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TECHNICAL PRESENTATION 1 POWER SYSTEMS

In India maximum generated voltage level is 11kV and in other countries are 33kV. cogeneration plants are often installed.  To design the circuit breakers. series. Steam is also required in many industries for process heat. Fuel oil and natural gas are the energy source. easy to transport. transmission and distribution system. Fossil fuels. short circuit analysis and stability analysis. via coal. which can be of the following types:  Thermal  Nuclear  Hydraulic  Gas Turbine  Geothermal Thermal power plants generate more than 80% of the total electricity produced in the world. real and reactive power flow between buses. loads and compensating devices like shunt. Electricity consumption per capita is the index of the living standard of people of a place or country.  Generation  Transmission  Distribution GENERATION: The Electricity is the only form of energy which is easy to produce. Electricity in bulk quantities is produced in power plants.INTORDUCTION: A Power System consists of generation. transformers. In order to maintain power system. The functions of power system analysis are:  To monitor the voltage at various buses. So. distribution lines.  To plan future expansion of existing system. The power system has following three main components.  To analyze the system under different fault conditions. and static VAR compensators. we are mainly dealing with power or load flow analysis. . To meet dual need of power and process heat.  To study the ability of the system for large disturbances and small disturbances. In monitoring power system analysis. easy to use and easy to control. The components of power systems are generators. the bulk power has to be transmitted through Transmission and distribution lines to consumers safely and economically. it is mostly the terminal form of energy for transmission and distribution. transmission lines. and steam is the working fluid.

It uses 3Φ. The secondary transmission forms the link between the receiving end substation and the secondary substation. It uses 3Φ. So. The transmission of electrical power can be take place through the transformers. the line current and power loss would be very high. PRIMARY DISTRIBUTION: At the secondary substations. It interconnects the neighboring generating stations into a power pool. commercial and relatively small consumers. That is interconnection of two or more generating stations. SECONDARY TRANSMISSION: At the receiving end substation.132kV. It can be divided into primary and secondary distribution system. It is a static electrical device which is used to step up or step down the voltage levels or current or power. The high voltage transmission lines transmit power from the sending end substation to receiving end substation. The primary distributor forms the link between secondary substation and distribution substation and the power is fed into the primary distribution system. the generated voltage is stepped up to a higher value by using step up transformer located in substations known as sending end substations near the generating stations. 3 wire system and the conductors used are called as feeders. Primary transmission voltages are 110kV.3 wire system. The transmission system can be divided into primary transmission and secondary transmission.TRANSMISSION: The Transmission system supplies only large blocks of power to bulk power station or very big consumers. It uses 3Φ. DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM: The component of an electrical power system connecting all the consumers is an area to the bulk power sources or transmission lines is called a distribution system. Distribution transformers are normally installed on poles or plinth mounted or near the consumers. or 220kV or 400kV or 765kV. the voltage is stepped down to a value of 66 or 33 or 22kV using step down transformers. . the voltage is stepped down to 11kV or 66kV using step down transformers. 3 wire system. A distribution station distributes the power to domestic. PRIMARY TRANSMISSION: If the generated voltage is transmitted through transmission line without stepping up the generated voltage.

the voltage is stepped down to 400V (for 3Φ) or 230V (for 1Φ) step down transformers. . In order to reduce losses we have to invent new devices using with engineering techniques and modeling.SECONDARY DISTRIBUTION: At the distribution substation. It uses 3Φ. CONCLUSION: In the power system during the transmission and distribution we have more losses. 4 wire system. so that we and our future generation uses it wisely. Single phase loads are connected between one phase wire and one neutral wire. Nowadays demand power is increases daily so we need to generate more amount power with reduction of cost and by using engineering facts . The distribution lines are drawn along the roads and service connections to the consumers are tapped off from the distributors.