Sustainable Maritime Transportation and Exploitation of Sea Resources – Rizzuto & Guedes Soares (eds) © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group

, London, ISBN 978-0-415-62081-9

Detections of potential collision situations by relative motions of vessels under parameter uncertainties
Lokukaluge P. Perera & C. Guedes Soares
Centre for Marine Technology and Engineering (CENTEC), Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal

ABSTRACT: The detection of potential collision situations by relative motions of vessels under parameter uncertainties in vessel manoeuvring is presented in this study. The detection process consists of the observations of the relative navigation trajectory and course-speed vector between two vessels. The proposed detection process is developed as a part of the intelligent navigation system that makes decisions under multi-vessel collision situations. A two vessel collision situation is considered and the extended Kalman filter algorithm is used in this study to estimate the relative navigational trajectory as well as the relative course-speed vector. Finally, prior and posterior collision/near-collision situations are simulated and successful simulation results on the detection of potential collision situations are also presented in this paper. 1 INTRODUCTION situations in maritime transportation. The proposed methodology (i.e. detections of collision situations) is a part of the intelligent navigation system (INS) that is presented in Figure 1 and further described in section 2.

The detections of collision situations are important facilities of transportation systems to improve the safety and security in navigation. However, collision situations could be simplified by assuming that the targets are moving in straight line motions and states/parameters conditions are deterministic. Even though, land and air transportation systems could satisfy these assumptions, maritime transportation systems are often involved with maneuvering trajectories and stochastic state/parameter situations under varying sea conditions. Furthermore, the navigation constraints and routing schemes in maritime transportation have enforced vessels to execute close quarter navigation, which increases the risk of collisions (Robson, 2006). Therefore, the detections of collision situations under maritime transportation will be a complicated process that needs advanced tools and technologies. This study proposes a methodology to detect collision and near collision situations by estimating the relative navigation trajectory and the relative course-speed vector between two vessels. Furthermore, the vessels’ navigation under maneuvering and stochastic states/parameter conditions is considered. Even though, this study is limited to a two vessels collision situation, this concept can be developed for a multi-vessel collision situation by accumulating multiple two vessel collision situations as proposed by Perera et al. (2011a). The estimated relative navigation trajectory and relative course-speed vector can use as an evaluation mechanism prior to collisions or near collision

Figure 1.

Intelligent navigation system.

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1.1

Collision in maritime transportation

Human errors are still one of the major causes of maritime accidents (Guedes Soares & Teixeira, 2001) and 75–95% of marine accidents and causalities are caused by some types of human errors (Rothblum et al., 2002, and Antão & Guedes Soares 2008) in accordance with the reported data. Therefore, as illustrated by e-navigation (eNAV 2010), the accumulation of intelligent decision making capabilities into navigational systems will limit the human subjective factors in navigation, which can increase the safety and security of maritime transportation. The proposed e-navigation concept can be formulated as a collaborated network of traffic information among vessels and shore based stations to improve safety and security in maritime transportation. Furthermore, the e-navigation can decrease navigational errors, increase awareness of vessel situations, improve traffic monitoring facilities, and reduce transportation costs. (Ward and Leighton, 2010). 1.2 Safety measures and risk assessments

The safety measures of maritime transportation were influenced by several groups (Wang et al., 2006): ship designer, ship operators and maritime societies. The ship designers influence by safe design of bridge layout, navigational equipments, engine and steering control, maneuverability, and redundancy. The ship operators influence by safe operation of ship speed, manning levels, crew attitude and training, and maintenance. The maritime societies influence by safe aiding and monitoring of vessel traffic systems, pilots, traffic lanes, aids to navigation (i.e. AIS, GPS) and safety inspection procedures. However, the effectiveness of maritime safety measures are eventually evaluated under rigorous navigation and collision conditions with respect to the vessel operator’s decisions. Therefore, the best onboard navigation tools (i.e. intelligent systems and sensors) should be available to influence the ship operation to make better decisions that improve the safety and security conditions within maritime transportation. The analysis of vessel navigation information will help to detect collision situations and to assess collision risk. The collision risk should be evaluated in real-time by vessels and/or Vessel Traffic Monitoring and Information Systems (VTMIS) in order to guarantee safety and security measures in maritime transportation. As illustrated by Imazu (2006), the mathematical formulation of collision detection between two vessels can be divided in two methods: Closest Point Approach method (CPA) that is a two dimensional method (2D) and

Predicted Area of Danger method (PAD) that is a three dimensional method (3D). The CPA method consists of calculating the shortest distance between two vessels and assessing the collision risk that could be predicted with respect to each vessel domain. However, the CPA method alone cannot be implemented in the evaluation process of collision risk, since it does not consider the vessel size, course and speed variations. An extensive study of the CPA method with respect to a two vessel collision situation is presented by Kwik (1989). The PAD method consists of modeling one vessel possible trajectories as an inverted cone and the other vessel trajectory as an inverted cylinder, being the region of both object intersections categorized into the Predicted Area of Danger. Both vessels’ size, course and speed conditions could be integrated into the geometry of the objects of navigational trajectories in this study. However, both studies are limited to constant parameter conditions (i.e. fixed vessel’s speed and course conditions) that may not always be realistic in maritime transportation. Therefore, a novel method to detect potential collision situations with the parameter uncertainties in maritime transportation (i.e. variation in vessel speed and course conditions) is proposed in this study. 1.3 Collision risk assessment

This study formulates a methodology to detect potential collision situations, while vessels are maneuvering in close proximity. The proposed detection process consists of the derivation of relative navigation trajectory and course-speed vector between two vessels that could use to evaluate prior collision/near collision conditions. Even though, in this study, the collision detection process is derived with respect to a two vessel collision situation that can be developed for a multivessel collisions situation by the accumulation of two vessel collision situations. The proposed collision detection process consists of following steps; the observation of both vessels’ positions; the estimation of both vessels’ velocities, accelerations and navigational trajectories; the calculation of the vessel relative navigational trajectory and relative course-speed vector of a selected vessel with respect to other vessel. In general, the vessel navigators monitor collision situations by observing the relative bearing of other vessels in open sea; the unchanged relative bearing of a vessel could lead to a collision situation. However, this requirement alone could not predict accurate collision conditions and should not be used in the decision making process under complex navigational conditions; that involve multiple vessels.

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Therefore, the observation of relative navigation trajectory and relative course-speed vector of the other vessel could use to improve the detection of collision situations. The relative navigation trajectory could illustrate as a conventional bearing observation situation. However, the relative course-speed vector of the other vessel can be used as an additional tool that could improve the collision detection process. It is assumed that both vessels’ positions are measured by conventional AIS and GPS systems. However, there are many challenges faced by the systems during its position measurements: The first, the AIS and GPS position signals can be associated with sensor noise and/or system errors, therefore the measurements accuracy would be compromised. The second, the vessels are maneuvering under varying sea conditions; the own and target vessel kinematics and dynamics could be associated with time-varying parameter conditions. Therefore, these conditions are identified as parameter uncertainties that have been illustrated in this study. Hence, a proper mechanism to identify the vessel states (i.e. position, velocity and acceleration) is considered. The extended Kalman filter, one of the well known estimation algorithms, to overcome previous challenges and to estimate accurate vessel states is proposed. One should note that the state estimation based only on both vessels’ position measurements is another advantage in this approach. The main contribution of this study can be summarized as the estimation of vessel’s relative navigation trajectory and course-speed vector based on parameter uncertainties in vessel maneuvering that can be used to detect potential collision situations among vessels. The organization of this paper is as follows. Section 2 contains an overview of the INS. Section 3 contains the mathematical formulation of detection of collision situations. Computational simulations are presented in Section 4. Finally, the conclusion is presented in section 5. 2 INTELLIGENT NAVIGATION SYSTEM

The proposed INS that is designed to accumulate intelligent e-navigation facilities into maritime transportation is presented in Figure 1. As indicated in the figure, the system consists of three main sub-systems: Vessel Monitoring & Information System (VMIS), Collision Avoidance System (CAS), and Autonomous Navigation System (ANS). The main objective of the VMIS is to facilitate the INS by vessel traffic information that consists of vessels’ position, course, speed, acceleration

and trajectory conditions. The system consists of a scan sensor (i.e. Radar/Laser Sensor) and three main modules: Vessel Detection & Tracking (VDT) Module, Vessel State Estimation and Trajectory Prediction (VSETP) Module and Inter Vessel Communication (IVC) Module. A Radar/Laser sensor is used as a target detection unit in the VMIS. The VDT module consists of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based multi-vessel detection and tracking process. The main objective of the VDT module is to detect and to track vessels that are represented by clusters of data points that have been generated by the Radar/ Laser sensor. The VSETP module consists of an Extended Kalman filter (EKF) based vessel state estimator (i.e. position, velocity and acceleration) and navigational trajectory prediction process. This process is executed by information given by the VDT module. Furthermore, each vessel state conditions (i.e. position, course, speed, etc.) will transfer from the IVC module to the respective vessel OVC module through a wireless network. The proposed CAS is presented in Figure 1. The main objective of the CAS module is to general collision avoidance decisions/actions in a sequential format that could be executed during vessel navigation. As presented in the figure, the CAS consists of the following modules: Own Vessel Communication (OVC) Module, Parallel Decision Making (PDM) Module, Sequential Action Formation (SAF) module, and Collision Risk Assessment (CRS) Module. The OVC module is the communication unit between the vessel and the VMIS as mentioned previously. The PDM module consists of a Fuzzy logic based decision making process that generates parallel collision avoidance decisions with respect to each vessel that is under collision risk. The inputs to the PDM module are the range, bearing, relative course and relative speed of the other vessel. The outputs from the PDM module are course and speed change decisions of the vessel. The inputs and outputs are formulated as fuzzy membership functions. The Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGs) rules and regulations and expert navigational knowledge are considered for the devolvement of Fuzzy rules. The main objective of the CRA module is to evaluate the collision risk and the expected time until collision of each target vessel with respect to vessel navigation. The tools developed in this study, the relative navigation trajectories and the course-speed vectors, will use in the CRA module to improve the system capabilities. Furthermore, the CRA module will transfer collision risk information to the SAF module for

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collision avoidance actions. The main objective of the SAF module is to organize the parallel decisions that were formulated by the PDM module into sequential actions, considering the time until collisions that were formulated by the CRA module. Furthermore, these actions will be executed on vessel navigation. Finally, the collision avoidance actions formulated by the SAF module will be transferred into the ANS. These actions are further divided into two categories of course and speed controls that will implement on vessel navigation. The main objective of the ANS is to control the vessel course and speed conditions with respect to collision situations. The proposed ANS is associated with a decentralized control approach where the two control sub-systems are introduced: Steering Control Sub-system (SCS), and Speed Control Sub-system (SPS). The main objective of the SCS is to control the vessel course conditions. The main objective of the SPS is to control the vessel speed conditions. Therefore, the proposed INS is capable of handling multi-vessel collision situations under complex collision conditions. Further details on the INS can be found on Perera et al. (2010a,b, 2011a,b).

Figure 2.

Two vessel collision situation.

3

DETECTIONS OF COLLISION SITUATIONS

The mathematical formulation of detection of collision situations is presented in this section. Therefore, the section is divided into three sections of derivation of system model, formulation of measurement model and Extended Kalman filter. In the system model section, a mathematical model for a two vessel collision situation is derived. In the measurement model section, the observations of available vessel states are formulated. In the extended Kalman filter section, the procedure for the estimation of relative vessel navigation trajectory and course-speed vector is presented.

by Ro and Ra. The x and y velocity components of the own and target vessels are presented by vxo, vyo, vxa and vya respectively. The own and target vessels’ normal and tangential acceleration components are presented by ano, ato, ana and ata respectively. The collision encounter angle between vessels is presented by θa. To capture the maneuvering conditions in both vessels a suitable mathematical model is considered. The continuous-time curvilinear motion model that could be formulated for ocean vessel navigation is illustrated in this study. The standard continuous-time curvilinear motion model for the own vessel can be written as: (1)

The standard continuous-time curvilinear motion model for the target vessel can be written as: (2)

3.1

Two vessel collision situation To avoid trigonometrical angle conditions, the following functions are proposed:
f vyo = sin χo = f vya = sin χa = vyo y vxo + vyo
2 2

A two vessel collision situation is presented in Figure 2. The own vessel, the vessel that is equipped with the INS, is located in point O (xo, yo). The target vessel, the vessel that needs to be avoided, is located at point A (xa, ya). The own vessel speed and course conditions are represented by Vo and χo respectively. The target vessel speed and course conditions are represented by Va and χa respectively. The own and target vessels’ instantaneous radius of curvature of maneuvering are presented

; f vxo = cos χo = ; f vxa = cos χa =

vxo vxo2 + vyo2 vxa vxa 2 vya 2

vya vxa 2 vya 2

708

3.2

System model

The own and target vessels’ continuous-time curvilinear motion models presented in Equations (1) and (2) can be summarized into a system model and that can be written as: (3) where the system states, x, and the system function, f(x), can be further illustrated as:
⎡ xo ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ yo ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢vxo ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢vyo ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ato ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ano ⎥ x=⎢ x ⎥ ⎢ a⎥ ⎢y ⎥ ⎢ a⎥ ⎢v ⎥ ⎢ xa ⎥ ⎢v ⎥ ⎢ ya ⎥ ⎢a ⎥ ⎢ ta ⎥ ⎢a ⎥ ⎣ na ⎦

The Jacobian of the system function, f(x), can be written as:
∂ ( f ( )) = ∂x 1 ⎡0 0 ⎢0 0 0 ⎢ ⎢0 0 a f vxo − a f vyo to vxo no vxo ⎢ ⎢0 0 a f vyo + a f vxo to vxo v no vxo v ⎢ ⎢0 0 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢0 0 ⎢0 0 0 ⎢ ⎢0 0 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢0 0 ⎢0 0 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢0 0 ⎢ 0 ⎣0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
vya ata fvxa v

0 1
vxo ato fvyo − ano fvvyo vyo yo vyo ato fvyo v

0 0 f vxo f
vyo v vxo ano fvyo v

0 0 − f vyo f vxo 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ f vya ⎥ ⎥ f vxa ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎦ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

⎡vxo ⎢v ⎢ yo ⎢ ⎢ato f ⎢ ⎢ato f ⎢0 ⎢ 0 f(x) = ⎢ ⎢vxa ⎢v ⎢ ya ⎢ ⎢ata f ⎢ ⎢ata f ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣0

⎤ ⎥ ⎥ vxo − a f vyo ⎥ x ⎥ no vyo + a f vxo ⎥ ⎥ no ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ vxa − a f vya ⎥ ⎥ na vya + a f vxa ⎥ ⎥ n na ⎥ ⎥ ⎦

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f vxa
v f vya

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 + 0 0
vxa ana fvxa n vya ata fvya

vx vya 0 0 ata fvxxa − ana fvxa a v

vxa vya ata fvya − ana fvya v v vxa ana fvya

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0

0 0

where wx is white Gaussian process noise with 0 mean and Q covariance. The covariance, Q, can be further written as: Q diag ⎡Qxo Qyo Qvxo Qvyo Qato Qano d ⎣

where the respective functions are derived as:
vxo fvxo =

(v

vyo2
2

xo

Qxa Qya Qvxa Qvya Qata Qana ⎤ ata a ⎦

vyo fvxo v

=−

(v

+ vyo vxovyo
2

2 3/ 2

)

vxo fvyo = − y

(v

vyovxo
2

xo

+ vyo2 vxo2 + vyo2 vyavxa

)

3/ 2

,

xo

+ vyo2

)

3/ 2

vyo fvyo vy

=

(v

2

xo

)

3/ 2

where Qxo, Qyo, Qvxo, Qvyo, Qato, Qano, Qxa, Qya, Qvxa, Qvya, Qata and Qana are respective system state covariance values. Furthermore, the own and target vessels tangential and normal acceleration components are presented by ato, ano, ata, and ana respectively. The respective acceleration derivates can be written as:

vxa fvxa =

(v

vya 2
2

xa

vya fvxa = − v

(v

+ vya vxavya
2

2 3/ 2

)

vxa fvya = − y

(v

2

xa

+ vya 2 vxa 2
2

)

3/ 2

,

xa

+ vya

2 3/ 2

)

vya fvya = vy

(v

xa

+ vya 2

)

3/ 2

3.3

Measurement model

where wato, wano, wata and wnta are derivates of tangential and normal accelerations of the own and target vessels that are formulated as white Gaussian distributions with 0 mean and Qato, Qano, Qata, and Qana respective covariance values.

The measurement model is formulated to measure the own and target vessel actual positions. The position measurements in discrete-time are considered due to the availability of own and target vessels’ positions in discrete time instants. It is assumed that the correlations between vessel position measurements are negligible. The own and

709

target vessels’ position measurement model can be written as: z ( k ) = h( x( k )) wz ( k ) (4)

However, this study is limited to the vessel positions measurements. The EKF algorithm (Gelb et al., 2000) can be summarized as: • System Model x(t ) = f x(t )) wx (t ) x( E [wx (t )] 0 , E [wx (t );wx (t )] = [Q(t )] • Measurement Model z (k ) = h(x(k )) wz (k ), k , 2 , ... E [wz (k ] k , E [wz (k );wz (k )] = [R(k )] • Error Conditions (7) where x(t ) is the state error vector and estimated states of the system. • System Initial States is the (6) (5)

where the system states, z(k), and the function, h(x(k)), can be further illustrated as: ( k ) = ⎡ zxo ( k ) z yo ( k ) zxa ( k ) z ya ( k ) ⎤ ; ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ xo ( k ) ⎤ ⎢ y k )⎥ o ⎥ h( x( k )) = ⎢ ⎢ xa ( ) ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ya ( k ) ⎦ where zxo(k), zyo(k), zxa(k) and zya(k) are the own and target vessel x and y position measurements respectively, and wz(k) is white Gaussian measurement noise with 0 mean and covariance R(k). The covariance, R(k), can be further illustrated as: R( k ) = diag ⎡Rxo ( k ) Ryo (k k ⎣ Rxa ( k Rya ( k ) ⎤ ⎦
T

(8) where P(0) is the state initial covariance, describing the uncertainty present on the initial estimates. • Other Conditions E[
x (t ); w z ( k

where Rxo(k), Ryo(k), Rxa(k), and Rya(k) are presented by the respective system measurement covariance values. The Jacobian matrix of the measurement function, h(z(k)), can be written as:
⎡1 ⎢0 )) = ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎦

]

for l f all k ,t

(9)

∂ (h ( ∂x

• State Estimation Propagation (10) • Error Covariance Extrapolation

3.4

Extended kalman filter

The Kalman filter is a well known estimation algorithm. However, the Kalman Filter (KF) general algorithm is limited for application of linear systems; therefore the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is considered as a standard technique that could be used for a number of non-linear estimation applications. The Extended Kalman filter is proposed in this study as the estimation algorithm for the own and target vessels’ states (i.e. position, velocity and acceleration). The estimated vessel states are used to calculate the relative navigation trajectory and course-speed vector of the target vessels. In general, the own and target vessel positions are measured as noisy position values; therefore, the estimation algorithm is used to increase the position accuracy. In some situations, the own vessel acceleration conditions can also be measured and can be used to improve the state estimation.

(11)

where P(k) is the estimated error covariance with P ( k ) = diag ⎡ Pxo ( k ) Pyo ( k ) Pvxo k ) Pvyo ( k ) ⎣ Pato ( k ) Pano ( k ) Pxa ( k ) Pya ( k ) y Pvxa k ) Pv ( k ) Pata ( k ) Pana ( k ) ⎤ vya ⎦ where Px(k), Pvx(k), Py(k), Pvy(k), Pat(k) and Pan(k) are respective estimated state error covariance values. • State Estimate Update

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When the measurement data is available from the sensors, the system state can be estimated as: (12) where x(k−) and x(k+) are the prior and posterior estimated system states respectively, and K(k) is the Kalman gain. • Error Covariance Update (13) where P(k−) and P(k+) are the prior and posterior error covariance values of the system respectively.

• Kalman Filter Gain
ˆ

figure, a near collision situation can be observed. A zoomed view of the same trajectories near the collision point is presented in the top plot of Figure 4. The zoomed view of the relative trajectory of the same situation is presented in the bottom plot of Figure 4. One should note that the intersection of the two trajectories will not necessarily represent a collision point because each vessel can pass the collision point in different time intervals. However, this confusion can be clarified by the observation of the relative navigational trajectories; where the relative trajectory of target vessel propagation near the own vessel initial position should be in a near collision situation. These conditions are further illustrated in Figures 3 and 4. Considering the respective zoomed view near the own vessel position in the bottom plot of Figure 4, each estimated position of the target vessel consists of the relative course-speed vector

(14)

3.5 Relative trajectory and course-speed vector The relative trajectory of the target vessel can be calculated by the target vessel’s relative x and y positions that can be written as: (15) (16) where and are estimated relative x and y positions of the target vessel. The relative coursespeed vector of target vessel is calculated by the relative x and y velocity components and can be written as: (17) (18) and represent the estimated x and where y relative velocity components of target vessel respectively. Hence, the target vessel’s estimated x and y relative velocity components can be used for the calculations of relative course-speed vector. 4 COMPUTATIONAL SIMULATIONS
Figure 3. Two vessels near collision situation.

A computational simulation of a two vessel near collision situation is presented in Figure 3. The top plot of Figure 3 represents the own and target vessels’ actual (Act.), measured (Mea.) and estimated (Est.) navigation trajectories. The vessel position measurements are generated by adding sensor noise into the actual trajectory. As presented in the

Figure 4. Two vessels collision situation (zoomed view).

711

that is presented by an arrow and estimated by the extended Kalman filter. This representation is an important factor in the detection of collision conditions even under near collision situations. The own and target vessels’ velocity and relative velocity components that are estimated by the EKF are presented on Figure 5. The own and target vessels’ acceleration components that are also estimated by the EKF are presented in Figure 6. These estimated states can be further used for the decision making process of collision avoidance among vessels. This detection of collision situation is further elaborated in Figure 7, where a prior collision situation is presented. The navigational trajectories of both vessels are presented in the top plot of Figure 7. The zoomed view of the prior collision situation is presented in the bottom plot of Figure 7. As presented in the plot, the target vessel relative trajectory is heading towards the own vessel initial position with course-speed vectors that are pointed towards the own vessel. Therefore, the target vessel relative navigational trajectory and course-speed vectors can be used for prior collision situations in order to detect the collision risk as proposed in this study.

Figure 6.

Acceleration estimation.

Figure 7.

Two vessel prior collision situation.

5

CONCLUSION

Figure 5.

Velocity estimation.

A methodology for detection of collision situations that is based on uncertain parameters in vessel maneuvering is presented in this study. As presented in the simulations, the target vessels’ relative trajectory as well as the relative course-speed vector could be used for the assessment of prior collision situations. The proposed collision detection process will be used on the INS that is previously described in this paper.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The first author has been supported by the Doctoral Fellowship of the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia) under contract n.º SFRH/ BD/46270/2008. Furthermore, this work contributes to the project on the “Methodology for ships manoeuvrability tests with self-propelled models”, which is being funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology under contract n.º PTDC/TRA /74332/2006. REFERENCES
Antão, P. and Guedes Soares, C. 2008, “Causal factors in accidents of high speed craft and conventional ocean going vessels,” Reliability Engineering and System Safety, vol. 93, pp. 1292–1304. Cockcroft, A.N. and Lameijer, J.N.F. 2001. A Guide to The Collision Avoidance Rules. Elsevier ButterworthHeinemann, Burlington, MA. USA. eNAV, e-navigation 2008. URL http://www.enavigation. org/ Gelb, A., Kasper, Jr., J.F., Nash, Jr., R.A., Price, C.F. and Sutherland, Jr., A.A. 2001. Applied Optimal Estimation. The MIT Press, MA. USA. Guedes Soares, C. and Teixeira, A.P. 2001, Risk Assessment in Maritime Transportation. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, Vol. 74, pp. 299–309. Imazu, H. 2006. Advanced topics for marine technology and logistics. Lecture Notes on Ship collision and integrated information system, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan. Kwik, K.H. 1989. Calculations of ship collision avoidance manoeuvres: A simplified approach. Ocean Engineering 16 (5/6), 475–491. Perera, L.P., Carvalho, J.P. and Guedes Soares, C. 2010a. Bayesian network based sequential collision avoidance action execution for an ocean navigational sys-

tem. In: In Proc. 8th IFAC Conference on Control Applications in Marine Systems. Rostock, Germany, pp. 301–306. Perera, L.P., Carvalho, J.P. and Guedes Soares, C. 2010b. Fuzzy-logic based parallel collisions avoidance decision formulation for an ocean navigational system. In: In Proc. 8th IFAC Conference on Control Applications in Marine Systems. Rostock, Germany, pp. 295–300. Perera, L.P., Carvalho, J.P. and Guedes Soares, C. 2011a. Intelligent Collision Avoidance Facilities for Maritime Transportation. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Maritime Technology and Engineering (MARTECH2011). Lisbon, Portugal. Perera, L., Carvalho, J.P. and Guedes Soares, C. 2011b. Fuzzy-logic based decision making system for collision avoidance of ocean navigation under critical collision conditions. Journal of Marine Science and Technology 16, 84–99. Robson, J.K. 2006. Overview of collision detection in the UKCS. Research Report (RR514), AEA Technology PLC, Oxon, UK. Rothblum, A.M., Wheal, D.,Withington, S., Shappell, S.A.,Wiegmann, D.A., Boehm,W. and Chaderjian, M. April 2002. Key to successful incident inquiry. In: 2nd International Workshop on Human Factors in Offshore Operations (HFW). Wang, G., Ji, C., Kujala, P., Lee, S.G., Marino, A., Sirkar, J., Pedersen, P.T., Vredeveldt, A.W. and Yuriy, V. 2006. Collision and grounding. In: 16th International Ship and Offshore Structures Congress, Committee V. 1 Report, Vol. 2, Southapton, UK. Ward, N. and Leighton, S. 2010. Collision avoidance in the e-navigation environment. In: 17th Conference of the International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities. Cape Town, South Africa.

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