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Bluetooth Architecture Overview James Kardach

Principle Engineer Bluetooth SIG Program Manager Intel Corporation

Copyright © 1998 Intel Corporation "The Bluetooth Specification is still preliminary. All information regarding Bluetooth is subject to change without notice."

* Third party marks and brands are the property of their respective owners.

Agenda
w What does Bluetooth do for you? t Usage model w What is Bluetooth? t Compliance, compatibility w What does Bluetooth do? t Technical points w Who is Bluetooth? t History w Architectural Overview of Bluetooth

What does Bluetooth do for you?

Landline

Cable Replacement Data/Voice Access Points

Personal Ad-hoc Networks

What is Bluetooth?
Applications
TCP/IP HID RFCOMM

Application Framework and Support

Data
L2CAP Audio Link Manager

Co ntr ol

Host Controller Interface Link Manager and L2CAP Radio & Baseband Latest Version on Bluetooth Website: www.Bluetooth.com

LMP

Baseband RF w A hardware description w An application framework

What is Bluetooth? Software Applications TCP/IP HID RFCOMM Data L2CAP Audio Link Manager Co ntr ol LMP Baseband RF w A hardware description w An application framework Modules .

RF BT.BB-A.L CAP-D 2 BT.RF Data 2 BT.TS0710 BT.L CAP-A 2 BT.TS0710 BT.L CAP-D 2 Certification Class BT.BB-D BT.vCal BT.HID LMP Basic Layer Certification Service Type L CAP LM BB RF 2 Baseband RF LM BB RF Air Lower Interface Class Audio Data BT.LM-A BT.UDP BT.SImg BT.LM-D BT.BB-A BT.vCard BT.TS0710 BT.OBEX BT.LM-D BT.L CAP-D 2 BT.PPP BT.RF A unit that supports both audio and data gets the certification class A and D.HID BT.WAP BT.BB-D BT. Example: BT.TCP/IP BT.LM-A BT.L CAP-D BT.TCP/IP BT.D w Bluetooth devices will be tested against the specification .OBEX BT.L CAP-A BT.AudioCtrl BT.PPP BT.RF - Certification Class Audio 2 BT.Testing to Specification Applications TCP/IP HID RFCOMM Application Framework Certification Service vCard vCal UDP PPP IrOBEX WAP Still Images Audio Ctrl RFCOMM TCP/IP HID Type IrOBEX IrOBEX PPP RFCOMM RFCOMM TCP/IP HID L CAP 2 L CAP 2 L CAP 2 L CAP 2 Data L2CAP Audio Link Manager Co ntr ol Lower Interface Class BT.OBEX BT.BB-A BT.

.1 watts active power 25 mm x 13 mm x 2 mm. bodies. SS radio 0. 720 Kbps Varies with use and cost 0. several grams Long-term $5 per endpoint 10 meters or less Up to 100 meters with PA Intended to work anywhere in the world Very.What does Bluetooth Do? Topology Flexibility Data rate Power Size/Weight Supports up to 7 simultaneous links Each link requires another cable Goes through walls. link layer security. Weight varies with length (ounces to pounds) ~ $3-$100/meter (end user cost) Range equal to size.05 watts active power or higher Size is equal to range.. Line of sight or modified environment 1 MSPS. Typically 1-2 meters. Typically 1-2 meters Cables vary with local customs Secure (its a cable) Cost Range Universal Security w Cable Replacement . cloths.

t The stone’ inscription (“runes”) say: s s Harald christianized the Danes s Harald controlled Denmark and Norway s Harald thinks notebooks and cellular phones should seamlessly communicate .Who is Bluetooth? w Harald Blaatand “Bluetooth” II w King of Denmark 940-981 t Son of Gorm the Old (King of Denmark) and Thyra Danebod (daughter of King Ethelred of England) w This is one of two Runic stones erected in his capitol city of Jelling (central Jutland) t This is the front of the stone depicting the chivalry of Harald.

Architectural Overview Applications TCP/IP HID RFCOMM And a bit of this Data L2CAP Audio Link Manager Co ntr ol LMP Cover This Baseband RF .

single chip implementation t Noise floor margin for substrate noise and low current LNA t Linearity set by near-far problem t In-band image allows low-cost low IF t VCO phase noise enables integrated VCO t TX-RX turn around time enables single synthesizer t 2.4 ISM band chosen for global use and process capabilities .Bluetooth RF Specifications Specified for low cost.

Basic Baseband Protocol Frame fk Master One Slot Packet Frame fk+1 Master fk Three Slot Packet fk+1 Slave 625 us One Slot One Slot Packet Slave 625 us One Slot One Slot Packet w Spread spectrum frequency hopping radio t 79/23 one MHz channels t Hops every packet s Packets are 1. 3 or 5 slots long t Frame consists of two packets s Transmit followed by receive t Nominally hops at 1600 times a second (1 slot packets) .

Network Topology w Radio Designation t Connected radios can be master or slave t Radios are symmetric (same radio can be master or slave) w Piconet t Master can connect to 7 simultaneous or 200+ active slaves per piconet t Each piconet has maximum capacity (1 MSPS) s Unique hopping pattern/ID w Scatternet t High capacity system s Minimal impact with up to 10 piconets within range t Radios can share piconets! S M sb P P M S P sb S S .

3-bits) t Parked Member Address (PMA.The Piconet IDa A IDa IDd D IDd IDa M P IDe E IDe sb IDa IDb B IDb IDc C S IDa IDc S w All devices in a piconet hop together t In forming a piconet. 8-bits) P . master gives slaves its clock and device ID IDa s Hopping pattern determined by device ID (48-bit) s Phase in hopping pattern determined by Clock w Non-piconet devices are in standby sb w Piconet Addressing M or S t Active Member Address (AMA.

Functional Overview w Standby t Waiting to join a piconet w Inquire t Ask about radios to connect to w Page t Connect to a specific radio w Connected t Actively on a piconet (master or slave) w Park/Hold t Low Power connected states Unconnected Standby Standby De tac h Ttypical=2s Inquiry Page Connecting States Ttypical=0.6s Active States Transmit data AMA Connected AMA Ttypical=2 ms Ttypical=2 ms Low Power States Releases AMA Address PARK PMA HOLD AMA .

25 s (or so) for each scan sslot is 0.625 ms 3/18/99 15 .Page and Inquire Scans Ttypical=11 ms 18 slots Page Scan Ttypical=11 ms 18 slots Page Scan Sleep Ttypical=1.25 Inquire Scan Inquire Scan Standby Ttypical=11 ms 18 slots Connected Ttypical=11 ms 18 slots w A radio must be enabled to accept pages or inquires t Consumes 18 slots every 1.25 Connected Ttypical=1.

Inquiring for Radios IDd IDa A D IDb B IDc C w Radio Wants to find other radios in the area 3/18/99 16 .

C and D are doing an Inquire Scan 3/18/99 17 .Inquiring for Radios IDd IDa D INQ A INQ IDb Inquire INQ IDc C B w Radio Wants to find other radios in the area t Radio A issues an Inquire (pages with the Inquire ID) sRadios B.

Inquiring for Radios IDd IDa A D IDb IDb B IDc C w Radio Wants to find other radios in the area t Radio A issues an Inquire (pages with the Inquire ID) sRadios B. C and D are doing a Inquire Scan t Radio B recognizes Inquire and responds with an FHS packet sHas slave’ Device ID and Clock s 3/18/99 18 .

Inquiring for Radios IDb IDa IDd D INQ A INQ IDb Inquire INQ IDc C B w Radio Wants to find other radios in the area t Radio A issues an Inquire (pages with the Inquire ID) sRadios B. C and D are doing a Inquire Scan t Radio B recognizes Inquire and responds with an FHS packet sHas slave’ Device ID and Clock s 3/18/99 19 .

Inquiring for Radios IDb IDa A IDd IDd D IDc IDb B IDc C w Radio Wants to find other radios in the area t Radio A Issues an Inquire (again) t Radios C and D respond with FHS packets sAs radios C & D respond simultaneously packets are corrupted and Radio A won’ respond t sEach radio waits a random number of slots and listens 3/18/99 20 .

Inquiring for Radios IDb IDa IDd D INQ A INQ IDb Inquire INQ IDc C B w Radio Wants to find other radios in the area t Radio A Issues an Inquire (again) 3/18/99 21 .

Inquiring for Radios IDb IDa A IDd D IDc IDb B IDc C w Radio Wants to find other radios in the area t Radio A Issues an Inquire (again) t Radios C respond with FHS packets 3/18/99 22 .

Inquiring for Radios IDb IDc IDa IDd D INQ A INQ IDb Inquire INQ IDc C B w Radio Wants to find other radios in the area t Radio A Issues an Inquire (again) 3/18/99 23 .

Inquiring for Radios IDb IDc IDa A IDd IDd D IDb B IDc C w Radio Wants to find other radios in the area t Radio A Issues an Inquire (again) t Radios D respond with FHS packets 3/18/99 24 .

Inquiring for Radios IDb IDc IDd IDa A IDd D IDb B IDc C w Radio Wants to find other radios in the area t Radio A Issues an Inquire (again) t Radios D respond with FHS packets t Radio A now has information of all radios within range 3/18/99 25 .

Inquiry Procedure fk IDa fk+1 f’ k f’ k+1 fk+4 INQUIRER INQ INQ IDb INQ IDb fk+1 STANDBY FHS 625 µs w Inquiry has unique device address (all BT radio use) t Unique set of “Inquiry” hop frequencies w Any device can inquire by paging the Inquiry address w Correlater hit causes slave to respond with FHS packet t Device ID t Clock 3/18/99 26 .

25ms INQUIRER train A 10 ms A A A A B A A A STANDBY scan fk A 11.Inquiry Procedure 1.25 ms sleep RAND1 fk A fk+1 A FHS sleep RAND2 fk+1 A fk+2 A FHS w Multiple slaves are expected to respond t Correlater hit causes slave to s respond with FHS packet s Wait a random number of slots s Wait for another Inquiry page and repeat w Master should end up with a list of slave FHS packets in area 3/18/99 27 .

Inquire Summary w Paging radio Issues page packet with Inquire ID w Any radio doing an Inquire scan will respond with an FHS packet t FHS packet gives Inquiring radio information to page sDevice ID IDa sClock t If there is a collision then radios wait a random number of slots before responding to the page inquire w After process is done. Inquiring radio has Device IDs and Clocks of all radios in range 3/18/99 28 .

Master Paging a Slave IDa IDc A IDc C w Paging assumes master has slaves Device ID and an idea of its Clock 3/18/99 29 .

Master Paging a Slave IDa IDc A Page IDc IDc C w Paging assumes master has slaves Device ID and an idea of its Clock t A pages C with C’ Device ID s 3/18/99 30 .

Master Paging a Slave IDa IDc A IDc IDc C w Paging assumes master has slaves Device ID and an idea of its Clock t A pages C with C’ Device ID s t C Replies to A with C’ Device ID s 3/18/99 31 .

Master Paging a Slave IDa IDc A IDa IDc C w Paging assumes master has slaves Device ID and an idea of its Clock t A pages C with C’ Device ID s t C Replies to A with C’ Device ID s t A sends C its Device ID and Clock (FHS packet) 3/18/99 32 .

Master Paging a Slave IDa IDc A IDa IDc C w Paging assumes master has slaves Device ID and an idea of its Clock t A pages C with C’ Device ID s t C Replies to A with C’ Device ID s t A sends C its Device ID and Clock (FHS packet) t A connects as a master to C 3/18/99 33 .

master sends second train on remaining 16 frequencies w Slave listens for 11 ms (page scan) t If correlater triggers.Master Paging a slave fk Master IDa IDc IDc IDc IDa IDc fk+1 f’ k f’ k+1 fk+2 FHS fk+2 fm fk+1 Slave IDc 625 µs w Master pages slave (packet has slave ID) at slave page frequency (1 of 32) t Master sends page train of 16 most likely frequencies in slave hop set s Slave ID sent twice a transmit slot on slave page frequency s Master listens twice at receive slot for a response t If misses. slave wakes-up and relays packet at response frequency t Master responds with FHS packet (provides master’ Device ID and Clock) s t Slave joins piconet 3/18/99 34 .

Paging Procedure 1.25ms FHS Pager train A 10 ms A A A B B CONNECTION Paged scan fk B 11.25 seconds) w If clocks are off. then second train sent on last 16 frequencies for entire sleep period 3/18/99 35 .25 ms sleep fk+1 B w Each slave page scans on unique sequence of 32 channels fk t Master pages 16 most likely channels for entire sleep period (nominally 1.

PHYSICAL LINK DEFINITION (II) SYNCHRONOUS CONNECTION-ORIENTED (SCO) LINK w circuit switching w symmetric. synchronous services w slot reservation at fixed intervals ASYNCHRONOUS CONNECTION-LESS (ACL) LINK w packet switching w (a)symmetric. asynchronous services w polling access scheme 3/18/99 36 .

8 721.8 54.3 57.0 384.8 172.8 172.8 172.6 108.Packet Types/Data Rates Packet Types SEGMENT Data Rates (Kbps) ACL link NULL POLL FHS DM1 DH1 TYPE DM1 DH1 DM3 DH3 DM5 AUX1 DM3 DH3 DH5 symmetric TYPE 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 SCO link NULL POLL FHS DM1 HV1 HV2 HV3 DV asymmetric 108.0 108.0 286.7 432.8 256.4 86.4 36.0 576.8 384.0 477.6 1 2 3 4 DM5 DH5 3/18/99 37 .

20 kbit/s.3 mA ⇒ 3 months t Voice mode 8-30 mA ⇒ 75 hours t Data mode average 5 mA (0. power will vary with implementation . Park releases AMA. gets PMA address s Device can participate within 2 ms * Estimates calculated with 600 mAh battery and internal amplifier.Mobile = Battery life w Low power consumption* t Standby current < 0.3-30mA. 25%) ⇒ 120 hours w Low Power Architecture t Programmable data length (else radio sleeps) t Hold and Park modes 60 µA s Devices connected but not participating s Hold retains AMA address.

Bluetooth Security w Provides link layer security between any two Bluetooth radios t Authentication (E1 algorithm) s Challenge/Response system t Encryption (privacy) s Encrypts data between two devices s Stream cipher with E0 algorithm t Key management and usage s Configurable Encryption key length (0-16 bytes) u Government export regulations u Radio negotiate key size s Key generation with E2-E3 algorithms u Authentication and Encryption keys .

Bluetooth Radio Modules w Complete radio on a module t Designed to meet “Limited Module Compliance” requirements s Pre-certified to meet global regulatory requirements s Allows devices assembled with modules to be “self-certified” t USB or Serial Interface t Solder-ball connections t External Antennae Compact FLASH Card Production Module 25 mm dia 17x33mm 19x35mm 25x25mm 36x43mm .

4 GHz IC electronics must run at high current levels 1 Mb/s symbol rate exploits maximum channel bandwidth t Fast frequency hopping and short data packets avoids interference t CVSD voice coding enables operation at high bit error rates t Air interface tailored to minimize current consumption t Relaxed link budget supports low cost single chip integration 3/18/99 41 .The international 2.4 GHz ISM band w Requirements t t t t t w Bluetooth solution t Channel bandwidth limited to 1 MHz Spectrum spreading must be employed Multiple uncoordinated networks may exist and cause interference Microwave ovens also use this band 2.

FCC. JAA. MPT for spectrum and power harmonization t Architecture compliant and safe for use on airlines s Working with FAA.Bluetooth is global w One version for the world t Architecture compliant with global emission rules (2.4 GHz ISM band) s Working through FCC. airplane manufacturers and airlines t Reviewing security architecture with affected countries . EC.

… ) sCable replacement (Speaking laptop. … ) sAd-hoc networking (File exchange. … ) 3/18/99 43 . instant postcard. cellphone.Software Goals w Good out of box experience t Should provide value with existing applications sUtilize existing APIs and protocols where possible t Should be introduced with hardware that provides value sNotebooks sCellphones sHandhelds t Should support the usage model sData access points (POTs Modem.

Example Software Implementation Bluetooth Adviser Speaker Phone Still Image (User mode driver) COMM apps & Obex RFCOMM HID class driver Streaming Class Driver Still Image Driver Virtual COMM Port Emulation Network Transport Protocols NDIS miniport (Access Points) Networking Apps user kernel w PC Windows* example supporting the Bluetooth usage model t WDM Driver s Windows* 2000 s Windows 98* HID minidriver Audio minidriver TS 07.10 NDIS miniport (PAN) RF Bus Driver Interface RF Bus Driver (RFBD) HCI Driver USB Minidriver MS USB Driver Stack SW HW PC Card driver SYSTEM BUS USB Interface & Host Controller Bluetooth LM Bluetooth Baseband PC Card Interface & Host Controller Bluetooth LM Bluetooth Baseband .

Summary w Bluetooth is a radio system (not a radio) t Hardware t Software framework t Interoperability requirements w Bluetooth Radio System is optimized for mobility t Primarily cable replacement sNOT a WLAN technology t Targeted for Global use by mobile users .