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A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

Abstract
The project entitled Bank Transactions deals with fully automated system used by the Bank. Bank is one of the major sectors, which provides so many services to their customers such as request for a new account, deposit, withdraw etc. Maintaining all these services manually is complicated process. The main purpose of the system is Automating the Bank Transactions . The automation process of the services of the Bank increases the efficiency and transparency and it can work more accurately. Comparing with the manual process, this system decreases the time taken to process and validate the records. The department can get reports like customer details, transaction details, etc.,

Advantages: Fast maintenance Easy billing Reliability User- Friendly software

A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

Process Logic of Each Module


New Customer: The lender is known as a customer and gives unspecified amounts of money to the bank for unspecified amounts of time.The bank agrees to repay any amount in the account at any time and will pay small amounts of interest on the amount of money that the customer leaves in the account for a certain period of time. In addition,the bank guarantees that the money will not be stolen while it is in the account and will reimburse the customer if it is. In return, the bank gets to use the money for other financial transactions as long as they hold it. Every one needs an account to make their money transactions. Transactions: A deposit account is a current account,savings account ,or other type of bank account institution that allows money to be deposited and withdrawn by the account holder. These transactions are recorded on the banks books, and the resulting balance is recorded as a liability for the bank, and represent the amount owned by the bank to the customer. The banking terms deposit and withdrawal tend to obscure the economic substance and legal essence of transactions in a deposit account. From a legal and financial accounting dtandpoint, the term deposit is used by the banking industry in financial statements to describe the liability owned by the bank to is depositer, and not the funds (whether cash or checks) themselves, which are shown an asset of the bank. Interest calculation: In this module the bank calculates interest based on the type of account i.e., savings account, current account, fixed deposits. For Savings account, the interest is calculated for every 6 months on the average current balance. According to S.B.I the interest rate for savings account holders is 2%. Finally the interest amount will be added to the balance amount of the savings account holder. For current account , the interest is calculated for every 6 months on the average current balance. According to S.B.I the interest amount will be deducted to the balance amount of the current account holder.
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A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

Types of Report generation: In this project Crystal Reports are used for report generation. The principal purpose of Crystal Reports is simply to access data stored in databases and to produce reports on that data. Crystal Reports is designed to make that task easier, less-time consuming, and more powerful. Reports are management tools. Their purpose is to help quickly grasp the essential elements and the relationships found in raw data, to help, to make effective decisions. For a report to be effective, it has to present the correct data in a logical way. If it presents the wrong data, or if it presents the right data in a haphazard manner, the report may slow the decision making process or may even encourage incorrect decisions. Defining the purpose of the report before to start is a critical step in the overall process.

A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

INTRODUCTION TO RDBMS
DBMS is the acronym for relational Database Management System. The concept of Relational Database is known since 1980s. IBMs Dr.E.F.CODD first proposed it in 1970. In 1985 computer world article Dr.E.F.CODD presented 12 Codd rules that Database must satisfy to be considered truly relational. These 12 Codd rules are The Information rule: - All information is explicitily and logically represented in tables as data values. The Rule of guaranteed access: - Every item of data must be logically addressable. The system of treatment of null values: - The RDBMS must be able to support null values. Database description values: - Description of a database is maintained using the same logical structures with which data was defined by the RDBMS. Comprehensive data sub language: - The system must support the following: 1. Data definition 2. View definition

The View-updating rule: - All views that are theoretically must be updatable by the system. Insert and update rule: - A single operand must hold good for all retrieval, update, and insert activities. Physically independence rule: - Application programs must remain unimpaired when any changes are made in storage representation. Logically data independence rule: - The changes that are made should not affect the user ability to work with the data. The integrity independence rule: - The integrity constraint should be stored in the system catalog as a table.
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A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

The distribution rule: - The system must be able to access or manipulate the data i.e. distributed in other systems. The non-subversion rule: - It states that different levels of the language cannot subvert or bypass the integrity rules and the constraints.

A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

ORACLE
Introduction to Oracle: Oracle is a comprehensive operating environment that packs the power of mainframe relational database management system into users microcomputer. It provides a set of functional programs that user can use as tools to build structures and performs tasks. Because applications are developed on oracle are completely portable to the other versions of the programmer can create a complex application in a single user, environment and then move it to a multi user platform. Users do not have to be an expert to appreciate Oracle but the better user understands the program , the more productively and creatively he can use the tools it provides. Oracle the Right Tool: To keep track of records is often the best reason to consider buying a software package. Choosing a proven product increase the chance that we will get a system capable of meeting all our needs. Oracle has had many years in the relational market to often on the large, complex applications. Although Oracle demands grater expertise on the part of the application developed, an application developed oracle will be able to keep pace with growth and change in the world at large. Oracle Gives You Security and Control: Oracle has several features that ensure the integrity of the database. If an interruption occurs in processing, a Rollback can reset the database to a point before the disaster. If a restore in necessary, Oracle has a Roll forward command for recreating your database to its mast reset save point. Oracle provides user with several functions for security data. Grant and Revoke commands limit access to information down to the row and column levels. Views are valuable feature for limiting access to the primary tables in the database.

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A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

The Oracle Environment: Oracle is a modular system that consists of the Oracle database and several functional programs. Oracles tools do four major things of work. 1. Database Management 2. Data access and Manipulation 3. Programming 4. Connectivity Database Management Tools: This (is usually known as RDBMS by Oracle) includes the core programs for Oracles database management system, the Oracle database with its associated tables and views, which are stores information related to every fact of the database system. User name, user access rights, table attribute, storage information and auditing data for disaster recovery are stored in the data dictionary. The Database Administrator: The person responsible for the Database is called the Database Administrator (DBA). The DBA has a special set of privileges and has completed over the database. Any system with more than one user should have a DBA. The function of DBA include Creating primary database storage structures. Modifying the structure of the database. Backing up and restoring the database. Monitoring database performance and efficiency. Transferring data between database and external files. Manipulating the physical location of the database.
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A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

THE END USER End user has less complex but equally important tasks. They must be able to Query the database Generate printed output. Share data with or secure data from others. Use non-export methods to update the database. Define application from a user point of view. WHY ORACLE Oracle is different data access languages like SQL, Visual Basic, Power builder, Delphi, VC++, and ASP etc access an open system i.e. the database. Oracle supports database up to gigabytes in size. Oracle supports large number of concurrent users. Oracle supports true client/server environment, it enables processing to be split between database server and the client application programs. Oracle provides high level of data security in terms of users, passwords privileges, and permissions. Oracle database behaves same on all platform line Windows, UNIX, Dos, Mainframe etc. Structure of Oracle Database: Oracle database can be described at two different levels 1. Physical structure 2. Logical structure
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A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

Physical structure: One or more data files. Two or more log files. One control file. Logical Structure: Table spaces Segments Extents Data Blocks: The data files contain all user data in terms of tables, index, and views. The log files contain the information to open and be recovered, of undone after a transaction (Roll back). The control file physical data, media information to open and manage data file. If the control file is damaged the server will not be able to open are use the database is undamaged.

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A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

NORMALIZATION
Introduction to Normalization of a Database: PITFALLS IN RELATIONAL DATABASE DESIGN Before we begin to look into normal forms and data independences let us look at what can go wrong in a data design. Amount the undesirable properties that a bad design may have are: Replication of information Inability of information certain information Loss of information

Decomposition on that is not lossy-join, and then it is referred to as lossesjoin decomposition. Lossy-join decomposition is a bad database design. UNDESIRABLE PROPERTIES OF DECOMPOSITION: Various undesirable properties of decomposition of the database of the database are: Loss less-join Decomposition: It is crucial when decomposition the relational into a number of smaller relations that the decomposition be losses. Let R be relation scheme and F a set of functional dependencies on R. Let R1 and R2 from a decomposition of R. This decomposition is a Loss less-join decomposition is in F+(closure of set F):

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A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

R1 n R2 R1 n R2

R1 R2

Dependency preservation: There is another goal in the relational database design to the conferred is dependency preservation. When an update is made to the database, the system should be able to check update efficiently, it is desirable to design a relational database scheme that allows updates. Validations without the computation of the joins: In order to decide whether joins must be computed, we need to determine what dependencies checking each relation individually may test. Let is a set of functional dependencies F+ that include only attributes of R1. Since all functional dependencies in restriction invoked attributes of only one relational scheme, it is possible to test satisfaction of such dependency by checking only one relation. The set of restrictions F1, F2, F3 . Fmn is the set of dependencies that can be checked efficiently. We now must ask whether testing only the restriction is sufficient. Let F = F1 U F2 U U Fn, F is a set of Functional Dependencies on a scheme R, but in general, F <> f. However , even if F+<>F+. If this true then every dependency in F is logically implied by F and if we verify that F is satisfied, we have verified that F is satisfied. We say that a decomposition having the property F +=F+ is a dependency preserving decomposition. Replication of information: The decomposition of the database would lead to the repetition of information, which is desirable in some cases. Unnecessary repetitions are known as
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A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

redundancy. Clearly, the lack of redundancy in the decomposition is desirable. Several normal forms represent the degree to which we can achieve this lack of redundancy. NORMALIZATION USING VARIOUS NORMAL FORMS: In order to achieve the decomposition of the database without redundancy the database has to be normalized using the various normalization techniques. Some of them are: Steps in Normalization First Normal Form (1 NF) Identifying repeating groups of fields Remove repeating groups to a separate table Identify the keys for tables Key of parent table is brought as part of the concatenated Key of the second table Second Normal Form (2NF) Check if all fields are dependent on the whole key Remove fields that depend on part of the key Group partially dependent fields as a separate table Name the tables Identify Keys to the tables

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A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

Third Normal Form (3NF) In those cases where we cannot meet all three-design criteria (BCNF, Loss less-join, Dependency preservation), we abandon BCNF and accept a weaker normal form called third normal form (3NF). BCNF a b where alpha is a super key.

A relational schema R is in 3NF if for all functional dependencies that hold on R of the form a following holds: a b is a trivially functionally dependency. b where a is subset of R and b is subset of R, at least one of the

a is a super key for R. Each attribute a and b is contained in candidate for R. BOYCE CODD NORMAL FORM: One of the desirable normal forms we can obtain is Boyce code normal form (BCNF). A relational scheme R is in BCNF if for all functional dependencies that hold on R of form a a b, where a is subset of R, at least one of the following holds. b a trivial functional dependency.

a is super key for scheme R. FOURTH NORMAL FORM: A relational R is in 4 NF with respect to a set D of functional and multi valued dependencies if for all multi valued dependencies in D+ of the form a holds. a b is trivial multi valued dependency.
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b where a is subset of R and b is a subset of R, at least one of the following

A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

a is a super key for scheme for R.

FEATURES OF ORACLE
Efficient Multi User Support and Consistency Oracle is designed to allow users to share frequently used programs in data, thus decreasing memory and I/O costs, increasing throughput and maximizing the no.of users. Powerful Security Features Oracle guarantees data security by letting the administrator specify exactly the data each user is permitted to access or modify. Fault Tolerance In the event of a system crash of a system or abnormal shutdown, Oracle automatically rolls back all unfinished transactions, there by providing consistent database. Ease of Administration Oracle provides a comprehensive set of powerful utilities for configuring the applications. Portability Oracle runs an impressive range of main frames, minis ad PCs and support an equally board no. of OSs. Networking With Oracle distributed capabilities the user can access data from any computer regardless of how it is connected to the local computer.
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INTRODUCTION TO SQL The language used to access data within Oracle databases Developed in a prototype RDBMS, System R, by IBM in mid-1970s Oracle corporation introduced the first commercially available

implementation of SQL ANSI adopted SQL as a standard language for RDBMS in Oct. 1986 Key features of SQL are: Non procedural language Unified language Common language for all relational databases SQL pronounced as see quell is made of three sub-languages such as Data Definition Language (DDL): Consists of commands to create the objects like CREATE, ALTER, DROP such as tables, views, indexes etc. Data Manipulation Language (DML): Used for query, insertion, deleting and updating of information stored in databases. Data Control Languages (DCL): Used for controlling data and Access to the databases Example: COMMIT, ROLLBACK. SQL * Plus is a software product from Oracle corporation that allows users to interactively use the SQL commands, produce formatted reports and support written command procedures to access Oracle databases.

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A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

Through SQL * Plus a user can: Enter, edit, store, retrieve and run SQL commands. Format, perform calculations on store and print query results in the form of reports. List column definition of any table. Access and copy data between SQL databases. Send messages to and accept responses from an end user. INTRODUCTION OF PL/SQL PL/SQL is the procedural extension of non-procedural SQL Combines data manipulation power of SQL and procedural power of standard procedural languages. Provides performance improvements through blocking of RDBMS calls Integrates well with SQL * plus and other Application development products of Oracle PL/SQL is an extension to non-procedural SQL. It includes many features and designs of programming language. It combines the data manipulating power of SQL with the data processing power of procedural languages. The PL/SQL engine resides within the Oracle Server so it is available from any application development tool that supports PL/SQL is a power transaction processing language.

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A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

The Advantages of PL/SQL Support for SQL PL/SQL allows the use of all the SQL data manipulation, cursor control, and transaction control commands, as well as the SQL functions, operations and pseudocolumns. So we can manipulate Oracle data flexibly and safely. Block Structure PL/SQL is a block structure language. That is, the basic units that make opt the PL/SQL programs are logical blocks, which can contain any number of nested subblocks that are logically required in the unit. Variables may be declared locally to the block in which they will be used, and error conditions may be handled specifically with in the block to which they apply. Higher Productivity PL/SQL adds functionality to non-procedural tools such as SQL * Forms, SQL * Menu, and SQL * Report writer. With PL/SQL in these tools one can use familiar procedural constructs to build applications. Thus, PL/SQL increases productivity by using better tools. Better Performance Without PL/SQL, Oracle server process SQL statements one at a time. Each SQL statement results in another call to Oracle and higher performance overhead. However, with PL/SQL, an entire block can be sent to Oracle at a time. This can drastically reduce communication between application and Oracle server.

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A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

Integration PL/SQL bridges the gap between convenient access to database technology, and the need for procedural programming applications capabilities by using variables and datatypes compatible with those of SQL and with columns in the database itself. Control Structures Control structures are most important PL/SQL extension of SQL. It controls the procedural flow of the program, deciding if and when SQL and other actions are to be executed. This avoids the needs to nest SQL statements within external programming languages. Modularity Modularity breaks and application down into manageable, well defined logic modules. PL/SQL meets this need with program unit constructs. Besides blocks and subprograms, PL/SQL provides the package construct, which allows you to group related program objects into larger units. Portability Since PL/SQL integrates well with SQL *Plus and other application development products of Oracle programs may be transported across any host environment in which Oracle and PL/SQL are supported. PL/SQL Architecture The PL/SQL runtime system is a technology, and not an independent product. This technology is actually like an engine that executes PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. This engine can be installed in an Oracle server or in application development tools such as Oracle Forms Builder, Oracle Reports Builder etc. Therefore, PL/SQL can reside in two environments viz.
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A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

The Oracle Server The Oracle Tools These two environments are independent of each other. In either environment, the PL/SQL engine accepts any valid PL/SQL block as input. The PL/SQL engine executes the procedural part of the statements and sends the SQL statements to the SQL statement Executor in the Oracle Server, thus reducing I/O and improving performance. Application development tools that lack a local PL/SQL engine must rely on Oracle to process PL/SQL blocks and subprograms. When an Oracle Server contains the PL/SQL blocks and subprograms as well as single SQL statements. The server passes the blocks and subprograms to its local PL/SQL engine.

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VISUAL BASIC 6.0


Microsoft Visual Basic is the fastest and easiest way to create applications for Microsoft Windows. Whether we are an experienced professional or brand new to windows programming. Visual Basic provides us with a complete set of tools to simplify rapid application development. The visual part refers to the method used to create the graphical user interface (GUI). Rather than writing numerous lines of code to describe the appearance and location of interface elements, we can simplify drag and drop prebuilt objects to place on the screen. If we ever used a drawing program such as paint, we already have most of the skills necessary to create an effective user interface. The Basic part refers to the BASIC (Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) language, a language used by more programmers than any other language in the history of computing. Visual Basic has evolved from the original BASIC language and now contains several hundred statements, functions and keywords, many of which relate directly to the windows GUI. Beginners can create useful applications by learning just a few of the keywords, yet the power of the language allows professionals to accomplish using any other Windows programming language. Microsofts Visual Basic product is defined as a programming system. With Visual Basic we can design programs, also known as applications to accomplish just about any task. Computer programs generally fall into two very broad categories packaged and custom.

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A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

Packaged programs are predesigned to accomplish some specific task. Packaged programs can be purchased in a software store, via mail order, direct from a manufacturer and so on. Custom programs are usually designed for specific purpose within a particular organization. Visual Basic is often referred to as a Rapid Application Development (RAD) tool. The Visual Basic programming language is not unique to Visual Basic. The Visual Basic Programming System, Applications Edition included in Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Access and many other Windows applications uses the same language. The Visual Basic programming system, Scripting Edition (VB Script) for Internet programming is a subset of the Visual Basic language. Whether our goal is to create a small utility for ourselves or to our work group, a large enterprise wide system or even distributed applications spanning the globe via the Internet, Visual Basic has the tools we need. Data access features allow us to create database and front-end applications for most popular database formats, including Microsoft SQL Server enterprise level database. Active X technologies allow us to use the functionality provided by other applications such as Microsoft Word Processor, Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and other Windows applications. We can even automate applications and objects created using the Professional or Enterprise editions of Visual Basic. Internet capabilities make it easy to provide access to documents and applications across the internet from within our application. Our finished applications are a true. Exe file that uses a run time dynamic link library (DLL) that can be freely distributed. Ability to create and use self-contained components or objects.
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A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

VISUAL BASIC CONCEPTS: In order to understand the application development process it is helpful to understand some of the key concepts upon which Visual Basic is built. Because Visual Basic is a Windows development language some familiarity with the Windows environment is necessary. If we are new to Windows programming we need to be aware of some fundamental differences between programming for windows programming we need to be aware of some fundamental differences between programming for Windows versus other environments. DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT OF VISUAL BASIC: The working environment in Visual Basic is often referred to as the integrated development environment (IDE) because it integrates many different functions such as design, editing, compiling and debugging within a common environment. Most traditional development tools, each of these functions would operate as a separate program, each with its own interface. Starting the Visual Basic IDE. When we run the Visual Basic setup program, it allows us to place the program items in the existing program group or create a new program group and new program items for Visual Basic in Windows. We are then ready to start Visual Basic from Windows. Integrated Development Environment Elements The Visual Basic integrated development environment (IDE) consists of the following elements:

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A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

Menu Bar: Displays the commands we use to work with Visual Basic. Besides the standard File, Edit, View, Window and Help menus, menus are provided to access functions specific to programming such as project, format or debug. Context Menus: It contains shortcuts to frequently performed actions. To open a context menu, click the right mouse button on the object you are using. The specific list of shortcuts available from context menus depends on the part of the environment where we click the right mouse button. Toolbars: It provides quick access to commonly used commands in the programming environment. We click a button on the toolbar once to carry out the action represented by that button. By default, the standard toolbar is displayed when we start Visual Basic. Additional toolbars for editing, form design and debugging can be toggled on or off from the toolbars command on the View menu. Toolbox: It provides a set of tools that can be used at design time to place controls on the form. In addition to the default time to place controls on the form. In addition to the default toolbox layout, we can create our own custom layouts by selecting Add Tab from the context menu and adding controls to the resulting tab. Projects Explorer Window: It lists the forms and modules in your current project. A project is the collection of files we use to build an application.

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Properties Window: It lists the property settings for the selected form or control. A property is a characteristic of an object, such as size, caption, or color. Lists objects available for use in your project and gives you a quick way to native through the code. We can use the Objects Browser to explore objects in Visual Basic and other applications. Form Designer: It serves as a window that we customize to design the interface of the application. We add controls, graphics and pictures to a form to create the look we want. Each form in the application has its own form designer window. Code Editor Window: It serves as an editor for entering application code. A separate code editor window is created for each form or code module in the application. Form Layout Window: The Form Layout Window allows us to position the forms in the applications using a small graphical representation screen. Immediate, locals and watch

windows, these additional windows are provided for use in debugging the application. They are only available when we are running the application within the IDE. Environment Options: It configures Visual Basic to our personal preferences. Visual Basic provides a great deal of flexibility allowing us to configure the working environment to best suit our individual style. We can choose between a single and multiple document interfaces, and we can adjust the size and positioning of the various Integrated

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A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

Development Environment (IDE) elements. Our layout will persist between sessions of Visual Basic. SDI or MDI Interface: Two different styles are available for the Visual Basic IDE: single document interface (SDI) or multiple documents interface (MDI). With the SDI option, all of the IDE windows are free to be moved anywhere on the screen, as long as Visual Basic is the current application, they will remain on top of any other applications. With the MDI option, all of the IDE windows are contained within a single resizable parent window. Programming Fundamentals: After creating the interface for our application using forms and controls, we will need to write the code that defines the applications behavior. As with any modern programming constructs and language elements. Visual Basic supports a number of common programming constructs and language elements. Visual Basic is an object based programming language. The mere mention of objects may cause undue anxiety in many programmers. Once we understand a few basic concepts, objects actually help to make programming easier than ever before. The structure of A Visual Basic Application: An application is really nothing more than a set of instructions directing the computer to perform a task or tasks. The structure of an application is the way in which the instructions are organized; that is, where the instructions are stored and the order in which the instructions are executed. As applications become more complex, the need for organization or structure becomes obvious. In addition to controlling the execution of an application, the structure is important to the programmer.
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Because a Visual Basic application is based on objects, the structure of its code closely models its physical representation on screen. By definition, objects contain code and data. The form that we seen on the screen is a representation of the property that defines the appearance and intrinsic behavior. For each form in an application, there is a related form module (with file name extension. Frm) that contain its code. Open Database Connectivity (ODBC): In the past, the ODBC API has provided a tempting interface to those database front-end developers needing a fast, small-footprint and a relatively stable platform with which to connect to client/server systems. The ODBC API is designed to run on a number of diverse platforms, including 16-bit windows, 32-bit Windows 95 and Windows stand several others. Visual Basic Objects: An object is a combination of code and data that can be treated as a unit. An object can be a piece of an application, like a control or a form. The objects used in our application are Text Box: This control displays text that the user can edit. The textbox control is a text editor and its most important property is the text property, which can set the text on the control or read the text that the user enters. Label: This control displays the text on a form, which the user cant edit. Labels commonly identify other controls and can be transparent. So the text appears to be placed directly on the form. We set the labels text with the caption property.
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Checkbox: The checkbox presents one or more choices that are user can select. The check box controls main property is value, and it is 0 if the check box is cleared, and 1 if the checkbox is checked. List box: This control contains a list of options from which the user can choose one or more. Another important property of the list box is the sorted property, which determines whether the items in the list will be sorted or not. Combo Box: The combo box control is similar to the list box control, but it contains a text edit filed. The user can either choose an item from the list or enter a new string in the edit field. The item selected from the list (or entered in the edit field) is given by the controls text property. Picture Box: The picture box control is used to display images and the images are set with the picture property. Frame: The control is used to draw boxes on form and to group other elements. Active X Controls: ActiveX is a set of reusable software components that can be created and utilized by several applications. In particular, ActiveX uses Internet to assist in creating the compact and reusable applications that can be developed via the Internet or a corporate Intranet.
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ActiveX leverages Internet Technology for several reasons. It provides a familiar client/ server infrastructure to run the applications. Sophisticated ActiveX controls can be created and used in the Visual Basic applications, web pages, and even in other Microsoft products such as Excel or Word. When we start up Visual Basic and examine the project Wizard, we will notice several ActiveX components that include the ActiveX EXE, ActiveX DLL, ActiveX control, ActiveX Document DLL and ActiveX Document EXE. DATA ACCESS OBJECTS (DAO): DAO is used to communicate with Microsoft Access other ODBC data sources through the JET Engine. This engine is the driving technology behind Microsoft Access Databases. A developer can take advantage of the objects exposed by DAO to directly manipulate the data source through the JET engine. Usually, DAO is used with Microsoft Access Databases. Already there are 5 versions of DAO in use today. They are DAO 2.0, DAO 2.5, DAO 3.0, DAO 3.5 handles all the processing for Access 97 and Visual Basic 6.0. DAO 3.51 support Data Definition Language (DLL), multi users, work group security referential integrity and replication. ACTIVE X DATA OBJECTS (ADO) ActiveX data objects, or ADO, are the most recent method of data access that Microsoft has introduced. ADO is intended to replace DAO (Data Access Objects), the original method of Visual Basic data access, and RDO (Remote Data Objects), a fast alternative to DAO; ADO provides the means by which a program code accesses a database. ADO itself connects to a database through an OLEDB provider. OLDEB is Microsofts new lower-level database interface that provides access to many different kinds of data.

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There are OLDEB providers for both traditional database (such as SQL server) as well as other sources like e-mail server. The OLDEB provider exposes these databases to ADO, which in turn allows connecting the data in 2 ways: 1. Data Controls: A Data Control is a custom control that handles communication with the Database. Simply setting a few properties and bind some other controls to the data controls can display the information.

2. Object Interface: When a reference is added to ADO a new set of objects becomes available to a program, which can manipulate directly from code without any controls or combining the use of objects with a data control. ACTIVE X DLL: ActiveX DLL is an in process component. Its code executes in the same process space as the client application i.e. the contents of the project will be added to the application and executes it from same path where application is resided. DLL file is a dynamic link library file, which can be added to any GUI application oriented packages like VB, VC++ etc. to invoke DLL class files. (1) It requires 32-bit operating system (Windows 95, Windows NT). (2) Minimum methods/events should be available in a class. (3) No End statement is recommended. (4) All DLL files will be stored in reference of project after creation.

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Steps to create ActiveX DLL: (a) (b) Determining the features of the component that is to be created. Determining the objects that are required to divide the functionality of the component in a logical fashion. (c) (d) (e) Designing the forms of the component that are to be displayed. Provided by the component. Creating a project group consisting of the component and a test project. (f) (g) Implementing the forms required by the component. Designing the interface i.e. the properties, methods & events for each class implementing the interfaces of each class. (h) On adding each interface element or feature, add features of test project to exercise the new functionality. (i) Compiling the DLL and testing it with all potential target applications. Guidelines to Place a DLL on form: If there is a need to perform data entry on a set of columns that are the result of a multi table SQL operation, we can the data set produced by the join as the basic for the data entry form. Each data entry form corresponds to a single data set. Following guidelines are easy when we are dealing with table type data sets. Each data entry form contains a single command button named cmdbtn. We must its index property to 0 to indicate that it is part of a control array. All the routines we build expect this command button. Every column in the data set row that requires data entry is represented by single textbox control in the form.

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The control and the field are related by placing the column name in the tag property of the input control. This procedure enables us to bind the input controls to the data set.

Data Reports: The Microsoft Data Report designer is a versatile data report generator that features the ability to create banded hierarchical reports. Through Data Reports we can automatically create reports that are exported in HTML format for instant distribution on the Internet. We can create reports that show the sums of transactions occurring on a daily basis. Parts of Data Reports: The Data Reports Designer consists of the following objects. 1. Data Report object: Similar to Visual Basic form, the Data Reports Objects has both a Visual designer and a code module. The layout of a report is created using the designer. Selection Object: A selection object in a Sections collection represents each section of the Data Report designer at the design time. A Section Object in a section collection represents each section of the Data Report designer. At design tie, header that can click to select the section represents each section.

2. Data Report Controls: Special Controls that only work on the data report designer is included within it. These controls are found in the Visual Basic toolbars, but they are placed on a separate tab named Data Report section of the Data Report Designer. The default Data Report designer contains these sections:
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A Mini Project On Bank Transactions

Report Header: It contains the text that appears the very beginning of the report, such as the report title, author or database name. Page Header: It contains the information that goes the top of the every page. Details: It contains the inner most repeating part of the data report. Page Footer: It contains the information that goes to the bottom of every page such as the page number. Report Footer: It contains the text at the very end of the report.

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SYSTEM DESIGN
System design is the evaluation of alternative solution and specification of a detailed computer based solution, this is called a physical design. System design deals with the physical or implementation dependent aspects of a system technical specification. System study is to accumulate information to analyze the systems, which specify what the system must do. System design states how to accomplish the objective. It specifies all the features for the final product. The new system design includes the following: Design of database Design of interface Design of process, control and procedure. DESIGN OF DATABASE: A database is organization collection of logically related data usually designed to meet the information needs for multiple users in a hotel stored with minimum redundancy, the general objective is to make information access easy, quick, inexpensive and flexible for use in different stages. These stages are of two types: 1. Preliminary stage In this stage various types of data is being collected and the elements of those interactions will be observed. 2. Final stage With the data stores and its elements, it becomes easy to design the user interface and the procedure. During this stage, some mistake may be
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found which causes to redesign of all data stores by following normalization concept. Data Dictionary: Data dictionary stores description of data items and structures as well as system processes. It is intended to be used to understand the system analyst, alternate names and data used in specific processes must be available, the DD also stores validation information to guide the analyst in specifying control for system acceptance of guide. DD also contains definitions of data flows, data stores and processes i.e. summary of processing logic. Data dictionary systems are important for five reasons: To manage the details in large systems. To communicate a common message for all systems elements. To document the feature of the system. To facilitate analysis of the details in order to evaluate character and determine where changes should be made. To locate errors and omissions in the system. DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS: A Data Flow Diagram is a graphical tool used to describe and analyze the movement of data through a system manual or automated including the processes, source of data and delays in the system. Data flow diagrams are the central tool and the basis from which other components are developed. The transformation of data from input to output through processes may be described logically and independently of the physical components associated with the system. They are termed logical Data Flow Diagrams. In contrast, Physical Data Flow Diagrams shows

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the actual implementation and the movement of data between people, departments and workstations. PHYSICAL DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS: Physical data flow diagrams show the actual implementation and the movement of the data between customer, agency and vendor physical data flow diagrams are implementation dependent. LOGICAL DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS: The transformation of data from input to output, through processes may be described logically and independently of the physical components associative with the system. They are termed as LOGICAL DATA FLOW. Logical data diagrams can be completed using only four simple notations i.e., special symbols or icons and the automation them with a specific system.

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They are

PROCESS

EXTERNAL ENTRY

DATA FLOW

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SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS

Software Requirements:

Platform Front End Back End :

: :

WINDOWS XP Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0

Oracle Database

Hardware Requirements:

PROCESSOR HARD DISK DRIVE RAM

: : :

INTEL PENTIUM IV 2.4 GHz SEGATE 40 GB 512 MB

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LEVEL0-DFD

NEW ACCOUNT

CUSTOMERS

BANK TRANSACTIONS

DEPOSIT

WITHDRAW

INTEREST CALCULATIONS

LEVEL1-DFD

STATE BANK OF INDIA

ACCOUNT OPEN

TRANSACTIONS

INTEREST CALCULATION S

CUSTOMER DETAILS

DEPOSIT

WITHDRAW

SAVINGS ACCOUNT

CURRENT ACCOUNT
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LEVEL2-DFD:

TYPE OF ACCOUNT ACCOUNT NO BALAMT DATE OF DEPOSIT

DEPOSIT AMOUNT TYPE OF ACCOUNT

NEW ACCOUNT

SUBMIT

DEPOSIT

LEVEL3-DFD:
TYPE OF ACCOUNT ACCOUNT NO BALAMT DATE OF DEPOSIT DEPOSIT AMOUNT TYPE OF ACCOUNT

NEW ACCOUNT

SUBMIT

DEPOSIT

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LEVEL4-DFD:
TYPE OF ACCOUNT ACCOUNT NO BALAMT DATE OF WITHDRAW WITHDRAW AMOUNT TYPE OF ACCOUNT

NEW ACCOUNT

SUBMIT

WITHDRAW

LEVEL5-DFD:
OCCUPATION ACCOUNTNO ACCOUNT NAME ADDRESS BALAMT TYPE OF ACCOUNT

APPLICATION

ACCOUNT OPEN

CUSTOMERDETAILS

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TABLE-1:

CUS_DETAILS TABLE
Name
FIRSTNAME LASTNAME FATHERSNAME ADDRESS TYPEOFACCOUNT DOB GENDER MARRITALSTATUS OCCUPATION EMAIL NOMINEE PHONENUMBER CATEGORY IDPROOF OPENINGDATE CUSTOMERID ACCOUNTNO BALAMT NOT NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL

Null?
NOT NULL

Type
VARCHAR2 (20) VARCHAR2 (20) VARCHAR2 (20) VARCHAR2 (20) VARCHAR2 (20) VARCHAR2 (20) VARCHAR2 (20) VARCHAR2 (20) VARCHAR2 (20) VARCHAR2 (20) VARCHAR2 (20) NUMBER (20) VARCHAR2 (20) VARCHAR2 (20) DATE NUMBER (10) NUMBER (10) NUMBER (8)

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TABLE-2:

CUST_ADDRESS TABLE

Name

Null?

Type

ADDRESS HOUSENUMBER LOCATION CITY STATE PINCODE COUNTRY CUSTOMERID ACCOUNTNO

NOT NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL

VARCHAR2 (20) NUMBER (20) VARCHAR2 (20) VARCHAR2 (20) VARCHAR2 (20) NUMBER (20) VARCHAR2 (20) NUMBER (20) NUMBER (20)

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TABLE -3:

CUST_ID TABLE

Name

Null?

Type

CARDNUMBER WARDNUMBER LPGCONSUMER ANNUAL CUSTOMERID ACCOUNTNO

NOT NULL

NUMBER (20) NUMBER (20)

NOT NULL NOT NULL

NUMBER (20) NUMBER (20) NUMBER (20) NUMBER (20)

TABLE-3:

INTER TABLE

Name
ACCOUNTNO RATEOFINT INTDATE INTAMT

Null?

Type
NUMBER (20) NUMBER (10) VARCHAR2 (20) NUMBER (10) 52

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TABLE-4:

CUST_NOMINEE TABLES
Name
FIRSTNAME LASTNAME FATHERSNAME RELATION ADDRESS OCCUPATION PHONENUMER CUSTOMERID ACCOUNTNO

Null?
NOT NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL

Type
VARCHAR2 (20) VARCHAR2 (20) VARCHAR2 (20) VARCHAR2 (20) VARCHAR2 (20) VARCHAR2 (20) NUMBER (20) NUMBER (20) NUMBER (20)

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TABLE-5:

TRANS TABLE

Name
ACNO TDATE TTYPE TAMT

Null?

Type
NUMBER (8) VARCHAR2 (20) VARCHAR2 (20) NUMBER (8)

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Customer entry form:

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Verification of Customer

Deposit form:
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Add form:

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Verify form:

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Interest calculation form:

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Login form:

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Menu form:

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Withdraw form:

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Customers report:

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Individual Report:

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Transaction Report:

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TESTING & IMPLEMENTATION


TESTING: Software testing is a critical element of software quality assurance and represents the ultimate review of specification, design and coding. Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding an error. A good test case is one that has high portability of finding and error. A good test case is one that has high probability of finding an as yet discovered error. There are two approaches for designing test cases. One is White box testing and other is Black Box testing. WHITE BOX TESTING: White box testing is a test case design method that uses the control structure of the procedural design to drive test cases. Using the white box testing methods the test cases should Guarantee that all independent paths with in a module that have been exercised at least once. Exercise all logical decisions on their true and false sides. Exercise all loops at their boundaries and with in their operational bounds. Exercise internal data structures to assure their validity. BLACK BOX TESTING: Black box testing method focuses on the functional requirements of the software. This testing method enables to drive sets of input conditions that will fully
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exercise all functional requirements of a program. Black box testing attempts to find Errors in the following categories. Incorrect or missing functions Interface errors Errors in data structures or external database access Performance errors Initialization or termination errors While box testing is performed early in the testing process; black box testing is applied during later stages of testing. Black box testing purposely disregards control structure and focused on information domain. TESTING STRATEGIES: Testing is a set of activities that can be planned in advanced and conducted systematically. A strategy for software testing must accommodate low level tests that are necessary to verify that a small source code segment has been correctly implemented against customer requirements. Software testing is one element of verification and validation. Verification refers to the set of activities that ensures that software correctly implements the specific functions and operations. Validation refers to a different set of activities that ensures that the software that has been build is traceable to customer requirements. The objectives of the software are to uncover errors. To fulfill these objectives a series of test steps i.e., unit testing, integration testing, validation testing and system testing are planned and executed.

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UNIT TESTING: Unit testing focus verification efforts on the smallest unit of software design and module. The unit test is always oriented. The tests that occur as part of unit testing are testing the module interface, examining local data structures, testing the boundary conditions, executing all independent paths and testing error handling paths. INTEGRATION TESTING: Integration Testing is a systematic technique for constructing the program structure while at the same time conducting tests to uncover errors associated with interfacing scope of testing summaries the specific functional, performance and internal design characteristics that are to be tested. It employs top-down testing and bottom-up testing methods for this case. VALIDATION TESTING: Validation succeeds when software functions in a manner that can be reasonably expected by the customer. The tests are conducted for validating the software are alpha and beta testing along with the configuration review. SYSTEM TESTING: System testing is actually a series of different tests whose primary purpose is to fully exercise the computer based system. Since computer-based system manages sensitive information, security testing attempts to verify protection mechanisms. The present system asks for a very password, for the employees to log into the system. Finally performance is designed to test run-time performance of software with in the context of an integrated system. Performance testing occurs
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through out all the steps in the testing process. These tests are often coupled with stress testing and often require both hardware and software implementation. IMPLEMENTATION: Implementation is the process of having systems personal checkouts and put new equipment into use, train users install the new application and construct any files of data needed to use it. This phase is less creative than system design, depending on the size of organization that will be involved in using the application and the risk involved in using the application and the risk involved in its use, system developers may choose to test the operation in only one area of the form with only one or two persons. Sometimes they will run both new and old systems in parallel to compare the results.

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&

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EVALUATION AND MAINTANENCE


EVALUATION: Evaluation of the system is performed to identify its strength and weakness. The actual evaluation can occur along any of the following dimensions. Operational Evaluation: Assessment of the manner in which the system functions including case of use, response time, overall reliability and level of utilization.

User Manager Assessment: Evaluation of the attitudes of the senior and user manager with in the organization as well as end users.

Development Performance: Evaluation of the development process in accordance with such yardsticks as overall development time and effort, conformance to budgets and standards and other project management criteria. MAINTAINANCE: Maintenance is necessary to eliminate errors in the working system during its working life and to tune the system to any variations in its working environment. Often small system deficiencies are found as system is brought into operations and changes are made to remove them. System planners must always plan for resource availability to carry out the maintenance functions. The importance of maintenance is to continue to bring the new system standards.

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CONCLUSION
This package Telecom Customer Services is developed on the Visual Basic as the front end and Oracle as the back end. Oracle is used as the end because data can be stored easily in the database tables. Manual work will take much time and have lot of errors. This package is user friendly and can be used by any user who does not have any knowledge of computers. This package has been developed in such a way that it is very easy to operate. Interfaces are simplified through various screens for the end user. Data access is very fast through interfaces. Updating the data and report generation is easy, faster and reliable when compared to manually prepared reports. Handling the transactions is very easy. The system has been able to successfully incorporate all the requirements as specified by the user. As the system is developed in active menu driven function, it reduces operation time and hence it gives user mental satisfaction in handling this new designed system. Appropriate care has been taken during database design to maintain database integrity and to avoid redundancy of data validations are done instantaneously to avoid data inconsistency. The user is provided a friendly interface by hiring all technical complexities. The new design system will function like mirror to users. The system has been developed in advanced high technology software like Visual Basic. As the software is based on component object model, further enhancement software can be done easily with optimal result.

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BIBILOGRAPHY

Visual Basic 6.0 How To Smart Start Visual Basic 5.0 Visual Basic 6.0

Brierley Sanna Solosky Nathan Gurewich Ori Gurewich

Mastering Visual Basic 6.0 Oracle 8 Database Development Oracle 8 Architecture Software Engineering An Integrated Approach to Software Engineering

Petrontoses David Steve Bod Rowski Roger S.Pressman

Pankaj Jalote

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