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# Exercises on Fourier Series

Exercise Set 1
1. Find the Fourier series of the function f deﬁned by
f(x) =
_
−1 if −π < x < 0,
1 if 0 < x < π.
and f has period 2π. What does the Fourier series converge to at x = 0?
Answer: f(x) ∼
4
π

n=0
sin(2n + 1)x
(2n + 1)
. The series converges to 0. So,
in order to make the Fourier series converge to f(x) for all x we must
deﬁne f(0) = 0.
2. What is the Fourier series of the function f of period 2π deﬁned by
f(x) =
_
1 if −π < x < 0,
3 if 0 < x < π.
What does the series converge to when x = 0?
Answer: f(x) ∼ 2 +
4
π

n=0
sin(2n + 1)x
(2n + 1)
. The series converges to 2, that
is, the average value of f around 0, namely, (1 + 3)/2 = 2.
3. Let h be a given number in the interval (0, π). Find the Fourier cosine
series of the function
f(x) =
_
1 if 0 < x < h,
0 if h < x < π.
Answer: f(x) ∼
2h
π
_
1
2
+

n=1
sin(nh)
nh
cos nx
_
.
1
2 The ABC’s of Calculus
4. Calculate the Fourier sine series of the function deﬁned by f(x) = x(π−x)
on (0, π). Use its Fourier representation to ﬁnd the value of the inﬁnite
series
1 −
1
3
3
+
1
5
3

1
7
3
+
1
9
3
+ . . . .
Answer: f(x) ∼
8
π

n=1
sin(2n −1)x
(2n −1)
3
. Set x =
π
2
and rearrange terms to
get the value
π
3
32
.
5. Let h be a given number in the interval (0,
π
2
). Find the Fourier cosine
series representation of
f(x) =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 if x = 0,
2h −x
2h
if 0 < x < 2h,
0 if 2h < x < π.
where f is of period 2π.
Answer: f(x) ∼
2h
π
_
1
2
+

n=1
_
sin nh
nh
_
2
cos nx
_
6. What is the Fourier sine series of f(x) =
π
4

x
2
, where 0 < x < π.
Answer: f(x) ∼

n=1
sin 2nx
2n
.
7. What is the Fourier cosine series of f(x) =
π
4

x
2
, where 0 < x < π.
Answer: f(x) ∼
2
π

n=0
cos(2n + 1)x
(2n + 1)
2
.
8. What is the Fourier sine series of f(x) = x
2
where 0 < x < π.
Answer: f(x) ∼
2
π

n=1
(−1)
n+1
_
π
2
n
+
2
n
3
((−1)
n
−1)
_
sinnx.
9. Find the Fourier series of f(x) = |x| where −L < x < L.
Answer: f(x) ∼
L
2

4L
π
2

n=0
1
(2n + 1)
2
cos
_
(2n + 1)πx
L
_
.
10. Calculate the Fourier series of f(x) = x
2
where 0 < x < 2π and f has
period 2π.
Answer: f(x) ∼

2
3
+ 4

n=1
cos nx
n
2
−4π

n=1
sin nx
n
.
Functions and their properties 3
11. The function f is deﬁned by f(x) = e
x
for −L < x < L. Find its Fourier
series.
Answer: f(x) ∼
e
L
−e
−L
2L
+ L(e
L
− e
−L
)

n=1
(−1)
n
L
2
+ n
2
π
2
cos
_
nπx
L
_
+
π(e
L
−e
−L
)

n=1
n(−1)
n−1
L
2
+ n
2
π
2
sin
_
nπx
L
_
.
12. Let a be a given integer. The function f is deﬁned by f(x) = sin ax for
0 < x < π. Find its Fourier cosine series.
Answer:
sin ax ∼
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
4a
π

n=0
cos(2n + 1)x
a
2
−(2n + 1)
2
if a is even,
4a
π
_
1
2a
2
+

n=1
cos 2nx
a
2
−4n
2
_
if a is odd.
13. A function f has the property that f(x+π) = −f(x) for all x. Show that
all its even Fourier coeﬃcients are zero (i.e., a
0
= a
2
= a
4
= a
6
= . . . =
0, b
2
= b
4
= b
6
= . . . = 0).
Hint: Show that f must be periodic with period 2π.
14. A function f satisﬁes the two conditions
f(−x) = f(x)
and f(x + π) = −f(x) for all x. Show that its Fourier coeﬃcients satisfy
a
0
= a
2
= a
4
= a
6
= . . . = 0, b
1
= b
2
= b
3
= b
4
= . . . = 0).
15. Let f be a function with the properties
f(−x) = −f(x)
and f(x + π) = −f(x) for all x. Show that its Fourier coeﬃcients satisfy
a
0
= a
1
= a
2
= a
3
= . . . = 0, b
2
= b
4
= b
6
= . . . = 0).
Suggested Homework Set 1 Do problems 1, 3, 4, 5, 10, 13

where f is of period 2π. where 0 < x < π..  1      2h − x f (x) = if 0 < x < 2h. Calculate the Fourier series of f (x) = x2 where 0 < x < 2π and f has period 2π. Answer: f (x) ∼ 4π 2 +4 3 cos nx − 4π n2 n=1 ∞ sin nx . get the value 32 sin(2n − 1)x . ). where 0 < x < π. What is the Fourier cosine series of f (x) = Answer: f (x) ∼ 2 π cos(2n + 1)x . 4 2 6. n n 9. 4 2 8. π). (2n + 1)2 n=0 ∞ π x − .2 The ABC’s of Calculus 4. Answer: f (x) ∼ 2 π ∞ n=1 (−1)n+1 π2 2 + 3 ((−1)n − 1) sin nx.. What is the Fourier sine series of f (x) = Answer: f (x) ∼ sin 2nx . Answer: f (x) ∼ 2h π 1 + 2 n=1 ∞ sin nh nh 2 cos nx x π − . Set x = (2n − 1)3 n=1 ∞ π 2 and rearrange terms to π 5. n n=1 ∞ . Answer: f (x) ∼ L 4L − 2 2 π 1 cos (2n + 1)2 n=0 ∞ (2n + 1)πx L .  2h      0 if 2h < x < π. Use its Fourier representation to ﬁnd the value of the inﬁnite series 1 1 1 1 1 − 3 + 3 − 3 + 3 + . What is the Fourier sine series of f (x) = x2 where 0 < x < π. Find the Fourier series of f (x) = |x| where −L < x < L. 3 5 7 9 8 Answer: f (x) ∼ π π3 .. Find the Fourier cosine 2 series representation of  if x = 0. Let h be a given number in the interval (0. 10. 2n n=1 ∞ 7. Calculate the Fourier sine series of the function deﬁned by f (x) = x(π −x) on (0.

b2 = b4 = b6 = . b2 = b4 = b6 = . Let f be a function with the properties f (−x) = −f (x) and f (x + π) = −f (x) for all x. . b1 = b2 = b3 = b4 = . 15. = 0). . sin L 2 + n2 π 2 L n=1 (−1)n nπx cos 2 + n2 π 2 L L n=1 ∞ + 12. A function f satisﬁes the two conditions f (−x) = f (x) and f (x + π) = −f (x) for all x. 13 . The function f is deﬁned by f (x) = ex for −L < x < L. Answer:   4a      π    4a      π sin ax ∼ cos(2n + 1)x a2 − (2n + 1)2 n=0 1 cos 2nx + 2 2a a2 − 4n2 n=1 ∞ ∞ if a is even. = 0.Functions and their properties 3 11. = 0. . . The function f is deﬁned by f (x) = sin ax for 0 < x < π. . . . if a is odd. = 0. a0 = a2 = a4 = a6 = . 14. Hint: Show that f must be periodic with period 2π. Show that its Fourier coeﬃcients satisfy a0 = a2 = a4 = a6 = . . 4.e. = 0). A function f has the property that f (x + π) = −f (x) for all x. Find its Fourier series. Show that all its even Fourier coeﬃcients are zero (i. . Suggested Homework Set 1 Do problems 1. Answer: f (x) ∼ π(eL − e−L ) ∞ eL − e−L + L(eL − e−L ) 2L n (−1)n−1 nπx . . 10. = 0). . 3. Let a be a given integer. 13. Show that its Fourier coeﬃcients satisfy a0 = a1 = a2 = a3 = . Find its Fourier cosine series. .. 5.