June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 1
1. Advanced Transmission
Line Theory
http://pesona.mmu.edu.my/~wlkung/ADS/ads.htm
The information in this work has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable.
The author does not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information
presented herein, and shall not be responsible for any errors, omissions or damages
as a result of the use of this information.
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 2
Preface
• Transmission lines and waveguides are the most important elements in
microwave or RF circuits and systems.
• Transmission lines and waveguides are used to connect various
components together to form a complex circuit. This is similar to low
frequency circuit, where we use wires or copper track to connect the
various components in an electronic circuit.
• In addition, you will see later that many types of microwave
components are fabricated from short sections of transmission lines or
waveguides.
• For these reasons, a lot of emphasis is placed on understanding the
behavior of electromagnetic fields in transmission lines and
waveguides.
Transmission line
2
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 3
References
• [1] R. E. Collin, “Foundation for microwave engineering”, 2nd edition,
1992, McGrawHill.
• [2] D. M. Pozar, “Microwave engineering”, 2nd edition, 1998 JohnWiley
& Sons. (3
rd
edition, 2005 is also available from JohnWiley & Sons).
• [3] S. Ramo, J.R. Whinnery, T.D. Van Duzer, “Field and waves in
communication electronics” 3rd edition, 1993 JohnWiley & Sons.
• [4] C. R. Paul, “Introduction to electromagnetic compatibility”, John
Wiley & Sons, 1992.
A very advanced and indepth book on microwave
engineering. Difficult to read but the information is
very comprehensive. A classic work. Recommended.
Easier to read and understand. Also a good book.
Recommended.
Good coverage of EM theory with emphasis on
applications.
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 4
References Cont...
• [5] F. Kung, “Modeling of highspeed printed circuit board.” Master
degree dissertation, 1997, University Malaya.
http://pesona.mmu.edu.my/~wlkung/Master/mthesis.htm
• [6] F. Kung unpublished notes and works.
3
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 5
1.0 Review of
Electromagnetic (EM) Fields
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 6
Electric and Magnetic Fields (1)
• In an electronic system, such as on PCB assembly, there are electric
charges (q). To make our electronic system works, we essentially control
electric charges (the charge density and rate of flow on various point in
the circuit).
• Flow of electric charges due to potential difference (V) produces electric
current (I).
• Associated with charge is electric field (E) and with current is magnetic
field (H) *, collectively called Electromagnetic (EM) fields.
+q
1
Test charge
+ q
2
Test
current I
2
Force F
B I F
r r r
× =
2
Force F
r
E q F
r
q q
ˆ
2
2 1
4
1
2
⋅ =
=
πε
r r
Coulomb’s Law
r
E
*The magnetic field is B = µ µµ µH,
H is the magnetization.
To detect an E field we use
an electric charge. To detect
H field we use a current loop
H
I
4
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 7
Electric and Magnetic Fields (2)
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+





• E fields, by convention is directed from conductor with
higher potential to conductor with less potential.
• Direction indicates force experienced by a small test charge
according to Coulomb’s Force Law.
• Density of the field lines corresponds to strength of the field.
Force on a test charge q
q
• H fields, by convention is directed according
to the righthand rule.
• Direction indicates force experienced by a small
test current according to Lorentz’s Force Law.
•Density of field lines corresponds to strength
of the field.
E fields
H fields
( ) B v q F × =
r F
r
Qq
o
)
2 4
1
⋅ =
πε
+I
I
Conductor
Conductor
Conductor
Conductor
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 8
Maxwell Equations (Linear Medium)  Time
Domain Form (1)
0 = ⋅ ∇
= ⋅ ∇
+ = × ∇
− = × ∇
∂
∂
∂
∂
B
D
D J H
B E
v
t
t
r
r
r r r
r r
ρ
Where:
E – Electric field intensity
H – Auxiliary magnetic field
D – Electric flux
B – Magnetic field intensity
J – Current density
ρ
v
– Volume charge density
ε
o
– permittivity of free space
(≅8.85412×10
12
)
µ
o
– permeability of free space
(4π×10
7
)
ε
r
– relative permittivity
µ
r
– relative permeability
Gauss’s law
Modified Ampere’s law
Faraday’s law
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) t z y x
z t z y x J y t z y x J x t z y x J J
z t z y x H y t z y x H x t z y x H H
z t z y x E y t z y x E x t z y x E E
v v
z y x
z y x
z y x
, , ,
ˆ , , , ˆ , , , ˆ , , ,
ˆ , , , ˆ , , , ˆ , , ,
ˆ , , , ˆ , , , ˆ , , ,
ρ ρ =
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
r
r
r
x
y
z
Unit vector in xdirection
x component
No name, but can
be called Gauss’s law
for magnetic field
For linear medium
Constitutive
relations
Each parameter depends on 4 independent variables
5
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 9
Maxwell Equations (Linear Medium) 
TimeDomain Form (2)
• Maxwell Equations as shown are actually a collection of 4 partial
differential equations (PDE) that describe the physical relationship
between electromagnetic (EM) fields, current and electric charge.
• The Del operator is a shorthand for threedimensional (3D)
differentiation:
• For instance consider the 1
st
and 3
rd
Maxwell Equations:
( ) z y x
z y x
ˆ ˆ ˆ
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
+ + = ∇
( )
ε
ρ
= + + = ⋅ ∇
+ + − =

¹

\

− + 
¹

\

− +

¹

\

− = = × ∇
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
z
E
y
E
x
E
z y x
t
y
E
x
E
x
E
z
E
z
E
y
E
z y x
z y x
z
y
x
x
y
z x
y
z
E
z B y B x B
z y x
E E E
z y x
E
~
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ
~
To truly understands this subject, and also
RF/Microwave circuit design, one needs
to have a strong grasp of Electromagnetism (EM).
Read references [1], [3] or any good book on EM.
Curl
Divergence
z y x F
z
F
y
F
x
F
) )
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
+ + = ∇ ˆ
Gradient
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 10
Extra: Wave Function and Phasor (1)
z
z
t
o
t
o
+∆t
Time t
z
o
( ) k f z t f
o o
= − ) ( β ω
( ) ( )
( ) z t k f
z z t t f
o o
∆ − ∆ + =
∆ + − ∆ +
β ω
β ω ) (
z
o
+∆z
∆z
We see that the shape moves by within
a period of ∆t, thus phase velocity v
p
:
( ) ( )
β
ω
β ω
β ω β ω
= = ⇒
∆ = ∆ ⇒
∆ + − ∆ + = −
∆
∆
t
z
p
o o o o
v
z t
z z t t z t
) ( z t f β ω −
A general function describing propagating
wave in +z direction
For a wave function
in –z direction:
( ) z t f β ω +
Direction of
travel
These 2 terms
must cancel off
i.e. ∆z positive
When time increases by ∆t,
we see that we must
increase all position by ∆z to
maintain the shape. In
essence the waveform
travels in +z direction.
6
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 11
Extra: Wave Function and Phasor (2)
• An example:
( ) z ft V t z v
o
β π − = 2 cos ) , (
1 , MHz 0 1 = = β . f
z
v(z,t)
β
π
β
ω
f
p
v
2
= =
Phase Velocity:
A sinusoidal wave
β
π
λ
2
= wavelength
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 12
Extra: Wave Function and Phasor (3)
• In many ways the frequency f does not carry much information. If a linear
system is excited by a sinusoidal source with frequency f, we know the
response at every point in the system will be sinusoidal with frequency f.
• It is the phase constant β which carries more information, it determines the
velocity and wavelength, of the wave.
• Thus it is more convenient if we convert the expressions for EM fields into
phasor or TimeHarmonic form, as shown below:
( ) z t β ω m cos
z j
e
β m
( ) z ft V t z v
o
β π − = 2 cos ) , (
z j
o
e V z
β −
= ) ( V
Phasor for v(z,t)
( ) { }
z j t j
e e z t
β ω
β ω
m
m Re cos =
More compact form
Convention: small letter for timedomain
form, capital letter for phasor.
Using Euler’s formula
α α
α
sin cos j e
j
+ =
Euler’s formula
1 − = j
7
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 13
Extra: Wave Function and Phasor (4)
• Wave function and phasor notation is not only applicable to quantities
like voltage, current or charge. It is also applied to vector quantities like
E and H fields.
• For instance for sinusoidal E field traveling in +z direction:
• The phasor is given by:
• Finally if we substitute the phasor form for E, H, J and ρ into
timedomain Maxwell’s Equations, we would obtain the Maxwell’s
Equations in timeharmonic form.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) { }
t j z j
o z y x
z y x
e e E z t z e y e x e
z z t y x e y z t y x e x z t y x e t z y x E
ω β
β ω
β ω β ω β ω
− +
+
= − + + =
− + − + − =
r
r
Re cos ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ cos , ˆ cos , ˆ cos , , , ,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) z e y x e y e y x e x e y x e z y x
z j
z
z j
y
z j
x
ˆ , ˆ , ˆ , , ,
β β β − − − +
+ + = Ε
r
t j z j
o
e e E
ω β − +
r
Pattern function
(x, y dependent)
Propogating function
E
o
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 14
Maxwell Equations (Linear Medium)  Time
Harmonic Form (1)
• For sinusoidal variations with time t, we substitute the phasors for E, H, J
and ρ into Maxwell’s Equations, the result are Maxwell’s Equations in
timeharmonic form.
0 B
ρ D
D J H
B E
v
= ⋅ ∇
= ⋅ ∇
+ = × ∇
− = × ∇
r
r
r r r
r r
ω
ω
j
j
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) z y x
z z y x y z y x x z y x
z z y x y z y x x z y x
z z y x y z y x x z y x
, , ρ ρ
ˆ , , J ˆ , , J ˆ , , J J
ˆ , , H ˆ , , H ˆ , , H H
ˆ , , E ˆ , , E ˆ , , E E
v v
z y x
z y x
z y x
=
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
r
r
r
Where:
For linear medium
Constitutive
relations
E – Electric field intensity
H – Auxiliary magnetic field
D – Electric flux
B – Magnetic field intensity
J – Current density
ρ
v
 Volume charge density
ε
o
– permittivity of free space
(≅8.85412×10
12
)
µ
o
– permeability of free space
(4π×10
7
)
ε
r
– relative permittivity
µ
r
– relative permeability
(1.2a)
(1.2b)
(1.2c)
(1.2d)
ω j
t
→
∂
∂
Each parameter depends on 3 independent variables
8
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 15
Electromagnetic Spectrum
ELF VLF LF
MF
(MW)
HF
(SW)
VHF UHF SHF EHF IR
100
Hz
10
kHz
100
kHz
1
MHz
3
MHz
30
MHz
300
MHz
1
GHz
30
GHz
300
GHz
A
M
M
i
c
r
o
w
a
v
e
s
F
M
L S C X Ku K Ka mm
1
GHz
2
GHz
4
GHz
8
GHz
12
GHz
18
GHz
27
GHz
40
GHz
300
GHz
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 16
A Little Perspective…
• Voltage/Potential
• Current
• Inductance
• Capacitance
• Resistance
• Conductance
• Kirchoff’s Voltage Law
(KVL)
• Kirchoff’s Current Law
(KCL)
0
~
~
~ ~ ~
~ ~
= ⋅ ∇
= ⋅ ∇
+ = × ∇
− = × ∇
∂
∂
∂
∂
B
E
E J B
H E
t
t
ε
ρ
µε µ
µ
t
J
∂
∂
− = ⋅ ∇
ρ ~
+
Conservation of charge
Quantum Mechanics
/Physics
Chemistry
Electronics &
Microelectronics
Information
Computer
& Telecommunication
9
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 17
2.0 Introduction –
Transmission Line
Concepts
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 18
Definition of Electrical Interconnect
• Interconnect  metallic conductors that is used to transport electrical
energy from one point of a circuit to another.
• Example:
• Thus cables, wires, conductive tracks on printed circuit board
(PCB), sockets, packaging, metallic tubes etc. are all examples of
interconnect.
Conductor
Interconnect
Transverse
Plane
Axial
Direction
z
y
x
1. Usually contains 2 or more
conductors, to form a closed
circuit.
2. Conductors assumed to be
perfect electric conductors (PEC)
Coaxial cable
Ribbon cable
Waveguide
Socket
PCB Traces
10
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 19
Short Interconnect – Lumped Circuit
• For short interconnect, the moment the switch is closed, a voltage will
appear across R
L
as current flows through it. The effect is instantaneous.
• Voltage and current are due to electric charge movement along the
interconnect.
• Associated with the electric charges are static electromagnetic (EM) field in
the space surrounding the short interconnect.
• The short interconnect system can be modeled by lumped RLC circuit.
z
y
x
EM field is static or quasi
static.
Electric charge
V
s
+

R
L
Static EM field changes
uniformly, i.e. when field at one
point increases, field at the
other locations also increases.
L
R
G
C
Again we need to
stress that typically
the values of RLCG
are very small, at
low frequency their
effect can be simply
ignored.
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 20
Long Interconnect (1)
• If the interconnection is long, it takes some time for voltage and current
to appear on the resistor R
L
after the switch is closed.
• Electric charges move from V
s
to the resistor R
L
. As the charges move,
there is an associated EM field which travels along with the charges.
• In effect there is a propagating EM field along the interconnect. The
propagating EM field is called a wave and the interconnect is guiding
the EM wave, this EM field is dynamic.
• Since any arbitrary waveform can be decomposed into its sinusoidal
components, let us consider V
s
to be a sinusoidal source.
L
+

V
s
R
L
Long interconnect:
When there is an
appreciable delay
between input and
output
Without the metal conductors, the EM
waves will disperse, i.e. radiated out
into space.
11
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 21
Long Interconnect (2)
• A simple animation…
t=t
o
H field
E field
Positive charge
t=t
o
+ ∆t
t=t
o
+ 2∆t
t=t
o
+ 3∆t
I
L
V
L
R
L
+

V
s
t=t
o
+ n∆t
Transverse
Plane
Axial
Direction
z
y
x
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 22
Long Interconnect (3)
• The corresponding EM field generated when electric charge flows along
the interconnect is also sinusoidal with respect to time and space. The
EM fields characteristics are dictated by Maxwell’s Equations.
Electric field (E)
Magnetic field (H)
L
T
t
1/T = frequency
• Remember that
current is due to the
flow of free
electrons.
• E and H are also
sinusoidal.
• Behavior of E and
H are dictated by
Maxwell’s
Equations:
12
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 23
Long Interconnect (4)
Electric field (E)
Magnetic field (H)
L
Propagating EM fields
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
z j
z t
z j
z
z j
y
z j
x
e z y x e y x e
z e y x e y e y x e x e y x e E
β
β β β
−
− − − +
+ =
+ + =
ˆ , ,
ˆ , ˆ , ˆ ,
r
r
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
z j
z t
z j
z
z j
y
z j
x
e z y x h y x h
z e y x h y e y x h x e y x h H
β
β β β
−
− − − +
+ =
+ + =
ˆ , ,
ˆ , ˆ , ˆ ,
r
r
By analyzing Maxwell’s
Equations or Wave
Equations (Appendix 1)
Snapshot of EM fields
at a certain instant in time
on the transverse plane
z
y
x
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 24
Voltage and Current on Interconnect (1)
• Voltage or potential difference is the energy needed to bring 1 Coulomb
of electric charge from a reference point (GND) to another (signal).
• Current is the rate of flow of electric charge across a surface.
• From Coulomb’s Law and Ampere’s Law in Electromagnetism, these two
quantities are related to E and H fields.
• We are interested in transverse voltage V
t
and current I
t
as shown.
Loop 1
( )
∫
⋅ =
1 Loop
, l d H t z I
t
r r
I
t
(z,t)
V
t
(z,t)
( )
∫
⋅ − =
b
a
t
l d E t z V
r r
,
a
b
13
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 25
Voltage and Current on Interconnect (2)
• V
t
= Potential difference between two points on transverse plane and I
t
=
Rate of flow of electric charge across a conductor surface.
• V
t
and I
t
depends on instantaneous E and H fields on the interconnect,
and correspond to how we would measure them physically with probes
• V
t
and I
t
will be unique (e.g. do not depend on measurement setup, but
only on the location) if and only if the EM field propagation mode in the
interconnect is TEM or quasiTEM.
Measuring voltage
Measuring current
Line integration
path of E field
Line integration
path of H field
See discussion in Appendix 1:
Advanced Concepts – Field Theory
Solutions for more information.
Transverse
plane
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 26
Demonstration  Electromagnetic Field
Propagation in Interconnect (1)
• The following example simulate the behavior of EM field in a simple
interconnection system.
• The system is a 3D model of a copper trace with a plane on the bottom.
• A numerical method, known as FiniteDifference TimeDomain (FDTD)
is applied to Maxwell’s Equations, to provide the approximate value of
E and H fields at selected points on the model at every 1.0 picosecond
interval. (Search WWW or see http://pesona.mmu.edu.my/~wlkung/Phd/phdthesis.htm)
• Field values are displayed at an interval of 25.0 picoseconds.
Copper trace
GND plane
100Ω SMD resistor
z
y
x
50Ω resistive
voltage source
connected here
FR4 dielectric
14
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 27
Demonstration  Electromagnetic Field
Propagation in Interconnect (2)
Intensity
Scale
Magnitude
of E
z
in
dielectric
0.5mm
PCB dielectric:
FR4, ε
r
= 4.4,
σ= 5.
Thickness
=1.0mm.
+

V
s
V
o
= 3.0V
t
r
= 50ps
t
HIGH
= 100ps
0.75mm
0.8mm
Show simulation using CST Microwave
Studio too
19.2mm
y
x
z
Filename: tline1_XZplane.avi
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 28
Demonstration  Electromagnetic Field
Propagation in Interconnect (3)
V
o
= 3.0V
t
r
= 50ps
t
HIGH
= 100ps
Magnitude
of E
z
in
YZ plane
Volts
Filename: tline1_YZplane.avi
y
x
z
Probe of signal generator
15
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 29
Definition of Transmission Line
• A transmission line is a long interconnect with 2 conductors – the signal
conductor and ground conductor for returning current.
• Multiconductor transmission line has more than 2 conductors, usually a
few signal conductors and one ground conductor.
• Transmission lines are a subset of a broader class of devices, known
as waveguide. Transmission line has at least 2 or more conductors,
while waveguides refer collectively to any structures that can allow EM
waves to propagate along the structure. This includes structures with
only 1 conductor or no conductor at all.
• Widely known waveguides include the rectangular and circular
waveguides for high power microwave system, and the optical fiber.
Waveguide is used for system requiring (1) high power, (2) very low
loss interconnect (3) high isolation between interconnects.
• Transmission line is more popular and is widely used in
PCB. From now on we will be concentrating on
transmission line, or Tline for short.
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 30
Typical Transmission Line
Configurations
Coaxial line
Microstrip line
Stripline
Parallel plate line Coplanar line
Twowire line
Conductor
Dielectric
Slot line
Shielded microstrip line
These conductors
are physically
connected somewhere
in the circuit
16
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 31
Some Multiconductor Transmission
Line Configurations
Conductor
Dielectric
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 32
Typical Waveguide Configurations
Rectangular waveguide Circular waveguide
Optical Fiber
Dielectric waveguide
17
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 33
Examples of Microstrip and Coplanar
Lines
Microstrip
Coplanar
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 34
Long or Short Interconnect? The
Wavelength RuleofThumb
λ f v
p
=
Phase velocity or
propagation velocity
wavelength
frequency
f λ
f λ
Interconnect
(1.1)
We call this the 5% rule. Less conservative
estimate will use 1/10=0.10 (the 10% Rule)
• How do we determine if the interconnect is long or short, i.e. delay
between input and output is appreciable?
• Relative to wavelength for sinusoidal signals.
• RuleofThumb: If L < 0.05λ, it is a short interconnect, otherwise it is
considered a long interconnect. An example at the end of this section
will illustrate this procedure clearly.
L
18
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 35
Demonstration – Long Interconnect
Current
profile
+50mA
50mA
Filename: tline1_YZplane_5_8GHz.avi
5.8GHz, 3.0V
Magnitude
of E
z
in
YZ plane
19.2mm
Each frame is
displayed at
25psec interval
y
x
z
Let us assume the EM
wave travels at speed of
light, C=2.998×10
8
, then
wavelength ≅ 52.0 mm
f
C
= λ
19.2 mm is greater than
5% of 52 mm
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 36
Demonstration – Short Interconnect
0.4GHz, 3.0V
Filename: tline1_YZplane_0_4GHz.avi
Magnitude
of E
z
in
YZ plane
• At any instant
in time the
current profile
is almost uniform
along the axial
direction.
• Interconnect
can be considered
lumped.
Current
profile
+50mA
50mA
19.2mm
y
x
z
Let us assume the EM
wave travels at speed of
light, C=2.998×10
8
, then
wavelength ≅ 750.0 mm
19
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 37
3.0 Propagation Modes
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 38
Transverse E and H Field Patterns
x
y
z
Transverse
plane
E fields
H fields
Field patterns lie in the Transverse
Plane.
20
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 39
Nontransverse E and H Field Patterns
Field patterns does not lie in
the Transverse Plane.
E fields
H fields
Field contains
zcomponent
Field contains
zcomponent
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 40
Propagation Modes (1)
• Assuming the transmission line is parallel to z direction. The
propagation of E and H fields along the line can be classified into 4
modes:
– TE mode  where E
z
= 0.
– TM mode  where H
z
= 0.
– TEM mode  where E
z
and H
z
are 0.
– Mix mode, any mixture of the above.
• A Tline can support a number of modes at any instance, however TE,
TM or mix mode usually occur at very high frequency.
• There is another mode, known as quasiTEM mode, which is
supported by stripline structures with nonuniform dielectric. See
discussion in Appendix 1.
( ) ( ) ( )
z j
z t
e z y x e y x e E
β m
r
r
ˆ , , + =
±
( ) ( ) ( )
z j
z t
e z y x h y x h H
β m
r r
ˆ , , + =
±
z
y
21
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 41
Propagation Modes (2)
H
E
Mix modes
H
E
TEM mode
H
E
TE mode
H
E
TM mode
z
x
y
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 42
Examples of Field Patterns or Modes
TEM or quasiTEM mode
E field
H field
22
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 43
Appendix 1
Advanced Concepts – Field
Theory Solutions for
Transmission Lines
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 44
Field Theory Solution
• The nature of E and H fields in the space between conductors can be
studied by solving the Maxwell’s Equations or Wave Equations (which
can be derived from Maxwell’s Equations) (See [1], [2], [3]). Assuming
the condition of long interconnection, the solutions of E and H fields are
propagating fields or waves.
• We assume timeharmonic EM fields with e
jωt
dependence and wave
propagation along the positive and negative zaxis.
z
y
0
2 2
= + ∇ E k E
o
r r
εµ ω =
= + ∇
o
o
k
H k H 0
2 2
r r
Boundary
conditions
0 = ⋅ ∇
= ⋅ ∇
+ = × ∇
− = × ∇
H
E
E j J H
H j E
r
r
r r r
r r
ε
ρ
ωε
ωµ
+
+
Maxwell Equations
Wave Equations
(A.1)
For instance tangential E field
component on PEC must be zero,
continuity of E and H field components
across different dielectric material, etc.
In free space
23
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 45
Extra: Deriving the Hemholtz Wave
Equations From Maxwell Equations
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
ε
ρ
ωµ µε ω
ωµ
∇ + = + ∇ ⇒
× ∇ − = ∇ − ⋅ ∇ ∇ = × ∇ × ∇
J j E E
H j E E E
r r r
r r r r
2 2
2
H j E
r r
ωµ − = × ∇ Performing curl operation on Faraday’s Law :
Note: use the wellknown
vector calculus identity
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
z y x
A A A
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
+ + = ∇
∇ − ⋅ ∇ ∇ = × ∇ × ∇
r r r
In free space there is no electric charge and current:
0
2 2
= + ∇ E E
r r
µε ω
These are the sources for the E field
Similar procedure can be used to obtain
J H H
r r r
× −∇ = + ∇ µε ω
2 2
Or in free space
0
2 2
= + ∇ H H
r r
µε ω
Note: This derivation is
valid for timeharmonic case
under linear medium only.
See more advanced text for
general wave equation. For
Example:
C. A. Balanis, “Advanced engineering
Electromagnetics”, JohnWiley, 1989.
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 46
Obtaining the Expressions for E and H
(1)
• Assuming an ordinary differential equation (ODE) system as shown:
• To obtain a solution to the above system (a solution means a function that when
substituted into the ODE, will cause left and right hand side to be equal), many
approaches can be used (for instance see E. Kreyszig, “Advance engineering
mathematics”, 1998, John Wiley).
• One popular approach is the TrialandError/substitution method, where we
guess a functional form for y(x) as follows:
• Substituting this into the ODE:
• Since this is a 2
nd
order ODE, we need to introduce 2 unknown constants, A and
B, and a general solution is:
( )
x
e x y
β
=
x
dx
y d x
dx
dy
e e
β β
β β
2
2
2
, = =
( )
1 where
0
0
2 2
2 2
− = ± = ⇒
= + ⇒
= +
j jk
k
e k
x
β
β
β
β
( )
jkx jkx
Be Ae x y
−
+ = (1)
That the trialanderror method
works is attributed to the
Uniqueness Theorem for
linear ODE.
( ) [ ]
( ) ( )
2 1
2
and 0
, 0 , , 0
2
2
C b y C y
b x x f y y k
dx
y d
= =
∈ = = +
Boundary conditions
ODE The Domain
24
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 47
Obtaining the Expressions for E and H
(2)
• To find A and B, we need to use the boundary conditions.
• Solving (2a) and (2b) for A and B:
• So the unique solution is:
( )
( )
2 2
1 1
0
C Be Ae C b y
C B A C y
jkb jkb
= + ⇒ =
= + ⇒ =
−
(2a)
(2b)
( )
( )
( ) kb j
C e C
kb j
C e C
jkb jkb
jkb
jkb
B C A
B
C Be e B C
sin 2
1
sin 2
2 1
2 1
2 1
−
−
−
−
= − =
= ⇒
= + −
( )
( ) ( )
jkx
kb j
C e C
jkx
kb j
C e C
e e x y
jkb jkb
−
− −

¹

\

+ 
¹

\

=
−
sin 2 sin 2
2 1 2 1
(q.e.d.)
(3a)
(3b)
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 48
Obtaining the Expressions for E and H
(3)
• The same approach can be applied to Wave Equations or Maxwell Equations
for Tline. Consider the Wave Equations (A.1) in timeharmonic form.
• The unknown functions are vector phasors E(x,y,z) and H(x,y,z). The
differential equation for E in Cartesian coordinate is:
• This is called a Partial Differential Equation (PDE) as each E
x
, E
y
and E
z
depends on 3 variables, with the differentiation substituted by partial
differential. There are 3 PDEs if you observed carefully. For xcomponent this
is:
• Based on the previous ODE example, and also the fact that we expect the E
field to travel along the zaxis, the following form is suggested:
( )
0 ˆ ˆ ˆ
0
2 2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
= 
¹

\

+ + + + 
¹

\

+ + + + 
¹

\

+ + + ⇒
= + ∇
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
z E k y E k x E k
E k
z o
z y x
y o
z y x
x o
z y x
o
( ) ( ) ( )
z j
x
z j
x x
e y x e e y x e z y x E
β β
, or , , ,
−
=
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
= 
¹

\

+ + +
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
x o
z y x
E k
A function of x and y The exponent e !!!
25
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 49
Obtaining the Expressions for E and H
(4)
• Carrying on in this manner for y and zcomponents, we arrived at the
following form for E field.
• Notice that up to now we have not solve the Wave Equations, but
merely determine the functional form of its solution.
• We still need to find out what is e
x
(x,y), e
y
(x,y), e
z
(x,y) and β.
• Using similar approach on will yield similar expression for
H field.
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
z j
z t
z j
z
z j
y
z j
x
e z y x e y x e
z e y x e y e y x e x e y x e E
β
β β β
−
− − − +
+ =
+ + =
ˆ , ,
ˆ , ˆ , ˆ ,
r
r
(A.1a)
( ) 0
2 2
= + ∇ H k
o
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
z j
z t
z j
z
z j
y
z j
x
e z y x h y x h
z e y x h y e y x h x e y x h H
β
β β β
−
− − − +
+ =
+ + =
ˆ , ,
ˆ , ˆ , ˆ ,
v
v
(A.1b)
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 50
E and H fields Expressions (1)
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
z j
z t
z j
z
z j
y
z j
x
e z y x e y x e
z e y x e y e y x e x e y x e E
β
β β β
−
− − − +
+ =
+ + =
ˆ , ,
ˆ , ˆ , ˆ ,
r
r
• Thus the propagating EM fields guided by Tline can be written as:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
z j
z t
z j
z
z j
y
z j
x
e z y x h y x h
z e y x h y e y x h x e y x h H
β
β β β
−
− − − +
+ =
+ + =
ˆ , ,
ˆ , ˆ , ˆ ,
r
r
Transverse component
Axial component
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
z j
z t
z j
z
z j
y
z j
x
e z y x e y x e
z e y x e y e y x e x e y x e E
β
β β β
+
+ + + −
− =
− + =
ˆ , ,
ˆ , ˆ , ˆ ,
r
r
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
z j
z t
z j
z
z j
y
z j
x
e z y x h y x h
z e y x h y e y x h x e y x h H
β
β β β
+
+ + + −
+ − =
+ − − =
ˆ , ,
ˆ , ˆ , ˆ ,
r
r
EM fields
Propagating
In +z direction
EM fields
Propagating
In z direction
(A.2a)
(A.2b)
(A.3a)
(A.3b)
superscript indicates
propagation direction
26
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 51
E and H fields Expressions (2)
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )z z t y x e y z t y x e x z t y x e
e z y x E t z y x E
z y x
t j
ˆ cos , cos , ˆ cos ,
, , Re , , ,
β ω β ω β ω
ω
− + − + − =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
+
+
r
• We can convert the phasor form into timedomain form, for instance for
E field propagating in +z direction:
• Where
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )z t z y x E y t z y x E x t z y x E t z y x E
z y x
ˆ , , , ˆ , , , ˆ , , , , , ,
+ + + +
+ + =
r
Unit vector
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) z t y x e t z y x E
z t y x e t z y x E
z t y x e t z y x E
z z
y y
x x
β ω
β ω
β ω
− =
− =
− =
+
+
+
cos , , , ,
cos , , , ,
cos , , , ,
(A.5b)
(A.4)
(A.5a)
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 52
E and H fields Expressions (3)
• Usually one only solves for E field, the corresponding H field phasor
can be obtained from:
• The power carried by the EM fields is given by Poynting Theorem:
E
j
H
H j E
r r
r r
× ∇ = ⇒
− = × ∇
ωµ
ωµ
1
( ) ds h e s d H E P
t
S
t
S
z
⋅ × = ⋅ × =
∫∫ ∫∫
+ + *
*
Re
2
1
Re
2
1
r
r r
r r
S
( ) ( )
ds h e
ds h e s d H E P
t
S
t
t
S
t
S
z
z
⋅ × =
− ⋅ × − = ⋅ × =
∫∫
∫∫ ∫∫
− −
*
*
*
Re
2
1
Re
2
1
Re
2
1
r
r
r
r r
r r
Positive value means
that power is carried
along the propagation
direction.
(A.6)
Positive Z direction…
Negative Z direction…
27
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 53
E and H fields Expressions (4)
• There are 2 reasons for choosing the sign conventions for +ve and ve
propagating waves as in (A.2) and (A.3).
– So that for both +ve and ve propagating E field
(consistency with Maxwell’s Equations).
– The transverse magnetic field must change sign upon reversal of
the direction of propagation to obtain a change in the direction of
energy flow.
0 = ⋅ ∇ E
r
0
0
= − ⋅ ∇ ⇒
= ⋅ ∇
+
z t t
e j e
E
β
r
r
( ) 0
0
= − + ⋅ ∇ ⇒
= ⋅ ∇
−
z t t
e j e
E
β
r
r
For +ve direction
For ve direction
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 54
Phase Velocity
• It is easy to show that equation (A.2a) and (A.2b) describes traveling E
field waves (also for H).
• The speed where the E and H fields travel is called the Phase Velocity,
v
p
.
• Phase Velocity depends on the propagation mode (to be discussed
later), the frequency and the physical properties of the interconnect.
β
ω
=
p
v
(A.7)
28
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 55
Wavelength
• For interconnect excited by sinusoidal source, if we freeze the time at a
certain instant, say t = t
o
, the E and H fields profile will vary in a
sinusoidal manner along zaxis.
y
z
E
x
(x,y,z,t
o
)
Wavelength λ
f
v
p
= λ
β
π
π
ω
β
ω
λ
2
2
= = (A.8)
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 56
Superposition Theorem
• At any instant of time, there are E and H fields propagating in the
positive and negative direction along the transmission line. The total
fields are a superposition of positive and negative directed fields:
• A typical field distribution at a certain instant of time for the cross
section of two interconnects (twowire and coaxial cable) is shown
below:
− +
+ = E E E
− +
+ = H H H
H
E
Conductors
29
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 57
Field Solution (1)
• To find the value of β and the functions e
x
, e
y
, e
z
, h
x
, h
y
, h
z
, we substitute
equations (A.2a) and (A.2b) into Maxwell or Wave equations.
z
y
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
z j
z t
z j
z
z j
y
z j
x
e z y x e y x e
z e y x e y e y x e x e y x e E
β
β β β
−
− − − +
+ =
+ + =
ˆ , ,
ˆ , ˆ , ˆ ,
r
r
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
z j
z t
z j
z
z j
y
z j
x
e z y x h y x h
z e y x h y e y x h x e y x h H
β
β β β
−
− − − +
+ =
+ + =
ˆ , ,
ˆ , ˆ , ˆ ,
r
r
0
2 2
= + ∇ E k E
o
r r
εµ ω =
= + ∇
o
o
k
H k H 0
2 2
r r
Boundary
conditions
0 = ⋅ ∇
= ⋅ ∇
+ = × ∇
− = × ∇
H
E
E j J H
H j E
r
r
r r r
r r
ε
ρ
ωε
ωµ
+
+
Maxwell Equations
Wave Equations
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 58
Field Solution (2)
H j E
r r
ωµ − = × ∇ E j H
r r
ωε = × ∇
x y
y
e
h j e j
z
ωµ β − = +
∂
∂
y
x
e
x
h j e j
z
ωµ β − = − −
∂
∂
z
y
e
x
e
h j
x
y
ωµ − = −
∂
∂
∂
∂
(A.10a) x y
y
h
e j h j
z
ωε β = +
∂
∂
y x
h
x
e j h j
z
ωε β = − −
∂
∂
z
y
h
x
h
e j
x
y
ωε = −
∂
∂
∂
∂
(A.10b)
(A.10c)
(A.10d)
(A.10e)
(A.10f)
• The procedure outlined here follows those from Pozar [2]. Assume the
Tline or waveguide dielectric region is source free. From Maxwell’s
Equations:
• Substituting the suggested solution for E
+
(x,y,z,β) of (A.2a) into (A.9),
and expanding the differential equations into x, y and z components:
(A.9)
E j J B
~ ~ ~
ωµε µ + = × ∇
0 = J
r
30
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 59
Field Solution (3)
• From (A.10a)(A.10f), we can express e
x
, e
y
, h
x
, h
y
in terms of e
z
and
h
z
:

¹

\

− =
∂
∂
∂
∂
x
h
y
e
k
j
x
z z
c
h β ωε
2

¹

\

+ =
∂
∂
∂
∂ −
y
h
x
e
k
j
y
z z
c
h β ωε
2

¹

\

+ =
∂
∂
∂
∂ −
y
h
x
e
k
j
x
z z
c
e ωµ β
2

¹

\

+ − =
∂
∂
∂
∂
x
h
y
e
k
j
y
z z
c
e ωµ β
2
λ
π
µε ω β
2 2 2 2
, = = − =
o o c
k k k
(A.11a)
(A.11b)
(A.11c)
(A.11d)
(A.11e)
These equations
describe the x,y components
of general EM wave
propagation in a
waveguiding system.
The unknowns are
e
z
(x,y) and h
z
(x,y), called the
Potential in the literature.
See the book by Collin [1],
Chapter 3 for alternative
derivation
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 60
TE Mode Summary (1)
• For TE mode, e
z
= 0 (Sometimes this is called the H mode).
• We could characterize the Tline in TE mode, by EM fields:
• From wave equation for H field:
( )
z j
z t
e z h h H
β m
r r
ˆ + ± =
± z j
t
e e E
β m
r
r
=
±
εµ ω =
= + ∇
o
o
k
H k H 0
2 2
r r
( ) ( ) 0 ˆ
2
2
2
2
= +


¹

\

+ + ∇
−
∂
∂ z j
z t o
z
t
e z h h k
β
r
2 2 2
β − ∇ = ∇
t
Note
Only these are needed. The other
transverse field components can
be derived from h
z
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
0
0
β − =
= + ∇
= + ∇
o c
t c t t
z c z t
k k
h k h
h k h
r r
From (A.11e)
( )
z j z j
z
e e
β β
β
m m 2
2
2
− =
∂
∂
Using the fact that
Transverse Laplacian
operator
31
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 61
TE Mode Summary (2)
• Setting e
z
= 0 in (A.11a)(A.11d):
• These equations plus the previous wave equation for h
z
enable us to
find the complete field pattern for TE mode.
2 2 2
2 2
0
β − =
= + ∇
o c
z c z t
k k
h k h
+ boundary conditions
for E and H fields
(A.12b)
x
h
k
j
x
z
c
h
∂
∂ −
=
2
β
y
h
k
j
y
z
c
h
∂
∂ −
=
2
β
y
h
k
j
x
z
c
e
∂
∂ −
=
2
ωµ
x
h
k
j
y
z
c
e
∂
∂
=
2
ωµ
From previous slide
(A.12a)
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 62
TE Mode Summary (3)
• From (A.12a) and (A.12b), we can show that:
• Therefore we cannot define a unique voltage by (but we can define a
unique current):
• Also from (A.12a) we can define a wave impedance for the TE mode.
0 ˆ ≠ − = × ∇ z h j e
z t t
ωµ
r
∫
⋅ − =
2
1
C
C
t t
l d e V
r
r
x
y
o o
y
x
TE
h
e
Z k
h
e
Z
−
= = =
β
(A.13)
0 = × ∇
t t
h
r
( ) z h j z h k
z z e
z z c
c
k
j
y
h
x
h
c
k
j
y
x
e
x
y
e
t t
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
ωµ
ωµ
ωµ
− = − =
(
(
¸
(
¸
+ =
(
¸
(
¸
− = × ∇
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂ r
32
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 63
TM Mode Summary (1)
• For TM mode, h
z
= 0 (Sometimes this is called the E mode).
• We could characterize the Tline in TM mode, by EM fields:
• From wave equation for E field:
z j
t
e h H
β m
r r
± =
±
( )
z j
z t
e z e e E
β m
r
r
ˆ ± =
±
εµ ω =
= + ∇
o
o
k
E k E 0
2 2
r r
( ) ( ) 0 ˆ
2
2
2
2
= +


¹

\

+ + ∇
−
∂
∂ z j
z t o
Z
t
e z e e k
β
r
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
0
0
β − =
= + ∇
= + ∇
o c
t c t t
z c z t
k k
e k e
e k e
r r
Only these are needed. The other
transverse field components
can be derived from e
z
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 64
TM Mode Summary (2)
• Setting h
z
= 0 in (A.11a)(A.11d):
• These equations plus the previous wave equation for e
z
enable us to
find the complete field pattern for TM mode.
y
e
k
j
x
z
c
h
∂
∂
=
2
ωε
x
e
k
j
y
z
c
h
∂
∂ −
=
2
ωε
x
e
k
j
x
z
c
e
∂
∂ −
=
2
β
y
e
k
j
y
z
c
e
∂
∂ −
=
2
β
(A.14a)
+ boundary conditions
for E and H fields
(A.14b)
2 2 2
2 2
0
β − =
= + ∇
o c
z c z t
k k
e k e
From previous slide
33
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 65
TM Mode Summary (3)
• Similarly from (A.14a) and (A.14b), we can show that
• We cannot define a unique current by (but we can define a unique
voltage):
• Also from (A.14a) we can define a wave impedance for the TM mode.
0 ˆ ≠ = × ∇ z e j h
z t t
ωε
r
∫
⋅ =
C
t t
l d h I
r r
x
y
y
x
h
e
h
e
TM
Z
−
= = =
ωε
β
(A.15)
0 = × ∇
t t
e
r
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 66
TEM Mode (1)
• TEM mode is particularly important, characterized by e
z
= h
z
= 0. For
+ve propagating waves:
• Setting e
z
= h
z
= 0 in (A.11a)(A.11d), we observe that k
c
= 0 in order for
a nonzero solution to exist. This implies:
• Applying Hemholtz Wave Equation to E field:
z j
t
e e E
β m
r
r
=
±
z j
t
e h H
β m
r r
± =
±
(A.16a)
(A.16b) µε ω β = =
o
k
( )
( ) 0
0 ˆ
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2 2
=


¹

\

+ + ∇ ⇒
=


¹

\

+ + ∇ = + ∇
− −
∂
∂ −
−
∂
∂ −
t
z j
o
z j
z
z j
t t
z j
t o
z
t
z j
t o
e e k e e e
e e k z e e k
r r
r r
β β β
β β
(A.17a) 0
2
= ∇ ⇒
t t
e
r
0
34
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 67
TEM Mode (2)
• The same can be shown for h
t
:
• Equation (A.17a) is similar to Laplace equations in 2D. This implies
the transverse fields e
t
is similar to the static electric fields that can
exist between conductors, so we could define a transverse scalar
potential Φ:
• Also note that:
J h
t t
r r
× −∇ = ∇
2
(A.17b)
0 ) , (
) , (
2
= Φ ∇ ⇒
Φ −∇ =
y x
y x e
t
t t
r
(A.18)
Transverse potential
( ) 0 = Φ ∇ − × ∇ = × ∇
t t t t
e
r
(A.19)
See [1], Chapter 3
for alternative
derivation
Using an important identity in vector calculus
( ) 0 = ∇ × ∇ F Where F is arbitrary function
of position, i.e. F = F(x,y,z).
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 68
Alternative View (TEM Mode)
• Alternatively from (A.10c), and knowing that h
z
= 0 in TEM mode:
• From the well known Vector Calculus identity , we then
postulate the existence of a scalar function Φ(x,y) where
• From (A.10f) we can also show that (in free space):
0 = − = −
∂
∂
∂
∂
z
y
x
e
x
y
e
h jωµ
0 = × ∇ = = −
∂
∂
∂
∂
t t z
y
x
h
x
y
h
h e j
r
ωε
0
0
0 0 = × ∇ = = = − ⇒
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
t t
y x
y x y
x
e
x
y
e
e
e e
z y x
r
( ) 0 = ∇ × ∇ F
Divergence in 2D (in XY plane)
) , ( y x e
t t
Φ −∇ =
r
35
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 69
TEM Mode (3)
• Normally we would find e
t
from (A.17a), then we derive h
t
from e
t
:
• An important observation is that under TEM mode the transverse field
components e
t
and h
t
fulfill similar equations as in electrostatic.
(A.20a)
( ) y e x e h
E
j
H
x y t
ˆ ˆ
1
1
− = ⇒
× ∇
−
=
−
ε
µ
ωµ
r
r r
Exercise: see if you can
derive this equation
0 , 0
2
= × ∇ = ∇
t t
h h
r r
( )
t
Z
t
e z h
o
r
r
× = ⇒ ˆ
1
Z
o
= Intrinsic impedance of free space
Z
TEM
= Wave impedance of TEM
mode
TEM
h
e
h
e
o
Z Z
x
y
y
x
= = = =
−
ε
µ
(A.20b)
(
¸
(
¸


¹

\

− + − =
(
¸
(
¸


¹

\

− + + − =
−
∂
∂
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
−
z e y E j x E j
z y x H
z j
y
x
e
x
y
e
x y
j
y
x
E
x
y
E
z
x
E
z
y
E
j
t
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ
1
1
β
ωµ
ωµ
β β
0 = × ∇
t t
e
r
In free space
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 70
Voltage and Current under TEM Mode
• Due to and in the space surrounding the
conductors, we could define unique transverse voltage (V
t
) and
transverse current (I
t
) for the system following the standard definitions
for V and I. The V
t
and I
t
so defined does not depends on the shape of
the integration path.
0 = × ∇
t t
e
r
0 = × ∇
t t
h
r
See the more detailed
version of this note or
see references [1] & [2].
Loop 1
( )
∫
⋅ =
1 Loop
, l d H t z I
t
r r
I
t
(z,t)
V
t
(z,t)
( )
∫
⋅ − =
b
a
t
l d E t z V
r r
,
a
b
36
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 71
Extra: Independence of V
t
and I
t
from
Integration Path under TEM Mode
∫
⋅ =
2 1
or C C
t t
l d h I
r r
t
L
t
L
t
L
t
L
t
L
t
L
t
L
t
S
t t
t t
V l d e l d e
l d e l d e
l d e l d e
l d e s d e
e
= ⋅ − = ⋅ − ⇒
⋅ − = ⋅ ⇒
= ⋅ + ⋅ ⇒
= ⋅ = ⋅ × ∇ ⇒
= × ∇
∫ ∫
∫ ∫
∫ ∫
∫ ∫∫
−
2 1
2 1
2 1
0
0
0
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r r r
r
Loop L
Area S
s d
r
l d
r
C
1
C
2
+
Since the shape of
loop L is arbitrary, as
long as it stays in the
transverse plane, paths
L
1
, L
2
and hence the
integration path for
V
t
is arbitrary.
Similar proof can be carried
out for I
t
, using the loop as
shown and 0 = × ∇
t t
h
r
Using Stoke’s
Theorem
C
1
C
2
Loop L
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 72
TEM Mode Summary (1)
• For TEM mode, h
z
= e
z
= 0.
• To find the EM fields for TEM mode:
– Solve with boundary conditions for the transverse
potential.
– Find E from
– Find H from
• We could characterize the Tline in TEM mode, by EM fields:
( ) 0 ,
2
= Φ ∇ y x
t
( ) [ ]
z j
t
z j
t t
e e e y x E
β β m m
r
r
= Φ ∇ − =
±
,
( )
z j
t
o
t
e e z
Z
H
β ± ±
× =
r
r
ˆ
1
z j
t
z j
t
e h H e e E
β β m m
r r
r
r
± = =
± ±
µε ω β = =
o
k
37
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 73
TEM Mode Summary (2)
• Or through auxiliary circuit theory quantities:
• The power carried by the EM wave along the Tline is given by
Poynting Theorem:
• Because β is always real or complex (when dielectric is lossy) for all
frequencies, the TEM mode always exist from near d.c. to extremely
high frequencies.
z j
t
z j
t
e I I e V V
β β m m
± = =
± ±
( )
( ) ( )
* 1
2
1 *
2
1
*
2
1 *
2
1
Re Re
Re Re
VV Z II Z P
VI ds H E P
c c
S
−
= = ⇒
= ⋅ × =
∫∫
r r
See extra note
by F.Kung for
the proof
(A.21)
µε ω β = =
o
k
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 74
NonTEM Modes and V
t
, I
t
(1)
• For nonTEM modes, we cannot define both the auxiliary quantities V
t
and I
t
uniquely using the standard definition for voltage and current
(because ).
• For instance in TE mode:
• Thus will not be unique and will depends on the line
integration path. This means if we attempt to measure the “voltage”
across the Tline using an instrument, the reading will depend on the
wires and connection of the probe!
• Furthermore for nonTEM modes:
• Thus we cannot characterize a Tline supporting nonTEM modes
using auxiliary quantities such as V
t
and I
t
.
z t t
h j e ωµ − = × ∇
r
∫
⋅ − =
2
1
C
C
t t
dl e V
r
( )
*
2
1 *
2
1
Re Re
t t
S
I V ds H E P ≠ ⋅ × =
∫∫
r r
0 or 0 ≠ × ∇ ≠ × ∇
t t t t
h e
r
r
38
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 75
NonTEM Modes and V
t
, I
t
(2)
• As another example consider the TM mode in microstrip line:
• Using path C as shown in figure:
• In general this is true for arbitrary Tline and waveguide cross
section. If we choose integration path other than C, we still obtain
V
t
= 0 due to in TM mode.
( ) y x e y x
k
j
e
k
j
e
z
y x
c
z t
c
t
, ˆ ˆ
2 2

¹

\

+ − = ∇ − =
∂
∂
∂
∂
β β r


¹

\

+ = ⋅ − =
∫ ∫ ∫
∂
∂
∂
∂
C
y
e
C
x
e
c C
t t
dy dx
k
j
dl e V
z z
2
β r
( ) ( ) [ ] 0 0 , ,
2
0
2
= − =


¹

\

=
∫
∂
∂
x e H x e
k
j
dy
k
j
V
z z
c
H
y
e
c
t
z
β β
0 = × ∇
t t
e
r
C
x
y
Y=0
Y=H
0 because of boundary condition
Under quasiTEM condition, when
e
z
→0, k
c
also → 0, then V
t
will be
a nonzero value.
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 76
Cutoff Frequency for TE/TM Mode
• Because for TE and TM modes:
• There is a possibility that β becomes imaginary when k
c
> k
o
. When
this occur the TE or TM mode EM fields will decay exponentially from
the source. These modes are known as Evanescent and are non
propagating.
• Thus for TE or TM mode, there is a possibility of a cutoff frequency f
c
,
where for signal frequency f < f
c
, no propagating EM field will exist.
2 2
c o
k k − = β
39
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 77
Phase Velocity for TEM, TE and TM
Modes
• Phase velocity is the propagation velocity of the EM field supported by
the tline. It is given by:
• For TEM mode:
• For TE & TM mode:
• Thus we observe that TEM mode is intrinsically nondispersive, while
TE and TM mode are dispersive.
β
ω
=
p
V
µε
β
ω 1
= =
p
V
2 2 2 2
1 1
c c o
k k k
p
V
− −
= = =
µε ω
β
ω
(A.22)
(A.23)
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 78
Final Note on TEM, TE and TM
Propagation Modes
• Finally, note that the formulae for TEM, TE and TM modes apply to all
waveguide structures, in which transmission line is a subset.
40
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 79
Example A1  Parallel Plate
Waveguide/Tline
• The parallel plate waveguide is the simplest type of waveguide that can
support TEM, TE and TM modes. Here we assume that W >> d so that
fringing field and variation along x can be ignored.
0 =
∂
∂
x
x
z
y
0
d
W
Conducting plates
Propagation along z axis
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 80
Example A1 Cont...
• Derive the EM fields for TEM, TE and TM modes for parallel plate
waveguide.
• Show that TEM mode can exist for all frequencies.
• Show that TE and TM modes possess cutoff frequency f
c
, where for
operating frequency f less than f
c
, the resulting EM field cannot
propagate.
41
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 81
Example A1 – Solution for TEM Mode
(1)
( )
( )
( )
o
t
V d x
x
d y W x y x
= Φ
= Φ
≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ = Φ ∇
,
0 0 ,
0 , 0 for 0 ,
2
TEM mode Solution:
0 0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
≅ ⇒ = + = Φ ∇
∂
Φ ∂
∂
Φ ∂
∂
Φ ∂
y y x
t
Boundary conditions
Solution for the transverse Laplace PDE:
( )
( )
( )
d
o
V
o
B V Bd d x
A A x
By A y x
= ⇒ = = Φ
= ⇒ = = Φ
+ = Φ ⇒
,
0 0 0 ,
,
( ) y y x
d
o
V
= Φ ,
Thus
since
( ) ( ) y y x Φ = Φ ,
General Solution
Unique solution
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 82
Example A1 – Solution for TEM Mode
(2)
y y y x e
d
o
V
d
o
V
y x
t
t
ˆ ˆ ˆ − =

¹

\


¹

\

+ − = Φ −∇ =
∂
∂
∂
∂
y e E
z j
d
o
V
t
ˆ
β −
− =
x e y e z E H
z j
d
V
z j
d
V
t
j
t
o o
ˆ ˆ ˆ
1 1 β
µ
ε β
ωµ
ε
µ
− − −
=

¹

\


¹

\

− × = × ∇ =
Computing the E and H fields:
z j
o
d
z j
d
o
V
C
t
t
e V y dy y e l d E V
β β − −
= ⋅

¹

\

− − = ⋅ − =
∫ ∫
ˆ ˆ
0
1
r
Computing the transverse voltage and current:
z j
d
o
V W
z j
d
o
V
C
t
t
We x dx x e l d H I
β
µ
ε β
µ
ε − −
= ⋅

¹

\

= ⋅ =
∫ ∫
ˆ ˆ
0
2
r
C
1
C
2
y
x
42
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 83
Example A1 – Solution for TEM Mode
(3)
Computing the power flow (power carried by the EM wave guided by the wave
guide):
( ) ( )
( )( )
[ ] [ ]

¹

\

= = ⋅ =
(
¸
(
¸

¹

\


¹

\

=
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
¸
(
¸
⋅ × − =
(
¸
(
¸
⋅ × =
−
+ −
+ −
+ −
∫ ∫
∫ ∫
∫ ∫
∫∫
d
W V
t t
z j
d
W V z j
o
z j
W
d
V z j
d
d
V
W d
z j
d
V z j
d
V
W d
z j
d
V z j
d
V
S
t t
o o
o o
o o
o o
I V e e V
e dx e dy
dxdy e e
z dxdy x e y e
s d H E P
ε
µ
β
µ
ε
β
β
µ
ε
β
β
µ
ε
β
β
µ
ε
β
2
2
1
*
2
1
2
1
0 0
2
1
0 0
2
1
0 0
2
1
*
2
1
Re Re
Re
Re
ˆ ˆ ˆ Re
Re
r
y
x
dy
dx
ds=dxdy
S
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 84
Example A1 – Solution for TEM Mode
(4)
Phase velocity v
p
for TEM mode:
µε µε ω
ω
β
ω 1
= = =
p
v
The phase velocity is equal to speedoflight in the dielectric.
43
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 85
Example A1 – Solution for TM Mode (1)
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 0 , 0 ,
0 , 0 for 0 ,
2 2 2
2 2
= =
− =
≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ = + ∇
d x e x e
k k
d y W x y x e k
z z
o c
z c t
β
( ) ( ) y e y x e
z z
= ,
Solution for e
z
:
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) y k B y k A y x
e k e k
c c z
z c
y
e
z c t
z
cos sin , e
0
2 2 2
2
2
+ = ⇒
= + ≅ + ∇
∂
∂
since
Boundary conditions
General solution
( )
( ) ( )
d
n
c
c
c z
z
k
n n d k A
d k A d x
B B A x
π
π
= ⇒
= = ≠ ⇒
= =
= ⇒ = + ⋅ =
L 3 , 2 , 1 , and 0
0 sin , e
0 0 0 0 , e
Thus:
( ) ( ) y A y x
d
n
n z
π
sin , e =
( ) ( )
z j
d
n
n z
e y A y x E
β π −
= sin , or
Applying boundary conditions:
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 86
Example A1 – Solution for TM Mode (2)
( ) ( )
( )
( )y y e
y y A y x e
d
n
d
n
n
A j
t
d
n
n
y
c
k
j
y
z
e
c
k
j
x
z
e
c
k
j
t
ˆ cos
ˆ sin ˆ ˆ
2 2 2
π
π
β
π
β β β
− = ⇒
− = + =
∂
∂
∂
∂ −
∂
∂ −
r
r
or
( )
( ) y e y E
z j
d
n
d
n
n
A j
t
ˆ cos
β π
π
β
−
− =
Computing the transverse EM fields using (A.20a):
( )
( ) x e y
e y x H
z j
d
n
d
n
n
A
o
jk
z j
x
z
e
c
k
j
y
z
e
c
k
j
t
ˆ cos
ˆ ˆ
2 2
β π
π
ε
µ
β
ωε ωε
−
−
∂
∂
∂
∂
=


¹

\

− =
Since n is an arbitrary integer,
the TM mode is usually called
the TM
n
mode.
44
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 87
Example A1 – Solution for TM Mode (3)
We can now determine β knowing k
c
:
( )
2
2 2 2
d
n
c o n
k k
π
µε ω β − = − =
Since the TM mode can only propagate if β is real, and the smallest value for β
Is 0, then when β=0:
( )
µε
µε
π
π
π ω
µε ω
d
n
d
n
d
n
f
f
2
2
2
2
0
= ⇒
= = ⇒
= −
When n = 1, this represent the cutoff frequency for TM mode.
µε d
TM cutoff
f
2
1
_
=
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 88
Example A1 – Solution for TM Mode (4)
For arbitrary n, phase velocity v
p
for TM
n
mode:
( )
2
2
d
n
p
v
π
µε ω
ω
β
ω
−
= =
For f > f
cutoff
, we observe that phase velocity v
p
is actually greater than the
speed of light!!!
NOTE:
The EM fields can travel at speed greater than light, however we can show that
the rate of energy flow is less than the speedoflight. This rate of energy
flow corresponds to the speed of the photons if the propagating EM wave is
treated as a cluster of photons. See the extra notes for the proof.
45
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 89
Dominant Propagation Mode
• For the various transmission line topology, there is a dominant mode.
• This dominant mode of propagation is the first mode to exist at the
lowest operating frequency. The secondary modes will come into
existent at higher frequencies.
• The propagation modes of Tline depends on the dielectric and the cross
section of the transmission line.
• For Tline that can support TEM mode, the TEM mode will be the
dominant mode as it can exist at all frequencies (there is no cutoff
frequency).
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 90
Transmission Lines Dominant
Propagation Mode
• Coaxial line  TEM.
• Microstrip line  quasiTEM.
• Stripline  TEM.
• Parallel plate line  TEM or TM (depends on homogenuity of the
dielectric).
• Coplanar line  quasiTEM.
• Note: Generally for Tline with nonhomogeneous dielectric, the Tline
cannot support TEM propagation mode.
46
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 91
Quasi TEM Mode (1)
• Luckily for planar Tline configuration whose dominant mode is not TEM,
the TM or TE dominant modes can be approximated by TEM mode at
‘low frequency’.
• For instance microstrip line does not support TEM mode. The actual
mode is TM. However at a few GHz, e
z
is much smaller than e
t
and h
t
that it can be ignored. We can assume the mode to be TEM without
incurring much error. Thus it is called quasiTEM mode.
• Low frequency approximation is usually valid when wavelength >>
distance between two conductors. For typical microstrip/stripline on
PCB, this can means frequency below 20 GHz or lower.
• The E
z
and H
z
components approach zero at ‘low frequency’, and the
propagation mode approaches TEM, hence known as quasiTEM.
When this happens we can again define unique voltage and current for
the system.
See Collin [1], Chapter 3 for more mathematical
illustration on this.
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 92
Quasi TEM Mode (2)
H
E
NonTEM mode
H
E
QuasiTEM mode
0 or
0
≠ × ∇
≠ × ∇
t t
t t
h
e
r
r
0 or
0
≅ × ∇
≅ × ∇
t t
t t
h
e
r
r
H
E
TEM mode
0 or
0
= × ∇
= × ∇
t t
t t
h
e
r
r
V
t
and I
t
Yes
V
t
and I
t
Yes
V
t
and I
t
No
47
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 93
Extra: Why Inhomogeneous Structures
Does Not Support Pure TEM Mode (1)
• We will use Proof by Contradiction. Suppose TEM mode is supported.
The propagation factor in air and dielectric would be:
• EM fields in air will travel faster than in the dielectric.
• Now consider the boundary condition at the air/dielectric interface. The
E field must be continuous across the boundary from Maxwell’s
equation. Examining the x component of the E field:
o air
µε ω β = r o die
ε µε ω β =
( )
( )
die
die p
v
air
air p
die air
v
β
ω
β
ω
β β
= > =
⇒
<
For TEM mode
y
x
Dielectric
Air
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )z
air die
j
z
air
j
e
z
die
j
e
die x
E
air x
E
z
die
j
e die x
z
air
j
e air x
e
E E
β β
β
β
β β
− −
−
−
−
=
−
= = ⇒
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 94
Extra: Why Inhomogeneous Structures
Does Not Support Pure TEM Mode (2)
• Since the left hand side is a constant while the right hand side is not. It
depends on distance z, the previous equation cannot be fulfilled.
• What this conclude is that our initial assumption of TEM propagation
mode in inhomogeneous structure is wrong. So pure TEM mode
cannot be supported in inhomogeneous dielectric Tline.
48
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 95
Example A2 – Minimum Frequency for
QuasiTEM Mode in Microstrip Line
• Estimate the low frequency limit for microstrip line.
H = 1.6mm
C ≈ 3.0×10
8
λ = C/f > 20H = 32.0mm
f < C/0.032 = 9.375GHz
Thus beyond f
critical
quasiTEM approximation cannot be applied.
The propagation mode beyond f
critical
will be TM. A more conser
vative limit would be to use 30H or 40H.
Here we replace >> sign
with the requirement that
wavelength > 20H. You can
use larger limit, as this is
basically a rule of thumb.
f
critical
= 9.375GHz
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 96
Summary for TEM, QuasiTEM, TE and
TM Modes
TEM:
E
z
= H
z
= 0
Can defined unique
V
t
and I
t
.
Physical Tline can be
Modeled by equivalent
Electrical circuit.
Phase velocity.
No cutoff frequency.
Nondispersive
QuasiTEM:
E
z
≈0 , H
z
≈ 0
Can defined unique
V
t
and I
t
.
Physical Tline can be
Modeled by equivalent
Electrical circuit.
Phase velocity.
No cutoff frequency.
Nondispersive
TE:
E
z
= 0, H
z
≠ 0
Cannot defined
unique I
t
.
Physical Tline cannot
be modeled by
equivalent electrical
circuit.
Phase velocity.
Cutoff frequency.
Dispersive
TM:
E
z
≠ 0, H
z
= 0
Cannot defined
unique V
t
.
Physical Tline cannot
be modeled by
equivalent
electrical circuit.
Phase velocity.
Cutoff frequency.
Dispersive
( )
z j
z t
e z h h H
β m
r r
ˆ + ± =
±
z j
t
e e E
β m
r
r
=
±
z j
t
e h H
β m
r r
± =
±
( )
z j
z t
e z e e E
β m
r
r
ˆ ± =
±
z j
t
e e E
β m
r
r
=
±
z j
t
e h H
β m
r r
± =
±
z j
t
e e E
β m
r
r
≅
±
z j
t
e h H
β m
r r
± ≅
±
µε
β
ω 1
= =
p
V
eff
p
V
µε
β
ω 1
≅ =
2 2
1
c
k
p
v
−
= =
µε ω
β
ω
2 2
1
c
k
p
v
−
= =
µε ω
β
ω
µε π 2
c
k
c
f =
µε π 2
c
k
c
f =
49
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 97
Why V
t
and I
t
is so Important ? (1)
• When we can define voltage and current along Tline or highfrequency
circuit for that matter, then we can analyze the system using circuit
theory instead of field theory.
• Circuit theories such as KVL, KCL, 2port network theory are much
easier to solve than Maxwell equations or wave equations.
• Highfrequency circuits usually consist of components which are
connected by Tlines. Thus the microwave system can be modeled by
an equivalent electrical circuit when dominant mode in the system is
TEM or quasiTEM. For this reason Tline which can support TEM or
quasiTEM is very important.
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 98
Why V
t
and I
t
is so Important ? (2)
XXX.09
Amplifier
Filter
Microstrip
antenna
Antenna equivalent
circuit
Tline
A complex physical system
can be cast into equivalent
electrical circuit. Powerful
circuit simulator tools
can be used to perform
analysis on the equivalent
circuit.
50
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 99
Examples of Circuit Analysis* Based
Microwave/RF CAD Software
Agilent’s Advance Design System™
Applied Wave Research’s
Microwave Office™
*The software shown here also have
numerical EM solver capability, from 2D, 2.5D
to full 3D.
Ansoft’s Desinger™
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 100
4.0 – Transmission Line
Characteristics and
Electrical Circuit Model
51
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 101
Distributed Electrical Circuit Model for
Transmission Line (1)
• Since transmission line is a long interconnect, the field and current
profile at any instant in time is not uniform along the line.
• It cannot be modeled by lumped circuit.
• However if we divide the Tline into many short segments (< 0.1λ), the
field and current profile in each segment is almost uniform.
• Each of these short segments can be modeled as RLCG network.
• This assumption is true when the EM field propagation mode is TEM
or quasiTEM.
• From now on we will assume the Tline under discussion support
the dominant mode of TEM or quasiTEM.
• For transmission line, these associated R, L, C and G parameters are
distributed, i.e. we use the per unit length values. The propagation of
voltage and current on the transmission line can be described in terms
of these distributed parameters.
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 102
Distributed Electrical Circuit Model for
Transmission Line (2)
5.8GHz, 3.0V
Magnitude
of E
z
in
YZ plane
V
t
I
t
y
x
z
Current profile
along conducting
trace
Within each segment
the current is more or
less constant, in and out
current is similar. Also
the EM can be considered
static.
52
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 103
Distributed Parameters (1)
• The L and C elements in the electrical circuit model for Tline is due to
magnetic flux linkage and electric field linkage between the conductors.
• See Appendix 2: Advanced Concepts – Distributed RLCG Model for
Transmission Line and Telegraphic Equations for the proofs.
∆z L∆z
C∆z
V
1
V
2
I
E
H
Magnetic field
linkage
Electric
field linkage
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 104
Distributed Parameters (2)
• When the conductor has small conductive loss a series resistance R∆ z
can be added to the inductance. This loss is due to a phenomenon
known as skin effect, where high frequency current converges on the
surface of the conductor.
• When the dielectric has finite conductivity and polarization loss, a shunt
conductance G∆ z can be added in parallel to the capacitance.
• The inclusion of R and G in the Tline distributed model is only accurate
for small losses. This is true most of the time as Tline is usually made of
very good conductive material and good insulator.
• The equations for finding L, C, R, G under low loss condition are given in
the following slide.
L∆z
C∆z
R∆z
G∆z V
1
V
2
I
Under lossy condition, R, L and G
are usually function of frequency,
hence the Tline is dispersive.
Dielectric loss
Conductor loss
53
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 105
Distributed Parameters (3)
• Thus a transmission line can be considered as a cascade of many of these
equivalent circuit sections. Working with circuit theory and circuit elements
are much easier than working with E and H fields using Maxwell
equations.
• In order for this RLCG model for Tline to be valid from low to very high
frequency, each segment length must approach zero, and the number of
segment needed to accurately model the Tline becomes infinite.
• This electrical circuit model for Tline is commonly known as Distributed
RLCG Circuit Model.
Distributed
RLCG circuit
V
t
I
t
V
t
I
t
∆z→0
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 106
Finding the RLCG Parameters
∫∫∫
=
V
t
t
dv H
I
L
2
2
r
µ
∫∫∫
=
V
t
t
dv E
V
C
2
2
'
r
ε
dl H
I
R
C C
t
t s c
∫
+
=
2 1
2
2
1
r
δ σ
∫∫∫
=
V
t
t
dv E
V
G
2
2
"
r
ωε
µ ωσ
δ
c
s
2
depth skin = =
• See Section 3.9 of Collin [1].
• V is the volume surrounding the
conductors with length of 1 meter
along z axis.
• C
1
and C
2
are the paths
surrounding the surface of
conductor 1 and 2.
(4.1a)
(4.1b)
• These formulas are
derived from energy
consideration.
• Note that conductor loss
results in R, while
dielectric loss results
in G.
object metalic of ty conductivi
tan
" '
=
= =
c
o r o r
σ
δ ε ε ε ε ε ε
Conductor 1
Conductor 2
C
1
C
2
S
1m
This indicates the
volume enclosing
the conductors
Loss tangent of
the dielectric
Skin depth
and G depend
on frequency
54
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 107
Finding RLCG Parameters From
Energy Consideration
The instantaneous power absorbed by an inductor L is:
( ) ( ) ( ) t i t v t P
ind
=
Assuming i(t) increases from 0 at t = 0 to I
o
at t = t
o
, total energy stored
by inductor is:
i(t)
v(t) L
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
1
0
0 0 0
o
o
I
ind
o
t
d
di o
t
o
t
ind ind
LI di Li E
d i L d i v d P E
= ⋅ = ⇒
= = =
∫
∫ ∫ ∫
τ τ τ τ τ τ τ τ
τ
This energy stored by the inductor is contained within the magnetic field
created by the current (for instance, see D.J. Griffiths, “Introductory
electrodynamics”, Prentice Hall, 1999). From EM theory the stored energy in magnetic
field is given by:
I
o
H
dxdydz H E
V
H ∫∫∫
=
r
2
µ
Both energy are the same, hence:
dxdydz H L
dxdydz H LI
E E
V o
I
V
o
H ind
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
∫∫∫
∫∫∫
= ⇒
= ⇒
=
r
r
µ
µ
t
i(t)
i
o
0 t
o
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 108
MultiConductor Transmission Line
Symbol and Circuit
C
12
C
1G
C
2G
R
11
L
11
L
22
R
22
L
12
Long interconnect:
l > 0.1λ
Distributed
RLCG circuit
TEM or
quasiTEM mode
Electrical Symbol
Parameters:
Per unit length
R, L, C, G matrices.
Usually as a function
Frequency.
(
¸
(
¸
22 12
12 11
L L
L L
(
¸
(
¸
−
−
22 12
12 11
C C
C C
(
¸
(
¸
22 21
12 11
R R
R R
(
¸
(
¸
22 21
12 11
G G
G G
12 11 1
C C C
G
− =
12 22 2
C C C
G
− =
55
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 109
Telegraphic Equations for V
t
and I
t
• Much like the EM field in the physical model of the Tline is governed by
Maxwell’s Equations, we can show that the instantaneous transverse
voltage V
t
and current I
t
on the distributed RLCG model are governed
by a set of partial differential equations (PDE) called the Telegraphic
Equations (See derivation in Appendix 2).
• For simplicity we will drop the subscript ‘t’ from now.
In timeharmonic form
t
V
C GV
z
I
t
I
L RI
z
V
∂
∂
− − =
∂
∂
∂
∂
− − =
∂
∂
( )
( ) YV V C j G
z
I
ZI I L j R
z
V
− = + − =
∂
∂
− = + − =
∂
∂
ω
ω
In timedomain
Fourier
Transforms
Inverse Fourier
Transforms
Distributed
RLCG circuit
V
I
(4.2b)
(4.2a)
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 110
Solutions of Telegraphic Equations (1)
• The expressions for V(z) and I(z) that satisfy the timeharmonic form of
Telegraphic Equations (4.2b) are given as:
( ) ( ) ( )( ) C j G L j R j ω ω ω β ω α γ + + = + =
( )
z
o
z
o
e V e V z V
γ γ − − +
+ =
( )
z
o
z
o
e I e I z I
γ γ − − +
+ =
Wave travelling in
+z direction
Wave travelling in
z direction
Propagation coefficient
Attenuation factor
Phase factor
(4.3a) (4.3b)
(4.3c)
56
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 111
Solutions of Telegraphic Equations (2)
• V
o
+
, V
o

, I
o
+
, I
o

are unknown constants. When we study transmission
line circuit, we will see how V
o
+
, V
o

, I
o
+
, I
o

can be determined from the
‘boundary’ of the Tline.
• For the rest of this discussions, exact values of these constants are not
needed.
Z
L
Z
s
V
s
The boundary of the tline circuit
V
t
I
t
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 112
Signal Propagation on Transmission
Line
• Considering sinusoidal sources, the expression for V(z) and I(z) can be
written in time domain as:
• From the solution of the Telegraphic Equations, we can deduce a few
properties of the equivalent voltage v(z,t) and current i(z,t) on a Tline
structure.
– v(z,t) and i(z,t) propagate, a signal will take finite time to travel from
one location to another.
– One can define an impedance, called the characteristic impedance
of the line, it is the ratio of voltage wave over current wave.
– That the traveling V
t
and I
t
experience dispersion and attenuation.
– Other effects such as reflection to be discussed in later part.
( ) ( ) ( )
z
o
z
o
e z t V e z t V t z v
α α
φ β ω φ β ω
−
− −
+
+
+ + + + − = cos cos ,
( ) ( ) ( )
z
o
z
o
e z t I e z t I t z i
α α
θ β ω θ β ω
−
− −
+
+
+ + + + − = cos cos ,
+ +
+ + + +
= =
θ φ j
o o
j
o o
e I I e V V
(4.4a)
(4.4b)
57
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 113
Characteristic Impedance (Z
c
)
• An important parameter in Tline is the ratio of voltage over current, called
the Characteristic Impedance, Z
c
.
• Since the voltage and current are waves, this ratio can be only be
computed for voltage and current traveling in similar direction.
A function of frequency
C j G
L j R
Z
o
o
z
o
z
o
c
I
V
e I
e V
Z
ω
ω
γ γ
γ
+
+
+
+
− +
− +
= = = =
(4.5)
C j G
L j R
z
o
z
o
c
e I
e V
Z
ω
ω
γ
γ
+
+
−
−
= − =
+ +
− + − +
= ⇒
− = − ⇒
− =
∂
∂
o
Z
o
z
o
z
o
I V
e ZI e V
ZI
z
V
γ
γ γ
γ
Or
From Telegraphic Equations
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 114
Propagation Velocity (v
p
)
• Compare the expression for v(z,t) of (4.4a) with a general expression
for a traveling wave in positive and negative z direction:
• And recognizing that both v(z,t) and i(z,t) are propagating waves, the
phase velocity is given by:
β
ω
=
p
v
( ) ( ) ( )
z
o
z
o
e z t V e z t V t z V
α α
φ β ω φ β ω
−
− −
+
+
+ + + + − = cos cos ,
) ( z t f β ω −
A general function describing propagating
wave in +z direction
Compare
(4.6)
58
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 115
Attenuation (α αα α)
• The attenuation factor α decreases the amplitude of the voltage and
current wave along the Tline.
• For +ve traveling wave:
• For ve traveling wave:
( )
z
o
e z t V
α
φ β ω
−
+
+
+ − cos
( )
z
o
e z t V
α
φ β ω
−
−
+ + cos
z
y
Z=0
z
y
Z=0
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 116
Dispersion (1)
Video
v
in v
out
Low dispersion
Transmission Line
v
in
v
out
• We observe that the propagation
velocity is a function of the
wave’s frequency.
• Different component of the
signal propagates at different
velocity (and also attenuate at
different rate), resulting in the
envelope of the signal being
distorted at the output.
Since
( ) ( ) ( ) ω β ω α ω γ γ j + = =
( ) ω β
ω
=
p
v
Cause of
dispersion
Components
59
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 117
Dispersion (2)
• Dispersion causes
distortion of the signal
propagating through a
transmission line.
• This is particularly evident
in a long line.
v
in
v
out
High dispersion
Transmission Line
v
in
v
out
Video
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 118
Dispersion (3)
• At the output, the sinusoidal components overlap at the wrong ‘timing’,
causing distortion of the pulse.
v
in
v
out
0 10 20 30 40
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
Vin i ∆t ⋅ 1 , ( )
Vin i ∆t ⋅ 3 , ( )
Vin i ∆t ⋅ 5 , ( )
i
0 10 20 30 40
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
Vint i ∆t ⋅ ( )
i
0 10 20 30 40
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
Vout i ∆t ⋅ 1 , ( )
Vout i ∆t ⋅ 3 , ( )
Vout i ∆t ⋅ 5 , ( )
i
0 10 20 30 40
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
Voutt i ∆t ⋅ ( )
i
In this example, the
higher the harmonic
frequency the larger is
the phase velocity, i.e.
higher frequency signal
takes lesser time to travel
the length of the Tline.
60
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 119
The Implications
Tline supporting TEM or quasiTEM mode
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 120
The Lossless Transmission Line
• When the tline is lossless, R= 0 and G = 0.
• We have:
• So the lossless transmission line has no attenuation, no dispersion and
the characteristic impedance is real.
• Since lossless Tline is an ideal, in practical situation we try to reduce
the loss to as small as possible, by using goldplated conductor, and
using good quality dielectric (low loss tangent).
C
L
Z
c
=
LC j j ω β γ = =
µε
1 1
= =
LC
v
p
61
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 121
Appendix 2
Advanced Concepts –
Distributed RLCG Model for
Transmission Line and
Telegraphic Equations
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 122
Distributed Parameters Model (1)
( )
2 1
4 2
4 3 2 1
V V ds H j
dl E dl E ds E
dl E dl E dl E dl E
ds E dl E
S
s s S
s s s s
S C
− = ⋅ − − ⇒



¹

\

⋅ − − ⋅ − = ⋅ × ∇ − ⇒
⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ − =
⋅ × ∇ − = ⋅ −
∫∫
∫ ∫ ∫∫
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
∫∫ ∫
−
r
r r r
r r r r
r r
µω
( ) zI L j V V
ds H j V V
S
∆ − = − ⇒


¹

\

⋅ − = + −
∫∫
ω
µ ω
1 2
2 1
r
• For TEM or quasiTEM mode propagation along z direction:
Stoke’s
Theorem
V
1
V
2
L∆z
Flux linkage
(Definition for
Inductance)
Can be represented
in circuit as:
L is the
inductance
per meter
s
1
s
2
s
3
s
4
Loop C
V
1
V
2
C
Conductor
∆ z
z
y
This means the
relation between
V
1
and V
2
is as if
an inductor is
between them
When ∆z
is small
as compared
to wavelength
( ) ( )z y x h y x h H
z t
ˆ , , + ≅
+
r r
62
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 123
Distributed Parameters Model (2)
• C is the per unit length capacitance between the 2 conductors of the Tline.
C
1
C
2
I
2
I
1
∆ z
Volume W
Surface S
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
2 1
2 1
1
1
I I z C V z C
I I S d E
S d J S d J S d J S d E
dW J S d E
dW S d E
dW S d E
dW dW E
t
V
t
S
t
A A S S
t
W S
t
W
t
S
t
W S
W W
− = ∆ = ∆ ⇒
+ − = ⋅ ⇒
⋅ − ⋅ − = ⋅ − = ⋅ ⇒
⋅ ∇ − = ⋅ ⇒
= ⋅ ⇒
= ⋅ ⇒
= ⋅ ∇
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∫∫
∫∫ ∫∫ ∫∫ ∫∫
∫∫∫ ∫∫
∫∫∫ ∫∫
∫∫∫ ∫∫
∫∫∫ ∫∫∫
r
r r r r r r r
r
r
r
r
ε
ε
ε
ρ
ε
ε
ρ
ε
ρ
I
1 I
2
C∆z
t
V
z C
∂
∂
∆
V
Can be represented in circuit as
Using Divergence Theorem
See the following
slide for more
proof.
A
1
A
2
This means the
relation between
I
1
and I
2
is as if
a capacitor is
between them
When ∆z
is small
as compared
to wavelength
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 124
Distributed Parameters Model (3)
∫ ⋅ −
=
⋅ −
⋅
∫
∫∫
B
A
dl E
Q
B
A
S
dl E
ds E
r r
r
ε
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
(
(
¸
(
¸
⋅ + ⋅ =
= ⋅ + ⋅ =
∫∫ ∫∫
∫∫ ∫∫
ds ds Q
ds ds E
r
r z y x
s
f
r
r z y x
s
f
r
r z y x
s
r
r z y x
s
2
C on surface
2
2
ˆ
4
, ,
2
1
C on surface
1
1
ˆ
4
, ,
1
2
C on surface
2
2
ˆ
4
, ,
2
1
C on surface
1
1
ˆ
4
, ,
1
πε πε
πε
σ
πε
σ
r
Consider the ratio:
For static or quasistatic condition, the E field
is given by:
Q is the total charge on
conductors C
1
or C
2
, σ
s
is the surface charge density, while f
s
is the normalized surface charge density with respect to Q.
Hence the ratio becomes:
C does not depend on
the total charge on the
conductors, we called
this constant the
‘Capacitance’.
CV ds E
S
= ⋅
∫∫
r
ε
Potential difference between A and B
C
1
C
2
I
2
I
1
∆ z
Volume W
Surface S
(x,y,z)
r
2
r
1
A
B
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
C
dl E
ds E
B
A
dl ds
r
r z y x
s
f
ds
r
r z y x
s
f
B
A
dl ds
r
r z y x
s
f
ds
r
r z y x
s
f
Q
Q
B
A
S
= =
=
⋅ −
⋅
∫ ⋅
(
(
¸
(
¸
⋅ + ⋅ −
∫ ⋅
(
(
¸
(
¸
⋅ + ⋅ −
∫∫ ∫∫
∫∫ ∫∫
∫
∫∫
1
C on surface
2
C on surface
2
2
ˆ
4
, ,
2
1
1
ˆ
4
, ,
1
1
1
C on surface
2
C on surface
2
2
ˆ
4
, ,
2
1
1
ˆ
4
, ,
1
πε πε
πε πε
ε
r
r
63
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 125
Distributed Parameters (4)
∆z
• Combining the relationship between the L, C and transverse voltages
and currents, the equivalent circuit for a short section of transmission
line supporting TEM or quasiTEM propagating EM field can be
represented by the equivalent circuit:
• Thus a long Tline can be considered as a cascade of many of these
equivalent circuit sections. Working with circuit theory and circuit
elements are much easier than working with E and H fields using
Maxwell equations.
L∆z
C∆z
V
1
V
2
I
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 126
Distributed Parameters Model (5)
• When the conductor has small conductive loss a series resistance R∆ z
can be added to the inductance.
• When the dielectric has finite conductivity, a shunt conductance G∆ z
can be added in parallel to the capacitance.
• The inclusion of constant R and G in the Tline’s distributed circuit model
is only accurate for very small losses*. This is true most of the time as
Tline is usually made of very good conductive material.
• The equations for finding L, C, R, G under low loss condition are given in
the following slide.
L∆z
C∆z
R∆z
G∆z V
1
V
2
I
*Under lossy condition, R, L and G
are usually function of frequency,
hence the Tline is dispersive.
64
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 127
Extra: Lossy Dielectric
• Assuming the dielectric is nonmagnetic, then the dielectric loss is due
to leakage (nonzero conductivity) and polarization loss*.
• Polarization loss is due to the vibration of the polarized molecules in
the dielectric when an a.c. electric field is imposed.
• Both mechanisms can be modeled by considering an effective
conductivity σ
d
for the dielectric at the operating frequency. This is
usually valid for small electric field.
⇒ + = × ∇ E j J H
o r
r r r
ε ωε E j E H
o r d
r r r
ε ωε σ + = × ∇
1 E j H
o r
j
d
o r
r r

¹

\

+ = × ∇ ⇒
ε ωε
σ
ε ωε
( )
o r
d
o r
E j j H
ε ωε
σ
δ
δ ε ωε
=
− = × ∇ ⇒
tan
tan 1
r r
This is called Loss Tangent
( )
δ ε ε ε ε ε ε
ε ε ω
tan
" '
" '
o r o r
E j j H
= =
− = × ∇
r r
Note that σ
d
is a function of frequency
Loss current density
*We should also include
hysterisis loss in
ferromagnetic material.
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 128
Finding Distributed Parameters for
Low Loss Practical Transmission Line
• When loss is present, the propagation mode will not be TEM anymore
(Can you explain why this is so?).
• However if the loss is very small, we can assume the propagating EM
field to be similar to the EM fields under lossless condition. From the E
and H fields, we could derived the RLCG parameters from equations
(4.1a) and (4.1b). Although the RLCG parameters under this condition
is only an approximation, the error is usually small.
• This approach is known as perturbation method.
65
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 129
Derivation of Telegraphic Equations (1)
Use Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL):
• For Tline supporting TEM and quasiTEM modes, the V and I on the line
is the solution of a hyperbolic partial differential equation (PDE) known
as telegraphic equations. Consider first lossless line:
I
1
L∆z
C∆z
V
1
V
2
I
2
I
1
=I
V
1
V
2
I
2
jωL∆z
LI j
z
V V
ω − =
∆
−
⇒
1 2
zI L j V V ∆ − = ω
1 2
LI j
z
V
ω − = ⇒
∂
∂
z
V
z
V V
z
∂
∂
∆
−
→ ∆
=

¹

\
 1 2
0
lim
Observing that:
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 130
Derivation of Telegraphic Equations (2)
( )
CV j
I V z C j I
z
I I
ω
ω
− = ⇒
= ∆ −
∆
−
1 2
2 1
• Now considering the current on both ends, and using Kirchoff’s Current
Law (KCL):
I
1
L∆z
C∆z
V
1
V
2
I
2
Using KCL here:
I
1
jωL∆z
(jωC∆z)
1
V
2
=V
I
2
I
1
Lossless
Telegraphic
Equations
CV j
z
I
ω − =
∂
∂
t
V
C
z
I I
∂
∂
− =
∆
−
2 1 2
Again observing that:
66
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 131
Relationship Between Field Solutions
and Telegraphic Equations
Interconnect
‘Long’ interconnect
‘Short’ interconnect
Lumped RLCG circuit
Waveguide
Transmission line
Maxwell’s Equations
Wave Equations
E & H wave
TEM
TE
TM
Hybrid
QuasiTEM
V
t
, I
t
and
Distributed
RLCG
circuit
Telegraphic
Equations
Only for stripline
structures
KVL &
KCL
Z
c
, v
p
, attenuation factor,
dispersion, power handling.
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 132
Example A3
• Find the RLCG parameters of the low loss parallel plate waveguide in
Example A1. Assuming the conductivity of the conductor is σ and the
dielectric between the plates is complex (this means the dielectric is
lossy too):
• Use the expressions for E
t
and H
t
as derived in Example A1.
" ' ε ε ε j − =
H/m
W
d
L
µ
=
F/m
'
d
W
C
ε
=
/m
2
Ω =
W
R
s c
δ σ
/m C
'
"
1 −
Ω = =
d
W
G
d
σ
ε
ωε
67
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 133
5.0  Transmission Line
Synthesis On Printed Circuit
Board (PCB) And Related
Structures
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 134
Stripline Technology (1)
• Stripline is a planartype Tline that lends itself well to microwave
integrated circuit (MIC) and photolithograhpic fabrication.
• Stripline can be easily fabricated on a printed circuit board (PCB) or
semiconductor using various dielectric material such as epoxy resin,
glass fiber such as FR4, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or commonly
known as Teflon, Polyimide, aluminium oxide, titanium oxide and other
ceramic materials or processes, for instance the lowtemperature cofired
ceramic (LTCC).
• Three most common Tline configurations using stripline technology are
microstrip line, stripline and coplanar stripline.
68
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 135
Stripline Technology (2)
• A variety of substrates, Thin and ThickFilm technologies can be
employed.
• For more information on microstrip line circuit design, you can refer to
T.C. Edwards, “Foundation for microstrip circuit design”, 2nd Edition
1992, John Wiley & Sons. (3
rd
edition, 2000 is also available).
• For more information on stripline circuit design, you can consult H.
Howe, “Stripline circuit design”, 1974, Artech House.
• For more information on microwave materials and fabrication
techniques, you can refer to T.S. Laverghetta, “Microwave materials and
fabrication techniques”, 3rd edition 2000, Artech House.
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 136
The Substrate or Laminate for Stripline
Technology
• Typical dielectric thickness are 32mils (0.80mm), 62mils (1.57mm) for
double sided board. For multilayer board the thickness can be
customized from 2 – 62 mils, in 1 mils step.
• Copper thickness is usually expressed in terms of the mass of copper spread
over 1 square foot. Standard copper thickness are 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 oz/foot
2
.
0.5 oz/foot
2
≅ 0.7mils thick.
1.0 oz/foot
2
≅ 1.4mils thick.
2.0 oz/foot
2
≅ 2.8mils thick.
Dielectric thickness
Copper thickness
Dielectric
Copper (Usually gold plated
to protect against oxidation)
Standard
material consist
of epoxy with glass
fiber reinforcement
69
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 137
Factors Affecting Choices of
Substrates
• Operating frequency.
• Electrical characteristics  e.g. nominal dielectric constant, anisotropy,
loss tangent, dispersion of dielectric constant.
• Copper weight (affect low frequency resistance).
• T
g
, glass transition temperature.
• Cost.
• Tolerance.
• Manufacturing Technology  Thin or thick film technology.
• Thermal requirements  e.g. thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal
expansion (CTE) along x,y and z axis.
• Mechanical requirements  flatness, coefficient of thermal expansion,
metalfilm adhesion (peel strength), flame retardation, chemical and
water resistance etc.
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 138
Comparison between Various
Transmission Lines
Microstrip line Stripline Coplanar line
Suffers from dispersion
and nonTEM modes
Pure TEM mode Suffers from dispersion
and nonTEM modes
Easy to fabricate Difficult to fabricate Fairly difficult to fabricate
High density trace Mid density trace Low density trace
Fair for coupled line
structures
Good for coupled line
structures
Not suitable for coupled
line structures
Need through holes to
connect to ground
Need through holes
to connect to ground
No through hole required
to connect to ground
70
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 139
Field Solution for EM Waves on
Stripline Structure (1)
• In microstrip and coplanar Tline the dielectric material does not
completely surround the conductor, consequently the fundamental mode
of propagation is not a pure TEM mode. However at a frequency below
a few GHz (<10GHz at least), the EM field propagation mode is quasi
TEM. The microstrip Tline can be characterized in terms of its
approximate distributed RLCG parameters.
• For the stripline, the dominant mode is TEM hence it can be
characterized by its distributed RLCG parameters to very high
frequencies.
• Unfortunately there is no simple closedform analytic expressions that for
the EM fields or RLCG parameters for a planar Tline.
• A method known as ‘Conformal Mapping’ is usually used to find the
approximate closedform solution of the Laplace partial differential
equation for the TEM/quasiTEM mode fields. The expression can be
very complex.
See Ramo [3], Chapter 7 for more information on Conformal
Mapping method. Collin [1], Chapter 3 provides mathematical
derivation of the field solutions for parallel plate waveguide with
inhomogeneous dielectric and the microstrip line.
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 140
Field Solution for EM Waves on
Stripline Structure (2)
• Another approach is to use numerical methods to solve for the static E
and H field along the cross section of the Tline. From the E and H fields,
the RLCG parameters can be obtained from equations (4.1a) and (4.1b).
• There are numerous commercial and noncommercial software for
performing this analysis.
• Once RLCG parameters are obtained, the propagation constant γ and
characteristic impedance Z
c
of the Tline can be obtained. Z
c
can then be
plotted as a function of the Tline dimensions, the dielectric constant and
the operating frequency.
• Many authors have solved the static field problem for stripline structures
using conformal mapping and other approaches to solve the scalar
potential φ and vector potential A.
• The following slides show some useful results as obtained by
researchers in the past for designing planar Tline.
• Some of the equations are obtained by curvefitting numerically
generated results.
71
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 141
Typical Iterative Flow for Transmission
Line Design
Design
equations
for Tline
Yes
No
Draw Tline physical
cross section
Start
Solve for TEM mode
E and H fields at the
frequency of interest
Determine R, L, C, G
from (4.1)
Compute Z
c
, α and β
at the frequency of
interest
Criteria met?
End
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 142
Design Equations
• By varying the physical dimensions and using the flow of the previous
slide, one can obtain a collection of results (Z
c
, α, β) .
• These results can be plotted as points on a graph.
• Curvefitting techniques can then be used to derive equations that
match the results with the physical parameters of the Tline.
µ , ε
d
W
µ
o
, ε
o
0 2 4 6 8
0
100
200
300
263.177
15.313
Zc x 1 , ( )
Zc x 2 , ( )
Zc x 3 , ( )
Zc x 4 , ( )
Zc x 5 , ( )
Zc x 6 , ( )
8 0.1 x
W/d
Z
c
ε
r
=1
ε
r
=2
ε
r
=3
ε
r
=6
72
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 143
Microstrip Line (see reference [3], Chapter 8)
1
172 . 0
98 . 1
377
10
1
1
1
2
1
1
−
(
(
¸
(
¸

¹

\

+ =
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
+
−
+ =
d
w
d
w
Z
w
d
eff
c
r
eff
ε
ε
ε
o eff
p
v
ε µε
1
=
Only valid when quasiTEM approximation and very low loss condition applies.
Design Equations for Microstrip Line
(5.1a)
(5.1b)
(5.1c)
Effective dielectric
constant (See Appendix 3)
µ , ε
d
W
µ
o
, ε
o
t
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 144
Stripline (see reference [3], Chapter 8):
µ , ε
d
d
w
µε
1
=
p
v
( )
1
0
2 2
2
4
cosh
sin 1
) (
1
4
2
−
(
¸
(
¸

¹

\

=
−
=

¹

\

−
⋅ ≅
∫
d
w
k
x
d
x K
k K
k K Z
Z
o
c
π
φ
φ
π
Complete elliptic integral
of the 2nd kind
ε
µ
=
o
Z
Only valid when TEM, quasiTEM approximation and very low loss condition applies.
Design Equations for Stripline
(5.2a)
(5.2b)
(5.2c)
73
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 145
Coplanar Line ([3], assume d is large compare to s):
1 173 . 0 for
1
1
2 ln
4
173 . 0 0 for 2 ln
2
1
1
< <
(
(
(
¸
(
¸



¹

\

−
+
≅
< <


¹

\

≅
+
=
−
a
w
a
w
a
w
Z
Z
a
w
w
a Z
Z
eff
o
c
eff
o
c
r
eff
ε
π
ε π
ε
ε
o eff
p
v
ε µε
1
=
a
w
d
s
Only valid when quasiTEM approximation and very low loss condition applies.
o
o
o
Z
ε
µ
=
Design Equations for Coplanar Line
(5.3a)
(5.3b)
(5.3c)
Effective dielectric
constant (See Appendix 3)
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 146
Dispersive Property of Microstrip and
Coplanar Lines (1)
• The actual propagation mode for microstrip and coplanar lines are a
combination TM and TE modes. Both modes are dispersive. The
phase velocity of the EM wave is dependent on the frequency (see
references [1] and [2], or discussion in Appendix 1).
• This change in phase velocity is reflected by effective dielectric
constant that changes with frequency.
• At low frequency (f < f
critical
), when the propagation modes for microstrip
and coplanar lines approaches quasiTEM, the phase velocity is
almost constant.
• Appendix 1 shows a simple method to estimate f
critical
for microstrip and
coplanar lines.
• Thus f
critical
is usually taken as the upper frequency limit for microstrip
and coplanar lines. Typical value is 5 – 100 GHz depending on
dielectric thickness.
• Stripline does not experience this effect as theoretically it can support
pure TEM mode.
74
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 147
Dispersive Property of Microstrip and
Coplanar Line (2)
f
1
ε
r
ε
eff
Microstrip line
Stripline
f
1
ε
r
ε
eff Region where (5.1a)
and (5.1b) applies.
f
critical
Limit for quasiTEM approximation, see Example A1 and on
how to estimate f
critical
Note:
Beyond f
critical
the concept of characteristic impedance
becomes meaningless.
For microstrip line, the EM
field is partly in the air and
dielectric. Hence the effective
dielectric ε
eff
constant is between
those of air and dielectric.
o eff
p
v
ε µε
1
=
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 148
Tool for Stripline Design
• You can easily refer to books, journals, magazines etc., use the
approximation equation developed by others and write your own
software tools, from a simple spreadsheet, to Visual Basic, JAVA or
C++ based programs.
• A few free software are available online, the more notable is AppCAD
by Agilent Technologies.
You can also check out
www.rfcafe.com for more
public domain tools
75
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 149
Example 5.1  Microstrip Line Design
• (a) Design a 50Ω ΩΩ Ω microstrip line, given that d = 1.57 mm and
dielectric constant = 4.6 (Here it means find w).
0 1 2 3 4 5
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
Zo S
i
S
i
•Steps...
•Plot out Z
c
versus (w/d).
• From the curve, we see that
w/d = 1.8 for 50Ω.
• Thus w = 1.8 x 1.57 mm = 2.82 mm
50Ω
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
3
3.25
3.5
3.75
4
εe S
i
S
i W/d
W/d
1.8
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 150
Microstrip Line Design Example Cont...
• (b) If the length of the Tline is 6.5 cm, find the propagation delay.
• (c) Using the l < 0.05λ λλ λ rule, find the frequency range where the
microstrip line can be represented by lumped RLCG circuit.
From ε
eff
versus w/d, we see that ε
eff
= 3.55 at w/d = 1.8. Therefore:
ps
v
t ms v
p
delay
o o
p
406
065 . 0
10 601 . 1
51 . 3
1
1 8
≅ = ⇒ × =
⋅
=
−
µ ε
To be represented as lumped, the wavelength λ must be > 20 x Length:
MHz 2 . 123
30 . 1
m 30 . 1 20
30 . 1
= < ⇒
> ⇒
= ⋅ >
p
v
f
p
v
f
l λ
MHz 2 . 123 =
lumped
f
76
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 151
Microstrip Line Design Example Cont...
• (d) When the low loss microstrip line is considered short, derived
its equivalent LC network.
pF/m 6 . 124
10 601 . 1 50
1 1
1 1
8
=
× ×
= =
= × =
p c
p c
v Z
C
C LC C
L
v Z nH/m 27 . 313
2
= = C Z L
c
For shot interconnect we could model the Tline as:
nH z L 18 . 10
2
1
= ∆ nH 18 . 10
pF z C 096 . 8 = ∆
or
nH z L 36 . 20 = ∆
pF z C 048 . 4
2
1
= ∆ pF 048 . 4
nH L
pF C
36 . 20 065 . 0
096 . 8 065 . 0
= ⋅
= ⋅
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 152
Microstrip Line Design Example Cont...
• (e) Finally estimate f
critical
, the limit where quasiTEM
approximation begins to break down.
GHz f d
p
v
critical
critical
f
p
v
10 . 5 031 . 0 20
031 . 0
≅ < ⇒ = > = λ
Again using the criteria that wavelength > 20d for quasiTEM mode
to propagate:
We see that to increase f
critical
, smaller thickness d
should be used.
77
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 153
Microstrip Line Design Example Cont...
µ = µ
o
, ε = 4.6ε
o
µ
o
, ε
o
1.57 mm
2.82 mm
65.0 mm
Z
c
= 50Ω
v
p
= 1.601x10
8
m/s
t
delay
= 406psec
Maximum usable frequency = f
critical
= 5.10 GHz.
Short interconnect limit = 123.2 MHz
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 154
Example 5.2 – Estimating the Effect of Trace
Width and Dielectric Thickness on Z
C
• Consider the following microstrip line cross sections, assuming lossless
Tline, make a comparison of the characteristic impedance of each line.
TL
1
TL
2 TL
3
TL
4
78
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 155
Example 5.3  Stripline Design Example
Using 2D EM Field Solver Program
• Here we demonstrate the use of a program called Maxwell 2D by Ansoft
Inc. www.ansoft.com to design a stripline.
• The version used is called Maxwell SV Ver 9.0, a free version which can
be downloaded from the company’s website.
• The software uses finite element method (FEM) to compute the two
dimensional (2D) static E and H field of an array of metallic objects.
• It is assumed that the stripline is lossless.
• Two projects are created, one is the Electrostatic problem for calculation
of static electric field and distributed capacitance, the other is
Magnetostatic problem, for calculation of static magnetic field and
distributed inductance.
• Characteristic impedance of the stripline can then be computed from the
distributed capacitance and inductance.
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 156
Example 5.3  Screen Shot
79
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 157
Example 5.3  Stripline Cross Section
• Draw the cross section of the model and assign material.
8.0mm
0.3mm
0.3mm
0.036mm
0.036mm
0.4mm
• Set drawing units to micron.
• Set drawing size to 10000um for x
and 4000um for y.
• Set grid to dU = dV = 100um.
• Draw model, use direct entry mode
for conducting structures like GND
planes and signal.
• Name signal conductor “Trace1” and
GND planes “GND1” and “GND2”.
• Name FR4 as “substrate”, then group
both “GND1” and “GND2” as one object “GND”.
0.6mm
FR4 Substrate
“substrate” Signal conductor
(PEC) “Trace1”
GND planes
(PEC)
“GND2”
“GND1”
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 158
Example 5.3  Electrostatics: Setup
Boundary Conditions
• Set the boundary conditions.
• All boundary are Dirichlet type, i.e. voltages are specified.
• Let the edges of the model domain remain as Balloon Boundary.
0V 0V
0V
0V
1V
Balloon Boundaries
80
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 159
Example 5.3  Electrostatics: Setup
Executive Parameters
• Under ‘Setup Executive Parameters’ tab, select ‘Matrix…’ and proceed
to perform the capacitance matrix setup as shown.
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 160
Example 5.3  Electrostatics: Setup
Solver and Solve for Scalar Potential φ φφ φ
• Setup the solver and
solve for the approximate
potential solution. Use
the ‘Suggested Values’ if
you are not sure.
81
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 161
Example 5.3  Finite Element Method (1)
• In finiteelement method (FEM) an object is thought to consist of many
smaller elements, usually triangle for 2D object and tetrahedron for 3D
object.
• FEM is used to solve for the approximate scalar potential V (or φ) for
electrostatic problem and vector potential A for magnetostatic problem
at the vertex of each triangle. The partial differential equations (PDE)
to solve are the Poisson’s equations.
• Potential value inside the triangle can be estimated via interpolation.
• For 2D problem the PDE can be written as:
ε
ρ
= ∇ V
2
J A
r r
µ = ∇
2
( ) ( ) y x y x V V
y x V
t t
y x
t t t
, ,
2
ρ ρ
ε
ρ
= =
+ = ∇ = ∇
∂
∂
∂
∂
) )
( ) ( ) y x J J y x A A
J A
z z z z
z z t
, ,
2
= =
= ∇
r
µ
x
y
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 162
Example 5.3  Finite Element Method (2)
• 2D quasistatic E field can then be obtained by:
• Similarly magnetic flux intensity H can be obtained from:
• For more information, refer to
– T. Itoh (editor), “Numerical techniques for microwave and milimeter
wave passive structures”, JohnWiley & Sons, 1989.
– P. P. Silvester, R. L. Ferrari, “Finite elements for electrical
engineers”, Cambridge University Press, 1990.
– Other newer books.
( ) ( ) [ ] z y x A y x H
z t t
)
r
, ,
1
× ∇ − =
µ
( ) ( ) y x V y x E
t t t
, , −∇ =
r
82
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 163
Example 5.3  Electrostatics: The Triangular
Mesh
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 164
Example 5.3  Electrostatics: Plot of E
field Magnitude
83
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 165
Example 5.3  Electrostatics: Plot of Voltage
Contour
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 166
Example 5.3  Electrostatics: Capacitance
• The estimated distributed capacitance is then computed using:
• Approximation to the integration using summation is performed by the
software. The result is shown below:
• C ≈ 1.9958×10
10
F/m or 199.58 pF/m.
∫∫∫
=
V
t
t
dv E
V
C
2
2
'
r
ε
84
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 167
Example 5.3  Magnetostatics: Setup
Boundary Conditions
Balloon Boundaries
Solid source +1A
Solid source –1A (total for 2 planes)
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 168
Example 5.3  Magnetostatics: Setup
Executive Parameters
• Under ‘Setup Executive Parameters’ tab, select ‘Matrix/Flux…’ and
proceed to perform the inductance matrix setup as shown.
85
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 169
Example 5.3  Magnetostatics: Plot of B
field Magnitude
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 170
Example 5.3  Magnetostatics: Inductance
• The estimated distributed capacitance is then computed using:
• L ≈ 2.5093×10
7
H/m or 250.93 nH/m.
∫∫∫
=
V
t
t
dv H
I
L
2
2
r
µ
86
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 171
Example 5.3  Derivation of Parameters for
Stripline
Ω = = =
−
×
−
×
819 . 35
10
10 9558 . 1
7
10 5093 . 2
C
L
c
Z
1 8
10 427 . 1
1
−
× = = ms
LC
v
p
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 172
Example 5.4 – Tline Design Using
Agilent’s AppCAD V3.02
87
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 173
Example 5.4  Derivation of LC Parameters
from AppCAD V3.02 Results
( )
( )
8
10 998 . 2
466 . 0
0 . 36
× =
=
=
vacumn p
vacumn p p
c
v
v v
Z
m H C Z L
m F C
c
p
v
c
Z
/ 10 577 . 2
/ 10 988 . 1
7 2
10 1
−
−
× = =
× = =
• As we can see, both the results using EM field solver and
using closedform solution (AppCAD) are very close.
• Bear in mind that this is only approximate solution, as
skineffect loss and dielectric loss are ignored.
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 174
Appendix 3
88
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 175
The Origin of Effective Dielectric Constant
(ε εε ε
eff
)
• The approach can be traced to a paper by Bryant and Weiss
1
.
Assuming low loss and quasiTEM mode:
LC
p
v
1
=
C
p
v C
L
c
Z
1
= =
µ
o
, ε
o
µ
o
, ε
o
C
1
With dielectric, C is the capacitance
per meter between the conductors
Without dielectric, C
1
is the capacitance
per meter between the conductors
Note 1: T. G. Bryant and J. A. Weiss,”Parameters of microstrip
transmission lines and coupled pairs of microstrip lines”, IEEE
Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol.MTT16, pp.10211027,1968.
1
C
C
eff
= ε
eff
c
eff
LC
p
v
ε ε
= =
⋅
1
1
Define
Then
1
1
1
1 1
C
eff
c
c
eff
C
eff
c
C
eff
c
c
Z
Z
⋅
⋅ ⋅
= ⇒
= =
ε
ε
ε ε
Speed of
light in vacumn
C
1
is computed via numerical
methods for various W and d
µ , ε
d
W
µ
o
, ε
o
C
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 176
• When quasiTEM approximation is no longer valid, the preceeding
formulation is not accurate and the telegraphic equations cannot be
used.
• Also there is no longer a unique voltage and current, only E and H
fields are used. More dispersion will also be observed.
• We can resort to defining equivalent voltage and current as employed
for waveguides.
• However this is usually quite cumbersome, another option is to use full
wave analysis.
When QuasiTEM Approximation is not
Valid  Full Wave Analysis
89
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 177
FullWave Analysis
• Fullwave analysis is usually carried out using numerical methods such
as Method of Moments (MoM), Finite Element Methods (FEM), Finite
Difference TimeDomain (FDTD) and Transmission Line Matrix (TLM).
• In all these methods, the Maxwell Equations are solved directly or
indirectly instead of transforming the equations into circuit theory
expressions (e.g. the telegraphic equations).
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 178
THE END
90
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 179
Example A1 – Solution for TE Mode
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
z j
d
n
n z
z j
d
n
B j
t
z j
d
n
B Z jk
t
e y B y x H
y e y y x H
x e y y x E
d
n
n
d
n
n o o
β
π
β
π
β
β
π
π
π
−
−
−
=
=
=
cos ,
ˆ sin ,
ˆ sin ,
The EM fields for TE mode are shown below:
Since n is an arbitrary integer,
the TE mode is usually called
the TE
n
mode.
o
o
o
o
Z
k
ε
µ
µε ω
=
=
Exercise
• Suppose we have a parallelplate transmission line with the following
parameters:
– W = 16.0 mm
– d = 1.0 mm
– ε
r
= 2.5, µ
r
= 1.0, dielectric breakdown at E = 3000 V/m.
• The length of the line is 10 meter. Find the cutoff frequency of the for
TM and TE modes.
• If TEM mode is propagating along the line, find the characteristic
impedance Z
c
of the line, and the maximum power that can be carried
by this line without damaging the dielectric.
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 180
91
Exercise Cont…
• Assuming this transmission line is used in the following system.
Estimate the maximum working distance R.
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 181
Transmission
Tower
Omnidirectional
Antenna
Parallel
plate Tline
Receiver
Distance = R
If the Receiver can detect
the data when received power
is 2 µWatt.
Antenna gain G = 10
References
• [1] R. E. Collin, “Foundation for microwave engineering”, 2nd edition, 1992, McGrawHill. A very advanced and indepth book on microwave
engineering. Difficult to read but the information is very comprehensive. A classic work. Recommended.
•
[2] D. M. Pozar, “Microwave engineering”, 2nd edition, 1998 JohnWiley & Sons. (3rd edition, 2005 is also available from JohnWiley & Sons).
Easier to read and understand. Also a good book. Recommended.
•
[3] S. Ramo, J.R. Whinnery, T.D. Van Duzer, “Field and waves in communication electronics” 3rd edition, 1993 JohnWiley & Sons.
Good coverage of EM theory with emphasis on applications.
•
[4] C. R. Paul, “Introduction to electromagnetic compatibility”, JohnWiley & Sons, 1992.
June 2008
© 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee
3
References Cont...
• [5] F. Kung, “Modeling of highspeed printed circuit board.” Master degree dissertation, 1997, University Malaya.
http://pesona.mmu.edu.my/~wlkung/Master/mthesis.htm
•
[6] F. Kung unpublished notes and works.
June 2008
© 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee
4
2
1.0 Review of Electromagnetic (EM) Fields
June 2008
© 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee
5
Electric and Magnetic Fields (1)
• In an electronic system, such as on PCB assembly, there are electric charges (q). To make our electronic system works, we essentially control electric charges (the charge density and rate of flow on various point in the circuit). Flow of electric charges due to potential difference (V) produces electric current (I). Associated with charge is electric field (E) and with current is magnetic field (H) *, collectively called Electromagnetic (EM) fields.
Force F Test charge r + q2
• •
E +q1
r
r F = q2 E
qq ˆ = 1 ⋅ 1 2r 4πε r 2
Coulomb’s Law
Test current I2
r r rH F = I2 × B
Force F
To detect an E field we use an electric charge. To detect H field we use a current loop
June 2008
I
© 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee
*The magnetic field is B = µH, H is the magnetization.
6
3
by convention is directed from conductor with higher potential to conductor with less potential. t )x + H y (x.TimeDomain Form (1) Faraday’s law r r ∇×E = − ∂ B ∂t r r ∂ r ∇×H = J + D ρ v = ρ v ( x. z. y.Electric and Magnetic Fields (2) E fields Conductor + + ++ ++ • E fields. t ) y + E z (x. • Density of the field lines corresponds to strength of the field. y . z . June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee Maxwell Equations (Linear Medium) . y. but can ∇⋅B = 0 H – Auxiliary magnetic field z y x r Where: E = E x (x. Force on a test charge q Conductor q + + F=    ) 1 ⋅ Qq r 4πε o r 2 Conductor H fields • H fields. z . t )z r ˆ ˆ ˆ J = J x ( x. z. z . y . y. t )z Each parameter depends on 4 independent variables be called Gauss’s law for magnetic field Constitutive relations For linear medium June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee D – Electric flux B – Magnetic field intensity J – Current density ρv – Volume charge density εo – permittivity of free space (≅8. t ) y + H z ( x.85412×1012) µo – permeability of free space (4π×107) εr – relative permittivity µr – relative permeability 8 4 . t )x + J y (x. y. y . F = q v× B +I Conductor I ( ) 7 •Density of field lines corresponds to strength of the field. z . • Direction indicates force experienced by a small test charge according to Coulomb’s Force Law. y. t ) ∂t Unit vector in xdirection r Modified Ampere’s law x component ∇ ⋅ D = ρv Gauss’s law r E – Electric field intensity No name. z . z . z . t )z ˆ ˆ ˆ r ˆ ˆ ˆ H = H x ( x. t ) y + J z (x. z. y . t )x + E y (x. by convention is directed according to the righthand rule. • Direction indicates force experienced by a small test current according to Lorentz’s Force Law. y .
e. The Del operator is a shorthand for threedimensional (3D) differentiation: ˆ ˆ ˆ ∇= ∂ x+ ∂ y+ ∂ z • ( ∂x ∂y ∂z ) • For instance consider the 1st and 3rd Maxwell Equations: ˆ x ~ ∂ ∇ × E = ∂x Ex ∂ = − ∂t Curl ˆ y ∂ ∂y ˆ z ∂ ∂z Ey Ez ∂E ∂E ∂E ∂E ∂E ∂E = ∂yz − ∂zy x + ∂zx − ∂xz y + ∂xy − ∂yx z ˆ ˆ ˆ Gradient ˆ (Bx x + B y y + Bz zˆ ) ) ) ˆ ∇F = ∂F x + ∂F y + ∂F z ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂E ρ ~ ∂E ∂E ∇ ⋅ E = ∂xx + ∂yy + ∂zz = ε Divergence June 2008 To truly understands this subject. Read references [1]. In essence the waveform travels in +z direction.Maxwell Equations (Linear Medium) TimeDomain Form (2) • Maxwell Equations as shown are actually a collection of 4 partial differential equations (PDE) that describe the physical relationship between electromagnetic (EM) fields. and also RF/Microwave circuit design. [3] or any good book on EM. current and electric charge. © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 9 Extra: Wave Function and Phasor (1) f (ω t o − β z o ) = f (k ) A general function describing propagating wave in +z direction When time increases by ∆t. f (ω (t o + ∆ t ) − β ( z o + ∆ z )) ∆z to+∆t zo+∆z Direction of travel = f (k + ω ∆ t − β ∆ z ) z These 2 terms must cancel off i. f (ωt − β z ) to zo z we see that we must increase all position by ∆z to maintain the shape. ∆z positive We see that the shape moves by within a period of ∆t. thus phase velocity vp: For a wave function in –z direction: f (ωt + βz ) June 2008 Time t ωto − β zo = ω (to + ∆t ) − β ( z o + ∆z ) ⇒ ω∆t = β ∆z ⇒ vp = ∆z ∆t = ω β 10 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 5 . one needs to have a strong grasp of Electromagnetism (EM).
t ) = Vo cos(2πft − β z ) e m jβ z More compact form V ( z ) = Vo e − jβz Phasor for v(z.Extra: Wave Function and Phasor (2) • An example: v( z . capital letter for phasor. If a linear system is excited by a sinusoidal source with frequency f. we know the response at every point in the system will be sinusoidal with frequency f.t) 12 Convention: small letter for timedomain form. it determines the velocity and wavelength. of the wave. as shown below: cos(ωt m βz ) = Re e jωt e m jβz • • Euler’s formula j= −1 e j α = cos α + j sin α { } Using Euler’s formula cos(ωt m β z ) v ( z . Thus it is more convenient if we convert the expressions for EM fields into phasor or TimeHarmonic form.0MHz . June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 6 . It is the phase constant β which carries more information.t) A sinusoidal wave z Phase Velocity: June 2008 vp = ω = β 2πf β wavelength © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee λ = 2π β 11 Extra: Wave Function and Phasor (3) • In many ways the frequency f does not carry much information. β = 1 v(z. t ) = Vo cos(2πft − β z ) f = 1.
y . the result are Maxwell’s Equations in Each parameter depends on 3 independent variables timeharmonic form. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 13 • r Maxwell Equations (Linear Medium) .2b) r ∇ ⋅ D = ρv (1. y )e − jβ z x + e y (x. y )e − jβz z + Finally if we substitute the phasor form Eo e − jβz e jωt for E. z )x + H y ( x . J and ρ into timedomain Maxwell’s Equations. y . z ) y + H z ( x . z )x + J y (x. y . z ) E – Electric field intensity H – Auxiliary magnetic field D – Electric flux B – Magnetic field intensity J – Current density ρv.TimeHarmonic Form (1) • For sinusoidal variations with time t. z )x + E y (x.Extra: Wave Function and Phasor (4) • Wave function and phasor notation is not only applicable to quantities like voltage. y dependent) • The phasor is given by: r+ ˆ ˆ ˆ Ε (x. H. z ) y + E z (x. y )cos(ωt − β z )x + e y ( x. For instance for sinusoidal E field traveling in +z direction: • Propogating function r+ ˆ ˆ ˆ E (x.85412×1012) µo – permeability of free space (4π×107) εr – relative permittivity µr – relative permeability 14 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 7 . z ) = e x (x. z )y + J z (x. J and ρ into Maxwell’s Equations. y . y . current or charge. we substitute the phasors for E. z )z r ˆ ˆ ˆ J = J x (x.Volume charge density εo – permittivity of free space (≅8. y. y . y )e − jβz y + e z (x. y )cos(ωt − β z ) y + e z ( x. y. t ) = e x ( x.2d) ∇⋅B = 0 Constitutive relations For linear medium June 2008 ∂t r ˆ ˆ ˆ H = H x ( x . y . z )z ρ v = ρ v (x. y . H. r ˆ ˆ ∂ → jω ˆ Where: E = E x (x. It is also applied to vector quantities like E and H fields. we would obtain the Maxwell’s Equations in timeharmonic form.2a) ∇ × E = − jωB r r r ∇ × H = J + jωD (1. z )z r r (1. y )cos(ωt − βz )z r + − jβ z jω t ˆ ˆ ˆ = e x x + e y y + e z z cos(ωt − β z ) = Re Eo e e Pattern function ( ) { } Eo (x.2c) r (1. y . z . y .
Electromagnetic Spectrum Microwaves AM ELF 100 Hz VLF 100 kHz LF MF (MW) 1 MHz HF (SW) VHF FM UHF SHF 1 GHz EHF 300 GHz IR 10 kHz 3 MHz 30 MHz 300 MHz 30 GHz L 1 GHz 2 GHz S 4 GHz C 8 GHz X Ku K 18 GHz 27 GHz Ka mm 40 GHz 300 GHz 12 GHz June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 15 A Little Perspective… ~ ∂ ~ ∇ × E = −µ ∂t H ~ ~ ∂ ~ ∇ × B = µJ + µε ∂t E ~ ρ ∇⋅ E = ~ ∇⋅ B = 0 • Voltage/Potential • Current • Inductance • Capacitance • Resistance • Conductance • Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) • Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL) Electronics & Microelectronics ε + ~ ∂ρ ∇ ⋅ J = − ∂t Information Computer & Telecommunication Conservation of charge Quantum Mechanics /Physics June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee Chemistry 16 8 .
conductive tracks on printed circuit board (PCB). 2. wires. packaging. Socket Ribbon cable PCB Traces Waveguide Coaxial cable 1.metallic conductors that is used to transport electrical energy from one point of a circuit to another. Conductors assumed to be perfect electric conductors (PEC) June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 18 9 . sockets.0 Introduction – Transmission Line Concepts June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 17 Definition of Electrical Interconnect • • Interconnect . metallic tubes etc. y Example: Conductor x z Axial Direction Interconnect Transverse Plane • Thus cables. to form a closed circuit. are all examples of interconnect.2. Usually contains 2 or more conductors.
the moment the switch is closed. radiated out into space.e. L Vs + Without the metal conductors. As the charges move. Electric charges move from Vs to the resistor RL. when field at one point increases. The propagating EM field is called a wave and the interconnect is guiding the EM wave. i.Short Interconnect – Lumped Circuit • • • • For short interconnect. a voltage will appear across RL as current flows through it. Electric charge y +  x z Vs RL Static EM field changes uniformly. the EM waves will disperse. Since any arbitrary waveform can be decomposed into its sinusoidal components. Voltage and current are due to electric charge movement along the interconnect. The short interconnect system can be modeled by lumped RLC circuit. Again we need to stress that typically the values of RLCG are very small. this EM field is dynamic. 19 EM field is static or quasistatic. let us consider Vs to be a sinusoidal source. Associated with the electric charges are static electromagnetic (EM) field in the space surrounding the short interconnect. there is an associated EM field which travels along with the charges. In effect there is a propagating EM field along the interconnect. i. it takes some time for voltage and current to appear on the resistor RL after the switch is closed. field at the other locations also increases. The effect is instantaneous. at low frequency their effect can be simply ignored. June 2008 R L G C © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee Long Interconnect (1) • • • If the interconnection is long.e. © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 20 • Long interconnect: When there is an appreciable delay between input and output June 2008 RL 10 .
The EM fields characteristics are dictated by Maxwell’s Equations. • E and H are also sinusoidal.Long Interconnect (2) • A simple animation… y Positive charge H field E field x Axial Direction z Transverse Plane IL + Vs VL RL t=to t=to + ∆t June 2008 t=to t=to + 2∆t + 3∆t t=to + n∆t 21 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee Long Interconnect (3) • The corresponding EM field generated when electric charge flows along the interconnect is also sinusoidal with respect to time and space. • Behavior of E and H are dictated by Maxwell’s Equations: Electric field (E) t T 1/T = frequency June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 22 Magnetic field (H) 11 . L • Remember that current is due to the flow of free electrons.
y )z ) e − jβz Electric field (E) x z Propagating EM fields Magnetic field (H) r+ − jβz ˆ − jβz ˆ − jβz ˆ H = hx ( x.t) Loop 1 I t (z .Long Interconnect (4) y L By analyzing Maxwell’s Equations or Wave Equations (Appendix 1) r ˆ ˆ ˆ E + = ex ( x. t ) = − ∫ E ⋅ dl a June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 24 12 . y )e x + h y ( x. y )e − jβz y + ez ( x. y ) + hz ( x. y )e y + h z ( x. t ) = ∫ H ⋅ dl Loop 1 r r a br r Vt ( z . y )e z r ˆ = ht ( x. y )e − jβz z r ˆ = (et ( x. y ) + e z ( x. y )z e − jβz Snapshot of EM fields at a certain instant in time on the transverse plane 23 June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee ( ) Voltage and Current on Interconnect (1) • • • • Voltage or potential difference is the energy needed to bring 1 Coulomb of electric charge from a reference point (GND) to another (signal). It(z. We are interested in transverse voltage Vt and current It as shown. From Coulomb’s Law and Ampere’s Law in Electromagnetism. y )e − jβz x + e y ( x. these two quantities are related to E and H fields. Current is the rate of flow of electric charge across a surface.t) b Vt(z.
do not depend on measurement setup.0 picoseconds. FR4 dielectric Copper trace 50 resistive voltage source connected here June 2008 • 100 SMD resistor y x z GND plane © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 26 13 . and correspond to how we would measure them physically with probes Vt and It will be unique (e.g. to provide the approximate value of E and H fields at selected points on the model at every 1.edu. Measuring voltage Line integration path of H field Line integration path of E field See discussion in Appendix 1: Advanced Concepts – Field Theory Solutions for more information. but only on the location) if and only if the EM field propagation mode in the interconnect is TEM or quasiTEM.Electromagnetic Field Propagation in Interconnect (1) • • • The following example simulate the behavior of EM field in a simple interconnection system. The system is a 3D model of a copper trace with a plane on the bottom.0 picosecond interval. June 2008 Transverse plane Measuring current 25 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee Demonstration .my/~wlkung/Phd/phdthesis. A numerical method. known as FiniteDifference TimeDomain (FDTD) is applied to Maxwell’s Equations. Vt and It depends on instantaneous E and H fields on the interconnect.htm) Field values are displayed at an interval of 25.Voltage and Current on Interconnect (2) • • • Vt = Potential difference between two points on transverse plane and It = Rate of flow of electric charge across a conductor surface. (Search WWW or see http://pesona.mmu.
0mm.4.Electromagnetic Field Propagation in Interconnect (2) z x y Magnitude of Ez in dielectric Intensity Scale 19. Thickness =1. εr = 4.75mm 0. σ= 5.5mm 0.avi Show simulation using CST Microwave Studio too © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee Vs  Vo = 3.2mm PCB dielectric: FR4.Demonstration .8mm + Filename: tline1_XZplane.avi June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 28 14 . 0.0V tr = 50ps tHIGH = 100ps Magnitude of Ez in YZ plane Volts Filename: tline1_YZplane.0V tr = 50ps tHIGH = 100ps 27 June 2008 Demonstration .Electromagnetic Field Propagation in Interconnect (3) z x y Probe of signal generator Vo = 3.
This includes structures with only 1 conductor or no conductor at all. Transmission lines are a subset of a broader class of devices. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 29 Typical Transmission Line Configurations Coaxial line Microstrip line Stripline Dielectric Conductor Shielded microstrip line These conductors are physically connected somewhere in the circuit Twowire line Parallel plate line Coplanar line Slot line June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 30 15 . while waveguides refer collectively to any structures that can allow EM waves to propagate along the structure. or Tline for short. Widely known waveguides include the rectangular and circular waveguides for high power microwave system. and the optical fiber. Multiconductor transmission line has more than 2 conductors. known as waveguide. (2) very low loss interconnect (3) high isolation between interconnects.Definition of Transmission Line • • • A transmission line is a long interconnect with 2 conductors – the signal conductor and ground conductor for returning current. Waveguide is used for system requiring (1) high power. usually a few signal conductors and one ground conductor. • • Transmission line is more popular and is widely used in PCB. From now on we will be concentrating on transmission line. Transmission line has at least 2 or more conductors.
Some Multiconductor Transmission Line Configurations Dielectric Conductor June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 31 Typical Waveguide Configurations Rectangular waveguide Circular waveguide Optical Fiber Dielectric waveguide June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 32 16 .
10 (the 10% Rule) Interconnect v p = fλ Phase velocity or propagation velocity June 2008 wavelength f λ f λ (1.05λ. L We call this the 5% rule. Less conservative estimate will use 1/10=0. otherwise it is considered a long interconnect.e. delay between input and output is appreciable? Relative to wavelength for sinusoidal signals.Examples of Microstrip and Coplanar Lines Microstrip Coplanar June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 33 Long or Short Interconnect? The Wavelength RuleofThumb • • • How do we determine if the interconnect is long or short.1) frequency © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 34 17 . it is a short interconnect. An example at the end of this section will illustrate this procedure clearly. i. RuleofThumb: If L < 0.
• Interconnect Current can be considered profile lumped.0V 19.998×108.0 mm λ=C f 19.avi June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 36 18 .2mm Magnitude of Ez in YZ plane Each frame is displayed at 25psec interval Let us assume the EM wave travels at speed of light. then wavelength ≅ 750. 3.4GHz. 50mA Filename: tline1_YZplane_0_4GHz.0 mm Magnitude of Ez in YZ plane • At any instant in time the current profile is almost uniform along the axial +50mA direction.0V 19.2mm Let us assume the EM wave travels at speed of light. then wavelength ≅ 52. C=2. C=2.998×108.avi © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 35 Demonstration – Short Interconnect z x y 0. 3.Demonstration – Long Interconnect z x y 5.2 mm is greater than 5% of 52 mm June 2008 +50mA Current profile 50mA Filename: tline1_YZplane_5_8GHz.8GHz.
0 Propagation Modes June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 37 Transverse E and H Field Patterns Field patterns lie in the Transverse Plane.3. E fields H fields Transverse plane y x z June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 38 19 .
See discussion in Appendix 1. y )z e m jβz ( ) • • A Tline can support a number of modes at any instance. TM or mix mode usually occur at very high frequency. E fields Field contains zcomponent H fields Field contains zcomponent June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 39 Propagation Modes (1) • Assuming the transmission line is parallel to z direction. There is another mode. y – TEM mode .Nontransverse E and H Field Patterns Field patterns does not lie in the Transverse Plane. which is supported by stripline structures with nonuniform dielectric. y ) + e z ( x. – Mix mode. – TM mode . r r ˆ E ± = (et ( x. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 40 20 . however TE.where Ez = 0. y )z ) e m jβz z r r ˆ H ± = ht ( x.where Hz = 0. y ) + hz ( x. known as quasiTEM mode. any mixture of the above.where Ez and Hz are 0. The propagation of E and H fields along the line can be classified into 4 modes: – TE mode .
Propagation Modes (2) E H y E H x TM mode E z TEM mode E H H TE mode June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee Mix modes 41 Examples of Field Patterns or Modes TEM or quasiTEM mode E field H field June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 42 21 .
continuity of E and H field components across different dielectric material. the solutions of E and H fields are propagating fields or waves.1) εµ component on PEC must be zero. Assuming the condition of long interconnection. © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee In free space 44 June 2008 22 . [2]. [3]).Appendix 1 Advanced Concepts – Field Theory Solutions for Transmission Lines June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 43 Field Theory Solution • The nature of E and H fields in the space between conductors can be studied by solving the Maxwell’s Equations or Wave Equations (which can be derived from Maxwell’s Equations) (See [1]. y Maxwell Equations r r ∇ × E = − j ωµ H r r r ∇ × H = J + j ωε E Boundary r ρ conditions ∇⋅E = ε r For instance tangential E field ∇⋅H = 0 • + + r r ∇ 2 E + ko2 E = 0 r r ∇ 2H + ko2H = 0 ko = ω z Wave Equations (A. We assume timeharmonic EM fields with ejωt dependence and wave propagation along the positive and negative zaxis. etc.
• Since this is a 2nd order ODE. For Example: C. “Advance engineering mathematics”. 1998. x ∈ [0. See more advanced text for general wave equation. Kreyszig. JohnWiley. and a general solution is: jkx − jkx y (x ) = Ae + Be (1) June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 46 23 . y = f (x ) . A and B. One popular approach is the TrialandError/substitution method. Balanis. will cause left and right hand side to be equal). we need to introduce 2 unknown constants. A.Extra: Deriving the Hemholtz Wave Equations From Maxwell Equations r r Performing curl operation on Faraday’s Law ∇ × E = − jωµH : r r r r ∇ × ∇ × E = ∇ ∇ ⋅ E − ∇ 2 E = − jωµ ∇ × H r r r ρ ⇒ ∇ 2 E + ω 2 µεE = jωµJ + ∇ ε ( ) ( ) ( ) () Note: use the wellknown vector calculus identity r r r ∇ × ∇ × A = ∇ ∇ ⋅ A − ∇2 A ∇ = 2 ∂2 ∂x 2 ( ) These are the sources for the E field + ∂2 ∂y 2 + ∂2 ∂z 2 In free space there is no electric charge and current: r r ∇ 2 E + ω 2 µεE = 0 Similar procedure can be used to obtain r r r ∇ 2 H + ω 2 µεH = −∇ × J Or in free space 2 Note: This derivation is valid for timeharmonic case under linear medium only. many approaches can be used (for instance see E. 1989. “Advanced engineering Electromagnetics”. r r ∇ H + ω 2 µεH = 0 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee June 2008 45 Obtaining the Expressions for E and H (1) • Assuming an ordinary differential equation (ODE) system as shown: ODE d 2y dx 2 + k 2 y = 0 . 2 = β 2 e βx y(x ) = e βx dx dx Substituting this into the ODE: 2 2 βx (β +k e ) =0 ⇒ β 2 + k2 = 0 ⇒ β = ± jk where j = − 1 That the trialanderror method works is attributed to the Uniqueness Theorem for linear ODE. b] The Domain Boundary conditions y (0) = C1 and y (b ) = C2 • • • To obtain a solution to the above system (a solution means a function that when substituted into the ODE. where we dy d 2y guess a functional form for y(x) as follows: = β e βx . John Wiley).
y.d. and also the fact that we expect the E field to travel along the zaxis.y. y (0 ) = C1 ⇒ A + B = C1 (2a) y (b ) = C2 ⇒ Ae jkb + Be − jkb = C2 (2b) • Solving (2a) and (2b) for A and B: (C1 − B )e jkb + Be− jkb = C2 ⇒ B = 21j sin (kb2 ) − jkb C e jkb −C (3a) C1e −C A = C1 − B = 2 j sin (kb )2 (3b) • So the unique solution is: C1e − jkb −C C e jkb −C y (x ) = 2 j sin (kb )2 e jkx + 21j sin (kb2 e − jkx ) June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee (q. The unknown functions are vector phasors E(x.1) in timeharmonic form. For xcomponent this is: ∂2 2 ∂2 ∂2 2 + 2 + 2 + ko E x = 0 ∂y ∂z ∂x • Based on the previous ODE example.e. we need to use the boundary conditions. The differential equation for E in Cartesian coordinate is: (∇ 2 + ko2 )E = 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ˆ ˆ ˆ ⇒ ∂ 2 + ∂ 2 + ∂ 2 + k o E x x + ∂ 2 + ∂ 2 + ∂ 2 + ko E y y + ∂ 2 + ∂ 2 + ∂ 2 + k o E z z = 0 ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂x • This is called a Partial Differential Equation (PDE) as each Ex. with the differentiation substituted by partial differential. y )e jβz June 2008 A function of x©and y Kung Wai Lee 2006 Fabian The exponent e !!! 48 24 .y. Ey and Ez depends on 3 variables.z). There are 3 PDEs if you observed carefully.z) and H(x.) 47 Obtaining the Expressions for E and H (3) • • The same approach can be applied to Wave Equations or Maxwell Equations for Tline. the following form is suggested: E x ( x.Obtaining the Expressions for E and H (2) • To find A and B. Consider the Wave Equations (A. z ) = e x ( x. y )e − jβz or e x ( x.
y ) + hz ( x. y )e − jβz y + hz (x. y )e + jβz z r ˆ = − ht ( x.y) and β.1b) June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 49 E and H fields Expressions (1) • Thus the propagating EM fields guided by Tline can be written as: Transverse component r ˆ ˆ ˆ E + = ex ( x. 2 Using similar approach on ∇ 2 + ko H = 0 will yield similar expression for H field.1a) r ˆ = (et ( x. y )e − jβz z r superscript indicates propagation direction ˆ = ht ( x.y). we arrived at the following form for E field. y )z e + jβz ( ) (A.2b) (A. r ˆ ˆ ˆ E + = ex ( x. y )z ) e + jβ z r ˆ ˆ ˆ H − = −hx ( x. y ) + hz ( x. y )e − jβz y + ez ( x.Obtaining the Expressions for E and H (4) • Carrying on in this manner for y and zcomponents. but merely determine the functional form of its solution. y ) − e z (x. ey(x.2a) EM fields Propagating In +z direction ( ) (A. y )e + jβz x − h y ( x.3a) EM fields Propagating In z direction r ˆ ˆ ˆ E − = e x (x. y )e + jβz y − e z (x. y )e − jβz z v − jβ z ˆ = ht (x.3b) 50 June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 25 . y )z ) e − jβz r ˆ ˆ ˆ H + = hx ( x. y )e + jβz z r ˆ = (et (x. y )e − jβz x + h y (x. y )z ) e − jβz Notice that up to now we have not solve the Wave Equations. We still need to find out what is ex(x. y )z e ( ) (A. y )e − jβz x + e y ( x. y ) + hz (x. y )e − jβz x + h y ( x. • • • ( ) v ˆ ˆ ˆ H + = hx (x. ez(x. y )e − jβz y + h z ( x. y )z e − jβz Axial component (A. y ) + ez (x. y ) + ez (x. y )e − jβz x + e y ( x. y )e − jβz z r ˆ = (et ( x.y). y )e + jβz x + e y ( x. y )e − jβz z (A. y )e + jβz y + hz ( x. y )e − jβz y + ez ( x.
6) ⇒H = ∇× E jωµ The power carried by the EM fields is given by Poynting Theorem: • S Positive Z direction… P= r r * r 1 r r 1 Re ∫∫ E + × H + ⋅ ds = Re ∫∫ et × ht * ⋅ ds 2 2 ( ) S Sz Negative Z direction… Positive value means that power is carried along the propagation direction.5b) June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 51 E and H fields Expressions (3) • Usually one only solves for E field. t ) = e y ( x. y. z )e jωt (A. y )cos(ωt − β z ) Unit vector (A. y . y )cos(ωt − β z ) y + ez ( x. y )cos(ωt − βz ) E z + (x. t ) = Re E (x. y. z . y. z . z . z . t )z • (A. for instance for E field propagating in +z direction: r + E + (x. z . y. y )cos(ωt − β z )x Where r ˆ ˆ ˆ E + (x.E and H fields Expressions (2) • We can convert the phasor form into timedomain form.5a) E x + ( x. t ) = E x + (x. y . t ) y + E z + (x. y )cos(ωt − β z )z ˆ = e x (x. June 2008 P= = r r * r 1 r r 1 Re ∫∫ E − × H − ⋅ ds = Re ∫∫ − et × ht * ⋅ − ds 2 2 ( ) ( ) 52 S Sz r r 1 Re ∫∫ et × ht * ⋅ ds 2 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee z S 26 . z . t ) = e x (x. z . y )cos(ωt − βz ) E y + (x.4) ˆ + e y ( x. z . y. y. the corresponding H field phasor r r can be obtained from: ∇ × E = − jωµH r r 1 (A. t )x + E y + (x. t ) = e z (x. y.
2) and (A. – The transverse magnetic field must change sign upon reversal of the direction of propagation to obtain a change in the direction of energy flow. r ∇ ⋅ E+ = 0 r ⇒ ∇ t ⋅ et − jβe z = 0 r ∇ ⋅ E− = 0 r ⇒ ∇ t ⋅ et + jβ (− ez ) = 0 June 2008 For +ve direction For ve direction © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 53 Phase Velocity • • • It is easy to show that equation (A. vp = ω β (A. Phase Velocity depends on the propagation mode (to be discussed later).2a) and (A. r – So that ∇ ⋅ E = 0 for both +ve and ve propagating E field (consistency with Maxwell’s Equations).7) June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 54 27 . the frequency and the physical properties of the interconnect.E and H fields Expressions (4) • There are 2 reasons for choosing the sign conventions for +ve and ve propagating waves as in (A.3). vp. The speed where the E and H fields travel is called the Phase Velocity.2b) describes traveling E field waves (also for H).
8) y z June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 55 Superposition Theorem • At any instant of time. if we freeze the time at a certain instant.z.y.Wavelength • For interconnect excited by sinusoidal source.to) Wavelength λ λ= vp f ω β ω 2π λ= = 2π β (A. The total fields are a superposition of positive and negative directed fields: E =E +E • + − H =H +H + − A typical field distribution at a certain instant of time for the cross section of two interconnects (twowire and coaxial cable) is shown below: Conductors H E June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 56 28 . there are E and H fields propagating in the positive and negative direction along the transmission line. Ex(x. the E and H fields profile will vary in a sinusoidal manner along zaxis. say t = to.
10e) ∂h y ∂x − ∂yx = − jωµ hz ∂e − ∂yx = jωεe z ∂h (A. y and z components: ∂ez ∂y + jβe y = − jωµ hx (A. hy.z. r ˆ ˆ ˆ E + = ex ( x.Field Solution (1) • To find the value of β and the functions ex.2b) into Maxwell or Wave equations. y ) + hz ( x. we substitute equations (A. ez.10c) − jβ hx − ∂∂hxz = jωεe y (A.10a) ∂e ∂hz ∂y + jβh y = jωεe x (A.2a) and (A. y )z e y z Wave Equations ( ) Maxwell Equations r r ∇ × E = − j ωµ H r r r ∇ × H = J + j ωε E r ρ ∇⋅E = ε r ∇⋅H = 0 + Boundary conditions + r r ∇ 2 E + ko2E = 0 r r ∇ 2 H + ko2 H = 0 ko = ω εµ June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 57 Field Solution (2) • The procedure outlined here follows those from Pozar [2]. Assume the Tline or waveguide dielectric region is source free. and expanding the differential equations into x. y ) + ez ( x. y )e − jβz z r ˆ = (et ( x. ey.β) of (A. From Maxwell’s Equations: r r r r ∇ × E = − jωµH ∇ × H = jωεE (A.9). y )e − jβz x + e y ( x.9) r J =0 ~ ~ ~ ∇ × B = µJ + jωµεE • Substituting the suggested solution for E+(x.y. y )e − jβz y + h z ( x.10d) − jβe x − ∂xz = − jωµh y ∂e y ∂x (A. hz. y )e − jβz z r − jβz ˆ = ht ( x.2a) into (A.10f) 58 June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 29 . y )z ) e − jβz r ˆ ˆ ˆ H + = hx ( x. y )e − jβz y + ez ( x. hx. y )e − jβz x + h y ( x.10b) (A.
ey = See the book by Collin [1].11d) (A.y components kc of general EM wave ∂e ∂h −j propagation in a h y = 2 ωε ∂xz + β ∂yz (A. ko = ω µε = 2π λ June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 59 TE Mode Summary (1) • • For TE mode.y). hy in terms of ez and hz: These equations ∂e ∂h j hx = 2 ωε ∂yz − β ∂xz (A.10a)(A. by EM fields: r r r r E ± = et e m jβz ˆ H ± = ± ht + hz z e m jβz ( ) • From wave equation for H field: Transverse Laplacian r r ∇ 2 H + ko 2 H = 0 k o = ω εµ From (A. ey.Field Solution (3) • From (A.11b) kc waveguiding system. The other transverse field components can be derived from hz © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 60 30 . We could characterize the Tline in TE mode.11c) kc Potential in the literature.11a) describe the x. called the (A. hx.y) and hz(x. we can express ex. ez= 0 (Sometimes this is called the H mode).10f).11e) operator Note 2 ∇ 2 = ∇t − β 2 2 2 ∇ t 2 + ∂ + ko ∂z 2 r ˆ ht + h z z e − j β z = 0 (( ) ) ∇ t 2 hz + kc 2 hz = 0 r r ∇ t 2 ht + k c 2 h t = 0 2 kc 2 = ko − β 2 June 2008 Using the fact that ∂z 2 ∂ 2 e m jβz = − β 2 e m jβ z ( ) Only these are needed. The unknowns are ∂e ∂h −j e x = 2 β ∂xz + ωµ ∂yz ez(x. Chapter 3 for alternative derivation j 2 kc − β ∂ez + ωµ ∂hz ∂y ∂x (A.11e) 2 k c = ko 2 − β 2 .
TE Mode Summary (2) • Setting ez = 0 in (A.12a) These equations plus the previous wave equation for hz enable us to find the complete field pattern for TE mode. 2 ∇ t 2 hz + k c hz = 0 k c 2 = ko 2 − β 2 + boundary conditions for E and H fields (A.12b). we can show that: r ∂e y ∂e x jωµ ∂ 2 h ∂ 2 h ˆ ˆ ∇ t × et = − z= + z ∂y 2 kc ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂x jωµ 2 ˆ ˆ = − kc hz z = − jωµ hz z 2 kc r ˆ ∇t × et = − jωµ hz z ≠ 0 r ∇ t × ht = 0 ( ) • Therefore we cannot define a unique voltage by (but we can define a unique current): r C r Vt = − ∫ e C1 t 2 ⋅ dl • Also from (A.12a) we can define a wave impedance for the TE mode.11a)(A.13) 62 31 .12b) From previous slide June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 61 TE Mode Summary (3) • From (A.12a) and (A.11d): − jβ ∂hz k 2 ∂x c hx = ex = • hy = ey = − jβ ∂hz k 2 ∂y c − jωµ ∂hz k 2 ∂y c jωµ ∂hz k 2 ∂x c (A. − ey e k Z Z TE = x = o o = hy β hx June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee (A.
by EM fields: r r r r ˆ E ± = (et ± ez z )e m jβz H ± = ± ht e m jβz From wave equation for E field: • r r ∇ 2 E + ko2 E = 0 ko = ω εµ 2 2 ∇t2 + ∂ + ko 2 ∂Z r ˆ (e t + e z z )e − j β z = 0 ( ) ∇ t 2ez + kc 2ez = 0 r r ∇ t 2 et + k c 2 et = 0 2 kc 2 = ko − β 2 June 2008 Only these are needed.14b) From previous slide © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 64 32 .TM Mode Summary (1) • • For TM mode. hz = 0 (Sometimes this is called the E mode). The other transverse field components can be derived from ez © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 63 TM Mode Summary (2) • Setting hz = 0 in (A.11a)(A. 2 ∇ t 2e z + kc e z = 0 k c = ko − β June 2008 2 2 2 + boundary conditions for E and H fields (A. We could characterize the Tline in TM mode.14a) − jβ ∂ez k 2 ∂y c These equations plus the previous wave equation for ez enable us to find the complete field pattern for TM mode.11d): hx = ex = • jωε ∂ez 2 kc ∂y − jβ ∂ez k 2 ∂x c hy = ey = − jωε ∂ez k 2 ∂x c (A.
TM Mode Summary (3) • Similarly from (A.16b) (∇ 2 + ko2 )ert e− jβz = ∇t2 + ∂∂z22 zˆ + ko2 ert e− jβz = 0 0 2 r 2 r 2 ⇒ ∇ t (et e − jβ z )+ ∂ e − jβ z + ko e − jβz et = 0 2 ∂z r ⇒ ∇ t2et = 0 June 2008 (A.14a) we can define a wave impedance for the TM mode. ZTM = hx = ωε = h y y x e β −e (A. This implies: β = ko = ω µε • Applying Hemholtz Wave Equation to E field: (A. characterized by ez = hz = 0. we observe that kc = 0 in order for a nonzero solution to exist.14a) and (A.11d). For +ve propagating waves: r r E ± = et e m jβz • r r H ± = ± ht e m jβz (A.11a)(A.14b). we can show that r ∇ t × et = 0 • r ˆ ∇ t × ht = jωε ez z ≠ 0 We cannot define a unique current by (but we can define a unique voltage): r r I t = ∫ ht ⋅ dl C • Also from (A.16a) Setting ez= hz= 0 in (A.17a) © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 66 33 .15) June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 65 TEM Mode (1) • TEM mode is particularly important.
we then postulate the existence of a scalar function Φ(x.17a) is similar to Laplace equations in 2D.y) where r et = −∇t Φ ( x. © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 67 Alternative View (TEM Mode) • Alternatively from (A.19) Using an important identity in vector calculus Where F is arbitrary function ∇ × (∇F ) = 0 of position.TEM Mode (2) • The same can be shown for ht: 2 t t r r ∇ h = −∇ × J (A.17b) • Equation (A. F = F(x.10c). and knowing that hz = 0 in TEM mode: ∂e y ∂e x − = − jωµhz = 0 ∂x ∂y Divergence in 2D (in XY plane) ⇒ ∂e y ∂x − ∂e x =0= ∂ ∂y ∂x x y ∂ ∂y ex • ey r 0 = ∇ t × et = 0 0 z From the well known Vector Calculus identity ∇ × (∇F ) = 0 .10f) we can also show that (in free space): ∂h y ∂x June 2008 − r ∂hx = jωεe z = ∇ t × ht = 0 ∂y © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 68 34 . i.18) ⇒ ∇ t 2 Φ ( x. y ) • From (A. y ) = 0 Also note that: See [1].z).y. This implies the transverse fields et is similar to the static electric fields that can exist between conductors. y ) Transverse potential (A. so we could define a transverse scalar r potential Φ: et = −∇ t Φ ( x.e. Chapter 3 for alternative derivation June 2008 • r ∇ t × et = ∇ t × (− ∇ t Φ ) = 0 (A.
t ) = − ∫ E ⋅ dl a © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee a 70 35 .20b) ε y x An important observation is that under TEM mode the transverse field components et and ht fulfill similar equations as in electrostatic. The Vt and It so defined does not depends on the shape of the integration path. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 69 Voltage and Current under TEM Mode • r r Due to ∇ t × et = 0 and ∇ t × ht = 0 in the space surrounding the conductors. June 2008 r r ∫ H ⋅ dl Loop 1 b br r Vt ( z .20a) Zo = −e e µ = hx = h y = ZTEM (A.17a). ∇ × ht = 0 r r −1 H= ∇× E jωµ r ⇒ ht = µ ε −1 ˆ ˆ (e y x − ex y ) ∂E y ∂E y ∂E x ∂E ˆ ˆ ˆ z H t = −1 − x+ x y+ − jωµ ∂z ∂z ∂y ∂x ∂e y ∂e x − jβ z ˆ ˆ ˆ e = −1 jβE y x − jβE x y + − z jωµ ∂y ∂x r ∇ t × et = 0 Exercise: see if you can derive this equation r 1 ˆ r ⇒ ht = Z ( z × et ) o • Zo = Intrinsic impedance of free space ZTEM = Wave impedance of TEM mode (A. then we derive ht from et : In free space r r ∇ 2 ht = 0 .TEM Mode (3) • Normally we would find et from (A.t) Vt(z.t) Loop 1 I t (z . It(z. we could define unique transverse voltage (Vt) and transverse current (It) for the system following the standard definitions for V and I. t ) = See the more detailed version of this note or see references [1] & [2].
y )]e m jβz = et e m jβz – Find H from r r 1 ˆ Ht± = ( z × et )e ± jβz Zo We could characterize the Tline in TEM mode. Similar proof can be carried out for It. r r – Find E from Et ± = [− ∇t Φ ( x. y ) = 0 with boundary conditions for the transverse potential. by EM fields: • r r E ± = et e m jβz r r H ± = ± ht e m jβz β = ko = ω µε June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 72 36 . hz= ez= 0. using the loop as r shown and ∇ t × ht = 0 Loop L Loop L + C2 It = ∫ ht ⋅ dl C1 or C 2 r r C1 June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 71 TEM Mode Summary (1) • • For TEM mode.Extra: Independence of Vt and It from Integration Path under TEM Mode C2 Using Stoke’s Theorem r ∇ t × et = 0 S r r r r ⇒ ∫∫ ∇ t × et ⋅ ds = ∫ et ⋅ dl = 0 L r r r r ⇒ ∫ et ⋅ dl + ∫ et ⋅ dl = 0 r r r r ⇒ ∫ et ⋅ dl = − ∫ et ⋅ dl L1 L2 Area S r dl r ds C1 r r r r ⇒ − ∫ et ⋅ dl = − ∫ et ⋅ dl = Vt − L1 L2 L1 L2 Since the shape of loop L is arbitrary. paths L1. L2 and hence the integration path for Vt is arbitrary. To find the EM fields for TEM mode: 2 – Solve ∇ t Φ( x. as long as it stays in the transverse plane.
Kung for the proof Because β is always real or complex (when dielectric is lossy) for all frequencies. 73 NonTEM Modes and Vt. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 74 37 .21) 2 S ⇒ P = 1 Re(Z c II * ) = 1 Re(Z c −1VV * ) 2 2 r r P = 1 Re ∫∫ E × H * ⋅ ds = 1 Re VI * • β = ko = ω µε June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee See extra note by F. to extremely high frequencies. the TEM mode always exist from near d. It (1) • For nonTEM modes.c. we cannot define both the auxiliary quantities Vt and It uniquely using the standard definition for voltage and current r r (because ∇ t × et ≠ 0 or ∇ t × ht ≠ 0 ). the reading will depend on the wires and connection of the probe! r r Furthermore for nonTEM modes: P = 1 Re ∫∫ E × H * ⋅ ds ≠ 1 Re Vt I t * 2 C2 r • • • • ( ) S 2 Thus we cannot characterize a Tline supporting nonTEM modes using auxiliary quantities such as Vt and It. This means if we attempt to measure the “voltage” across the Tline using an instrument. r For instance in TE mode: ∇t × et = − jωµhz Thus Vt = − ∫C1 et ⋅ dl will not be unique and will depends on the line integration path.TEM Mode Summary (2) • Or through auxiliary circuit theory quantities: V ± = Vt e m jβz • I ± = ± I t e m jβz The power carried by the EM wave along the Tline is given by Poynting Theorem: ( ) 2 (A.
then Vt will be a nonzero value. no propagating EM field will exist. When this occur the TE or TM mode EM fields will decay exponentially from the source. Thus for TE or TM mode. If we choose integration path other than C. when ez→ 0. These modes are known as Evanescent and are nonpropagating. It (2) • As another example consider the TM mode in microstrip line: r jβ jβ et = − ∇ e =− 2 t z 2 kc kc ∂ x + ∂ y e ( x. y ) ∂x ˆ ∂y ˆ z y Y=H • r jβ ∂e z ∂e Vt = − ∫ et ⋅ dl = ∫ ∂x dx + ∫ ∂yz dy 2 kc C C C Using path C as shown in figure: C Y=0 x Under quasiTEM condition.NonTEM Modes and Vt. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 76 38 . we still obtain r Vt= 0 due to ∇ t × et = 0 in TM mode. Vt = H jβ ∂e z jβ dy = [e (x. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 75 Cutoff Frequency for TE/TM Mode • • Because β = ko 2 − kc 2 for TE and TM modes: • There is a possibility that β becomes imaginary when kc > ko. H ) − ez (x. kc also → 0.0)] = 0 2 ∫ 2 z kc 0 ∂y kc 0 because of boundary condition • In general this is true for arbitrary Tline and waveguide cross section. there is a possibility of a cutoff frequency fc . where for signal frequency f < fc .
23) 1 1 Vp = ω = = β 2 ω 2 µε − kc ko 2 − kc 2 Thus we observe that TEM mode is intrinsically nondispersive. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 77 Final Note on TEM.22) (A. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 78 39 . TE and TM modes apply to all waveguide structures. TE and TM Propagation Modes • Finally. while TE and TM mode are dispersive. in which transmission line is a subset. note that the formulae for TEM. It is given by: V p = ω β • • • For TEM mode: For TE & TM mode: Vp = ω = 1 β µε (A.Phase Velocity for TEM. TE and TM Modes • Phase velocity is the propagation velocity of the EM field supported by the tline.
the resulting EM field cannot propagate. Show that TEM mode can exist for all frequencies. • • • Derive the EM fields for TEM. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 80 40 .. Here we assume that W >> d so that fringing field and variation along x can be ignored. Show that TE and TM modes possess cutoff frequency fc .Parallel Plate Waveguide/Tline • The parallel plate waveguide is the simplest type of waveguide that can support TEM.. where for operating frequency f less than fc . TE and TM modes for parallel plate waveguide.Example A1 . TE and TM modes. ∂ =0 ∂x Conducting plates y d 0 z June 2008 W Propagation along z axis x © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 79 Example A1 Cont.
y ) = o y d Unique solution © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 81 Example A1 – Solution for TEM Mode (2) Computing the E and H fields: V V ˆ et = −∇t Φ = − ∂ x + ∂ y o y = − o y ∂x ˆ ∂y ˆ d d V ˆ E t = − o e − jβ z y d V ε V ˆ ˆ H t = j−1 ∇ × E t = 1 z × − do e − jβz y = µ do e − jβz x ˆ ωµ µ ε y Computing the transverse voltage and current: C2 C1 r V d ˆ ˆ Vt = − ∫ E t ⋅ dl = − ∫ − o e − jβz y ⋅ dyy = Vo e − jβz 0 d C 1 x It = C2 June 2008 ∫ H t ⋅ dl = ∫0 r W ε Vo − jβz ˆ ˆ x ⋅ dxx = µ d e © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee ε Vo We − jβz µ d 82 41 . d ) = Vo Solution for the transverse Laplace PDE: 2 2 2 ∇t Φ = ∂ Φ + ∂ Φ = 0 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 2 ⇒ ∂ Φ ≅0 ∂y 2 since Φ( x. y ) = A + By Φ ( x . 0 ≤ y ≤ d Φ ( x. d ) = Bd = Vo ⇒ B = o d Thus June 2008 V Φ ( x. y ) = 0 for 0 ≤ x ≤ W . 0 ) = 0 Boundary conditions Φ ( x.0 ) = A = 0 ⇒ A = 0 General Solution V Φ( x. y ) = Φ( y ) ⇒ Φ (x.Example A1 – Solution for TEM Mode (1) TEM mode Solution: ∇ t 2Φ (x.
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 84 42 .Example A1 – Solution for TEM Mode (3) Computing the power flow (power carried by the EM wave guided by the wave guide): y r * P = 1 Re ∫∫ E t × H t ⋅ ds 2 S = 1 Re ∫ 2 0 W S x ε Vo µ d ∫ (− d 0 Vo d ˆ e − jβ z y × )( ε Vo µ d W ˆ ˆ e + jβz x ⋅ dxdyz ) = 1 Re ∫ 2 0 W ∫( d V o d d V o 0 d e − jβ z )( e + jβz dxdy ε Vo µ d ) = 1 Re ∫ 2 0 dy e − jβz ∫ 0 ε VoW µ d dx e + jβz ds=dxdy dx dy = 1 Re Vo e − jβz ⋅ 2 June 2008 [ 2 e jβz = 1 Re Vt I t* = 1 VoµW 2 2 εd ] [ ] © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 83 Example A1 – Solution for TEM Mode (4) Phase velocity vp for TEM mode: vp = ω = ω = 1 β ω µε µε The phase velocity is equal to speedoflight in the dielectric.
y) = 0 for 0 ≤ x ≤ W . y ) = A sin (kc y ) + B cos(kc y ) Applying boundary conditions: e z (x. the TM mode is usually called the TMn mode. ( ) June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 86 43 .20a): r − jβ ∂e z − jβ ∂e z jβ ∂ ˆ ˆ ˆ et = x+ y=− An sin nπ y y 2 k c ∂x 2 k c ∂y 2 k c ∂y ( ( d )) r jβAn ˆ ⇒ et = − cos nπ y y nπ d (d ) ( ) jβ An or E t = − ˆ cos nπ y e − jβz y nπ d d jωε ∂e z x − jωε ∂e z y e − jβz ˆ ˆ Ht = 2 k 2 ∂y kc ∂x c jk o An − jβ z x ˆ = cos nπ y e d µ nπ ε d ( ) ( ) ( ) Since n is an arbitrary integer. n = 1.2.Example A1 – Solution for TM Mode (1) (∇t 2 + kc2 )ez (x. y ) = e z ( y ) General solution Thus: Solution for ez: (∇t 2 + kc2 )ez ≅ ∂∂ye 2 z 2 2 + kc e z = 0 ⇒ e z (x. 0 ≤ y ≤ d 2 2 kc = k o − β 2 e z ( x.3L ⇒ k = nπ c d June 2008 e z ( x. d ) = A sin (kc d ) = 0 ⇒ A ≠ 0 and kc d = nπ .0 ) = A ⋅ 0 + B = 0 ⇒ B = 0 e z (x.0) = e z ( x. y ) = An sin nπ y or (d ) (d ) 85 E z ( x. d ) = 0 Boundary conditions since e z (x. y ) = An sin nπ y e − jβz © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee Example A1 – Solution for TM Mode (2) Computing the transverse EM fields using (A.
this represent the cutoff frequency for TM mode. and the smallest value for β Is 0. then when β=0: 2 ω 2 µε − nπ = 0 d ⇒ ω = nπ = 2πf d µε ( ) ⇒ f = n 2d µε When n = 1. we observe that phase velocity vp is actually greater than the speed of light!!! NOTE: The EM fields can travel at speed greater than light.Example A1 – Solution for TM Mode (3) We can now determine β knowing kc: β n = k o2 − kc2 = ω 2 µε − ( ndπ ) 2 Since the TM mode can only propagate if β is real. however we can show that the rate of energy flow is less than the speedoflight. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 88 44 . This rate of energy flow corresponds to the speed of the photons if the propagating EM wave is treated as a cluster of photons. phase velocity vp for TMn mode: vp = ω = β ω 2 ω 2 µε − nπ d ( ) For f > fcutoff . f cutoff _ TM = June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 1 2d µε 87 Example A1 – Solution for TM Mode (4) For arbitrary n. See the extra notes for the proof.
the Tline cannot support TEM propagation mode. Stripline . This dominant mode of propagation is the first mode to exist at the lowest operating frequency. Microstrip line . The secondary modes will come into existent at higher frequencies. For Tline that can support TEM mode. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 90 45 .Dominant Propagation Mode • • For the various transmission line topology. The propagation modes of Tline depends on the dielectric and the cross section of the transmission line. there is a dominant mode. Note: Generally for Tline with nonhomogeneous dielectric.quasiTEM. • • June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 89 Transmission Lines Dominant Propagation Mode • • • • • • Coaxial line .TEM.TEM. the TEM mode will be the dominant mode as it can exist at all frequencies (there is no cutoff frequency).quasiTEM. Coplanar line . Parallel plate line .TEM or TM (depends on homogenuity of the dielectric).
the TM or TE dominant modes can be approximated by TEM mode at ‘low frequency’. When this happens we can again define unique voltage and current for the system.Quasi TEM Mode (1) • Luckily for planar Tline configuration whose dominant mode is not TEM. For typical microstrip/stripline on PCB. this can means frequency below 20 GHz or lower. See Collin [1]. ez is much smaller than et and ht that it can be ignored. The actual mode is TM. © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee • • • June 2008 91 Quasi TEM Mode (2) E H r ∇ t × et ≠ 0 r or ∇ t × ht ≠ 0 Vt and It No r ∇ t × et ≅ 0 Vt and It r or ∇ t × ht ≅ 0 Yes E H NonTEM mode E r ∇ t × et = 0 r or ∇ t × ht = 0 Vt and It Yes June 2008 QuasiTEM mode H TEM mode © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 92 46 . However at a few GHz. Chapter 3 for more mathematical illustration on this. Low frequency approximation is usually valid when wavelength >> distance between two conductors. hence known as quasiTEM. For instance microstrip line does not support TEM mode. Thus it is called quasiTEM mode. We can assume the mode to be TEM without incurring much error. The Ez and Hz components approach zero at ‘low frequency’. and the propagation mode approaches TEM.
Extra: Why Inhomogeneous Structures Does Not Support Pure TEM Mode (1) • We will use Proof by Contradiction. Examining the x component of the E field: Air y Dielectric x E x(air )e − jβ air z = x (die )e − jβ die z E x (air ) E x (die ) − jβ die z =e = e − j (β die − β air )z − jβ air z e 93 E ⇒ June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee Extra: Why Inhomogeneous Structures Does Not Support Pure TEM Mode (2) • • Since the left hand side is a constant while the right hand side is not. Suppose TEM mode is supported. β air < β die ⇒v p (air )= ω > v p (die ) = ω β air β die • For TEM mode • Now consider the boundary condition at the air/dielectric interface. So pure TEM mode cannot be supported in inhomogeneous dielectric Tline. It depends on distance z. What this conclude is that our initial assumption of TEM propagation mode in inhomogeneous structure is wrong. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 94 47 . the previous equation cannot be fulfilled. The propagation factor in air and dielectric would be: β die = ω µε oε r β air = ω µε o EM fields in air will travel faster than in the dielectric. The E field must be continuous across the boundary from Maxwell’s equation.
fc = 2 ω 2 µε − k c kc 2π µε Nondispersive June 2008 Nondispersive Dispersive Dispersive 96 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 48 .0×108 λ = C/f > 20H = 32. Phase velocity.Example A2 – Minimum Frequency for QuasiTEM Mode in Microstrip Line • Estimate the low frequency limit for microstrip line. 1 vp = ω = β Vp = ω = 1 β µε No cutoff frequency.375GHz fcritical = 9. Phase velocity. Phase velocity.375GHz Here we replace >> sign with the requirement that wavelength > 20H. as this is basically a rule of thumb. Hz ≠ 0 r r ˆ H ± = ± ht + hz z e m jβz r r E ± = et e m jβz Cannot defined unique It. Electrical circuit. QuasiTEM. Hz = 0 r m jβz r± Physical Tline can be Physical Tline can be Modeled by equivalent Modeled by equivalent Electrical circuit. A more conservative limit would be to use 30H or 40H. fc = 2 ω 2 µε − k c kc 2π µε Cutoff frequency. Phase velocity. ( ) H = ± ht e r r ˆ E ± = (et ± ez z )e m jβz Cannot defined unique Vt. Physical Tline cannot be modeled by equivalent electrical circuit.032 = 9. Thus beyond fcritical quasiTEM approximation cannot be applied. Cutoff frequency. 1 Vp = ω ≅ β µε eff No cutoff frequency. 1 vp = ω = β TM: Ez ≠ 0. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 95 Summary for TEM.0mm f < C/0. Physical Tline cannot be modeled by equivalent electrical circuit. You can use larger limit.6mm C ≈ 3. m jβ z r r H ± ≅ ± ht e m jβ z Can defined unique Vt and It. Hz ≈ 0 H = ± ht e Can defined unique Vt and It. TE and TM Modes r r E ± = et e m jβ z r r ± TEM: Ez = Hz = 0 QuasiTEM: Ez ≈0 . H = 1. r r E ± ≅ et e m jβ z TE: Ez = 0. The propagation mode beyond fcritical will be TM.
KCL. • • June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 97 Why Vt and It is so Important ? (2) A complex physical system can be cast into equivalent electrical circuit. 2port network theory are much easier to solve than Maxwell equations or wave equations.Why Vt and It is so Important ? (1) • When we can define voltage and current along Tline or highfrequency circuit for that matter. Antenna equivalent circuit Microstrip antenna Tline XXX. Thus the microwave system can be modeled by an equivalent electrical circuit when dominant mode in the system is TEM or quasiTEM.09 Filter Amplifier June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 98 49 . Powerful circuit simulator tools can be used to perform analysis on the equivalent circuit. Circuit theories such as KVL. For this reason Tline which can support TEM or quasiTEM is very important. then we can analyze the system using circuit theory instead of field theory. Highfrequency circuits usually consist of components which are connected by Tlines.
Examples of Circuit Analysis* Based Microwave/RF CAD Software
Agilent’s Advance Design System™
Applied Wave Research’s Microwave Office™
Ansoft’s Desinger™
*The software shown here also have numerical EM solver capability, from 2D, 2.5D to full 3D.
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4.0 – Transmission Line Characteristics and Electrical Circuit Model
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Distributed Electrical Circuit Model for Transmission Line (1)
• • • • • • • Since transmission line is a long interconnect, the field and current profile at any instant in time is not uniform along the line. It cannot be modeled by lumped circuit. However if we divide the Tline into many short segments (< 0.1λ), the field and current profile in each segment is almost uniform. Each of these short segments can be modeled as RLCG network. This assumption is true when the EM field propagation mode is TEM or quasiTEM. From now on we will assume the Tline under discussion support the dominant mode of TEM or quasiTEM. For transmission line, these associated R, L, C and G parameters are distributed, i.e. we use the per unit length values. The propagation of voltage and current on the transmission line can be described in terms of these distributed parameters.
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Distributed Electrical Circuit Model for Transmission Line (2)
z x y
5.8GHz, 3.0V
Magnitude of Ez in YZ plane
Current profile along conducting trace Within each segment the current is more or less constant, in and out current is similar. Also the EM can be considered static. June 2008
It Vt
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Distributed Parameters (1)
• • The L and C elements in the electrical circuit model for Tline is due to magnetic flux linkage and electric field linkage between the conductors. See Appendix 2: Advanced Concepts – Distributed RLCG Model for Transmission Line and Telegraphic Equations for the proofs. I L ∆z ∆z
V1 C ∆z V2
H
Magnetic field linkage E
Electric field linkage
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Distributed Parameters (2)
• When the conductor has small conductive loss a series resistance R∆ z can be added to the inductance. This loss is due to a phenomenon known as skin effect, where high frequency current converges on the surface of the conductor. When the dielectric has finite conductivity and polarization loss, a shunt conductance G∆ z can be added in parallel to the capacitance. The inclusion of R and G in the Tline distributed model is only accurate for small losses. This is true most of the time as Tline is usually made of very good conductive material and good insulator. The equations for finding L, C, R, G under low loss condition are given in the following slide. Conductor loss
I V1 C ∆z L ∆z R ∆z
• •
•
Under lossy condition, R, L and G are usually function of frequency, hence the Tline is dispersive.
G ∆z
V2
Dielectric loss
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• C1 and C2 are the paths surrounding the surface of conductor 1 and 2.9 of Collin [1]. • V is the volume surrounding the conductors with length of 1 meter along z axis.Distributed Parameters (3) • Thus a transmission line can be considered as a cascade of many of these equivalent circuit sections. each segment length must approach zero. June 2008 Skin depth and G depend on frequency σ c = conductivity of metalic object C1 Conductor 1 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee S C2 Conductor 2 106 53 . while dielectric loss results in G. It ∆z→0 Vt • • Distributed RLCG circuit It Vt June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 105 Finding the RLCG Parameters L= µ It H 2 ∫∫∫ t V r 2 dv C= ε' Vt This indicates the volume enclosing the conductors E 2 ∫∫∫ t V r 2 dv (4. and the number of segment needed to accurately model the Tline becomes infinite. This electrical circuit model for Tline is commonly known as Distributed RLCG Circuit Model. In order for this RLCG model for Tline to be valid from low to very high frequency. Working with circuit theory and circuit elements are much easier than working with E and H fields using Maxwell equations.1b) ε ' = ε ε r o 1m ε " = ε r ε o tan δ Loss tangent of the dielectric • These formulas are derived from energy consideration. δ s = skin depth = 2 ωσ c µ (4. • Note that conductor loss results in R.1a) R= 1 σ cδ s I t 2 ∫ Ht C1 + C 2 r 2 dl r 2 ωε " G= ∫∫∫ Et dv 2 Vt V • See Section 3.
Finding RLCG Parameters From Energy Consideration
i(t) The instantaneous power absorbed by an inductor L is:
Pind (t ) = v (t )i (t )
L
io
v(t)
Assuming i(t) increases from 0 at t = 0 to Io at t = to, total energy stored by inductor is: t t t i(t) Eind = ∫ o Pind (τ )dτ = ∫ o v(τ )i(τ )dτ = ∫ o L di (τ )i (τ )dτ 0 0 0 dτ
to t
0 2 This energy stored by the inductor is contained within the magnetic field created by the current (for instance, see D.J. Griffiths, “Introductory electrodynamics”, Prentice Hall, 1999). From EM theory the stored energy in magnetic r field is given by: E = µ H ∫∫∫ H dxdydz 2 Io V E = EH Both energy are the same, hence: ind r
0
I 2 ⇒ Eind = ∫ o Li ⋅ di = 1 LI o
H
2 2 µ ⇒ 1 LI o = ∫∫∫ H dxdydz 2 2 V
⇒L=
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2 ∫∫∫ Io V
µ
r2 H dxdydz
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MultiConductor Transmission Line Symbol and Circuit
Long interconnect: l > 0.1λ TEM or quasiTEM mode Parameters: Per unit length R, L, C, G matrices. Usually as a function Frequency.
L11 L12 R11 R21 L12 L22 C11 − C12 − C12 C22
L11 C12 R11 C1G L12 C2G R22
C1G = C11 − C12
C2G = C22 − C12
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Distributed RLCG circuit
L22
Electrical Symbol
R12 G11 G12 R22 G21 G22
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Telegraphic Equations for Vt and It
• Much like the EM field in the physical model of the Tline is governed by Maxwell’s Equations, we can show that the instantaneous transverse voltage Vt and current It on the distributed RLCG model are governed by a set of partial differential equations (PDE) called the Telegraphic Equations (See derivation in Appendix 2). For simplicity we will drop the subscript ‘t’ from now.
In timedomain
Fourier Transforms
•
In timeharmonic form
∂V ∂I = − RI − L ∂z ∂t (4.2a) ∂I ∂V = −GV − C ∂z ∂t
Inverse Fourier Transforms
∂V = −(R + jωL )I = − ZI ∂z (4.2b) ∂I = −(G + jωC )V = −YV ∂z
Distributed RLCG circuit
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I V
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Solutions of Telegraphic Equations (1)
• The expressions for V(z) and I(z) that satisfy the timeharmonic form of Telegraphic Equations (4.2b) are given as:
Wave travelling in z direction Wave travelling in +z direction
+ −γz − γz + − I ( z ) = I o e −γz + I o eγz (4.3a) V ( z ) = Vo e + Vo e
Attenuation factor Phase factor
(4.3b)
γ = α (ω ) + jβ (ω ) =
Propagation coefficient
(R + jωL )(G + jωC )
(4.3c)
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Solutions of Telegraphic Equations (2)
• Vo+, Vo, Io+, Io are unknown constants. When we study transmission line circuit, we will see how Vo+, Vo, Io+, Io can be determined from the ‘boundary’ of the Tline. For the rest of this discussions, exact values of these constants are not needed. The boundary of the tline circuit
Zs Vs
•
It Vt ZL
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Signal Propagation on Transmission Line
• Considering sinusoidal sources, the expression for V(z) and I(z) can be written in time domain as: + + jφ + + jθ
Vo = Vo e
+
Io = Io e
+
+ − v(z , t ) = Vo cos(ωt − βz + φ+ )e −αz + Vo cos(ωt + βz + φ− )eαz (4.4a)
+ − i ( z , t ) = I o cos(ωt − β z + θ + )e −αz + I o cos(ωt + β z + θ − )eαz
(4.4b)
•
From the solution of the Telegraphic Equations, we can deduce a few properties of the equivalent voltage v(z,t) and current i(z,t) on a Tline structure. – v(z,t) and i(z,t) propagate, a signal will take finite time to travel from one location to another. – One can define an impedance, called the characteristic impedance of the line, it is the ratio of voltage wave over current wave. – That the traveling Vt and It experience dispersion and attenuation. – Other effects such as reflection to be discussed in later part.
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t) of (4. ∂V = − ZI ∂z + + ⇒ −γVo e −γz = − ZI o e −γz + + ⇒ Vo = Z I o γ From Telegraphic Equations + V + e −γz Vo R + jωL Zc = o = =Z = + e −γz + γ G + jωC Io Io Or June 2008 (4. t ) = Vo+ cos(ωt − βz + φ+ )e −αz + Vo− cos(ωt + β z + φ− )eαz Compare f (ωt − β z ) A general function describing propagating wave in +z direction • And recognizing that both v(z.6) June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 114 57 .Characteristic Impedance (Zc) • • An important parameter in Tline is the ratio of voltage over current. the phase velocity is given by: vp = ω β (4. called the Characteristic Impedance. this ratio can be only be computed for voltage and current traveling in similar direction.5) V − eγz R + jω L Zc = − o = − eγz G + jω C Io © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee A function of frequency 113 Propagation Velocity (vp) • Compare the expression for v(z.t) and i(z. Zc.t) are propagating waves.4a) with a general expression for a traveling wave in positive and negative z direction: V (z . Since the voltage and current are waves.
Attenuation (α) α • • The attenuation factor α decreases the amplitude of the voltage and current wave along the Tline. For +ve traveling wave: Vo+ cos(ωt − βz + φ + )e −αz • For ve traveling wave: Z=0 y z Vo− cos(ωt + βz + φ − )eαz Z=0 y z June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 115 Dispersion (1) Since γ = γ (ω ) = α (ω ) + jβ (ω ) Video vp = ω β (ω ) Cause of dispersion • We observe that the propagation velocity is a function of the Components wave’s frequency. resulting in the envelope of the signal being distorted at the output. • Different component of the signal propagates at different velocity (and also attenuate at different rate). Low dispersion Transmission Line vin vout © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 116 vout vin June 2008 58 .
i. the higher the harmonic frequency the larger is the phase velocity.Dispersion (2) • Dispersion causes distortion of the signal propagating through a transmission line. 3) 0 Vout( i⋅ ∆t . higher frequency signal takes lesser time to travel the length of the Tline.5 1 1 Vint( i⋅ ∆t ) 0.5 Vin( i⋅ ∆t . 1) Vin( i⋅ ∆t .5 0 0 0. 3) Vin( i⋅ ∆t .5 0 10 20 i 30 40 1. the sinusoidal components overlap at the wrong ‘timing’.5 Vout( i⋅ ∆t .5 0 0. 1 1 0. causing distortion of the pulse. Video • High dispersion Transmission Line vin June 2008 vin vout © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee vout 117 Dispersion (3) • At the output. This is particularly evident in a long line.e.5 0 10 20 i 30 40 0 10 20 i 30 40 June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 118 59 . 5) 0. 5) 1 1 0 10 20 i 30 40 vin In this example.5 Voutt ( i⋅ ∆t ) 0.5 0. vout 1. 1) Vout( i⋅ ∆t .5 0.
and using good quality dielectric (low loss tangent). in practical situation we try to reduce the loss to as small as possible.The Implications Tline supporting TEM or quasiTEM mode June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 119 The Lossless Transmission Line • • When the tline is lossless. R= 0 and G = 0. We have: γ = jβ = jω LC Zc = L C vp = 1 = LC 1 µε • • So the lossless transmission line has no attenuation. Since lossless Tline is an ideal. by using goldplated conductor. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 120 60 . no dispersion and the characteristic impedance is real.
y )z ( ) V1 V2 122 SJune 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 61 . y ) + hz (x .Appendix 2 Advanced Concepts – Distributed RLCG Model for Transmission Line and Telegraphic Equations June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 121 Distributed Parameters Model (1) • For TEM or quasiTEM mode propagation along z direction: Conductor y Loop C s3 s2 s4 s1 V1 C V2 Flux linkage (Definition for Inductance) z r r ∆z − ∫ E ⋅ dl = − ∫∫ ∇ × E ⋅ ds r = − ∫ E ⋅ dl − s1 C S Stoke’s Theorem s4 r − V1 + V2 = − jω µ ∫∫ H ⋅ ds S When ∆z is small ⇒ V2 − V1 = − jω (L∆zI ) as compared This means the relation between V1 and V2 is as if an inductor is between them L is the inductance per meter to wavelength r r r ∫ E ⋅ dl − ∫ E ⋅ dl − ∫ E ⋅ dl s3 s2 r r r ⇒ − ∫∫ ∇ × E ⋅ ds = − ∫ E ⋅ dl − − ∫ E ⋅ dl −s S s2 4 r ⇒ − ∫∫ − jµωH ⋅ ds = V1 − V2 L∆z Can be represented in circuit as: r r ˆ H + ≅ ht (x.
z ) r1 σ s 2 (x. z ) r1 f s 2 ( x. z ) r1 f s 2 ( x. y . y.Distributed Parameters Model (2) ∆z A2 I2 A1 Volume W ∫∫∫ ∇ ⋅ EdW = ∫∫∫ ε dW W W S W r ρ Using Divergence Theorem C1 I1 r ρ Surface S ⇒ ∫∫ E ⋅ d S = ∫∫∫ ε dW ⇒ ∂ ∂t r ∂ρ 1 ∫∫ E ⋅ d S = ε ∫∫∫ ∂t dW S W r ⇒ ∂ ∫∫ E ⋅ d S = 1 ∫∫∫ − ∇ ⋅ J dW ∂t ε S W r r r r r ⇒ ε ∂ ∫∫ E ⋅ d S = − ∫∫ J ⋅ dS = − ∫∫ J ⋅ dS − ∂t S S C2 See the following slide for more proof.z) E= For static or quasistatic condition. the E field is given by: r ˆ ˆ σ s1( x. z ) r2 B − ∫A ⋅ ds + ⋅ ds ⋅dl ∫∫ ∫∫ 4πε r1 4πε r2 surface on C surface on C 2 1 June 2008 Potential difference between A and B © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 62 . z ) r1 f s 2 ( x. while fs is the normalized surface charge density with respect to Q. σs is the surface charge density. z ) r2 = Q ⋅ ds + ⋅ ds ∫∫ ∫∫ r1 r2 4πε 4πε surface on C 2 surface on C1 Q is the total charge on conductors C1 or C2. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 123 Distributed Parameters Model (3) ∆z Volume W I2 Consider the ratio: ε ∫∫ E ⋅ ds S = Br Br − ∫ E ⋅ dl − ∫ A E ⋅dl A Q r B C1 I1 Surface S r1 r2 (x. y. z ) r2 B A −Q ∫ A ⋅ ds + ⋅ ds ⋅dl ∫∫ ∫∫ r1 r2 4πε 4πε surface on C surface on C 2 1 1 = =C ˆ ˆ f s1 (x. ε ∫∫ E ⋅ ds = CV S 124 Q S = Br ˆ ˆ − ∫ E ⋅ dl f s1 ( x. y. C does not depend on the total charge on the conductors. we called r this constant the ‘Capacitance’. z ) r2 ∫∫ surface on C1 4πε ⋅ ds + r1 ∫∫ surface on C 2 4πε ⋅ r2 ds = A C2 Hence the ratio becomes: ε ∫∫ E ⋅ ds r ˆ ˆ f s1 ( x. y. y .y. y . y. ∫∫ J ⋅ dS A2 r r This means the relation between I1 and I2 is as if a capacitor is between them I1 I2 V ⇒ε ∂ ∂t r ∫∫ E ⋅ d S = − I1 + I 2 S A1 C∆z ∂V ∂t C∆z ⇒ ∂ ((C∆z )V ) = (C∆z ) ∂V = I 2 − I1 ∂t ∂t When ∆z is small as compared to wavelength Can be represented in circuit as • C is the per unit length capacitance between the 2 conductors of the Tline.
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 125 Distributed Parameters Model (5) • • • When the conductor has small conductive loss a series resistance R∆ z can be added to the inductance. Working with circuit theory and circuit elements are much easier than working with E and H fields using Maxwell equations. This is true most of the time as Tline is usually made of very good conductive material. a shunt conductance G∆ z can be added in parallel to the capacitance. C and transverse voltages and currents. When the dielectric has finite conductivity. G under low loss condition are given in the following slide. R.Distributed Parameters (4) • Combining the relationship between the L. the equivalent circuit for a short section of transmission line supporting TEM or quasiTEM propagating EM field can be represented by the equivalent circuit: ∆z I V1 C ∆z L ∆z V2 • Thus a long Tline can be considered as a cascade of many of these equivalent circuit sections. L and G are usually function of frequency. C. The equations for finding L. R. V1 G ∆z V2 June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 126 63 . I L ∆z C ∆z R ∆z • *Under lossy condition. The inclusion of constant R and G in the Tline’s distributed circuit model is only accurate for very small losses*. hence the Tline is dispersive.
This approach is known as perturbation method. Both mechanisms can be modeled by considering an effective conductivity σd for the dielectric at the operating frequency. the propagation mode will not be TEM anymore (Can you explain why this is so?). However if the loss is very small. Polarization loss is due to the vibration of the polarized molecules in the dielectric when an a. the error is usually small. From the E and H fields. we could derived the RLCG parameters from equations (4.1b). then the dielectric loss is due to leakage (nonzero conductivity) and polarization loss*.c. electric field is imposed. r r r r r r hysterisis loss in ∇ × H = J + jωε r ε o E ⇒ ∇ × H = σ d E + jωε r ε o E ferromagnetic material.1a) and (4. This is usually valid for small electric field.Extra: Lossy Dielectric • • • Assuming the dielectric is nonmagnetic. Although the RLCG parameters under this condition is only an approximation. we can assume the propagating EM field to be similar to the EM fields under lossless condition. • June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 128 64 . r r σd ⇒ ∇ × H = jωε r ε o 1 + E jωε r ε o r r r r ∇ × H = jω ε ' − jε " E ⇒ ∇ × H = jωε r ε o (1 − j tan δ )E ε ' = ε r ε o ε " = ε r ε o tan δ σd tan δ = ωε r ε o Loss current density *We should also include ( ) This is called Loss Tangent June 2008 Note that σd is a function of frequency © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 127 Finding Distributed Parameters for Low Loss Practical Transmission Line • • When loss is present.
and using Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL): Using KCL here: I1 V1 C ∆z L ∆z I2 V2 I1 jωL ∆z I1 I2 V2=V (jωC ∆z)1 I1 − ( jωC∆z )V = I 2 I −I ⇒ 2 1 = − jωCV Again observing that: ∆z I 2 − I1 ∂V = −C 2 ∆z ∂t June 2008 ∂I = − jωCV ∂z Lossless Telegraphic Equations 130 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 65 . the V and I on the line is the solution of a hyperbolic partial differential equation (PDE) known as telegraphic equations. Consider first lossless line: Use Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL): I1 V1 C ∆z L ∆z I2 V2 I1=I V1 jωL∆z I2 V2 Observing that: V2 = V1 − jωL∆zI V −V ⇒ 2 1 = − jωLI ∆z V −V lim ∆z →0 2 1 = ∂V ∆z ∂z June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee ⇒ ∂V = − jωLI ∂z 129 Derivation of Telegraphic Equations (2) • Now considering the current on both ends.Derivation of Telegraphic Equations (1) • For Tline supporting TEM and quasiTEM modes.
vp. attenuation factor. dispersion. L= R= µd W 2 H/m Ω/m C= G= ε 'W d F/m σ cδ sW σ W ωε " C = d Ω −1/m ε' d 132 June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 66 . Assuming the conductivity of the conductor is σ and the dielectric between the plates is complex (this means the dielectric is lossy too): ε = ε '− jε " • Use the expressions for Et and Ht as derived in Example A1.Relationship Between Field Solutions and Telegraphic Equations Interconnect ‘Short’ interconnect Lumped RLCG circuit ‘Long’ interconnect Waveguide Maxwell’s Equations Wave Equations TEM TE TM Hybrid Transmission line Vt. power handling. 131 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee Example A3 • Find the RLCG parameters of the low loss parallel plate waveguide in Example A1. It and Distributed RLCG circuit KVL & KCL Telegraphic Equations E & H wave QuasiTEM Only for stripline structures June 2008 Zc.
Three most common Tline configurations using stripline technology are microstrip line.0 . glass fiber such as FR4. aluminium oxide. stripline and coplanar stripline. Stripline can be easily fabricated on a printed circuit board (PCB) or semiconductor using various dielectric material such as epoxy resin. polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or commonly known as Teflon. for instance the lowtemperature cofired ceramic (LTCC). titanium oxide and other ceramic materials or processes. Polyimide.Transmission Line Synthesis On Printed Circuit Board (PCB) And Related Structures June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 133 Stripline Technology (1) • • Stripline is a planartype Tline that lends itself well to microwave integrated circuit (MIC) and photolithograhpic fabrication.5. • June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 134 67 .
“Foundation for microstrip circuit design”. 1. For more information on stripline circuit design. “Microwave materials and fabrication techniques”. 0.5 and 2. 2.7mils thick.4mils thick. (3rd edition.5.0 oz/foot2 ≅ 2. Thin and ThickFilm technologies can be employed. Artech House. For multilayer board the thickness can be customized from 2 – 62 mils. you can consult H.57mm) for double sided board. Edwards. 1. Laverghetta. Standard copper thickness are 0. • Copper thickness is usually expressed in terms of the mass of copper spread over 1 square foot.S. “Stripline circuit design”. Howe.Stripline Technology (2) • • A variety of substrates. 1974.0 oz/foot2 ≅ 1.8mils thick. 3rd edition 2000. in 1 mils step. 2000 is also available). 1.5 oz/foot2 ≅ 0. Artech House. For more information on microwave materials and fabrication techniques. 62mils (1.80mm). you can refer to T. 2nd Edition 1992. you can refer to T. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 136 68 .0.C.0 oz/foot2. John Wiley & Sons. For more information on microstrip line circuit design. • • June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 135 The Substrate or Laminate for Stripline Technology Copper thickness Standard material consist of epoxy with glass fiber reinforcement Dielectric thickness Dielectric Copper (Usually gold plated to protect against oxidation) • Typical dielectric thickness are 32mils (0.
coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) along x. Mechanical requirements . Tg.e.flatness. dispersion of dielectric constant. metalfilm adhesion (peel strength). coefficient of thermal expansion.Factors Affecting Choices of Substrates • • • • • • • • • Operating frequency. Cost.g. thermal conductivity. glass transition temperature. Manufacturing Technology . chemical and water resistance etc. Electrical characteristics . nominal dielectric constant. flame retardation. Tolerance. Thermal requirements .g. loss tangent. anisotropy.Thin or thick film technology.e. Copper weight (affect low frequency resistance). June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 137 Comparison between Various Transmission Lines Microstrip line Suffers from dispersion and nonTEM modes Easy to fabricate High density trace Fair for coupled line structures Need through holes to connect to ground Stripline Pure TEM mode Difficult to fabricate Mid density trace Coplanar line Suffers from dispersion and nonTEM modes Fairly difficult to fabricate Low density trace Good for coupled line Not suitable for coupled structures line structures Need through holes to connect to ground No through hole required to connect to ground June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 138 69 .y and z axis.
Zc can then be plotted as a function of the Tline dimensions.1a) and (4. Many authors have solved the static field problem for stripline structures using conformal mapping and other approaches to solve the scalar potential φ and vector potential A. A method known as ‘Conformal Mapping’ is usually used to find the approximate closedform solution of the Laplace partial differential equation for the TEM/quasiTEM mode fields. Chapter 3 provides mathematical derivation of the field solutions for parallel plate waveguide with inhomogeneous dielectric and the microstrip line. For the stripline. the dielectric constant and the operating frequency. the dominant mode is TEM hence it can be characterized by its distributed RLCG parameters to very high frequencies. the RLCG parameters can be obtained from equations (4. Some of the equations are obtained by curvefitting numerically generated results. From the E and H fields. The microstrip Tline can be characterized in terms of its approximate distributed RLCG parameters. However at a frequency below a few GHz (<10GHz at least). The expression can be very complex. See Ramo [3].Field Solution for EM Waves on Stripline Structure (1) • In microstrip and coplanar Tline the dielectric material does not completely surround the conductor. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 140 • • • • • 70 . consequently the fundamental mode of propagation is not a pure TEM mode. There are numerous commercial and noncommercial software for performing this analysis. the EM field propagation mode is quasiTEM. The following slides show some useful results as obtained by researchers in the past for designing planar Tline. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 139 • • • Field Solution for EM Waves on Stripline Structure (2) • Another approach is to use numerical methods to solve for the static E and H field along the cross section of the Tline. Collin [1]. Chapter 7 for more information on Conformal Mapping method.1b). Unfortunately there is no simple closedform analytic expressions that for the EM fields or RLCG parameters for a planar Tline. the propagation constant γ and characteristic impedance Zc of the Tline can be obtained. Once RLCG parameters are obtained.
one can obtain a collection of results (Zc. 300 263. 6) εr=6 15. α and β at the frequency of interest Design equations for Tline No Criteria met? Yes End June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 141 Design Equations • • • By varying the physical dimensions and using the flow of the previous slide. These results can be plotted as points on a graph. α. Curvefitting techniques can then be used to derive equations that match the results with the physical parameters of the Tline.177 µo .1) Draw Tline physical cross section Solve for TEM mode E and H fields at the frequency of interest Compute Zc. G from (4. β) . 5) 100 Zc ( x.ε Zc ( x. L. εo W Zc ( x.Typical Iterative Flow for Transmission Line Design Start Determine R. C. 4) 200 Zc εr=1 εr=2 εr=3 d µ. 1) Zc ( x. 2) Zc ( x. 3) Zc ( x.1 2 4 6 8 8 W/d x June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 142 71 .313 0 0 0.
ε d d K ( x) = ∫ 0 2 dφ 1 − x 2 sin 2 φ (5.1c) Only valid when quasiTEM approximation and very low loss condition applies. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 144 72 . quasiTEM approximation and very low loss condition applies.98 (5.ε 0.2c) Only valid when TEM.1a) d µ.Design Equations for Microstrip Line Microstrip Line (see reference [3]. Chapter 8) Effective dielectric constant (See Appendix 3) µo . June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 143 Design Equations for Stripline Stripline (see reference [3].1b) Zc = ε eff d d vp = 1 µε eff ε o (5. Chapter 8): Z K (k ) Zc ≅ o ⋅ 4 K 1− k 2 π (5.2b) w Complete elliptic integral Z o = of the 2nd kind µ ε vp = 1 µε (5.172 377 w w + 1.2a) πw k = cosh 4d −1 µ. εo W t ε eff = 1 + ε r −1 2 1 1 + 10d 1+ w −1 (5.
or discussion in Appendix 1). The phase velocity of the EM wave is dependent on the frequency (see references [1] and [2]. the phase velocity is almost constant. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 146 • • • • • 73 . Appendix 1 shows a simple method to estimate fcritical for microstrip and coplanar lines. Thus fcritical is usually taken as the upper frequency limit for microstrip and coplanar lines. assume d is large compare to s): Effective dielectric constant (See Appendix 3) a w ε eff = Zc ≅ εr +1 2 Zo (5.Design Equations for Coplanar Line Coplanar Line ([3].173 w −1 d π ε eff πZ o 1 + a Zc ≅ ln 2 4 ε eff 1 − w a Zo = µo εo w for 0. Typical value is 5 – 100 GHz depending on dielectric thickness. At low frequency (f < fcritical).173 < < 1 a (5.3a) a w ln 2 w for 0 < a < 0.3b) s vp = 1 µε eff ε o (5. This change in phase velocity is reflected by effective dielectric constant that changes with frequency.3c) Only valid when quasiTEM approximation and very low loss condition applies. when the propagation modes for microstrip and coplanar lines approaches quasiTEM. Both modes are dispersive. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 145 Dispersive Property of Microstrip and Coplanar Lines (1) • The actual propagation mode for microstrip and coplanar lines are a combination TM and TE modes. Stripline does not experience this effect as theoretically it can support pure TEM mode.
. see Example A1 and on v = p how to estimate fcritical 1 µε eff ε o For microstrip line. journals.com for more public domain tools June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 148 74 . the more notable is AppCAD by Agilent Technologies. Hence the effective dielectric εeff constant is between those of air and dielectric. to Visual Basic. June 2008 Note: Beyond fcritical the concept of characteristic impedance becomes meaningless. magazines etc. © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 147 Tool for Stripline Design • You can easily refer to books. A few free software are available online. use the approximation equation developed by others and write your own software tools. the EM field is partly in the air and dielectric.rfcafe. JAVA or C++ based programs.1b) applies. Stripline εeff εr 1 f 1 f fcritical Limit for quasiTEM approximation.1a) and (5. • You can also check out www. from a simple spreadsheet.Dispersive Property of Microstrip and Coplanar Line (2) εeff εr Microstrip line Region where (5.
57 mm and Ω dielectric constant = 4.. • Thus w = 1.30 vp 1. the wavelength λ must be > 20 x Length: λ > 20 ⋅ l = 1.57 mm = 2. given that d = 1.51 = 1.2 MHz f lumped = 123. find the propagation delay.2 MHz © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 150 75 .Example 5.05λ rule.75 εe S i 3. • • (b) If the length of the Tline is 6.. • From the curve. find the frequency range where the λ microstrip line can be represented by lumped RLCG circuit.8 x 1.5 3.8 for 50Ω.8 149 Microstrip Line Design Example Cont.82 mm Zo S i 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 4 3.55 at w/d = 1..Microstrip Line Design • (a) Design a 50Ω microstrip line.5 cm.30 ⇒ f < June 2008 = 123. From εeff versus w/d.6 (Here it means find w).601 × 108 ms −1 ⇒ t delay = 0.1 .25 3 50 50 0 1 2 3 S W/d i 4 5 6 40 30 20 0 1 2 S i W/d 3 4 5 June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 1. •Plot out Zc versus (w/d).065 ≅ 406 ps vp To be represented as lumped. we see that εeff = 3. (c) Using the l < 0. 160 •Steps.30 m ⇒ vp f > 1.8. Therefore: vp = 1 ε o µ o ⋅ 3. we see that w/d = 1..
derived its equivalent LC network.065 = 8.. • (e) Finally estimate fcritical .601 × 108 Zcv p = For shot interconnect we could model the Tline as: 1 L∆z = 10.096 pF or 4. smaller thickness d should be used. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 152 76 .18nH 2 C ⋅ 0. Again using the criteria that wavelength > 20d for quasiTEM mode to propagate: λ= > 20d = 0.10GHz f critical 0..048 pF 1 C∆z = 4..096 pF L ⋅ 0.18nH L∆z = 20.27 nH/m × = C C LC 1 1 C= = = 124.Microstrip Line Design Example Cont.36nH C∆z = 8..6pF/m Z c v p 50 × 1. the limit where quasiTEM approximation begins to break down. • (d) When the low loss microstrip line is considered short.048 pF 2 June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 151 Microstrip Line Design Example Cont.031 vp vp We see that to increase fcritical. L 1 1 L = Z c 2C = 313.065 = 20.36nH 10.031 ⇒ f critical < ≅ 5.
assuming lossless Tline.. TL1 TL2 TL3 TL4 June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 154 77 .57 mm µ = µo .2 MHz June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 153 Example 5.2 – Estimating the Effect of Trace Width and Dielectric Thickness on ZC • Consider the following microstrip line cross sections.Microstrip Line Design Example Cont.0 mm Zc = 50Ω vp = 1..6εo 65. make a comparison of the characteristic impedance of each line.601x108 m/s tdelay = 406psec Maximum usable frequency = fcritical = 5. εo 2.82 mm 1.10 GHz. Short interconnect limit = 123. µo . ε = 4.
The version used is called Maxwell SV Ver 9. for calculation of static magnetic field and distributed inductance.com to design a stripline.0. It is assumed that the stripline is lossless. one is the Electrostatic problem for calculation of static electric field and distributed capacitance.3 . www.Screen Shot June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 156 78 .ansoft.Stripline Design Example Using 2D EM Field Solver Program • • • • • Here we demonstrate the use of a program called Maxwell 2D by Ansoft Inc. • June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 155 Example 5.3 . The software uses finite element method (FEM) to compute the twodimensional (2D) static E and H field of an array of metallic objects. a free version which can be downloaded from the company’s website.Example 5. Characteristic impedance of the stripline can then be computed from the distributed capacitance and inductance. Two projects are created. the other is Magnetostatic problem.
3mm 0. • Name signal conductor “Trace1” and GND planes “GND1” and “GND2”. then group both “GND1” and “GND2” as one object “GND”. Let the edges of the model domain remain as Balloon Boundary. i. • Draw model.e.4mm 0.6mm “GND2” GND planes (PEC) “GND1” 8. All boundary are Dirichlet type. use direct entry mode for conducting structures like GND planes and signal. 0V 0V 0V 1V 0V Balloon Boundaries June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 158 79 .3mm 0. • Name FR4 as “substrate”.Example 5. June 2008 0.3 . • Set grid to dU = dV = 100um.036mm © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 157 Example 5.Electrostatics: Setup Boundary Conditions • • • Set the boundary conditions.Stripline Cross Section • Draw the cross section of the model and assign material. • Set drawing size to 10000um for x and 4000um for y.036mm 0. FR4 Substrate “substrate” Signal conductor (PEC) “Trace1” 0.3 . voltages are specified.0mm • Set drawing units to micron.
June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 160 80 .3 .Electrostatics: Setup Solver and Solve for Scalar Potential φ • Setup the solver and solve for the approximate potential solution. Use the ‘Suggested Values’ if you are not sure. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 159 Example 5. select ‘Matrix…’ and proceed to perform the capacitance matrix setup as shown.3 .Example 5.Electrostatics: Setup Executive Parameters • Under ‘Setup Executive Parameters’ tab.
r r ρ ∇ 2V = ε ∇ 2 A = µJ Potential value inside the triangle can be estimated via interpolation.3 . P. Cambridge University Press. – Other newer books. refer to – T. x • FEM is used to solve for the approximate scalar potential V (or φ) for electrostatic problem and vector potential A for magnetostatic problem at the vertex of each triangle. y ) = − 1 ∇ t × [Az (x. y ) J z = J z (x. y ) ρ = ρ ( x . “Finite elements for electrical engineers”. 1989.Example 5. y ) = −∇ tVt (x. JohnWiley & Sons. usually triangle for 2D object and tetrahedron for 3D y object.Finite Element Method (2) • • 2D quasistatic E field can then be obtained by: r Et (x. y ) © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 161 Example 5. The partial differential equations (PDE) to solve are the Poisson’s equations. R. y ) June 2008 • • Az = Az (x.Finite Element Method (1) • In finiteelement method (FEM) an object is thought to consist of many smaller elements. “Numerical techniques for microwave and milimeterwave passive structures”. For 2D problem the PDE can be written as: r ) ) ρ ∇ t 2V t = ∇t = ∂ x + ∂ y ∇ t 2 Az = µJ z ε ∂x ∂y V t = V t (x . 1990.3 . Itoh (editor). June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 162 81 . Silvester. y )z ] µ • For more information. – P. y ) Similarly magnetic flux intensity H can be obtained from: r ) H t (x. L. Ferrari.
3 .3 .Electrostatics: Plot of E field Magnitude June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 164 82 .Example 5.Electrostatics: The Triangular Mesh June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 163 Example 5.
9958×1010 F/m or 199. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 166 83 .3 .58 pF/m.Electrostatics: Capacitance • The estimated distributed capacitance is then computed using: r 2 ε' C= ∫∫∫ Et dv 2 Vt V Approximation to the integration using summation is performed by the software.3 .Example 5.Electrostatics: Plot of Voltage Contour June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 165 Example 5. The result is shown below: • • C ≈ 1.
3 .Magnetostatics: Setup Boundary Conditions Solid source +1A Solid source –1A (total for 2 planes) Balloon Boundaries June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 167 Example 5.3 .Magnetostatics: Setup Executive Parameters • Under ‘Setup Executive Parameters’ tab. select ‘Matrix/Flux…’ and proceed to perform the inductance matrix setup as shown.Example 5. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 168 84 .
5093×107 H/m or 250.93 nH/m.Magnetostatics: Inductance • The estimated distributed capacitance is then computed using: L= µ It 2 r 2 H t dv ∫∫∫ V • L ≈ 2.3 .Magnetostatics: Plot of B field Magnitude June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 169 Example 5.3 . June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 170 85 .Example 5.
Example 5.5093×10 − 7 = 35.819Ω C 1.427 × 108 ms −1 June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 171 Example 5.9558×10 −10 vp = 1 LC = 1.4 – Tline Design Using Agilent’s AppCAD V3.3 .02 June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 172 86 .Derivation of Parameters for Stripline Zc = L = 2.
both the results using EM field solver and using closedform solution (AppCAD) are very close.0 v p = 0.577 × 10 − 7 H / m • As we can see. as skineffect loss and dielectric loss are ignored. • Bear in mind that this is only approximate solution.4 .466v p (vacumn ) v p (vacumn ) = 2.02 Results Z c = 36. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 173 Appendix 3 June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 174 87 .988 × 10 −10 F / m Zcv p L = Z c 2C = 2.Derivation of LC Parameters from AppCAD V3.Example 5.998 × 108 C= 1 = 1.
pp. another option is to use full wave analysis.10211027. Microwave Theory Tech. Bryant and J. C is the capacitance per meter between the conductors Zc = ⇒ Zc = = ⋅C c µo . However this is usually quite cumbersome.The Origin of Effective Dielectric Constant (εeff) ε • The approach can be traced to a paper by Bryant and Weiss1. Weiss. εo C1 ε eff ε eff 1 ⋅C1ε eff C1 is computed via numerical methods for various W and d 1 c ε eff ⋅C1 Without dielectric.ε 1 = c ε eff LC1 ⋅ ε eff Speed of light in vacumn With dielectric. More dispersion will also be observed.MTT16. IEEE Trans. the preceeding formulation is not accurate and the telegraphic equations cannot be used. Also there is no longer a unique voltage and current. Assuming low loss and quasiTEM mode: vp = 1 Zc = L = 1 C v pC µo . A. G. vol. We can resort to defining equivalent voltage and current as employed for waveguides. εo µo . C1 is the capacitance per meter between the conductors June 2008 Note 1: T.”Parameters of microstrip transmission lines and coupled pairs of microstrip lines”.1968.. 175 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee When QuasiTEM Approximation is not Valid . only E and H fields are used. εo LC Define C Then W ε eff = C vp = 1 c C1 d µ.Full Wave Analysis • When quasiTEM approximation is no longer valid. • • • June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 176 88 .
• June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 177 THE END June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 178 89 .FullWave Analysis • Fullwave analysis is usually carried out using numerical methods such as Method of Moments (MoM). FiniteDifference TimeDomain (FDTD) and Transmission Line Matrix (TLM). the Maxwell Equations are solved directly or indirectly instead of transforming the equations into circuit theory expressions (e. In all these methods. Finite Element Methods (FEM). the telegraphic equations).g.
0 mm – εr = 2. • • June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 180 90 . µr = 1. y ) = Bn cos( ndπ y )e − jβz ko = ω µε Zo = µo εo Since n is an arbitrary integer.0 mm – d = 1. and the maximum power that can be carried by this line without damaging the dielectric.Example A1 – Solution for TE Mode The EM fields for TE mode are shown below: ˆ E t (x. y ) = jk(onZπo)Bn sin ( ndπ y )e − jβz x d ˆ H t (x. The length of the line is 10 meter. If TEM mode is propagating along the line. June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 179 Exercise • Suppose we have a parallelplate transmission line with the following parameters: – W = 16. dielectric breakdown at E = 3000 V/m. find the characteristic impedance Zc of the line. y ) = j(βπBn) sin ( ndπ y )e − jβz y n d H z (x.5. Find the cutoff frequency of the for TM and TE modes. the TE mode is usually called the TEn mode.0.
181 June 2008 © 2006 Fabian Kung Wai Lee 91 . Omnidirectional Antenna Parallelplate Tline Transmission Tower Distance = R Antenna gain G = 10 Receiver If the Receiver can detect the data when received power is 2 µWatt.Exercise Cont… • Assuming this transmission line is used in the following system. Estimate the maximum working distance R.