ travel time and out of vehicle time which further leads to commuter dissatisfaction . BEST.Why Proposed Integration in Mumbai?    Urban transport in Mumbai is based on suburban trains. taxis.

Transport Modes for Integration Integration of existing /proposed rail and bus transport along with a sustainable solution Passenger water Transport 40  Twin railway corridor (WR & CR)  Proposed Master Plan for Mumbai Metro  Existing BEST bus routes  Proposed High Tech Bus Transit system  New concept of A-G-V MRTS /Sky Bus / LRT  Environment friendly Battery Powered Electrical Vehicles  Electric Trolley Bus .

Hence the fantasy of sustainable transport could be realized .Advantages of the Integration   41 Integration as an experiment basis is proposed such that the pollution and travel cost can be minimized and comfort and convenience can be maximized coordination between BEST buses & suburban railway system will ensure a well-integrated system which will take care of entire journey of commuters     The transfer time at railway stations will be reduced A shift of passenger from private & intermediate transport to public transport Reduction in congestion & delay. energy saving and better level of service.

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Andheri

Proposed Integration of Andheri-Ghatkopar route

Ghatkopar

Details of the Integration
 
Integration on the proposed Versova-Andheri-Ghatkoper LRT Metro with other
existing and proposed public modes of transport

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Influence area of each railway station will be free from presence of any other railway station, and then feeder routes should be developed so that duplication of
travel by train and bus will be avoided


If a node appears in influence area of one station, its connection from other railway
station should be discouraged The battery-powered emission-free mini buses are proposed to be used, to bring

the passengers from their homes to the nearest metro or suburban railway stations
within the influence area of the station

Every railway station should have a bus depot in its vicinity so that buses can start from railway stations to the selected destinations and are not interfered by autos
will lead to easily transfer of passengers and reduction in environmental pollution

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Andheri

Proposed Integration in Mumbai

Ghatkopar

Sub urban rail network 45 Metro rail network Road network Composite Network Layer .

SKY BUS View 46 .

fuel consumption – economic – no social problems .Advantages of Sky Bus        Fast transportation and good capacity No land acquisition problems 47 No vandalism Fire protection and no capsizing No run over accidents Deep penetration and no interference with normal road traffic Low capital cost: 50% of elevated rail system & 25% of underground metro for same performance standards  No air or noise pollution Integration of Sky Bus & Battery powered vehicle with existing system • Leading to sustainability – reduce the vehicular dependence. pollution.

48 High Tech Bus Transit System .

bus scheduling. ticketing.High-tech Bus Transit System 49  It incorporates most of the high-quality aspects of metro systems without the high investments  It uses available space on arterial roads of cities with dedicated bus-ways  It utilizes modern technologies for optimizing flow. passenger movement. and traffic signal priority .

The High-tech Bus Transit System (HBTS)  Exclusive Travel-Ways for buses ?? 50  Modern Buses  Rapid boarding and alighting  Efficient fare collection  Comfortable and efficient shelters and stations ??  Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) ??  Automatic tracking of buses  Efficient fleet management  Optimized schedules and routes .

The HCBS Pollution Characteristics  Emissions:  Modern LPG buses have lesser air and noise emission than the 51 traditional diesel buses  Electronic Trolley Buses (ETB) have no emission from the tailpipe and are the quietest transit mode .

with all stops & provides frequent service over the entire day  Express bus service Runs in residential area. & then enters the main line at a convenient point with fewer stops on the main line. halts at all the stops .The HBTS Services  Dedicated bus service 52 Runs along the main line. may be operated only in peak hours  Local bus service The most common bus service.

53 Delhi Metro Bangalore Metro Hyderabad Metro Mumbai Metro Chennai Metro Kolkata Metro .

Delhi Metro 54 .

DC = discomfort. . VEM = deterministic component of utility of Existing Mode. TC = travel cost. . WT = waiting time. =parameters to be estimated using SP data.Modal Utility Functions Pr(Metro / EM ) VMetro = VEM = WTMetro + WTEM + 55 eVMetro eVMetro eVEM DCMetro + CONST TTMetro + TCMetro + TTEM + TCEM + DCEM Pr(Metro/EM) = probability of shifting to Metro mode conditioned on existing mode (EM). and CONST = constant that explains the unobserved effects. . TT = travel time. VMetro = deterministic component of utility of Metro mode. .

Average Journey Speed 33Kmph 2. Emergency Wireless passenger and driver communication system . Comfortable Standing in A/c environment is assured 5.Metro Salient Features 56 1. State-of-art computerized ticketing system State-of-art safety systems 1. Power Back-up Facility 3. Trains will be provided at a convenient headway of 3 min. Automatic door closing with safety precaution 2. Cost of Travel will be comparable to BEST Fare 3. Fire-resistant Coaches 4. 4.

EIA Related Issues During Construction  Cutting of Trees 57  Drainage of waste water from construction activities. telephone and electricity lines Effort has been taken to avoid all above issues in Const.  Disposal of soil coming out of Tunneling & other excavations. machinery Handling of traffic around the site Air & noise Pollution by vehicles used in construction activities Water. & Operation of Delhi Metro ..     Noise pollution caused by const.

exhaust facilities. .  Easy and efficient mob-dispersal facilities.  Ventilation and illumination in case of power failure.  Safety of passengers including emergency evacuation etc.EIA Issues During Operation  Regular and emergency air. 58  Fire protection.

Delhi Metro – An Eco.friendly Project  For every tree cut. 10 trees are planted as compensatory afforestation  Around 26000 trees have been planted  A detailed EIA in 1994 to minimize negative impacts of project during construction  Storm water drains identified for drainage of wastewater from construction 59  Sites earmarked at convenient locations for disposal of soil  Close check on air & noise pollution during construction  Rehabilitation & fire protection measures  Sites covered by the boundaries .

Other Policy Measures for Sustainable Development  SPARTACUS System of Planning 60  Intelligent Transportation System  Alternative Fuels & Electric Vehicles  Environmental Impact Assessment  Institutional Capacity Building .

61 Intelligent Transportation Systems (Important Input for Efficient Transportation Planning) .

computers. and electronics technology  Provides real-time data and traffic information  ITS is the application of modern computer and communication technologies to improve  safety  mobility  air quality and  productivity of personal and commercial travel .ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) 62  Combines telecommunications. sensing.

ITS Information Technology 63 Geographical Information System (GIS) Global Positioning System (GPS) Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Mobile Communications (MC) .

Media and Systems ITS Media and System 64 Digital Maps Smart Cards Computers & Sensors Radio Frequency Identifiers Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) .

Benefits of ITS  Improved Safety/Accident 65         Better Traffic Flow Lower Travel Cost Better Environment Quality Increased Business Activity Faster Construction Cost Recovery Greater User Acceptance Better Travel Information Better Planning Information .

ITS in Transit (Conceptual Layout) Advanced Public Transit Systems Route Destination Display Adaptive Signal Timing and Communication Control Automated Fare Collection and Passenger Counting Automated Vehicle Location and Vehicle Identification RTA $ OR Smart Card Reader Silent Alarm Driver Information Display Vehicle Diagnostics .

Surveillance System Traffic Detection 67 Inductive Loops Detection System Close Circuit Television (CCTV) Wide Area Video Detection System Infrared Laser Detection System .

Traffic Signal Control .

Incident Management .

Emergency Management .

Electronic Toll Collection .

Real Time Traveler information .

ITS enable key Route Bus 73 .

Fare collection system 74 .

Automatic Vehicle Location 75 .

Automatic Ticketing Gates (Sky Bus) 76 .

Incident Command Centre Traffic Incident 1 Traffic Incident 2 77 Control Room Incident Command Law & Traffic Police Emergency Medical Services Fire & Rescue Services Control Rescue & Maintenance Services .

Tokyo) . Yokohama) Intelligent route guidance ( Ex.Examples of ITS    78 Smart Road Project (VTI) Smart Vehicles (Germany) Rail-cum-road service coordination (Toronto / Asiad ’82 )    Smart network reliability information system Intelligent parking system (Ex.

System (Ex.Pune Expressway 79   Smart registration (RTO – Mumbai) GIS/GPS based traveler info. Germany. Australia. Reliance trucking. Mantralaya & Bandra in Mumbai). SCAT/SCOOT SCOOT (New Delhi) but should be with bus priority Sky Bus .Examples of ITS (India)   Intelligent bridge (BWSL) Mumbai.)    Signal Coordination using TRANSYT (Ex.

GPS System soon Vision Mumbai Project: 80 are planning to introduce a modernized taxi service by introducing GPS and two-way radio communication to help them navigate Collaboration with Japanese firm and Indian companies is under process for purchase the vehicles and lease them out to drivers Source: TOI dated 14/09/2004 & 11/09/2004 .Mumbai BEST Buses & City Cabs .

GPS System soon 81 Source: TOI dated 14/09/2004 Source: TOI dated 11/09/2004 .Mumbai City Cabs .

82 Alternative Fuels for Integrated & Sustainable city Growth .

Alternative Fuels Definition 83  Fuels derived from non – crude oil resources  e. biodiesel. All vehicular fuel other than petrol and diesel  Example includes CNG. g. methanol. hydrogen and electricity Why alternative fuels are important  Cost effective reduction in harmful emissions  Better environment  Reduced health risks .

needs high insulation materials  Contributes to Global Warming when released in atmosphere  Decreased specific power output of vehicles  Hurts vehicle acceleration due to heavy weight . a fossil fuel. is compressed  Compression decreases storage vol. to obtain operating range 84  High octane rating hence good spark ignition engine fuel Disadvantages  Storage at sub zero temp.Compressed Natural Gas  As a transportation fuel. natural gas.

CNG may be Polluting !! 85 .

Mutagenicity via Modified Ames Assay 86 .

000 crores last year  Over 2 lakhs families in Chattisgarh will cultivate 20 million tonnes of bio-diesel by 2005  The state has produced 30. Jatropha. devoid of sulphur and low in emissions 87  India’s oil import bill is expected to be Rs.  Similar to diesel fuels with same physical characteristics  Biodegradable fuel. Neem.Bio-Diesel  Transesterfied vegetable oil derived from oils of plants & animals  Plant sources – Mahua.000 crores this year as compared to Rs. 217. 97. Castor etc.000 tonnes of jatropha seeds last year which were distributed throughout the country .

Methanol
 Produced from coal & natural gas  Made either by steam formation of Natural gas or municipal waste

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 Much higher octane rating than typical gasoline  Higher compression ratio & increased thermal efficiency
 Hydrogen can be generated which is used for fuel cell Disadvantages
 Lower energy density
 Contact with metals & alloys may cause corrosion  Fuel hoses made of elastomers get hardened & cracked
Source: Indian Journal of Transport Management (2004)

Ethanol
 Produced from fermentation technology

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 Sugarcane can be a good manufacturing source  Reduced emission of NOx, CO, smoke & SPM
 High octane rating  Either blended with petrol or used as complete replacement

Disadvantages
 Soluble in water hence storage & handling problem

 Production of Acetaldehyde leads to ground level ozone formation
Source: Indian Journal of Transport Management (2004)

Battery Powered Electric Vehicle

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 smokeless, noiseless, oil free  low maintenance vehicle with recurring savings of petrol or diesel  keep environment clean

 ideally suited as public transport in congested areas, hospitals,
schools, places of historic importance

IIT Bombay’s Electric Vehicle Times of India (24th March. 2002) 91 IIT Bombay’s Beloved Tum Tum … .

Summary  Definition & Elements of Sustainable Transport are discussed 92   Tried to achieve the goal of Sustainable development Various policy measures for sustainable transport planning have been considered and discussed   Methodology for EIA have been developed in the light of sustainable development Master Planning for Mumbai was discussed    Prioritization of Metro Corridors for detailed engineering and Execution Integration of the Mass Transit systems is stressed Minimization of the negative impacts and Maximisation of positive Benefits .

.Summary  Intelligent transport systems can add to the efficiency of transportation facilities  Integration of transportation systems is indispensable for sustainable development 93  Environmental Impact assessment and alternative fuels can take care of the environmental implications of the transportation systems Target through  MUTP-II  Load Factor on Sub-urban Trains from 3. live and invest .5 to 2.5  All these measures resulting into a sustainable development making cities better places to work.5  Additionally integrated with Metro Load Factor on Sub-urban Trains to 1.

convenient.  A suitably designed integrated urban mass transit network with state-of-the-art interchange facility will ensure safe. alternative fuels etc.Conclusions   Awareness of sustainable development issues has resulted in a trend towards 94 planned & integrated multimodal transport development An efficient integrated system will reduce private & intermediate transport and reduce delay due to congestion & a better level of service can be maintained   Improving performance of different modes will achieve goals of sustainable development Integrated city growth favours the idea of Smart growth & adopts concepts like Integration of modes. ITS. comfortable & less time consuming travel with no extra pressure on one transport mode . integrated land use transportation planning.

will help to work from houses (30-40%) will reduce in travel demand in cities Integrated demand – oriented.planned and ecofriendly mass transit systems corridors supported by ITS to make future cities better places to live.)  Planned horizontal expansion of cities but to a limited extent  Transformation of rural India through provision of total connectivity along with planned job creation .Conclusions (contd.will prevent migration to cities (20-30%) 95  Exploitation of communication and information technologies. work & invest in . well.

ac.civil.ac.in Home Page: http://www.iitb.iitb.96 Thank You ! Transportation Systems Engineering Department of Civil Engineering IIT Bombay E-Mail: dhingra@civil.in/~dhingra/index.html .