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Department of Business Administration

Block No. 13, Sector H-8, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad.

Training & Development (819)
Assignment No. 01
Submitted to:
Ms. Sarwat Afzal
R-39, Block – 03, Unique Cottages, Gulistan-e-Johar, KARACHI (0333-340 9456)

Submitted by:
Muhammad Hammad Manzoor MBA (HRM) - 4th Semester
Roll No. 508195394 508, 5th Floor, Continental Trade Centre (CTC) Block – 08, Clifton, KARACHI (0321-584 2326)

Training and Development (819)

Table of Contents
Table of Contents....................................................................................................... 2 Ranking method...................................................................................................7 Paired comparison method...................................................................................8 Forced distribution method..................................................................................9 Group appraisal....................................................................................................9 Human resource accounting................................................................................9 Assessment centre...............................................................................................9 Field Review Method............................................................................................9 .............................................................................................................................. 29 General Approaches of Training Need Analysis:.................................................29 Types of Need Analysis:.....................................................................................29 Understanding the Objectives of Training Needs Analysis.................................30 Data Collection Methods for Training Needs Analysis........................................30 Processing the Results of Analysis.....................................................................30 Unexpected Outcomes of Analysis.....................................................................30

By: M. Hammad Manzoor, MBA HRM-IV, 508, 5th Floor, Continental Trade Centre (CTC), Clifton – 08, Karachi. (Roll No. 508195394)

Training and Development (819) Q. No. 1: Explain the various techniques managers can use in evaluating employee performance? Answer)
What is a performance measurement?
Performance measurement is the process whereby an organization establishes the parameters within which programs, investments, and acquisitions are reaching the desired results. This process of measuring performance often requires the use of statistical evidence to determine progress toward specific defined organizational objectives.

Reasons for Measuring Performance:
Fundamental purpose behind measures is to improve performance. Measures that are not directly connected to improving performance (like measures that are directed at communicating better with the public to build trust) are measures that are means to achieving that ultimate purpose (Behn 2003).

Behn 2003 gives 8 reasons for adapting performance measurements:

Ben 2003

To Evaluat e

To Control

To Budget

To Motivat e

To Celebr ate

To Promot e

To Learn

To Improv e

1. To Evaluate how well a public agency is performing. To evaluate performance, managers need to determine what an agency is supposed to accomplish. 3
By: M. Hammad Manzoor, MBA HRM-IV, 508, 5th Floor, Continental Trade Centre (CTC), Clifton – 08, Karachi. (Roll No. 508195394)

Training and Development (819)
2. To Control How can managers ensure their subordinates are doing the right thing. 3. To Budget Budgets are crude tools in improving performance. Poor performance not always may change after applying budgets cuts as a disciplinary actions. 4. To Motivate Giving people significant goals to achieve and then use performance measures- including interim targets- to focus people’s thinking and work, and to provide periodic sense of accomplishment. 5. To Celebrate Organizations need to commemorate their accomplishments- such ritual tie their people together, give them a sense of their individual and collective relevance. 6. To Promote How can public managers convince political superiors, legislators, stakeholders, journalists, and citizens that their agency is doing a good job. 7. To Learn Learning is involved with some process, of analysis information provided from evaluating corporate performance (identifying what works and what does not). By analyzing that information, corporation able to learn reasons behind its poor or good performance. 8. To Improve What exactly should who- do differently to improve performance? TECHNIQUES FOR EVALUATING EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE: Employee Performance techniques can be divided into three major branches;

Performance Evaluation Techniques

Individual Evaluation Method

Multiple Persons Evaluation Methods

Other Methods

Confidential Report Essay Report Critical Incidents Check Lists Graphic Rating Method

Behaviorally Anchored Scales Force Choice Method MBO

Ranking Paired Comparison Forced Distribution

Performance Tests Field Review Method 360 Degree Method


Under the individual evaluation methods of merit rating, employees are evaluated one at a time without comparing them with other employees in the organization. (a) Confidential report: It is mostly used in government organizations. It is a descriptive report prepared, generally at the end of every year, by the employee’s immediate superior. (b) Essay evaluation: Preparing the essay on the employee, the rater considers the following factors: (i) Job knowledge and potential 4
By: M. Hammad Manzoor, MBA HRM-IV, 508, 5th Floor, Continental Trade Centre (CTC), Clifton – 08, Karachi. (Roll No. 508195394)

Training and Development (819)
of the employee; (ii) Employee’s understanding of the company’s programmes, policies, objectives, etc.; (iii) The employee’s relations with co-workers and superiors; (iv) The employee’s general planning, organizing and controlling ability; (v) The attitudes and perceptions of the employee, in general. (c) Critical incident technique: Under this method, the manager prepares lists of statements of very effective and ineffective behavior of an employee. These critical incidents or events represent the outstanding or poor behavior of employees on the job. (d) Checklists and weighted checklists: Another simple type of individual evaluation method is the checklist. A checklist represents, in its simplest form, a set of objectives or descriptive statements about the employee and his behavior. (e) Graphic rating scale: rating scales can also be adapted by including traits that the company considers important for effectiveness on the job. A model of a graphic rating scale is given below. Table: Typical Graphic Rating Scale Employee Name................... Department ......................... Data .................................. Quantity of work: Volume of work under Satisfacto Outstandin Unsatisfactory Fair Good normal working ry g conditions Quality of work: Neatness, thoroughness and accuracy of work Knowledge of job A clear understanding of the factors connected with the job Attitude: Exhibits enthusiasm and cooperativeness on the job Job title ................. Rate ...............

(f) Behaviorally anchored rating scales: The following chart represents an example of a sales trainee’s competence and a behaviorally anchored rating scale. Table: An Example of Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)
Performance Extremely good Good Points Behavior 7 Can expect trainee to make valuable suggestions for increased sales and to have positive relationships with customers all over the country. 6 Can expect to initiate creative ideas for improved 5
By: M. Hammad Manzoor, MBA HRM-IV, 508, 5th Floor, Continental Trade Centre (CTC), Clifton – 08, Karachi. (Roll No. 508195394)

Training and Development (819)
sales. Can expect to keep in touch with the customers throughout the year. Average 4 Can manage, with difficulty, to deliver the goods in time. Below average 3 Can expect to unload the trucks when asked by the supervisor. Poor 2 Can expect to inform only a part of the customers. How to construct BARS? Developing a BARS follows a general format which combines techniques employed in the critical incident method and weighted checklist ratings scales. Emphasis is pinpointed on pooling the thinking of people who will use the scales as both evaluators and evaluees. Step 1: Collect critical incidents: People with knowledge of the job to be probed, such as job holders and supervisors, describe specific examples of effective and ineffective behavior related to job performance. Step 2: Identify performance dimensions: The people assigned the task of developing the instrument cluster the incidents into a small set of key performance dimensions. Generally between five and ten dimensions account for most of the performance. Examples of performance dimensions include technical competence, relationships with customers, handling of paper work and meeting day-to-day deadlines. Step 3: Reclassification of incidents: Another group of participants who are knowledgeable about the job is instructed to retranslate or reclassify the critical incidents generated (in Step II) previously. They are given the definition of job dimension and told to assign each critical incident to the dimension that it best describes. At this stage, incidents for which there is not 75 per cent agreement are discarded as being too subjective. Step 4: Assigning scale values to the incidents: Each incident is then rated on a one-to-seven or one-to-nine scale with respect of how well it represents performance on the appropriate dimension. A rating of one represents ineffective performance; the top scale value indicates very effective performance. The second group of participants usually assigns the scale values. Means and standard deviations are then calculated for the scale values assigned to each incident. Typically incidents that have standard deviations of 1.50 or less (on a 7-point scale) are retained. Step 5: Producing the final instrument: About six or seven incidents for each performance dimension – all having met both the retranslating and standard deviation criteria – will be used as behavioral anchors. The final BARS instrument consists of a series of vertical scales (one for each dimension) anchored (or measured) by the final incidents. Each incident is positioned on the scale according to its mean value. (g) Forced choice method: This method was developed to eliminate bias and the preponderance of high ratings that might occur in some organizations. The primary purpose of the forced choice method is to correct the tendency of a rater to give consistently high or low ratings to all the employees. This method makes use of several sets of pair phrases, two of which may be positive and two negative and the rater is asked to indicate which of the four phrases is the most and least descriptive of a particular worker. Actually, the statement items are grounded in such a way that the rater cannot easily judge which statements apply to the most effective Above average 5 6
By: M. Hammad Manzoor, MBA HRM-IV, 508, 5th Floor, Continental Trade Centre (CTC), Clifton – 08, Karachi. (Roll No. 508195394)

Training and Development (819)
employee. The following box is a classic illustration of the forced choice items in organizations. Table: Forced Choice Items 1. Least Most A Does not anticipate difficulties A B Grasps explanations easily and quickly B C Does not waste time C D Very easy to talk to D 2. Least Most A Can be a leader A B Wastes time on unproductive things B C At all times, cool and calm C D Smart worker D The favorable qualities earn a plus credit and the unfavorable ones earn the reverse. The worker gets over plus when the positive factors override the negative ones or when one of the negative phrases is checked as being insignificantly rated. (h) Management by Objectives (MBO): MBO represents a modern method of evaluating the performance of personnel. Thoughtful managers have become increasingly aware that the traditional performance evaluation systems are characterized by somewhat antagonistic judgments on the part of the rater. There is a growing feeling nowadays that it is better to make the superior work with subordinates in fixing goals. This would inevitably enable subordinates to exercise self-control over their performance behaviors.


The above-discussed methods are used to evaluate employees one at a time. In this section let us discuss some techniques of evaluating one employee in comparison to another. Three such frequently used methods in organization are – ranking, paired comparison and forced distribution. Ranking method This is a relatively easy method of performance evaluation. Under this method, the ranking of an employee in a work group is done against that of another employee. The relative position of each employee is tested in terms of his numerical rank. It may also be done by ranking a person on his job performance against another member of the competitive group. The quintessence of this method is that employees are ranked according to their levels of performance. The longstanding limitations of this method are:  The ‘whole man’ is compared with another ‘whole man’ in this method. In practice, it is very difficult to compare individuals possessing varied behavioral traits. 7
By: M. Hammad Manzoor, MBA HRM-IV, 508, 5th Floor, Continental Trade Centre (CTC), Clifton – 08, Karachi. (Roll No. 508195394)

Training and Development (819)
This method speaks only of the position where an employee stands in his group. It does not tell anything about how much better or how much worse an employee is when compared to another employee.  When a large number of employees are working, ranking of individuals becomes a tosticating issue.  There is no systematic procedure for ranking individuals in the organization. The ranking system does not eliminate the possibility of snap judgments. In order to overcome the above limitations a paired comparison technique has been advanced by organizational scholars. Paired comparison method Ranking becomes more reliable and easier under the paired comparison method. Each worker is compared with all other employees in the group; for every trait the worker is compared with all other employees. For several individual traits, paired comparisons are made, tabulated and then rank is assigned to each worker. Though this method seems to be logical, it is not applicable when a group is large. When the group becomes too large, the number of comparisons to be made may become frighteningly excessive. For instance, when n=100, comparisons to be made are 100 (100-2) = 100 (98) = 9800. Trait: ‘Quantity of work’ Table: Employee Rated As compared to A B C D E A + – + – B – + – + C + – + – D – + – –

By: M. Hammad Manzoor, MBA HRM-IV, 508, 5th Floor, Continental Trade Centre (CTC), Clifton – 08, Karachi. (Roll No. 508195394)

Training and Development (819)
Forced distribution method Under this system, the rater is asked to appraise the employee according to a predetermined distribution scale. The rater’s bias is sought to be eliminated here because workers are not placed at a higher or lower end of the scale. Normally, the two criteria used here for rating are the job performance and promotability. Group appraisal In this method, an employee is appraised by a group of appraisers. This group consists of the immediate supervisor of the employee, other supervisors who have close contact with the employee’s work, manager or head of the department and consultants. Human resource accounting HRA is a sophisticated way to measure (in financial terms) the effectiveness of personnel management activities and the use of people in an organization. It is the process of accounting for people as an organizational resource. It tries to place a value on organizational human resources as assets and not as expenses. These percentages can be ranked to ‘Zero Level’ as shown in the Table below. Rank Percentage of surplus/Deficit of contribution to cost of employee 1. Extremely good performance Over 200 2. Good performance 150 – 200 3. Slightly good performance 100 – 150 This technique has not developed fully and is still in the transitionary stage. Assessment centre This method of appraising was first applied in German Army in 1930. Later business and industrial houses started using this method. This is not a technique of performance appraisal by itself. In fact it is a system or organization, where assessment of several individuals is done by various experts using various techniques. Field Review Method Where subjective performance measures are used, there is scope for rater’s biases influencing the evaluation process. To avoid this, some employees use the field review method. In this method a trained, skilled representative of the HR department goes into the ‘field’ and assists line supervisors with their ratings of their respective subordinates. Rating

OTHER METHODS: 360 degree evaluation Method:

In human resources or industrial/organizational psychology, 360-degree feedback, also known as multi-rater feedback, multisource feedback, or multisource assessment, is feedback that comes from all around an employee. "360" refers to the 360 degrees in a circle, with an individual figuratively in the center of the circle. Feedback is provided by subordinates, peers, and supervisors.

Q. No. 2: Describe Management Development Techniques? Answer)
Management Development Techniques:

By: M. Hammad Manzoor, MBA HRM-IV, 508, 5th Floor, Continental Trade Centre (CTC), Clifton – 08, Karachi. (Roll No. 508195394)

Training and Development (819)
There are several issues involved in evaluating management development, more so when the evaluation also considers the method of management development that this paper explores. The issues commences by reviewing why we should evaluate; what should be evaluated; and lastly how to evaluate. Why Evaluate? A number of authors consider the need and reasons for evaluation though all tend to fall into four broad categories identified by Mark Easterby-Smith (Easterby-Smith, 1994). He notes four general purposes of evaluation : 1. Proving: the worth and impact of training. Designed to demonstrate conclusively that something has happened as a result of training or developmental activities. 2. Improving: A formative purpose to explicitly discover what improvements to a training programme are needed 3. Learning: Where the evaluation itself is or becomes an integral part of the learning of a training programme 4. Controlling: Quality aspects in the broadest sense, both in terms of quality of content and delivery to established standards. What to Evaluate? Exactly what is to be measured as part of the evaluation is an especially problematic area. Aspects of behavior or reaction that are relatively easy to measure are usually trivial. • Managerial Effectiveness and Competency • Learning Outcomes • Experimental Research • How to Evaluate? Kirkpatrick Model Donald Kirkpatrick created the most familiar evaluation taxonomy of a four step approach to evaluation (Kirkpatrick, 1959/60) – now referred to as a model of four levels of evaluation (Kirkpatrick, 1994). It is one of the most widely accepted and implemented models used to evaluate training interventions. Kirkpatrick’s four levels measure the following: 1. Reaction to the intervention 2. Learning attributed to the intervention 3. Application of behavior changes on the job 4. Business results realized by the organization BRINKERHOFF MODEL Brinkerhoff’s model has its roots in evaluating training and HRD interventions. Brinkerhoff’s cyclical model consists of six stages grouped into the following four stages of performance intervention:  Performance Analysis  Design  Implementation  Evaluation

Management Development Techniques:
By: M. Hammad Manzoor, MBA HRM-IV, 508, 5th Floor, Continental Trade Centre (CTC), Clifton – 08, Karachi. (Roll No. 508195394)

Training and Development (819)
There are eight major techniques that can be generalized for management development.

Action Learning

Career Planning Formal Education and Training Learning from Experience Organization Development Management Consulting Open and Distance Learning Management Consulting

Education is one of the basic activities of people in all human societies. Formal education is the process of training and developing people in knowledge. Informal education the family, newspapers, social gathering are some important informal education There are two main theoretical explanations to consider; • Functionalists argue that schools socialise children into the norms and values of wider society. This enables children to play a useful role within society when they leave school. • Marxists believe that schools merely reinforce class distinctions, which enables the bourgeoisie to exploit the proletariat in a capitalist society. Schools encourage children of the proletariat to accept a passive role within society, taking instructions from (mostly middle-class) teachers. These are usually longer rather than shorter in Education. Short courses which don’t lead to qualifications, and which focus on skills and techniques, tends to described as management training programs. Different objectives of Formal Education and Training could be figures as follows:

By: M. Hammad Manzoor, MBA HRM-IV, 508, 5th Floor, Continental Trade Centre (CTC), Clifton – 08, Karachi. (Roll No. 508195394)

Training and Development (819)

Acquisitio n of Knowledg e

Learning of Technique

Changing attitudes, engenderi ng commitme nt Developin g latent qualities within the individual s

Developing interperson al skills and related behavior

Acquisition of Knowledge: The knowledge can be very specific at one extreme relating to such things as the particular systems and procedures of the manager’s own organization, or highly general at the other, such as knowledge of global economic trends. It may focus on a particular managerial function such as production or personnel management, or may embrace knowledge from several different fields.

Acquisition of Knowledge & Sharing Learning of Techniques: Closely related to the acquisition of knowledge is the learning of particular techniques, for example, how to carry our statistical quality control, how to draw up a plan, a budget and a profit and loss account, how to administer a psychological test, or how to conduct an employment interview.

By: M. Hammad Manzoor, MBA HRM-IV, 508, 5th Floor, Continental Trade Centre (CTC), Clifton – 08, Karachi. (Roll No. 508195394)

Training and Development (819)

Developing Interpersonal Skills and related behavior patterns: Skill is an acquired trait that enables one to do work. Having skills for a vocation or profession always results to having the necessary capability to execute responsibility, vocation, and job, so interpersonal skill is not only a type of skill but an interactive one. Developing Latent Qualities within the individuals: The category includes a group of training programmes which are truly developmental in the sense that they have as their objective the empowerment of the individual by bringing out and sharpening certain inherent qualities. Examples include assertiveness training, creativity workshops, and programmes designed, for example, to develop vision and strategic thinking.

Learning Pyramid

Changing Attitude, engendering commitment: Changing attitude, engendering commitment includes the programmes such as ones designed to create a feeling of common identity among managers from different sites or functions of a large organization; courses intended to “broaden” managers’ horizons through the cross-fertilization of ideas with managers from other organizations; courses intended to give managers insight into values in other cultures; and courses designed to facilitate men and women working together.

By: M. Hammad Manzoor, MBA HRM-IV, 508, 5th Floor, Continental Trade Centre (CTC), Clifton – 08, Karachi. (Roll No. 508195394)

Training and Development (819)
TARGET AUDIENCES: The target audience for the training application has to be
determined. Some trainees will have more experience than others so the starting point and depth of training will vary. The trainee characterization affects both the overall training strategy and details of didactic and diagnostic methods. The target audience should not be guessed. For example, a learning style questionnaire [MOBIT 1994, W7] could be used. Such a survey should go beyond investigating trainee ability and experience. To represent the trainee, the training system will employ model(s) of the trainee. The purpose of a trainee model is to: 1. Accurately reflect the beliefs and capabilities of the trainee; 2. Provide appropriate information to permit the correct choice of training; and, 3. Permit storage of trainee state information to allow later continuation of



Training out of context soon loses its effect. Conversely, tailored training programs and activities for continuous learning, where the participants meet regularly and also receive individual personal support, has long-term effects. Such programs may consist of courses or internal network meetings on a variety of themes. Many of our customers use us to support them in these learning processes, which actively 14
By: M. Hammad Manzoor, MBA HRM-IV, 508, 5th Floor, Continental Trade Centre (CTC), Clifton – 08, Karachi. (Roll No. 508195394)

Training and Development (819)
contribute to keeping new knowledge and skills alive while gradually refining the project skills in the whole company. Some advantages of tailored programs. Customers often talk about these advantages of tailored programs: • They lay the foundation for a common language and project method, making communication about projects easier. • By composing the teams from different parts of the company, the programs allow fruitful discussions about how joint projects will be run. • Including the project sponsor, manager, team members and line managers in the training ensures good interaction and clear roles in the project organization. • Those who participate in the course clearly see how the project’s activities relate to the overall business and goals/strategies, and how the contents of the course clearly relate to the participants’ own work. • The interaction between mature project managers and those who are less experienced is valuable. Often, tailored training forms the basis of future networks and mentorships that contribute to collective learning in the whole organization.


Action Learning is a form of Problem-Based Learning, but it goes further in insisting that the problem(s) being worked on must be real, in that no-one knows the answer already. They should preferably be non-technical (or at least non-specialist: too much specialization limits the potential contribution of other members of the “set”), and evaluation refers pragmatically to whether the solutions work, rather than to the extent to which participants arrive at a pre-determined optimum solution.

Career Planning is a relatively new personnel function. Established programmes on Career Planning are still rare except in larger or more progressive organizations.Many of today's workers have high expectations about their jobs. There has been a general increase in the concern of the quality of life. Aims and Objectives of Career Planning: Career Planning aims at matching individual potential for promotion and individual aspirations with organizational needs and opportunities. Career Planning is making sure that the organization has the right people with the right skills at the right time. In particular it indicates what training and development would be necessary for 15
By: M. Hammad Manzoor, MBA HRM-IV, 508, 5th Floor, Continental Trade Centre (CTC), Clifton – 08, Karachi. (Roll No. 508195394)

Training and Development (819)
advancing in the career altering the career path or staying in the current position. Its focus is on future needs and opportunities and removal of stagnation, obsolescence, dissatisfaction of the employee. The principal objectives of career planning are: (1) To secure the right man at the right job and at the right time. (2) To maintain a contended team of employees. Role of Career Planning: (1) It motivates employees to grow. (2) It motivates employees to avail training and development (3) It increases employees loyalty as they feel organization cares about them through career plan for them. So they integrate their goals with the organization goals. (4) Encourage employee to remain in organization. (5) Organization image as better employment market. (6)It contributes to man power planning as well as organizational development and effective achievement of corporate goals. (7) It helps employee in thinking of long term involvement with organization. (8) Career Planning provides general scenario of career opportunities in organization. (9) It gives an idea of direction towards growth. (10) Builds pathways for employee.

The frequently expressed view that “experience is the best teacher” is strongly supported by a major research project carried out by the Centre for Creative Leadership (CCL) in the United States. The CCL researchers argue that their findings concerning what kinds of experience lead to what kinds of learning can be used to make development on the job much more systematic than it has been in the past. They cite board categories of experience and factors effecting experience that executives generally report as being potentially developmental. They are: Challenging jobs: these include start-ups, fixing troubled operations, dealing with crises and working against tight deadlines. The lessons learned include how to cope with pressure and stress, how to learn new skills and techniques rapidly, and how to deal with problems subordinates. Experience of other People: (Mostly bosses) 16
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Training and Development (819)
These people serve mainly as models of values either by representing what to be or do, or what to be or do. Hardship: Hardship helps people learn their limits. Things like making serious mistakes having to lay off employees or close plants and enduring the traumas of personal life cause managers to pause and reflect on what is desirable and also what is possible. Training: Training others is self-development. Participating in training will provide an opportunity to build self-confidence by comparing oneself with other managers. Related off-the-job learning opportunities: Community service provides possible learning opportunities. For experience to be developmental, the researchers concluded that at least five of the following challenges needed to be representing in the on-the-job learning. • Dealing with cases where success and failure are obvious to others. • Handling a deteriorating situation that calls for dynamic “take charge” leadership, when the manager is left alone to cope. • Working with new, difficult, or unusually large numbers of people. • Working under unusually severe pressure. • Having to influence people, activities and factors over which the manager has no direct control. • Coping with change, uncertainty ambiguity, the new and unfamiliar, uncontrollable events, paradoxes. • Performing while being closely watched by people whose opinions count. • Exercising team leadership in demanding circumstances. • Handling a task with a major strategic component or which is intellectually stretching in some other way. • Interacting with a particularly effective (or particularly ineffective) boss. • Dealing with a situation in which something important is missing, e.g. top management support, adequate resources, key skills or knowledge.

Q3: Describe various theories of learning in detail. Answer)
By: M. Hammad Manzoor, MBA HRM-IV, 508, 5th Floor, Continental Trade Centre (CTC), Clifton – 08, Karachi. (Roll No. 508195394)

Training and Development (819)
In psychology and education, learning is commonly defined as a process that brings together cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences and experiences for acquiring, enhancing, or making changes in one's knowledge, skills, values, and world views (Illeris, 2000; Ormorod, 1995). Learning as a process focuses on what happens when the learning takes place. Explanations of what happens constitute learning theories. A learning theory is an attempt to describe how people and animals learn, thereby helping us understand the inherently complex process of learning. Learning theories have two chief values according to Hill (2002). One is in providing us with vocabulary and a conceptual framework for interpreting the examples of learning that we observe. The other is in suggesting where to look for solutions to practical problems. The theories do not give us solutions, but they do direct our attention to those variables that are crucial in finding solutions. • There are three main categories or philosophical frameworks under which learning theories fall: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Behaviorism focuses only on the objectively observable aspects of learning. Cognitive theories look beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning. And constructivism views learning as a process in which the learner actively constructs or builds new ideas.




Behaviorism as a theory was primarily developed by B. F. Skinner. It loosely encompasses the work of people like Edward Thorndike, Tolman, Guthrie, and Hull. What characterizes these investigators are their underlying assumptions about the process of learning. In essence, three basic assumptions are held to be true. First, learning is manifested by a change in behavior. Second, the environment shapes behavior. And third, the principles of contiguity (how close in time two events must be for a bond to be formed) and reinforcement (any means of increasing the likelihood that an event will be repeated) are central to explaining the learning process. For behaviorism, learning is the acquisition of new behavior through conditioning.


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Training and Development (819)

Classical Conditioning
In which, the behavior becomes a reflex response to stimulus as in the case of Pavlov's Dogs. Pavlov was interested in studying reflexes, when he saw that the dogs drooled without the proper stimulus. Although no food was in sight, their saliva still dribbled. It turned out that the dogs were reacting to lab coats. Every time the dogs were served food, the person who served the food was wearing a lab coat.

By: M. Hammad Manzoor, MBA HRM-IV, 508, 5th Floor, Continental Trade Centre (CTC), Clifton – 08, Karachi. (Roll No. 508195394)

Operant Conditioning
Where there is reinforcement of the behavior by a reward or a punishment. The theory of operant conditioning was developed by B.F. Skinner and is known as Radical Behaviorism. The word ‘operant’ refers to the way in which behavior ‘operates on the environment’.


In psychology, cognitivism is a theoretical approach in understanding the mind using quantitative, positivist and scientific methods, which describes mental functions as information processing models.

Constructivism views learning as a process in which the learner actively constructs or builds new ideas or concepts based upon current and past knowledge or experience. In other words, "learning involves constructing one's own knowledge from one's own experiences." Constructivist learning, therefore, is a very personal endeavor, whereby internalized concepts, rules, and general principles may consequently be applied in a practical real-world context. This is also known as social constructivism

Informal theories of education may attempt to break down the learning process in pursuit of practicality. One of these deals with whether learning should take place as a building of concepts toward an overall idea, or the understanding of the overall idea with the details filled in later.

Training and Development (819)
Connectivism is a theory of learning based on the premise that knowledge exists in the world rather than in the head of an individual. Connectivism proposes a perspective similar to the Activity theory of Vygotsky as it regards knowledge to exist within systems which are accessed through people participating in activities. It also bears some similarity with the Social Learning Theory of Bandura that proposes that people learn through contact.

• • • • • • •


Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions. Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources. Learning may reside in non-human appliances. Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning. Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill. Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities.

Multimedia learning is the common name used to describe the cognitive theory of multimedia learning. This theory encompasses several principles of learning with multimedia.

Modality Principle:
When information is in fact better remembered when accompanied by a visual image. Baddeley and Hitch proposed a theory of working memory in 1974 which has two largely independent subcomponents that tend to work in parallel - one visual and one verbal/acoustic.

Redundancy principle:

According to this principle: "Students learn better from animation and narration than from animation, narration, and on-screen text”.

Criticism of learning theories that underlie traditional educational practices claims there is no need for such a theory. The attempt to comprehend the process of learning through theory construction has created more problems than it has solved.

By: M. Hammad Manzoor, MBA HRM-IV, 508, 5th Floor, Continental Trade Centre (CTC), Clifton – 08, Karachi. (Roll No. 508195394)

Training and Development (819)
The assumption is that psychologically one knows enough about the mind to identify aptitudes: the accepted (knowledge-based) conception of learning identifies four assumptions of the accepted view of learning: that (some) one knows what ought to be learned by people, why it ought to be learned, how it ought to be learned, and by whom each thing ought to be learned. Together these assumptions are the lenses through which people have been socialized in our culture to judge whether learning is occurring or not; and a further assumption is that once one knows aptitudes, one also knows how to track a person so he will in fact reach the goal that is being set out for him.

Q3: Describe the main objectives of simulations? Also describe the different aspects of simulations. Answer)
Simulation is the imitation of some real thing, state of affairs, or process. The act of simulating something generally entails representing certain key characteristics or behavior of a selected physical or abstract system. Simulation is used in many contexts, including the modeling of natural systems or human systems in order to gain insight into their functioning. Other contexts include simulation of technology for performance optimization, safety engineering, testing, training and education. Simulation can be used to show the eventual real effects of alternative conditions and courses of action. Key issues in simulation include acquisition of valid source information about the relevant selection of key characteristics and behaviors, the use of simplifying approximations and assumptions within the simulation, and fidelity and validity of the simulation outcomes. Simulation: Is a study in which the conditions of a system or process are replicated.

A training simulation is a virtual medium through which various different types of skills can be acquired. Training simulations can be used in a wide variety of genres; however they are most commonly used in corporate situations to improve business awareness and management skills. They are also common in academic environments as an integrated part of a business or management course.

Companies across the world regularly use simulations as a tool to teach employees. With the enormous range of simulation-based activities available across the world, it is unsurprising that the specific aims of the sessions vary widely. Some simulations are focused on making decisions in a particular area of the business, such as personnel or product design, and these are called Functional Simulations. Others give a general overview of a company and give experience of making executive management decisions, and are called Total Enterprise Simulations.

Although the most common use for training simulations is in a corporate setting, simulation games are increasingly being used to educate young people about the importance of business. From secondary school age all the way up to MBA students, anyone can benefit from the first-hand experience of running a company and making decisions that directly affect performance. 22
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Most corporations and academic courses that contain a training simulation integrate it into an existing or completely new training programme. This allows the participants to get the maximum value from the experience, as well as review the sessions in order to improve them for future use. The structure of a training session would normally be as follows: • Introduction - the organizer of the programme (plus sometimes a specialist in the training simulation) will meet the participants and give them a brief explanation of the purposes behind the training and what they should hope to achieve. • Lectures - sometimes the trainees will also receive one or more lectures around the topics that the simulation will be based on, in order to give them an idea of the type of skills they will need. This is especially important within academia, when the students will often be examined on this section after the event. • The simulation - the simulation will then be played, allowing newly-acquired knowledge to be tested and skills practiced. A positive atmosphere is vital here to maintain enthusiasm. • Evaluation - once the simulation has been completed, it is very important to summarize what has been learnt and the effectiveness of the training. Presenting results to others may provide a means of internal assessment, as well as showcasing the players’ achievements.


Since training simulations are available based on such a wide range of different industries, and with thousands of different aims and objectives, it is difficult to outline a specific skill-set that will be improved by taking part in a training simulation. However, skills that every good training simulation should build on include: • Business awareness - before participating in the training programme, many players will have little idea of how to run a business or what it involves. Simulations allow them to temporarily have control over a virtual company, to see whether their decisions lead them to success or failure! • Time management and organization - most simulations contain timed sessions, which will test the candidates’ skill in submitting decisions within the allotted time slot. This is an excellent skill for any employee or graduate. • Team coordination - the majority of training simulations involves working in groups or teams of people; improving the abilities to communicate effectively, delegate tasks and diplomatically resolve any situations. • Problem solving - simulations will often present tricky circumstances that must be thought through logically to be solved. Successful resolution of these shows good management skills. The main Objectives of Simulation is given below:

Role-play focuses on human behavior. They permit learners to enact situations which they face on the job, or that they expect to face in the future, or that they perceive as job-like. Role-Plays are simulations performed with people only and are normally done in three stages. 23
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Evaluati on

Preparat ion

• Preparation: The trainer explains how and why the role-play is to be run. The participants are given time to study their roles and, if necessary, to plan a strategy of behavior. The trainer sees to the physical arrangements necessary for the exercise. The observer learns their instructions. Playing: two or more players perform the role-play. The players may stay in the same role throughout or change roles during the exercise. Te observers monitor the behavior of the players, and they record events and behavior that are important for analysis. Evaluation: The players, the observers and the trainer discuss the ways in which they perceived the role-play, how if effected the outcomes, and why it happened that way, in a free and open exchange of views.


The term “games” and “simulations” are sometimes used interchangeably. Games are almost exclusively simulations in that they are operational models. A simulation, on the other hand, is not a game as long as it does not contain a competitive element. There is a distinction between games and simulation games.

Reality-based simulations are used to enable attitude and skill changes in a few people, and these are expected to produce direct effect on job performance. They are normally conducted as in-house exercises designed by the trainer, in cases where the environment and the task parameters are interchangeably real or modeled. Some points which should be taken into account when designing and running reality-based simulations are listed here. • They require knowledge and understanding of the specific organization involved; in organizational analysis and possibly a climate survey should be undertaken prior to designing the intervention. • They require the collaboration of the organization and the commitment of senior management; substantial negotiating thus needs to be done before a simulation is run. • They may produce effects that are unappreciated by the organization, because it may be confronted by concrete signs of weakness from its own members. 24
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• Because they aim at solving problems that exist in real life, they create expectations from the participants that the organization will follow up on their findings and recommendations.

There are two purposes in using technology in simulations. The first is using it to explain the scenario. In an interpersonal skill training programme for example, the scenario may serve as an introduction in the form of video-recorded situation where interpersonal skills are used with varied success. In a programme for production managers, the scenario may be a video recording from their respective production plants. The second use is as a means of feedback. In a computer-assisted simulation, for example, the programme tells the players about the quality of their decisions. Another example is where video is used for review their performance in solving a task.


Outdoor simulations are used more and more by companies for training their managers. They are means for manager to get out of conditioned ways of seeing themselves in teams and how they function, and of perceiving the individual in the organizations. In outdoor exercise they have to meet challenges by making decisions other than those made at work. This helps them to develop a better view of what goes into decision-making and the role played by the environment and subordinates.

Q5: (a) Define the process of experiential and action learning. (a) Sate the general concepts and dimensions for training needs assessment. Answer)
Experiential education is a philosophy of education that describes the process that occurs between a teacher and student that infuses direct experience with the learning environment and content. The term is mistakenly used interchangeably with experiential learning. The Association for Experiential Education regards experiential education "as a philosophy and methodology in which educators purposefully engage with learners in direct experience and focused reflection in order to increase knowledge, develop skills and clarify values." Experiential education is the term for the philosophy and educational. Kolb (1984) provides one of the most useful (but contestable) descriptive models available of the adult learning process, inspired by the work of Kurt Lewin.

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This suggests that there are four stages in learning which follow from each other: Concrete Experience is followed by Reflection on that experience on a personal basis. This may then be followed by the derivation of general rules describing the experience, or the application of known theories to it (Abstract Conceptualisation), and hence to the construction of ways of modifying the next occurrence of the experience (Active Experimentation), leading in turn to the next Concrete Experience.


Learning styles mean that: 26
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• •


At a minor level there is a need for adjustment between learner and teacher: sometimes their preferences are complementary, sometimes antagonistic, and of course sometimes collusive if they both tend to go for the same stages in the cycle. At a major level, neglect of some stages can prove to be a major obstacle to learning. At a really serious level, teachers are easy to con with plausible but pernicious snake-oil (e.g. ideas about "learning styles" —follow the links to the right).

Not all forms of skill and knowledge emphasize all the stages of the Cycle to the same extent, and Kolb has carried the argument further by relating topics and subject areas to the cycle in the following ways: • Concrete Experience corresponds to "knowledge by acquaintance", direct practical experience (or "Apprehension" in Kolb's terms), as opposed to "knowledge about" something, which is theoretical, but perhaps more comprehensive, (hence "Comprehension") and represented by Abstract Conceptualization.

Reflective Observation concentrates on what the experience means to the experiencer, (it is transformed by "Intension") or its connotations, while Active Experimentation transforms the theory of Abstract Conceptualization by testing it in practice (by "Extension") and relates to its denotations.

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Action learning is an educational process whereby the participant studies their own actions and experience in order to improve performance. Learning acquires knowledge through actual actions and repetitions, rather than through traditional instruction.

Action learning brings together small groups of participants with the following intentions: • To work on and through organisational/individual issues. This is most effective when the commitment is voluntary. • To work on real problems. Situations in which "I am part of the problem and the problem is part of me." • To work together to check individual perceptions, clarify (and render more manageable) the issue and explore alternatives for action. • To take action in the light of new insight. Begin to change the situation. • Bring an account of the consequences back to the group for further shared reflection. • To focus on learning, not only about the issue being tackled but also on what is being learned about oneself. This is essential to turn developing understanding into learning that can be transferred to other situations. Each group is provided with a facilitator (set adviser) whose role is to help individuals and the group to identify and develop the necessary skills.

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B) General concepts and dimensions for training need assessment.
Successful organizations provide focused, timely training to their staff. They continuously analyze training needs to identify and address skills gaps as they occur. Most people can, if they put their mind to it, perform a training needs analysis on staff within their organization in order to identify learning needs. All it requires is a clear understanding of what is to be achieved, some knowledge of the organization itself, and a consistent, methodical approach.

General Approaches of Training Need Analysis:
There are two general forms of analysis of training needs. • One is a general, high level approach that usually takes place during annual reviews or appraisals. • Second is a more detailed analysis that tends to be linked to specific projects, such as the implementation of a new computer system. Analyzing training need often forms part of an ongoing cycle of needs assessment, training delivery and evaluation of the training, which leads back to needs assessment.

Types of Need Analysis:

Many needs assessments are available for use in different employment contexts. Sources that can help you determine which needs analysis is appropriate for your situation are described below. • Context Analysis. An analysis of the business needs or other reasons the training is desired. The important questions being answered by this analysis are who decided that training should be conducted, why a training program is seen as the recommended solution to a business problem, what the history of the organization has been with regard to employee training and other management interventions. • User Analysis. Analysis dealing with potential participants and instructors involved in the process. The important questions being answered by this analysis are who will receive the training and their level of existing knowledge on the subject, what their learning style is, and who will conduct the training. 29
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Understanding the Objectives of Training Needs Analysis

Work analysis. Analysis of the tasks being performed. This is an analysis of the job and the requirements for performing the work. Also known as a task analysis or job analysis, this analysis seeks to specify the main duties and skill level required. Content Analysis. Analysis of documents, laws, procedures used on the job. This analysis answers questions about what knowledge or information is used on this job. Training Suitability Analysis. Analysis of whether training is the desired solution. Training is one of several solutions to employment problems. However, it may not always be the best solution. It is important to determine if training will be effective in its usage. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Analysis of the return on investment (ROI) of training. Effective training results in a return of value to the organization that is greater than the initial investment to produce or administer the training.

Before any form of training need analysis takes place it is essential to establish its objectives. Is it being conducted as part of an annual review or appraisal process, to help a manager determine which courses to send his or her staff on? This tends to be a very general, or high-level approach to identifying learning needs, and is largely subjective. The outcome is a training programme which often involves taking off-the-shelf training, delivered internally or externally, and perhaps some mentoring or one-to-one training.

Data Collection Methods for Training Needs Analysis
There are several different ways in which to collect the information required. A detailed approach will utilize multiple methods in order to form the clearest picture of learning needs. This will take longer, but if conducted properly will deliver more meaningful results and should lead to the development of a highly relevant and targeted training program. The analysis methods include: • Interviewing managers to learn what they want their staff to know. • Interviewing staff to discover where they think their skills gaps lie. • Interviewing other relevant parties, such as implementation consultants if the training is linked to a new system implementation. • Questionnaires for learners to self-assess their knowledge. • Studying documentation that defines the objectives of project or the function of a team.

Processing the Results of Analysis Unexpected Outcomes of Analysis

Once the data has been collected it is important that it is correctly assessed. This involves reviewing the data to identify trends and themes. It is possible that the process of analysing learning needs leads to the identification of other issues. It could reveal that there is poor communication within or between departments or teams, or even that there is a break down of relationships. Analysis can pin-point problems with staff morale or systemic weaknesses within the organization. It may lead to the conclusion that training alone will not resolve a particular problem. For these reasons it is important that the person conducting the analysis knows to whom these findings should be reported, without running the risk of making problems worse. 30
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Ms. Sarwat Afzal R-39, Block-3, Unique Unique Cottoge, Gulistan e Johar KARACHI. (0333-340 9456)

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