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Project Research Report

Research Topic:
Factors causing dissatisfaction among employees working in different institutions under Federal Directorate of Education (FDE)

Submitted by: Asma Naseem COL MBA Roll No. S-520642

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Appendix - C

ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIIVERSITY Commonwealth MBA/MPA Programme for Executive

ATTESTATION OF AUTHORSHIP
I, Registration No. Report entitled Is my own work and that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person. This report is not submitted already and shall not be submitted in future for obtaining a degree from same or another University or Institution. If it is found to be copied/plagiarized at later stage of any student enrolled in the same or any other university, I shall be liable to face legal action before Unfair Mean committee (UMC), as per AIOU/HEC Rules and Regulations, and I understand that if I am found guilty, my degree will be cancelled. Roll No. A student of COL

Program in Allama Iqbal Open University, solemnly declare that my Project

Signature Name: Programme:

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Appendix – D

CERTIFICATE (from supervisor)

The project report entitled “ Ms. Asma Naseem Roll No. S-520642 with the quality of student’s research work.

”, at COL Registration No. _________________

Executive Master of Business Administration/ Public Administration conducted by Semester _________ has been completed under my guidance and I am satisfied

Supervisor________________ Name ____________________ Date: _________________

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.......................................................................................................28 AMBIGUOUS & IMPROPER HR POLICIES AND PROCEDURES ..........................................6 OVERVIEW.............................................................................................................39 POLICIES......................46 ON JOB SKILL DEVELOPMENT AND CAREER PLANNING..........................22 Defective Check and balance/Partial Performance appraisal system....................................................................................4 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION.............................20 Ambiguous HR Policies and Procedures..................10 LIMITATION................15 Pay.. PROMOTION. MOTIVATION AND REWARDS..................................................................27 DEFECTIVE CHECKS AND BALANCES/ NEPOTISM: ...................................8 PROBLEM STATEMENT:...........27 INSUFFICIENT CAREER PLANNING & SKILL DEVELOPMENT ............10 SCOPE AND SIGNIFICANCE:.............31 Pie Chart result of Different question asked in my study.........12 CONCEPT OF JOB SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION..............................................................................................28 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .............................58 4 ...................................................................................................................................35 WORK/ADMINISTRATIVE ATMOSPHERE ...50 REGRESSION TESTS.................................................................................................................................................................................................. PROMOTION.............. Promotion....................44 CHECK & BALANCE SYSTEM............................................................................ 10 CHAPTER 2: Literature Review.................................12 HRM PRACTICES AND JOB DISSATISFACTION....27 INSUFFICIENT PAY.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................48 DISSATISFACTION OUTCOME:......26 DESCRIPTION OF INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLES....................27 UNFAVORABLE WORK/ ADMINISTRATIVE ATMOSPHERE..........................................24 THEORETICAL FRAME WORK:............ MOTIVATION & REWARDS.......................30 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY & DESIGN OF MY STUDY............52 Chapter 5: Conclusion and Suggestion...............................16 Work/Administrative Environment............ Motivation and Rewards............14 Teaching Profession and Obvious Factors of Job Dissatisfaction...............................34 PAY.......................................................................Table of Contents Table of Contents................................... PROCEDURES AND WORK INFORMATION.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 6 BACK GROUND OF STUDY...............................................................................................................................................

....CONCLUSION................................................................................................. 69 5 ........................................................ 58 SUGGESTIONS:..................................................................................................................................................... 61 REFERENCES................................65 QUESTIONNAIRE ........................................................................................

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION OVERVIEW This Study is conducted as an academic project to analyze the factors of employee dissatisfaction in educational institutes working under Federal Directorate of Educations. Owing to the enhanced performance. However it is valued as a respectable career of white collared people.html) Teaching is a profession in which services are primarily dependent on teaching staff. Hence the importance of this staff increases even more when it comes to educational growth. Human Resource Management (HRM) has emerged as one of the most focused aspect of managerial practices all over the world.accel-team. But the general inflation without compensating increase in the salaries has adversely affected the satisfaction level of teaching staff that apparently seem to be non-productive expense and burden on government exchequer Brooks(2005) 6 .2009. efficiency and employee satisfaction through good human-resource-management is now being emphasized greatly in leading countries of the world and many developing countries are following their footprint to reap the same benefits. Total quality management (TQM). http://www. (Accel-Team. But still the teaching profession in Pakistan is not a job of high monetary returns compared to other professions. Many organizations in Pakistan and all over the world are now making space for full-fledged human resource departments specialized in employee related issues to ensure smooth handling of human resources as no member of senior management can deny that the people are the most valuable assets of any organization. Employee related issues are a part of Human Resource Management (HRM) concerns.com/human_resources/hrm_00. Briscoe Schuler (2004) was strongly of the view that the satisfied workers work more faithfully to gear up the organizational success and goal achievement. more productivity.

as the majority of current teacher’s force is comprised of aged members who are expected to get retired soon. As an OECD report on teachers matter clearly indicated that a teachers short fall is either currently being experienced or feared to be encountered soon by many countries in coming future. Whereas. But McAlpinea and Harrisa suggested in their study that academic managers need to be helped to make clear.(Santiago. Some have introduced reforms and regulations to recruit their own staff according to their need with proper government support. This provides the recruited staff with almost no rights to question the powers of their hiring authority. Second big issue as indicated by the report is the quality of teachers’ workforce in terms of academic qualification.Different governments of developing countries have addressed this issue of budgetary constraints and increasing demand for providing more educational facilities by recruiting teachers on contracts with lower salaries and no additional benefits instead of offering permanent employment. causing institutions to hire the required staff (Daily wage teaching/non-teaching staff) without a national regulatory framework. others took no action.2004). And there is not enough new blood to replace them in education department due to low salaries and insufficient rewards.2005) The criterion for promotion of teaching staff is normally seniority based and not the performance based. knowledge and skills. (Duthilleul Y.. It creates a drain and qualified teachers tend to grab the first opportunity to switch to a better profession with high remuneration. fair and equitable 7 . This force needs extensive trainings and proper career development planning to attract. And this lack of incentives and conducive environment has always been a hurdle in the development of teaching profession Duthilleul(2004) Evaluation of teaching staff is emphasized when it comes to institutional accountability with the view that better teaching will give better results. This does not motivate this teaching body to improve its performance. This obviously is a cause of job insecurity and dissatisfaction. develop and retain the qualified staff.

Harrisa R. 2002) because Ambiguous & improper HR policies and procedures create overlapping of jobs.teaching policies and standards. The principals normally don’t have proper management training and senior most teachers are promoted to this post of purely administrative cadre as prevailing practice.It is responsible for the administrative and professional management of Institutions. The standards should clearly mention what is to be expected from the teachers and what will be the criteria to measure their efficiency. recruitment of teaching and non-teaching staff up to B-15 and inservice trainings and implementation of policies of the Federal Ministry of Education. provision of infrastructural facilities to promote educational excellence. Normally principals are the administrative representative of FDE and the all and all in the institutions of their posting. BACK GROUND OF STUDY Federal Directorate of Education (FDE). Therefore when they assume administrative seats in an organizational environment or corporate setup. their attitude remains predominantly based on teacher/student relationship/interaction. They lack the technicality to handle 8 . The prominent or the senior most teachers are then called in FDE to assume charge as director. still lacking proper managerial skills/ training. The problem is that the staff working under FDE is scattered in 414 institutions in Islamabad and federal territorial areas. (McAlpinea L. During past few years a rising dissatisfaction and frustration among employees has been observed among teaching and non-teaching staff in this setup. Islamabad was established as an Attached Department of Ministry of Education in 1967 for providing educational facilities at various levels in ICT (Islamabad Capital Territory). confusion and stress which leads to employee dissatisfaction. Level of achievements need to be defined and differentiating and linking criteria’s to different aspects of teaching field should be clearly identified and addressed in these standards. These teachers seem to have very little knowledge of HRM problems and their respective solving techniques used in different organizations.

• If a simple employee related query is made by the ministry or other departments. lab-incharges. FDE fails to answer it promptly due to the absence of proper employee record System. 9 . It sends urgent letter to all the schools and colleges asking the required details on emergency basis. he or she faces a lot of problems to get as simple work done • A feeling of lack of professional identity among employees and a feeling of being abandoned • Lack of motivation and enthusiasm in job • Performance appraisal of employees by such heads is often based on personal liking or disliking and is therefore biased. unnecessary hustle bustle and a lot of valuable time is wasted • If an employee faces a problem and goes to FDE for help. The main tasks of academic staff can be distributed into three categories namely teaching. clerical staff and other contractual staff) by AGPR objecting that the proper procedures by the department have not been followed. This causes a lot of inconvenience.interdepartmental and interoffice correspondence and have poor interests in office documentation and maintaining office records and proper filling systems. This creates additional stress on employees and an environment which favors politics and flattery instead of professionalism. English teachers. They exhibit a poor interest in HR related problem which leads to some of the actual issues like: • Stoppage of salary of 1000 teaching and non teaching staff (comprising of computer lecturers. • Problems like increments and allowances duly earned by the employees but denied by the department and no compensation is done afterwards if the mistake is highlighted due to a lengthy procedure and the matter is ignored.

SCOPE AND SIGNIFICANCE: The target population of this study is the employees of different institutions working under FDE and FDE itself. administrative success and quantum of goal achievement LIMITATION This study is just for the employees working under FDE (Federal Directorate of Education) in the ICT (Islamabad Capital Territory). It will also help to maintain better employee-employer relationship. This creates lot of technical and behavioral problems and its consequence is eventually the stress and dissatisfaction among employees PROBLEM STATEMENT: My study aims at ascertaining the factors of employee dissatisfaction in an educational setup and to highlight the problematic areas and administrative loopholes which are responsible for creating an unprofessional environment and leading to departmental politics and employee frustration. It will help to eliminate the causes of dissatisfaction and frustration among employees and to make better HR policies and to improve the working environment. But practically this staff is given management duties as an embedded and built in role.research and management so it is therefore essential for them to be well trained to deal all the three aspects of their job. Normally academic staff is not trained to deal management issues as theoretically it is presumed that it’s not their area of work. So it can not be generalized for other departments and other institutes in different provinces of Pakistan. It can also contribute to develop new indicators for employee performance. The results may be different for other situations. Another limitation is the shortage of time. This will determine the factors of dissatisfaction which caused the employees working under FDE to seek help from the court of law and different groups of teachers to launch peaceful protests. This study will be 10 . Total population for this study is employees of 414 schools and colleges working under FDE and in FDE.

based on cluster or multistage random sampling technique. 11 . The sampling tool will be likert and rating based questionnaires which will be either mailed or personally delivered to the different selected clusters of population. Sampling size for this purpose is 150 numbers from the population. whichever is found suitable in a particular situation.

1976). Organ and Bateman (1991) is of the view that the job satisfaction is a function of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with different aspects of the job (pay. the more they are satisfied. lack of participation and willingness to work etc. (Donald and Charlies. the work itself) and of the particular importance one attaches to these respective components ‘Job Satisfaction is the favorableness or un-favorableness with which employees view their work ‘(Bruneberg. Job Satisfaction can be applicable more to parts of an individual's job. It is very difficult to assess the teacher job satisfaction even for the people in education field. According to Garton (1976). To measure the job satisfaction is not a simple task as casual procedural class can create doubts on the validity and effectiveness of survey. satisfaction when applied to work context of 12 . to ensure anonymity for respondents and sampling procedures. Job satisfaction is concerned with a person or a group in the organization. absenteeism. supervision. Special attention should be paid to the structure of questionnaire. 1975). The more people like it.CHAPTER 2: Literature Review CONCEPT OF JOB SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION Spector (1997) defines the job satisfactions or dissatisfaction as a global feeling of liking or disliking of one’s jobs due to any reason. employee's satisfaction and spirits are attitudinal variables that reflect positive or negative feelings about particular persons or situations. Generally job dissatisfaction is measured through number of variables like teachers’ turnover. If each person is highly satisfied with his job then only it will be considered as group job satisfaction’. the more they dislike the more they are dissatisfied from their job. ‘ It signifies the amount of agreement between one's expectations of the job and the rewards that a job provides.

Then there is a next higher level which is shelter and security. And the fifth level is one’s full potential known as self actualization. which says there is a hierarchy of needs in different levels from bottom to top. 13 .teaching seems to refer to the extent to which a teacher can meet individual. 4. material remunerations. monetary reward and interpersonal relation etc. (2) External factors which lead to job satisfaction are salary. recognition for the work done. personal and professional needs as an employees (Strauss. and appreciation of services rendered etc. 1974). And the outcomes of these important aspects of jobs are 1. One would feel the meaningfulness of his/her work. Hackman and Oldham (1975) suggested that jobs should have five important dimensions 1. Once a need is satisfied it ceases to motivate the person and that person can then only be motivated by satisfying the needs of higher levels Herberg's motivation hygiene theory claims that a person’s job satisfaction mainly depends upon two factors namely internal factors and external factors (1) Internal factors are provided by the sense of achievement. The next higher level is self-esteem which demands recognition. Job distinctiveness.. First level of needs from the bottom is physiological needs like food and clothing need. Maslow (1954) gave a need based theory to ascertain the level of satisfaction/dissatisfaction. Independence 5. 2. 3. Job significance. Feedback. Then comes social needs with demand satisfactory and supportive social and working relations. appreciation and belief in oneself. Talent diversity.

Hackman and Oldham was of the view that once these important psychological states of job accomplishment are achieved. obvious roles for staff. And the changes and innovations must be introduced accordingly to promote a conducive environment of work where employees should be enabled.. He was further of the view that HR practices should be reviewed in following areas • Recruitment and selection 14 .(2007). They should regularly review goals. But still the human resource department needs to assume a leadership role in identifying the people issues and opportunities that could support the organizational strategies and objectives. One will know the results of work activities. motivation for work and job satisfaction will prevail.. consultations. and communication in the organization were factors which contributed greatly to job satisfaction. Nickell S. HRM PRACTICES AND JOB DISSATISFACTION Anderson(1997) explains that there must be a conducive organizational culture with truly supportive and assertive human resource management and leadership for an organization to flourish. supported and equipped to do their work satisfactorily.in their study on “Impact of People Management Practices on Business Performance” recommended that management should closely monitor the satisfaction and commitment of employees on periodic basis through surveys. Patterson M. He found that simplification of work. Takashi Shimizu and Shoji Nagata (2003) Considered different variables to see the relation between different work-related factors and job satisfaction. Responsibility for the results of one’s job will be owned by the employee. Lawthom R..2. 3. He argues that top management role is very essential because it really matters how executives really consider the human resource issues and role of human factor for the growth and prosperity of the organization. strategies and procedures associated with people management. West M.

Drory (1993) stated that organizational politics can lead to a climate of frustration and job dissatisfaction. And this lack of incentives and conducive environment has always been a hurdle in the development of teaching profession Duthilleul(2004) Another important factor which contributes to job dissatisfaction is organizational politics and favoritism. This causes negative attitude towards organization and generates resignation trend from the job Another cause of dissatisfaction is job insecurity as a result of the policy of hiring contract employees without sufficient legal cover or regulatory framework by the government. This does not motivate this teaching body to improve its performance. He was of the view that it affects the organizational commitment adversely. But the general inflation without compensating increase in the salaries has adversely affected the satisfaction level of teaching staff that apparently seem to be non-productive expense and burden on government exchequer Brooks(2005) The criterion for promotion of teaching staff is normally seniority based and not the performance based. However it is valued as a respectable career of white collared people. Hence the importance of this staff increases even more when it comes to educational growth. Teaching Profession and Obvious Factors of Job Dissatisfaction Teaching is a profession in which services are primarily dependent on teaching staff. But still the teaching profession in Pakistan is not a job of high monetary returns compared to other professions.• Appraisal • Training • Reward systems • Design of jobs (richness. This is 15 . He pointed out that organizational politics usually influences lower status employees or employees having lower power base and lesser means to influence. responsibility and control) • Communication.

the policy of recruiting teachers on contracts with lower salaries and no additional benefits is adopted by many government organizations.2005) It is said that a good teacher is not the one who teaches well but the one who manages learning well.(2002) studied burnout and job satisfaction related to work status. knowledge and skills. However according to the study the female teachers get more exhausted emotionally during their jobs as compared to their opposite gender.Sunbul A. Furthermore the ratio of dissatisfaction of male teachers regarding their work status and career development opportunities was more as compared to female teacher.. Motivation and Rewards EFA report of 2005 suggested that salary was one of the major factors of teacher’s dissatisfaction in developing countries as the remuneration offered for their service is too 16 . An OECD report on teachers matter clearly indicated that a teachers short fall is either currently being experienced or feared to be encountered soon by many countries in coming future. This force needs extensive trainings and proper career development planning to attract. and Sari H.. They discovered that the more experienced and senior teachers had the greater ratio of dissatisfaction and burnout then their inexperienced and relatively fresh counterparts. And there is not enough new blood to replace them in education department due to low salaries and insufficient rewards.(Santiago P. Second big issue as indicated by the report is the quality of teachers’ workforce in terms of academic qualification.2004). As the amount spent on education sector employees is assumed to be a non-productive expense on government exchequer. gender and experience among teachers and head teachers. Pay. as the majority of current teacher’s force is comprised of aged members who are expected to get retired soon. To be able to manage the job responsibilities in a better way contributes to job satisfaction and sense of goal achievement Gursel M. (Duthilleul Y.done to meet the increasing demand of teachers under budgetary constraints. Promotion.. develop and retain the qualified staff.

which in turn earns better future performance.(2010) studied that the gender had an influence on the dissatisfaction factor that comes from low salary. As commented by Zembylas and Papanastasious(2004)in their study of Cyprus teachers. Bennel (2004) also indicated that the teachers’ pay and other allowances or benefits were not sufficient to help them meet their survival needs and household requirements in a respectable manner. According to Edward and others (1976) indicated that there is a cyclic relationship between high performance and high job satisfaction. This improvement is actually caused by the employee’s feeling that rewards 17 . On the contrary. salary was the one of the main issues which contributed to teacher’s dissatisfaction of his/her career. Mensah D. That is. Relationships Lartie (1975) stated that the teaching as a profession offers limited rewards in general and if the level of a teacher’s job satisfaction is to be elevated then the remunerations being offered are to be revised seriously. Salary is crucial in teacher satisfaction among the developing countries as in many poor countries teachers are getting a pay equal to a wage of an unskilled labourer. Tansim (2006) conducted a study in Bangladesh and found that Bangladeshi teachers were equally unhappy with the salaries that were being offered to them. majority of male teachers was found dissatisfied with their salary.insufficient to provide them with a reasonable standard of living. and George D. the majority of the teacher who were satisfied with the salary was female teachers as they were not considered responsible as the primary earning hand in the society and their little monetary assistance is therefore viewed as valuable contribution by the male members of the family in developing countries. He claimed that the high performance leads to high rewards and high rewards leads to high job satisfaction.

And there is not enough new blood to replace them in education department due to low salaries and insufficient rewards. advancement. responsibility. facilities and work load. as the majority of current teacher’s force is comprised of aged members who are expected to get retired soon. Herzeberg et al 1993 associates extrinsic motivation with the factors like physical work conditions. Maslow (1970) and Alderfer(1972). 18 . challenge. Ryan and Deci (2000) argued that the job satisfaction showed by the motivated teachers was greater as compared to unmotivated ones. The opposite mindset can cause dissatisfaction and a decline in performance An OECD report on teachers matter clearly indicated that a teachers short fall is either currently being experienced or feared to be encountered soon by many countries in coming future. personal growth. self –respect. learning on the job and professional development are more likely to motivate individuals to give their excellence in their career. Dinham and Scott (1998) argue that motivation and job satisfaction are related in a sense that if the teacher’s need of motivation is fulfilled it results in his/her satisfaction in the particular area. fringe benefits/allowances and job security. which may contribute to the overall job satisfaction. Extrinsic motivation as suggested by Latham (1998) is achieved by offering “tangible benefits” like salary. sense of achievement.(1984) believe that those jobs which contain factors like recognition. (1959). Ellis. They suggested that the process which makes the people wanting to do something willingly. The people so moved to do some work voluntarily exhibit a greater level of satisfaction for their career. Herzeberg et al.will be offered in proportion to their performance.

This force needs extensive trainings and proper 19 . That they do not perform well because they are suffering due to low salaries and poor teaching conditions.It is observed that motivation in both intrinsic and extrinsic perspective is considered important in developed countries where as in developing countries extrinsic motivation is required more to motivate the teaching force truly as found out by the Tansim(2006). & Luczak 2005). He commented that the teachers in Bangladesh are dissatisfied due to low remuneration and lack of teacher involvement in the decision making process by the authoritative heads. Akyeampong and Bennell (2007) indicated that the teaching profession is on decline due to teachers dissatisfaction in Ghana specially in urban areas as cost of living is higher and the salary offered to the teachers is like peanuts as compared to the work load they have to bear. A greater problem in coming future is feared to be the retention of trained teachers than hiring and training new ones. knowledge and skills. As the real crisis is the exodus of new teachers within five years due to poor working condition and lower competitive salaries. The Indian Education Commission (1964-66) commented that for teachers to be effective it is most important to provide teachers with best professional preparation and creating satisfactory work conditions. The low income schools will be real victim of this crisis as the teachers’ turnover rate in these schools is 50% higher than affluent schools (Ingersoll. (Loeb. The insufficient preparation and support of new teachers compromises the job performance and teaching quality. Similar were the observations by Vendepuuye and Somi (1998) about the de-motivated and dissatisfied teachers of Ghana. The continuous influx of new and inexperienced teachers is caused by low remunerations and in-adequate work resources. Another big issue as indicated by the report is the quality of teachers’ workforce in terms of academic qualification. Darling-Hammond. 2001).

(Santiago P. opportunities for growth. develop and retain the qualified staff. suitable and well balanced assignment of work and adequate resources were the factors which exercised a greater influence on the decision to choose or leave teaching as a career within three years.(2003) wrote an article on the basis of an interview with 50 new teachers in public schools with the view to make an effort to discover the pattern of their decisions and factors affecting their choices regarding staying in or leaving the teaching career. Work/Administrative Environment Johnson S. Conley S. besides factors like.(1989) Found that the educational reform movement focused mainly on teacher’s preparation and compensation but the observations showed that the 20 . Birkeland S.career development planning to attract. This does not motivate this teaching body to improve its performance. His studies confirmed the effectiveness of teachers who were satisfied with their teaching performance..” Rothman (1981) believed that the teachers are not just educators. The benefits of teacher satisfaction for both teachers and pupils show the importance of studying how teachers feel about work. They found out that respectful and supportive behavior in mutual interaction. preparation or financial aspects. Bauer S..Bacharach S... And this lack of incentives and conducive environment has always been a hurdle in the development of teaching profession Duthilleul(2004) Morston (1977) claimed that the teachers with aptitude and motivation about teaching can produce students with high confidence level.. past career orientation. Sand Frankiewiz (1979) identified a positive relationship between job satisfaction and effective teacher attitude.2005) The criterion for promotion of teaching staff is normally seniority based and not the performance based. they are role models.

He discovered that lack of monetary fund’s and authority. According to Conger and Kanungo (1988). Lack of involvement of teachers in decision making limits their overall participation in school matters. Furthermore the 21 . This is usually caused by factors like the structure of the organization.teachers become dissatisfied apart from their level of compensation and preparation due to the management and work environment of the institution. lack of motivation and non-conducive work environment. He considered the work environment and human resource management factor as the cause of dissatisfaction. the motives behind participation in the process and the policy or cultural practices of the school. reluctance of management to involve teachers in decision making and the behavior of administration (Ingersoll. Hence involvement of teachers in the process of decision making lies on the leadership quality and skills of the principal and other school leaders especially those in the administration. They suggested that if the characteristics of work environment which are associated with this general dissatisfaction can be discovered. The teacher’s dissatisfaction and consequent attrition is caused by many factors but the leading factors are. the disregard of their requests for school needs and lack of management and administrative trainings were the key factors of their dissatisfaction. They took their first step to study the factors of teacher’s dissatisfaction regarding work-environment variable in 42 elementary and 45 secondary schools. (2003) studied the factors of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction among the head teachers of secondary school teachers in Saudi Arab. it will serve as the basis to minimize the dissatisfaction among teachers. ALZAIDI A. Studies indicated that this dissatisfaction is caused by lack of support by administration. lack of analogy between teacher’s perception and perception of leadership. 2003) The highest rate of quitting teaching profession is found among newly beginning teachers.

& Donaldson (2005) Ladd (2009) commented that the survey about the teachers’ perception of school leadership. the distinction between local and deputed staff from other area etc.highly centralized system and lack of school autonomy also caused the added stress and discontent among these teachers Boyd D. http://www. Grossman P. (2009) pointed that the dissatisfaction results in high teachers’ turnover rate. It has indicated that the discrimination among non-permanent and permanent staff.(2008) commented in their report that the educational management decisions become a lot easier where the role and responsibilities of educational stake-holders are clearly defined 22 . Berg.about-personal-growth.com/employee-dissatisfaction. He studied the relation between teachers’ turnover and school related factors like influence of teacher over school policy. student behavior. safety and other facilities and his studies showed that the school administration played a particularly important role in the teachers’ career decision. Lankford H. Ambiguous HR Policies and Procedures The mutual expectations of employer and employee if not fulfilled can cause complaints resulting in displeasure and dissatisfaction. the overall administrative policies and school climate is a better indicator of teachers’ expected decision about choices to stay or leave the teaching profession.html Recent literature counts the departmental policies and strategies as one of the reasons for the teachers’ attrition. and Ndaruhutse S. Johnson. staff relation. Mpokosa C. DeAngelis & Preseley. and Wyckoff J. the school administration. But in truth the employees can’t meet the employer’s expectations if their role is not clearly defined and their job specification is not plainly laid down to enable them to understand the employer’s hopes..(2007).

Namanya.(2008) indicated that there should be clear communication 23 . student discipline problems. They strongly believed that this empowerment will lift their status in society and there feeling of achievement and value in their own eyes will result in job satisfaction and teachers will bring teachers from the periphery into the very centre of the education process. and limited faculty input into school decision-making. Meaningful participation to undertake a task begins when the stakeholders identify their role in the process of realization of the task. (Kanyike et al.Omona. Stacki and Pigozzi (1995) Göttelmann and Yekhlef (2005: 67) emphasized that the teachers’ self-confidence and moral can be increased by ensuring their active participation in decision making. 1999: 3) emphasized that a teacher’s facilitator or manager should also be introduced in every institution to give voice to the issues faced by teachers and their feed backs to the policy makers. Birungi. Managers therefore need to be trained to be able to respond to the teachers’ voices and consolidate policy directions in an empowering way Ingersoll (2001) pointed out that the teacher attrition is higher in schools with low salaries. inefficient and indifferent principal with practically no say in school decision making. Teachers who explicitly viewed as the primary players in the implementation of educational policies and directives are often forgotten to be considers as stakeholders in their own rights. Nuwagaba. Kemeza and Carasco(1999) argued that the clarity of roles and responsibilities should be ensured and clear feedback channels should be established between the educational stakeholder in order to implement an efficient and effective education management system. poor support from school administration. Mpokosa C. Ahuja(1976) reported that the dissatisfaction shoots and decision to attrition prevails when one has to work under incompetent. and Ndaruhutse S.

A true and unbiased appraisal can motivate the teachers to give their best and their helpful feedback can give the insight of real loose end of any institution’s professional environment. preferential treatment and partial behavior of administrative authorities while dealing with their staff causes the sense of extreme injustice and dissatisfaction among the employees. Also. Employees do not trust the appraisal and reward system in such environments and institutions suffer the results of lack of motivation. local education planners. the diversity of work force makes it essential to introduce a non-discriminatory performance appraisal system to minimize the dissatisfaction and a feeling of deprivation in terms of rewards and appreciation. The study confirmed his hypothesis that nepotism and favoritism adversely affects the work environment and causes job stress and dissatisfaction 24 . intention of employees to quit job and work atmosphere. satisfaction. the overall administrative policies and school climate is a better indicator of teachers’ expected decision about choices to stay or leave the teaching profession. education managers and teachers to ensure the participation of teachers in educational decision making at every level Defective Check and balance/Partial Performance appraisal system Peter Allan(1994) Effective performance appraisals can be a useful way to report on the true assessment of employees’ performance and productivity.channels between central educational planners. Ladd (2009) commented that the survey about the teachers’ perception of school leadership. Arasli (2008) conducted a survey on 576 employees in a banking industry of northern Cyprus to analyze the impact of this behavior on work stress. The appraisal system should be strictly based on truly essential features of the job and should focus on clear and measurable performance criteria. Favoritism.

Research has also shown that a number of management variables are also correlated with pupil achievement (Good. Medley. Creating and maintaining an orderly. and/or curriculum. This also create several problems for the HR management as dissatisfaction so caused. makes them feel insignificant and their contributions for the organization unrewarded. This unfair practice causes retaliation and gives rise to disciplinary problems in the work place.citeman. productive classroom environment is an essential element in teaching competence. The purpose of this study was to confirm the effectiveness of management training in classroom organization and management and to see whether training would provide additional skills to teachers who are well trained in their areas of study. Carolyn m. Evertson(1985) Conducted an experimental study on management effectiveness in secondary class rooms. de-motivates the employees and employee drain from the organization increases http://www. He was of the view that the consolidation status and 25 .com/10093-nepotism/#ixzz3JJ3pbzBf Insufficient Career planning & skill development Donald et al (2005) explains that institutions may affect the teacher effectiveness through resources. 1977). Results indicated that the trained group exceeded the control group on both management skills and student task engagement. Crank J (1991) studied the effect of problems associated with managerial ambiguity and lack of coordination in consolidated public service departments.Nepotism depreciate the efforts made by the other employees. In the opinion of Parés (2006) the high performance teams need not to be consisted of extra ordinarily intelligent member or do not necessarily work more but they need to be able to organize themselves well to be strikingly successful. 1979. He pointed out that these can cause work stress and job dissatisfaction. administrative leadership.

quality of supervision and pay satisfaction had significant positive influence on organizational commitment of faculty members. And they should clearly identify the criteria for their efficiency measurement. difficulty coordinating and managing the distribution of personnel and resources.e. (2002) suggested in their study that academic managers should make fair and clear standards for level of achievement of different aspects of teaching field. employee dissatisfaction Independent variables Defective Check & Balance System/ Partial appraisal system Dependant variable Insufficient pay. caused both. Professor Cary Cooper(2005) suggests that the job dissatisfaction and related health problems should be seriously dealt by the management using innovative policies as the potential substantial economic and psychological costs of unhappy or dissatisfied workers is high in terms of physical and mental illness of employees and overall wellbeing of organization and its cause.e. motivation and rewards Unfavorable work/ administrative Atmosphere Insufficient Career planning & skill development Job Dissatisfaction 26 . THEORETICAL FRAME WORK: The purpose of this research is a test the effect of following independent variables on the dependent variable i. McAlpinea L. No. According to a study of International Journal of Business and Management (Vol. June 2010) the satisfaction with work-itself. the work stress and the job dissatisfaction. Harrisa R. 5. promotion. work stress whereas.organizational size affected only one of the two outcomes i. 6.

lack of work scheduling and organization etc. 27 . etc. MOTIVATION AND REWARDS These include all the benefits which are given to the employee by his/her employer as the recognition of his/her services or as a result of his/her extraordinary work in an effort to provide excellence in the job assigned. any person or a group of person will tend to assume too much power and a culture of favoritism and dissatisfaction will prevail. without regard to their merit. injustice. ‘Check and balances’ prevent any one branch/person from accumulating too much power and encourage cooperation between branches/person as well as comprehensive debate on controversial policy issues. PROMOTION. Absence or insufficiency of such rewards and benefits will create a feeling of deprivation and employee dissatisfaction will tend to rise UNFAVORABLE WORK/ ADMINISTRATIVE ATMOSPHERE It includes inadequate working facilities. unrealistic time limit or deadline settings by the administration. INSUFFICIENT PAY.Ambiguous & improper HR policies and procedures DESCRIPTION OF INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLES DEFECTIVE CHECKS AND BALANCES/ NEPOTISM: According to modern Language Association ‘Nepotism’ is favoritism granted to relatives or friends. too much work. This atmosphere is not conducive for employees. they feel disheartened and low on self esteem as they feel that there are not being treated just fully and their work is not being recognized and appreciated. favoritism. If this system is defective. The rewards so given are very important when it comes to employee satisfaction because the ultimate objective of every person seeking a job is to earn the living in a better way. unequal distribution of work.

This causes an atmosphere of confusion and controversy which is not good for working relations and organizational goal achievement . AMBIGUOUS & IMPROPER HR POLICIES AND PROCEDURES It includes ambiguous or unclear set of rules by the administration. 28 . feeling of deprivation and lack of objectivity and job dissatisfaction prevails. Many of the career oriented employees tend to leave such organizations despite of good salaries. This plan is prepared on the basis of expert opinions regarding weak areas mentioned in employees’ ACRs. or improper/unreasonable rule formation which may cause the delay in a simple job or undue burden on employee.It creates stress. Besides it adds to the professional growth which eventually benefits the organization.INSUFFICIENT CAREER PLANNING & SKILL DEVELOPMENT It causes dissatisfaction as employee feels stagnation and deadlock in terms of future opportunities and benefits. or hiding relevant information from the employees to deprive him/her from a benefit. And many of the successful organizations (ADB is an example) prepare a career development plan and training schedules at the start of every year. Proper career planning and skill development motivates the employee and keeps him/her loyal to the organization.

promotion. motivation and reward are not the cause of dissatisfaction among employees H1: Insufficient pay. H4: Defective check and balance system has direct effect on variation of job dissatisfaction. H0: Ambiguous & improper HR policies and procedures do not cause the employee dissatisfaction. promotion. motivation and reward are the cause of dissatisfaction among employees H0: Unfavorable work/administrative atmosphere is not the cause of dissatisfaction among employees H2: Unfavorable work/administrative atmosphere is the cause of dissatisfaction among employees. H0: Insufficient career planning and lack of skill development trainings has no direct link to the employee dissatisfaction H5: Insufficient career planning and lack of skill development trainings has a direct link to the employee dissatisfaction 29 .HYPOTHESIS H0: Insufficient pay. H3: Ambiguous & improper HR policies and procedures cause the employee dissatisfaction H0: Defective check and balance system has no direct effect on the variation of job dissatisfaction.

what type of research is going to be performed? What will be the nature. graphs etc 30 .g. percentage. Data Analysis Tools Research analysis toot is the tool which will help the researcher to tern the scattered data into meaningful results. It saves the researcher from confusion and ambiguity by providing him/her a clear picture of what is to be done and what is the aim or objective of a processes. Mean. It is the conceptual and logical roadmap of how the study will be conducted to get the desired results. E.CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Methodology Shows the basic research plan and how the study will be practically organized e. type and method of the study and how it will be carried out? How data will be gathered? What are the limitations? What will be the total population and what will be the sample size that will be chosen? How sample will be collected? What will be the method of collecting data? And what tools will be used to analyze the data? Research Design Research design refers to the structure of an enquiry. charts.g. On the basis of these clear results different decisions are made and suggestions and recommendations are given. proportion.

Second section is regarding “work/administration atmosphere”. The wording of these scales is changed to suit the answers for a few questions as “Never=1” and “Yes! All the times=5” The most important reason to choose this particular method for my research is that this method is quantifiable. This research is based on five independent variables namely “pay. For this purpose a questionnaire is developed containing forty(40) questions which are adapted primarily from ‘employee satisfaction and welfare benefits survey’. promotion. It constitutes 27. motivation and rewards”.docx and a few questions are adapted from Teacher Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (TJSQ) developed by Lester (1987) and many other questionnaires available on net. this is cheaper in terms of cost and time consumed.5% of the questionnaire. this section carries 15% of the total questions.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY & DESIGN OF MY STUDY This research is designed to be a survey-questionnaire type of research to identify. The questions are rephrased and elaborated to avoid comprehension problems in this particular scenario. Thirdly the population of the study is scattered in 31 . to report and to interpret the behaviors. Secondly. We can quantify the results so gathered.5% questions. Forth section is about “check and balance” and it also constitute 12. beliefs and observations of the sample of population of employees scattered in academic institutions working under FDE.5% of total questions The questionnaire is adapted to be based on rating scale or likert type queries in addition to some of the basic demographic questions. As the respondents of this questionnaire are from teaching background and have little knowledge of terminologies used in corporate setup. The rating scale is a five point rating scale ranging between “Extremely dissatisfied=1” and “Extremely satisfied=5”. For this particular research questionnaire method will be used. a questionnaire available on net in WORD format with the name 18815538-Questionnaire-on-Job-Satisfaction. Third section emphasizes upon “policies and procedures” and carries 12.

The access to these clusters will be made by personal visits mostly or through the mails to the controlling groups of the selected employee clusters wherever possible. A questionnaire can be sent and receive through mail also. The data collection will be of primary nature and will comprise of a sample size of 153 elements from the total population of FDE employees. One of the best occasions can be in the meeting called by FDE in G-9/4 College in near future RESEARCH ANALYSIS TOOL 32 .different areas of ICT. The sampling technique will be ‘cluster sampling’ based on geographic boundaries. It will be practically impossible to personally visit each location in this short period of time.

SPSS can obtain data from any file format to generate tabulated reports.The SPSS package will be used to analyze the data gathered in this survey based research to achieve quantifiable conclusions. tendency/ projections of given data to forecast the trends. charts. descriptive statistics. 33 . and conduct complex statistical analyses. graphs and statistical tools like Chi square tests and multiple regression tests will be used to show the results of survey. In which different types of charts. and outline of distributions. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) is a statistical analysis and data management software package.

Chapter 4: Data Analysis and results
Pie Chart result of Different question asked in my study

Nature of jobs of the respondents of current study

Qualifications for respondents according to their nature of jobs

Cadre of respondents according to their responsibilities

34

PAY, PROMOTION, MOTIVATION & REWARDS

Are you satisfied with your Salary? (Is it according to the market? According to the amount of work and is it increased according to the inflation to help you maintain or raise a living standard?)

Analysis: Overall data analysis shows that the employees are generally dissatisfied with the salary offered. The further bifurcation of employees according to the nature of employment shows that the dissatisfaction is on peak among daily wage and contract employees. The interrogative study into the matter to find the reasons showed that the Daily-wage employees are earning 6000-8000 Rs. Monthly without any additional benefits or rewards for extra work done by them. Contract employees are of two categories; grade based and fixed pay. Fixed pay employees are hired on a fixed pay of 10000 Rs per month with no further benefits. And grade based employees; however, enjoy all the allowances and annual increments like regular employees as per their contract conditions. But practically they are being deprived of a great portion of their allowances and increments for one reason or another using complex and conflicting rules and their distorted and modified manipulations. Third type of employment is regular or permanent. These employees enjoy all the benefits according to their grade. But the overall public education sector is getting a pay package lower than other government departments. The pay which is neither according to the market nor does it compensates the inflation pressure. Consequently, the overall employee survey shows a trend of dissatisfaction 

Are there enough opportunities for career development at a steady pace?
35

Analysis: The daily wage employee as per rule can have no claim to a regular status or demand promotion opportunities. No career developments can therefore expected. The contract employee as per Estacode can demand a regular status if they they serve for a minimum period of two years continiously. After regularization they can be put to the queue for promotion on seniority basis and their future prospects to get a good position in education field can be bright. The data shows that maximum contract employees have completed more then two years of their service but they are not made permanent. So high degree of dissatisfaction among the contract and daily wage employees is seen. 

Are you satisfied with the opportunities for promotion and the criteria/method used in this regard? Do you feel it is transparent and lacuna/error free?

Promotion is granted on seniority basis and past three year’s ACRs as pictured by the head of the department or the principals. Even the counter signing authority in many cases is the person who has no personal interaction with a particular employee most of the times.l He/She may not know who the person is, whose ACR is being verified by him/her. E.g. ACR of a perticular employee is written by the principal in a college. And counter signing authority is the director general(DG) of FDE sitting far away in his/her office. The DG may not know the particular employee personally. So the promotion system has some built in flaws in it and its effects can be seen as dissatisfaction of employees in this respect.

Are you satisfied with the benefits offered? (Health insurance, life insurance, Periodic bonuses and performance increments etc.)
36

This creates a feeling of dissatisfaction and discontent.Analysis: Daily wage and fixed pay contract employees are not offered any other benefits then a fixed pay.  Are you satisfied with the job security factor of your job? 37 . Permanent and grade based contract employees get benefits but different ambiguous and conflicting rules often deprive them of a benefit which they think they should have been offered.

But the permanent employees are generally satisfied with their jobs when it comes to job security  Do you feel that there is recognition/appreciation for the work accomplished? 38 .Analysis Job security in case of daily wage and contract employees is unsatisfactory.

The response differs from institution to institution and from person to person.Analysis: The recognition and appreciation factor shows a diversified trend among all three types of employees. Overall we can say that the trend is satisfactory if the other factors are properly handled. WORK/ADMINISTRATIVE ATMOSPHERE A)WORK RELATIONSHIPS AND ADMINISTRATIVE ENVIRONMENT  How is your relationship with your colleagues? Analysis: Relationship with the colleagues is overall satisfactory  Do you think the work responsibilities are equitably and evenly distributed among you and your colleagues? Analysis: 39 .

The response differs from institution to institution and from person to person. Overall we can say that the trend is satisfactory.  Work independence level? (Do you feel the work at your disposal is subject to the undue interference by the authoritative heads? Do you feel you are independent to dispose of the duty with professional honesty in your own style? ) 40 . Overall we can say that the trend is satisfactory.  How is your relationship with your supervisor(s) ? Analysis: The response differs from institution to institution and from person to person. Overall we can say that the trend is satisfactory.  Are you satisfied with your administration? Analysis: The response differs from institution to institution and from person to person.

Overall we can say that the trend is satisfactory.Analysis: The response differs from institution to institution and from person to person. But the employees are dissatisfied in institutions were the independence level is low  Do you feel your work environment is stuffed with organizational politics and favoritism? B)WORK& WORK ENVIRONMENT  Are you happy with your work? (Do you like it? Do you feel sense of achievement? Do you feel your work gives you proper recognition and appreciation in your institution and in the society) 41 .

Analysis: Overall we can say that the trend is satisfactory.  Are you assigned extra duties as well? Other then for which you were hired? Analysis: The result shows that the employees are given extra duties frequently. 42 .  Do you feel that you are properly rewarded for the extra work you do? Analysis: The result shows that the employees are given extra duties frequently. This creates a feeling of deprivation and lack of motivation. But they are not rewarded for the extra work.

 Flexibility in work scheduling and are there adequate opportunity for periodic changes in duties? Analysis: The flexibility of work scheduling is greater in teaching staff as compared to non-teaching staff  Facility of casual. Whereas immense dissatisfaction is found in daily wage employees 43 . medical or earned leaves? Analysis: The regular and contract employees are satisfied in this regard.

Moreover most of the times an employee gets no recognition for such work done in addition to the duties he/she was hired to perform.  Are there any overlapping or ambiguity in your work role? Analysis: The response differs from institution to institution and from person to person. But the employees are dissatisfied in institutions where 44 . Overall we can say that the trend is satisfactory.POLICIES. PROCEDURES AND WORK INFORMATION  Do you have a well defined job specification or role given to you by the department when you were hired? Analysis: The analysis shows that most of the time a clear job role or job specification document is not given to employees. This creates a feeling of deprivation. This creates imbaguity in the role of employee and a base for extra work which is often unpaid. exploitation and lack of motivation.

This creates conflicts and a trend of putting things off in expectation that someone else will perform the job.  Are you fully aware of the employee rights and rules. Employees do not own the work and thus don’t feel accountable for a job.overlapping exists. rules. regulations and procedures relevant to your job requirement? Analysis: The analysis shows that the employee rights. regulations and procedures status is often not clear to the employees  Is this information readily available to you on as-and-when-needed basis? 45 .

And most of them think that the organization should seriously work on them CHECK & BALANCE SYSTEM  Interaction with administration?(Does the Administration department of your organization provide you a way to response or give feed back/suggestion/opinion if you have a valid reservation regarding practicality of a rule or regarding problems in its implementation?) 46 . procedures or SOPs.Analysis: The analysis shows that the employee rules and regulation access needs to be made better  Do you feel that your organization should work time to time to fine-tune the policies. procedures or SOPs for the smooth operations? Analysis: The analysis shows that the employees have a strong dissatisfaction about the policies.

is the procedure to feed-back simple and easily understandable by all? Analysis: The analysis shows that the way to feed back is often not provided. Or the way to feed back is lengthy or not understandable by all  Does your department conduct any periodic surveys to measure employee satisfaction. administrative success and overall goals achievement? 47 .  If yes.Analysis: The analysis shows that the way to feed back is often not provided.

 Is the employee performance reporting system satisfactory? (Do you think the system is strong enough to counter any favoritism or bias/prejudice?) Analysis: The analysis shows a clear dissatisfaction in this regard. ON JOB SKILL DEVELOPMENT AND CAREER PLANNING  Does your department plan regular trainings to polish your personal and professional abilities and to increase your professional worth? 48 .Analysis: The analysis shows that no such surveys are conducted usually.

parents. behavioral and communicational skills to help you deal with the students.Analysis: The analysis shows a clear dissatisfaction in this regard. and Ministry etc in a better way? 49 .  If yes. do you think it is sufficient for your professional development? Analysis: The analysis shows a clear dissatisfaction in this regard.  Does the training plan include subject-related trainings to update and enhance your professional knowledge? Are you satisfied with the training level? Analysis: The analysis shows a that department needs to improve this aspect of training  Does it include trainings on inter-personal. AGPR. and other related people from corporate setup like FDE. colleges.

Analysis: The analysis shows that such trainings are not given by the department usually.  Does it include administrative and work management related trainings to help you understand and implement the job related rules. DISSATISFACTION OUTCOME:  Do you think about quitting? 50 . regulations and procedures in a better way? And to make you useful in corporate setup also? Analysis: The analysis shows that such trainings are not given by the department usually.

 You prefer to pursue the same career abroad if you get a chance? 51 .Analysis: The analysis shows that dissatisfaction level is so high that many of the daily wage and contract employees may quit their jobs.  Do you think about looking for another job? Analysis: The analysis shows that the dissatisfaction may cause the daily wage and contract employees to look for another job in near future. However the permanent employees are likely to continue their jobs in future. The employee turnover of permanent employees can be in search of a better option.

promotion.66243 N 153 153 153 153 153 153 52 .development 2.59104 .0732 Std.80920 .42358 .balance skill.88475 .9684 2.0147 2.2854 1.reward.Analysis: The analysis shows that most of the government should take serious notice of the dissatisfaction among employees otherwise a drain of employees from the education career may be faced REGRESSION TESTS Regression Descriptive Statistics Mean Dissatisfaction pay.procedures check. Deviation .52582 .6693 2.motivation work.environment polies.9976 2.

. . In addition to this the significance of each correlation (p) is showed in sig.000 153 153 .promotion.378 1.000 . work.000 skill.development Sig.reward.613 .126 .000 .613 . work.539 .061 .environment polies.development 153 153 153 153 153 153 153 153 153 153 153 153 153 153 153 153 153 153 153 153 153 153 153 153 . motivation work. development .708 .058 .391 .111 .002 .092 .521 .000 .000 .285 .272 .173 .000 .013 .05 i.108 .000 .000 . The positive sign shows positive relation and the negative sign shows the negative relation between the dependent and independent variable. The value of should be less then 0.000 153 153 .promotion.179 .077 .000 environment procedures .environment polies.002 .000 .reward.099 .promotio Dissatisfaction Pearson Correlation Dissatisfaction pay.179 . .balance skill.reward.procedures check.development N Dissatisfaction pay.539 .108 .126 .391 1.procedures check. The larger result value between +1 and -1 shows the stronger impact of the variables over other.173 153 153 .environment polies.061 153 153 .128 .272 . .128 .708 1.058 . 53 .227 1.reward.227 . 1-tailed table. 153 153 1. policies.000 .promotion.000 n.013 Analysis: As per the correlation rule Pearson correlation should have a value between +1 and -1.099 .000 153 153 . (1tailed) Dissatisfaction pay. motivation work..111 .285 .000 .521 1.378 .000 .000 .000 .Correlations pay.000 .procedures check.balance skill.092 .000 .077 . check.e. balance .000 . .balance skill.

‘Pay. promotion. motivation and reward’ however has close impact on employee dissatisfaction. promotion. Work environment. E. motivation and reward’ is strongest. policies and procedures. skill development and check and balance factors are strongly correlated with each other. But other factors also matter.P<0. The table shows that the relation between dissatisfaction and ‘pay.g. In this case they are more beneficial in organizational perspective then as employee perspective.05.05 shows that there is no significance correlation between the variables. Avalue greater than 0. 54 . Whereas the other variables show a weak correlation with dissatisfaction but some of the variables have very strong correlation with each other.

motivati on work.020 .motivati on work.002 .082 -.416 1.environment polies.001 -.269 .reward.moti .motivati on Covariances pay.007 -.promotio Model 1 Correlations pay.motivati on work.000 .000 .030 1.011 .037 .021 1.165 .reward.environmen procedure 55 .025 -.006 -.174 1.033 -.promotion.005 .procedures check.procedures check.003 .013 1.000 -.366 -.287 -.000 -.004 -.008 -.001 -.000 -.018 -.001 -.025 -.environment polies.011 vation 1.reward.balance skill.006 -.Coefficient Correlationsa pay.025 -.306 1.007 1.007 1.326 -.016 -.616 1.promotion.016 -.motivati on work.326 -. skill.006 -.reward.391 .038 .306 -.000 -.environment polies.030 -.391 .302 -.procedures check.003 -.366 -.005 -.motivati on work.011 -.101 -.000 1.000 .550 -.174 -.007 .motivati on work.balance skill.reward.000 .promotion.000 -.promotion.reward.reward.101 .000 .021 -.environment Covariances pay.008 -.000 -.007 -.033 .promotion.balance Covariances pay.motivati on work.environment polies.development Covariances pay.416 .balance 5 Correlations pay.002 -.082 .106 -.287 -.procedures Covariances pay.086 -.000 -.006 -.106 .001 1.environment polies.procedures 4 Correlations pay.086 -.motivati on 2 Correlations pay.001 .reward.environment 3 Correlations pay.616 .011 -.006 -.reward.promotion.000 . check.165 -.004 .reward.001 .promotion.000 -.302 -.development -.001 . s balance development n.000 Work t polies.025 -.procedures check.007 .550 -.013 1.000 -.011 -.environment polies.000 -.269 -.014 -.010 .013 1.000 -.promotion.000 -.001 -.promotion.000 -.reward.promotion.006 .motivati on work.013 1.

And the value above 2 shows a negative correlation.271 56.273 .271 .promotion. The value lower then 2 shows a positive correlation between variables.422 . 56 .motivation.75701 .reward.287 .003 2.promotion.promotion.procedures.promotion. polies.521a .274 . This shows a positive correlation between the variable.266 . pay. work.environment c.reward. polies.141 .539e Square .003 . F Change . work.000 .environment. Hence the model is valid.motivation.536d . check. In this particular situation 1.709 . pay. Predictors: (Constant).013 . work.balance.290 Adjusted R Square .balance e. Predictors: (Constant).102 . pay.75364 . Error of the Estimate .motivation.environment.753 DurbinWatson .025 . pay.000 . Dependent Variable: Dissatisfaction Analysis: The Dublin Watson ranges between 0 to 4 with a mean value of 2.875 .284 .development f.75452 .reward.287 . Predictors: (Constant). skill.75808 R Square Change F Change df1 1 1 1 1 1 df2 151 150 149 148 147 Sig.536c .motivation b.268 .Model Summaryf Change Statistics R Model 1 2 3 4 5 R .753.75789 . check. Predictors: (Constant).reward. pay.reward. polies. Predictors: (Constant).447 1. The value equal to 2 shows there is no correlation between variables.581 a.procedures.environment.533b . work.promotion.648 .266 Std.procedures d.motivation.

polies.196 118.982 34.development f.procedures.574 F 56.promotion. pay.568 29.982 34.812 118.141 Sig.569 19. polies.environment c.environment. work.reward. check.promotion.901 .000e 8.982 df 1 151 152 2 150 152 3 149 152 4 148 152 5 147 152 6.000c 16. pay.575 12.environment.000b Mean Square 32. H4 and H5 are accepted and all the null hypothesis are rejected.169 84.procedures d.008 .reward.542 .motivation.motivation b. H3.balance. Predictors: (Constant). Predictors: (Constant).ANOVAf Model 1 Regression Residual Total 2 Regression Residual Total 3 Regression Residual Total 4 Regression Residual Total 5 Regression Residual Total Sum of Squares 32. pay.reward. pay.734 118.reward.procedures.motivation.573 14. polies.05 in each case.155 84.982 33. work.248 . pay. skill.893 . Dependent Variable: Dissatisfaction Analysis The ANOVAs test analysis of this table shows that all the variables have significant relation with the dependent variable as the P<0. H2.000a a.503 84.907 . 57 .motivation.promotion. In this case H1. Predictors: (Constant).743 . .998 .000d 11.environment. Predictors: (Constant).827 118. Predictors: (Constant).promotion.motivation.reward. work.balance e. work.385 .982 34.786 85.478 118.248 86. check.promotion.

professional growth and career development. The primary reasons are insufficient pay and rewards. But still based on my survey and analysis of the data so gathered following is the outcomes of my study: Concluding my study I would say that the test results have confirmed all of my assumptions and hypothesis. the built-in job insecurity factor in their nature of employment. Rest of the factors may be depressing and discomforting but the employees show a tolerance if: • They get a pay according to their qualification and according to market to sustain the inflation pressure. 1975). It is very difficult to assess the teacher job satisfaction even for the people in education field. (Donald and Charlies. Special attention should be paid to the structure of questionnaire. to ensure anonymity for respondents and sampling procedures.Chapter 5: Conclusion and Suggestion CONCLUSION To measure the job satisfaction is not a simple task as casual procedural class can create doubts on the validity and effectiveness of survey. A general dissatisfaction is seen among employees working in different institutions under FDE. The dissatisfaction trend is on extremes when it comes to pay-package. unavailability of a conducive environment and defective check and balance system. This frustration and dissatisfaction is more among employees who are working as daily wage or as contract employees. the insufficient career planning and development opportunities. 58 . lack of motivation. Job security is another factor which has a major effect on job dissatisfaction. • They are satisfied with the job security factors of their job.

The problem can be severe if these qualified teaching and non-teaching staff gets a chance to settle down abroad. The dissatisfaction trend shows that if the problem is not tackled properly may cause a short fall of trained and qualified teachers in different institutions. If this happens then the country can experience a drain of skills and talent. As suggested by BENNELL P. develop and retain the qualified staff.(Santiago.• They are satisfied with the professional growth and career development factor And if the problem is not tackled properly may cause a short fall of teachers in different institutions.(2004) in his study that a multiple. knowledge and skills. the work done and the results showed.. And there is not enough new blood to replace them in education department due to low salaries and insufficient rewards. as the majority of current teacher’s force is comprised of aged members who are expected to get retired soon. The problem can be severe if these qualified teaching and non-teaching staff gets a chance to settle down abroad. If this happens then the country can experience a drain of skills and talent. This force needs extensive trainings and proper career development planning to attract. market-driven pay structure for teachers according to subjects and location should be followed. As an OECD report on teachers matter clearly indicated that a teachers short fall is either currently being experienced or feared to be encountered soon by many countries in coming future. He was of the view that the pay increases need to be made strategically and not across the board on the basis of teacher’s qualification.2005) Herberg's motivation hygiene theory claims that a person’s job satisfaction mainly depends upon two factors namely internal factors and external factors 59 . Second big issue as indicated by the report is the quality of teachers’ workforce in terms of academic qualification.

which in turn earns better future performance. He claimed that the high performance leads to high rewards and high rewards leads to high job satisfaction. lack of analogy between teacher’s perception and perception of leadership. recognition for the work done.. material remunerations. lack of motivation and non-conducive work environment. Edward and others (1976) indicated that there is a cyclic relationship between high performance and high job satisfaction. and appreciation of services rendered etc.(1) Internal factors are provided by the sense of achievement. reluctance of management to involve teachers in decision making and the behavior of administration (Ingersoll. (2) External factors which lead to job satisfaction are salary. monetary reward and interpersonal relation etc. Studies indicated that this dissatisfaction is caused by lack of support by administration. The opposite mindset can cause dissatisfaction and a decline in performance The teacher’s dissatisfaction and consequent attrition is caused by many factors but the leading factors are. Relationships Lartie (1975) stated that the teaching as a profession offers limited rewards in general and if the level of a teacher’s job satisfaction is to be elevated then the remunerations being offered are to be revised seriously. This improvement is actually caused by the employee’s feeling that rewards will be offered in proportion to their performance. 60 . 2003) The highest rate of quitting teaching profession is found among newly beginning teachers.

The representing officer should directly report to his/her parent department in FDE. Contract and daily wage employees are giving same type of services and they deserve a pay and other benefits equal to the permanent employees.SUGGESTIONS: The following are my suggestions to improve the situation in this particular scenario  The discrimination in pay structure and other benefits offered should be eliminated. The formation of proper HR department with due authority and clear set of rules and regulation in this regard should be made possible in each government organization. a full-fledged HR department should be made in FDE with full authority to make employee related rules.  The pay should be yearly revised to compensate the inflation pressure. regulations and policies and to get them implemented in different institutions working under FDE. This department should have an independent representation in each institution. Presently pay of “regular” employees is increased on yearly basis but the increase often does not help the employees even to maintain the financial status of past year. In this particular scenario.  A national level employment regulatory frame work should be made by the government to ensure the protection of employee rights and the rules for the recruitment and management of any kind of human resource should be laid down. 61 . Employees working in the same conditions and doing same type of job should be treated in the same way. It will also help in minimizing the discrimination.

communicational skills. The trainings plan should include the trainings related to the interpersonal skills. And the performance of employee is then judged accordingly. and subordinates. resource management 62 .  The findings of the evaluation process suggested above should be disclosed to the employee and employee counseling should be done. The present performance reporting system has some built in flaws. The respondents of such feed backs are a mixture of managers.  The training plan for each employee should be made at the start of the year on the basis of the findings of the above performance appraisal process. The opportunities and threats should be made clear to him/her. In this system. But if the man with authority is unscrupulous. colleagues. It is therefore suggested that a 360-degree feed back system should be introduced for performance reporting. These forms are usually rating scale based questionnaires about the work environment and the SWOT (Strength Weakness Opportunities Threats) analysis based questions. work and time management skills . employees receive anonymous and confidential feedback forms for the people who work around. And the trainings in weak areas should be suggested by the HR specialists. There is no problem as long as the person is a man of high principles and high moral values. A response of 10 to 12 people is then measured to get a true picture of a particular situation. The weaknesses and strengths analysis should be discussed with the employee whose report is under consideration. The trainings should be purposeful and should not be viewed as a loss of resources and taken for granted. It gives too much weight to the reporting authority and immediate bosses. The respondent of such forms is also required to fill a self analysis form. the system has no way to counter the corruption and distortion of facts he/she may cause.

management success etc. These surveys should be confidential in nature and information about the respondents should never be disclosed  Different type of performance bonuses should be introduced on strictly merit basis to motivate the employees. If anybody feels that he/she fulfills the criteria. he/she must also be able to apply for the promotion on his/her own. goal achievement.  Different periodic surveys should be conducted by the HR department to measure employee satisfaction.  The clear work role or job specification should be given to each employee by the department and it should include every task which is expected of him/her at the time of his/her recruitment. Any extra task should be properly rewarded and should earn extra experience and credit points for the year. experience point and credit points earned after the completion of each task in a successful manner yearly. This will motivate the employees to give their best to the institution. This document should be annually revised as well. Criterion for the promotion should be clear and within the reach of every member of the staff as a basic document.g.  The promotions should not be given on the basis of seniority only. Other criterion for fast growth and development of the people who work more should be made. The employee’s active participation in the training plan should be made possible. E. 63 .skills. And the level of these skills should be such that it should help in professional growth and development of the employee. public dealing and of course the subject related skills. The feedback should also be acquired after each training as a “must to do” practice.

rules and SOPs. procedures. Employee related policy making or rule setting should solely be the prerogative of human resource department. And it should not be the matters of months and years. And their feedback should be used to fine-tune the policies. Feed back from the employees should also be encouraged. 64 . It should rather be an immediate response to the outcome/feedback from the situation after implementation of each rule.

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Are you satisfied with your Salary? (Is it according to the market? According to the amount of work and is it increased according to the inflation to help you maintain or raise a living standard?) Extremely Dissatisfied A little Dissatisfied Bearable/Agreeable Satisfied Extremely Satisfied 11. Nature of current job: (Contact/Daily Wages/Adhoc/Permanent)_________ 7. Are there enough opportunities for career development at a steady pace? Extremely Dissatisfied A little Dissatisfied Bearable/Agreeable Satisfied Extremely Satisfied 12. Your institute? ________________________________________________ 5. Period in present service?________________________________________ 6.QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Professional Qualification?______________________________________ 4. What is your job title? _________________________________________ 8. Your Qualification____________________________________________ 3. MOTIVATION & REWARDS 10. How long have you held your current position? ____________________ 9. Briefly describe your work responsibilities (as you would on a resume): ___________________________________________________________ Job Rating Scale 1 Extremely Dissatisfied OR 1 Never/ Not at all 2 Occasionally / Rarely 3 Often 4 Most of the times 5 Yes! All the times 2 A little Dissatisfied 3 Bearable/Agreeable 4 Satisfied 5 Extremely Satisfied Note: Please encircle your response PAY. Your name? _________________________________________________ 2. Are you satisfied with the opportunities for promotion and the criteria/method used in this regard? Do you feel it is transparent and lacuna/error free? 69 . PROMOTION.

Work independence level? (Do you feel the work at your disposal is subject to the undue interference by the authoritative heads? Do you feel you are independent to 70 . Are you satisfied with the benefits offered? (Health insurance. life insurance.) Extremely Dissatisfied A little Dissatisfied Bearable/Agreeable Satisfied Extremely Satisfied 14.Extremely Dissatisfied A little Dissatisfied Bearable/Agreeable Satisfied Extremely Satisfied 13. How is your relationship with your supervisor(s) Extremely Dissatisfied A little Dissatisfied Bearable/Agreeable Satisfied Extremely Satisfied 19. How is your relationship with your colleagues? Extremely Dissatisfied A little Dissatisfied Bearable/Agreeable Satisfied Extremely Satisfied 17. Do you feel that there is recognition/appreciation for the work accomplished? Extremely Dissatisfied A little Dissatisfied Bearable/Agreeable Satisfied Extremely Satisfied WORK/ADMINISTRATIVE ATMOSPHERE A)WORK RELATIONSHIPS AND ADMINISTRATIVE ENVIRONMENT 16. Do you think the work responsibilities are equitably and evenly distributed among you and your colleagues? Extremely Dissatisfied A little Dissatisfied Bearable/Agreeable Satisfied Extremely Satisfied 18. Are you satisfied with the job security factor of your job? Extremely Dissatisfied A little Dissatisfied Bearable/Agreeable Satisfied Extremely Satisfied 15. Periodic bonuses and performance increments etc. Are you satisfied with your administration? Extremely Dissatisfied A little Dissatisfied Bearable/Agreeable Satisfied Extremely Satisfied 20.

dispose of the duty with professional honesty in your own style? ) Never/ Not at all Occasionally / Most of the Yes! All the Often Rarely times times 21. medical or earned leaves? Never/ Not at all Occasionally / Rarely Often Most of the times Yes! All the times POLICIES. Flexibility in work scheduling and are there adequate opportunity for periodic changes in duties? Never/ Not at all Occasionally / Rarely Often Most of the times Yes! All the times 26. Do you have a well defined job specification or role given to you by the department when you were hired? 71 . PROCEDURES AND WORK INFORMATION 27. Are you assigned extra duties as well? Other than for which you were hired? Never/ Not at all Occasionally / Rarely Often Most of the times Yes! All the times 24. Are you happy with your work? (Do you like it? Do you feel sense of achievement? Do you feel your work gives you proper recognition and appreciation in your institution and in the society) Never/ Not at all Occasionally / Rarely Often Most of the times Yes! All the times 23. Do you feel your work environment is stuffed with organizational politics and favoritism? Never/ Not at all Occasionally / Rarely Often Most of the times Yes! All the times B)WORK& WORK ENVIRONMENT 22. Do you feel that you are properly rewarded for the extra work you do? Never/ Not at all Occasionally / Rarely Often Most of the times Yes! All the times 25. Facility of casual.

Do you feel that your organization should work time to time to fine-tune the policies. Interaction with administration?(Does the Administration department of your organization provide you a way to response or give feedback/suggestion/opinion if you have a valid reservation regarding practicality of a rule or regarding problems in its implementation?) Never/ Not at all Occasionally / Most of the Yes! All the Often Rarely times times 33. Are you fully aware of the employee rights and rules.Never/ Not at all Occasionally / Rarely Often Most of the times Yes! All the times 28. Is the employee performance reporting system satisfactory? (Do you think the system 72 Never/ Not at all . regulations and procedures relevant to your job requirement? Never/ Not at all Occasionally / Rarely Often Most of the times Yes! All the times 30. If yes. Does your department conduct any periodic surveys to measure employee satisfaction. procedures or SOPs for the smooth operations? Never/ Not at all Occasionally / Rarely Often Most of the times Yes! All the times CHECK & BALANCE SYSTEM 32. Are there any overlapping or ambiguity in your work role? Never/ Not at all Occasionally / Rarely Often Most of the times Yes! All the times 29. Is this information readily available to you on as-and-when-needed basis? Never/ Not at all Occasionally / Rarely Often Most of the times Yes! All the times 31. is the procedure to feed-back simple and easily understandable by all? Occasionally / Most of the Yes! All the Often Rarely times times 34. administrative success and overall goals achievement? Never/ Not at all Occasionally / Most of the Yes! All the Often Rarely times times 35.

parents. and other related people from corporate setup like FDE. Does your department plan regular trainings to polish your personal and professional abilities and to increase your professional worth? Never/ Not at all Occasionally / Rarely Often Most of the times Yes! All the times 37. Do you think about quitting? Occasionally / Rarely Often Most of the times Yes! All the times Never/ Not at all Occasionally / Rarely Often Most of the times Yes! All the times 73 42. AGPR. Does it include trainings on inter-personal. colleges. and Ministry etc in a better way? Never/ Not at all Occasionally / Rarely Often Most of the times Yes! All the times 40. Does it include administrative and work management related trainings to help you understand and implement the job related rules.is strong enough to counter any favoritism or bias/prejudice?) Occasionally / Most of the Often Rarely times ON JOB SKILL DEVELOPMENT AND CAREER PLANNING Never/ Not at all Yes! All the times 36. do you think it is sufficient for your professional development? Never/ Not at all Occasionally / Rarely Often Most of the times Yes! All the times 38. behavioral and communicational skills to help you deal with the students. regulations and procedures in a better way? And to make you useful in corporate setup also? Never/ Not at all DISSATISFACTION 41. If yes. Does the training plan include subject-related trainings to update and enhance your professional knowledge? Are you satisfied with the training level? Never/ Not at all Occasionally / Most of the Yes! All the Often Rarely times times 39. Do you think about looking for another job? .

Will you prefer to pursue the same career abroad? Never/ Not at all Occasionally / Rarely Often Most of the times Yes! All the times 74 .Never/ Not at all Occasionally / Rarely Often Most of the times Yes! All the times 43.