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Ulrike Niklas

Introduction to Tamil Prosody
In: Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient. Tome 77, 1988. pp. 165-227.

Citer ce document / Cite this document : Niklas Ulrike. Introduction to Tamil Prosody. In: Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient. Tome 77, 1988. pp. 165-227. doi : 10.3406/befeo.1988.1744


Table of contents Introduction Part One : Methodical Description of the System of Tamil Prosody (§§0.-13.) Chapter One : The component elements (§§ 0.-6.) — The basic system (§0.) — eluttu "phone" (§1.) — acai "metreme" (§2.) — ctr "metrical foot" (§3.) — lalai "linkage" (§4.) — ati "metrical line" (§5.) — totai "ornament" / "ornamentation" (§6.) Chapter Two : The types of verses (§§• 7.-13.) — On verses in general (§7.) — venpá (§ 8.1.) — venpávinam (§ 8.2.) — áciriyappa (§ 9. 1 .) — âciriyappâvinam (§ 9.2.) — kalippâ (§ m.) — kalippâvinam (§11.) — uancippà "(§ 12.1) — vaňcippuvinam (§ 12.2.) — marutpá (§ 13.) Part Two : Annotations and Illustrations (The order and numbering of §§ is synchronized with that of Part One, hence it is unnecessary to repeat it here.) Index : " 1. Tamil Terms 2. English Terms 3. Symbols : Bibliography Introduction The system of prosody is probably the most indigenous and original part of Tamil grammar, having at least two important elements (acai and lalai) which in this form won't occur in any other of the great prosodical systems known to us, including the Sanskrit traditions. 165 169 169 1 69 169 170 172 174 176 177 179 179 180 182 183 184 185 189 189 190 190 191

223 225 225 226



Prosodical prescriptions play an important role in the composition of large parts of Tamil literature, especially in the postclassical and neo-classical strata. Many a grammatical formation and choice of expression by the poets will be due to metrical requirements only, which is true mainly for numerous works that originated during the 18. and 19. century. During this period, a wave of "neoclassical" literature arose, including many pieces that may be evaluated rather with a view to their prosodical formation only than regarding their contents. Moreover even in earlier strata of Tamil literature the diction and grammatical formation of works composed in the uenpâ-metre must be largely influenced by the prosodical requirements, as venpâ is a very strict metre. Hence, a true evaluation of Tamil poetical works must necessarily take into account their "technical" aspects, too. The present paper aims at introducing and explaining the basic elements of Tamil verse-formation to a non Tamil-speaking public. It is meant as a very first introduction to the subject, purposely leaving out the very detailed and complicated problems that arise from a close study of the original grammatical literature and which will be reserved for further publications. Nevertheless, this opportunity was made use of for introducing a number of new (or newly defined) technical terms as explained here in Part Two, § II. 0.1. As far as the true indigenous Tamil tradition of prosody is concerned, not merging largely with elements from Sanskrit—which is well the case in later times — we have to distinguish two main streams: — what is called here "the old tradition" is based on Ceyyuliyal, the eighth chapter of Porulalikàram of Tolkàppiyam, the most ancient Tamil grammar existing today, dating from about the beginning of the Christian era; — what is referred to here as "the later tradition" reflects the views mainly of Yápparuňkalakkárikai and —to some extent— Yápparuňkalam, both works dating from the 10. century AD and serving as the main reference works for questions concerning prosody up to the present day (which is true mainly for the Kârikai). Tolkàppiyam knowns 34 elements of prosody, treating a literary composition in its entireness, including questions of style and euphony, whereas the later tradition is restricted to the six basic elements and the descriptions of the types of verses only, as represented here in the First Part of this paper. Despite from the different treatments of literary works — Tolkàppiyam keeping in view the whole of the literary composition in all its aspects, while the later works refer to the technical aspects only — there are a number of differences regarding the definitions of certain technical terms that are common to both the traditions. It occurs that a term, introduced and defined by Tolkàppiyam, is embraced by the later tradition but gets a new definition there. In cases as for instance the names of the different types of ati (cf. §§5.1., 5.2., П.5.1., II. 5.2.) this doesn't cause any problem, as the definitions are clear and simple in both traditions. But there are other cases (e.g. the terms icai and ôcai), for which more detailed studies are still to be carried out, before we can arrive at a full comprehension of these terms themselves and the difference of their definitions in the two streams of tradition. In such cases (e.g. § 7.7.), what has been said here, should be regarded as a first approach only. The most important difference, however, lies in the fact that the later tradition has the tendency to simplify the handling of several crucial problems discussed in detail in Tolkàppiyam. For instance the fact of not recognizing the two subtypes of metreme, viz. nërpu and niraipu as such, leads to a different form of scanning the

In the same way. hence. to come back to the methods of the old tradition whenever it may be useful or necessary ('metri causa'). This paper forms the introductory part of an intended series of publications on Tamil prosody. As was already hinted at earlier. using elements of terms already existing and shaping them into a form applicable to the special features of Tamil tradition and —in some cases —to expand or to restrict the definitions of existing terms which are basically applicable to the Tamil system. Finally. In this paper we will mainly adopt the ways and methods of the later tradition. applying new linguistic terms borrowed from different schools of modern linguistics and always carrying with them backgrounds of particular systems of grammatical theory. Obviously.О. Traditional Tamil grammar.INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY 167 respective metrical feet within a stanza in the later tradition. the only way to solve this problem is to coin new terms. . this Second Part consists mainly of examples drawn from different grammatical works and their commentaries. hence always largely influenced by Latin (or Old Greek) theories of grammar and thus bearing connotations which are not suitable to the Tamil system. and we will point out here and there only the different definitions and methods of the old tradition.). which is mainly referring to the First Part only (cf. as well as from parts of Tamil literature. that are needed as a background for the understanding of several features of the Prosodical system. render the Tamil technical terms into terms common within our own grammatical systems. which would lead to unnecessary confusion rather than to useful elucidation. including those undertaken by the first missionaries and — in a way— "fathers of European Tamil studies". too. however. § П. while the First Part alone may be used as a short and practical reference book. By this type of layout we thought of rendering the paper useful in two ways: The two parts together serve as an introductory textbook on Tamil prosody. This paper is divided into two parts. is not really helpful in the task of trying to understand (and to make understand) traditional Tamil grammar. being accessible through the complete Index of Tamil technical terms. which are still in use today. The examples serve to illustrate formal and technical features of the verses only. The First Part. The Second Part offers "Annotations and Illustrations" for all those paragraphs of the First Part which are marked by an asterisk (*). describes in two large chapters the six basic elements from which the Tamil prosodical system is built up (Chapter One) and the most important ones of the different Types of Verses of Tamil literature (Chapter Two).1. introductory remarks preceding the Index). without going too far into details. Besides offering some basic information about Tamil grammatical theories. A first endeavour in this direction was undertaken here concerning the terms for the six basic elements of Tamil Prosody (cf. it should be mentioned that all the examples have been given in the Tamil original only without any translation (with a very few exceptions only at instances where a translation was necessary in order to make the explanation clear). in order to "illustrate" the rules and descriptions given in a very condensed and theoretical form in the First Part. and particularly Tamil prosody. Earlier studies on Tamil grammar. this paper introduces some newly coined or newly defined technical terms in English for their counterparts in Tamil grammatical terminology. the modern development. reserving the right. their contents are not being discussed in this paper. "Methodical Description of the System of Tamil Prosody". too. Part Two. contains quite some features and theories that are unique and explainable within their own system only.

sponsored by a scholarship of the Government of India and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).168 ULRIKE NIKLAS representing the results of a research project. I'm thanking Pandit T. — ■ compilation and translation of all the stanzas used as examples in the works mentioned above. —. Christian Diitschmann. whenever I approached him for his advice. — translation of the Yàppu-patalam of ViracoHyam. Director of the Ecole Française d'Extrême Orient (EFEO). Л Note of Thanks My thanks are due in the first place to Professor F. Kantasamy introduced me first to the system of Tamil Prosody by a series of lectures he held for me during my stay in Taňcávur at the Tamil University in 1985. but 'last not least'. — translation of ceyyuliyal of Tolkàppiyam. corrected several mistakes and gave me many an useful comment on some of the more difficult topics. Professor S.Uni versitát Bochum. which is in progress. The project aims at translating the major works on Tamil prosody and at setting up a glossary of technical terms. EFEO at Pondichery. Finally. Ruhr. financed — in the beginning stage — by the Government of India and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). and further by the Institut Français de Pondichéry. . who read an earlier version of the manuscript for this paper. under consideration of the three commentaries. who helped me formulate the English text of the first version of this paper. It will comprise the following parts: — translation of Yapparuňkalakkárikai with the commentary of kunacâkarar. who always found time for a detailed and encouraging discussion. V. Gros.N.translation of Yapparuňkalam with an ancient viruttiyurai. — index cum glossary of technical terms. I'm thanking Mr. and who made it possible for me to spend several weeks in the quiet and inspiring environment of the EFEO at Pondichery working on this paper. Gopalaiyar.

*0. la. . 2) consonant (mey). Secondary phones are of ten types: 1) consonant-vowel combination (uyirmey).1. e.PART ONE METHODICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM OF TAMIL PROSODY Chapter one URUPPIYAL THE COMPONENT ELEMENTS 0. ku. In defining eluttu. The basic system of Tamil prosody is divided into six elements: 1) eluliu "phone". ELUTTU "Phone". *1. 4) consonant-a(ape(aí.g. 5) overshort i (kurriyalikaram). 4) talai "linkage". Tamil grammar sets up three distinctions: a) Division into primary (mutai) and secondary (càrpu) "phones". 2) acai "metreme". 3) vowel-a/ape/ш. ka. Primary phones are of two types: 1) vowel (uyir). 5) ati "(metrical) line". 3) clr "metrical foot". 6) totai "ornament"/"ornamentation". ki. In what follows. The basic system. each of these elements will be dealt with separately. 2) âytam. etc. ca.

see below.). m. Long vowels are: а. n. e. . There are two main kinds of acai. I. Here.3. I. и.). c) Consonants are divided into three groups (inam): 1) hard consonants (vallinam)'. Г. The significance of eluttu for the system of Tamil prosody is threefold: 1) eluttu form the constituent parts of an acai] 2) metrical lines (ati) may be classified according to the number of eluttu they contain (ace.7. б. the following ones may be skipped in case they would otherwise conflict with the particular rules for "linkages" (see below: cfr. acai forms the primary component of Tamil metres (hence. ё. and 2. 5. as one single acai may comprise two or even three syllables (see below: 2. 3) several features of "ornament" are defined with reference to the quality of consonants (cf. we are mainly concerned with the division into short and long vowels (or syllables). 10) shortened âytam. It is composed of elultu and forms itself part of a metrical foot or cïr (see below.170 ULRIKE NIKLAS 6) overshort и (kurriyalukaram). 1. аи. we call it "metreme"). ai. c) overshort u. к. p. n. 8) shortened au (aukârakkurukkam). i. namely nër-acai and nirai-acai. 2.). 3) middle consonants (ilaiyinam): У. and lalai. п. viz. о.). 3. a) a consonant without a following vowel. to Tolkàppiyam). *1. 2. A "metreme" need not necessarily be identical with a "syllable". v. 1. 3. 9) shortened m (makarakkurukkam). с). d) alapelai.1. 2) soft consonants (mellinam): ň. 2. Short vowels are: a. r. b) overshort í. In counting the "phones" of a metrical line (ati.2. I.4. ň. 7) shortened ai (aikârakkurukkam). ACAI "Metreme". as they form the basis for the definition of acai or "metreme" (see below. I. b) Vowels are divided into short ones (kuril) and long ones (nelil). с. 4.1. 2.).2. r> I. n.



*2.3. ner-acai is monosyllabic. It may consist of either one short syllable or one long syllable, either of which may be open (i.e. ending in a vowel) or closed (i.e. ending in a consonant). Thus, one nër-acai may be made up of one syllable of any of the following types. Syllable-initial consonants are irrelevant and hence put into brackets here. (C)V i.e. short and open; (C)VC i.e. short and closed; (C)V i.e. long and open; (C)VC i.e. long and closed. *2.4. nirai-acai is always disyllabic with an obligatorily short (both by nature and by position, hence always short and open) first syllable, while the second syllable is unrestricted as to quantity and structure. Thus, any of the following combination types of two syllables may constitute a nirai-acai: (C)V — CV (C)v — eye (C)V — CV (C)V — CVC *2.5. The difference between nër-acai and nirai-acai may be defined as follows: a) nër-acai is monosyllabic and unrestricted as to measure and structure; nirai-acai is disyllabic, with the first syllable short. b) nër-acai occurs either where one metrical foot starts with a long syllable, or where on single syllable regardless of its measure and structure remains within one metrical foot, not forming part of a disyllabic structure. nirai-acai occurs wherever one short syllable is followed by another syllable within the same metrical foot. 2.6. As symbols for these two main types of acai, we take: — for nër (the single stroke indicating its monosyllabic nature) = for nirai (the double stroke indicating its disyllabic nature).


*2.7. The ancient tradition of Tamil prosody (Tolkáppiyam) mentions two subtypes of metremes in addition to the two main types, namely nërpu and niraipu. They consist of a sequence of one nër or one nirai followed by a syllable containing (or made up of) an overshort и or normal short u (except from words having alltogether two short syllables only. Moreover, the (over)short и should not be followed by a consonant). This last syllable, ending in (over)short и need not necessarily count for the metrical analysis but may be regarded as an appendix to the preceding acai. Thus, a disyllabic structure of one long syllable followed by one syllable containing (over)short и may count as one single metreme of the type nërpu (e.g. vitu, aru, etc.). By the same token, a structure consisting of three syllables, with the first one



short and open and the last one ending in (over)short и may count as one single metreme of the type niraipu (e.g. vayiru, kaliru, katavu, etc.). The later tradition of Tamil prosody has lost the designations as nërpu and niraipu for these subtypes, though retaining the phenomenon at least in one context (cf. venpà). Here, the subtypes are defined as nër and nirai extended by one (over)short и respectively. For the sake of easy understanding and clear definition, we will retain the old denominations here and in the following. 2.8. As symbols for these two subtypes of acai we take: —h for nërpu and = + for niraipu. CIR "Metrical Foot".

3. 3.1.

cir is composed of acai and forms itself part of ati or the Metrical line. There are four kinds of cir, according to the number of acai contained in it: cir of one acai cir of two acai cir of three acai cir of four acai Each kind of cir is traditionally denoted by a patternword which itself constitutes an example for the respective cir. The pattern does not only refer to the internal structure of the cir but is also indicative of its outer form, i.e. опе-асш cir, two-acai cir, etc. The patternwords will be given below in their systematic places.

*3.2. cir consisting of one acai. There are two main types of this cir, consisting either of one single nër or of one single nirai. nër pattern: nâl nirai malar There are two subtypes of this cir, consisting either of one nërpu or of one niraipu (according to the terminology of Tolkâppiyam, which we will retain here). nërpu pattern: kácu niraipu pirappu These опе-асш cir occur only at the end of a venpâ stanza. They are called as acai-cir ("cir of [one] acai"). *3.3. cir consisting of two acai. There are four kinds of this cir, viz. nër-nër pattern: lëmâ nirai-nër pulimâ nirai-nirai karuvilam nër-nirai kuvilam



These four belong mainly to the metre called âciriyam or akaval, hence they are called aciriya-cïr or akavarcïr. Another designation is iyarcïr (from iyal "nature" : "natural cïr"). *3.4. cïr consisting of three acai. There are eight kinds of this cïr which are formed by adding either one nër or one nirai to each of the aforementioned two-acai cïr, viz. nër-nër-nër pattern: temáňkáy nirai-nër-nër pulimáňkuy nirai-nirai-nër karuvilaňkáy nër-nirai-nër kuvilaňkáy nër-nër-nirai tëmânkani nirai-nër-nirai pulimânkani nirai-nirai-nirai karuvilaňkani nër-nirai-nirai kuvilaňkani These eight cïr are called uri-cïr. Among them, the four ending in -nër (pattern: -káy) belong to the venpá-metre, hence they are called vencïr. The four ending in nirai (pattern: -kaní) belong to the vancippâ-metre, hence they are called vanci-cïr. *3.5. cïr consisting of four acai. There are sixteen kinds of this cïr which are formed by adding either one nër or one nirai to each of the aforementioned three-асш cïr, viz. nër-nër-nër-nër pattern: iëmâianpu nirai-nër-nër-nër pulimátanpu nirai-nirai-nër -nër karuvilantanpu nër -nirai-nër-nër kuvilantanpu nër-nër-nirai-nër tëmânarumpu nirai-nër-nîrai-nër pulimànarumpu nirai-nirai-nirai-nër karuvilanarumpû nër-nirai-nirai-nër kuvilanarumpu nër-nër-nër-nirai tëmâtannilal nirai-nër-nër-nirai pulimulannilal nirai-nirai-nër-nirai karuvilatannilal nër-nirai-nër-nirai kuvilatannilal nër-nër-nirai-nirai iëmânarunilal nirai-nër-nirai-nirai pulimànarunilal nirai-nirai-nirai-nirai karuvilanarunilal nër-nirai-nirai-nirai kuvilanarunilal These cïr are common in the vancippà metre only. There occur rarely in kali and akaval metres, but never in venpâ. They are called potu-cïr. 3.6. As mentioned above (З.1.), the patternwords not only show the internal structure of the cïr but are also indicatives of its outer form. Thus, the expression "mâ-cïr" denotes a two-асш cïr ending in nër (patterns: të-тп, puli-ma), etc. Moreover, the types of cïr may be named after the metres to which they mainly belong.

agreeing in nër.e. viz. 6) vaňci-talai. Each of these types will be explained in what follows.1.e. agreeing. viz. agreeing in nirai. 4. combination of two acai of the same type (nër with nër or nirai with nirai). 2) âciriya-talai. i. the linkage is of this type. Expressed in symbols: — — —*■ — *4. agreeing in nër. *4. 5) vaňci-talai. . If one nirai follows a vilam-cïr.4. the linkage is of this type. TA^AI ialai governs the way of linking two successive cïr. 3) vencïr-ventalai. 2) áciriya-talai.3. or of different types (nër with nirai or nirai with nër). Two criteria are important for the definition of the different types of Ialai.174 ULRIKE NIKLAS All these designations may be schematized as follows: General name(s) of all the cïr of this type acaiccïr âciriyaccïr akavarcïr iyarcïr uriccïr potuccïr "Linkage".2. i. There are seven types of Ialai. 7) kali-lalai. If one nër follows a mà-cïr. 2) "agreeing"/"disagreeing". 1) type and structure of the preceding cïr. 4. the combination of the final acai of the first cïr with the first acai of the following cïr. 1) âciriya-talai. This combination may be "agreeing" (onriya) or "disagreeing" (onrata). disagreeing. 1) áciriya-ialai. agreeing in nirai. 4) iyarcïr-ventalai. Names of the nër-ending cïr of this type nâl-cïr mà-cïr kày-cïr vencïr рп-cïr Names of the nira i-ending cïr of this type malar-cïr vilam-cïr kani-cïr vaňci-cír nilal-cïr Number of acai 1 2 3 4 4.

the linkage is of this type. though a рп-cïr is not permitted in the venpâ and may not be termed as "vencïr" . vencïr). (Compare 4.7. 6) vanci-talai..) *4. or in nirai. *4. If one nër follows a kani-cïr or a nilal-cïr. Hence. 4) iyarcir-ventalai. the linkage belongs to another type (cf. the linkage is of this type.6.6. With kani-cïr: (With nilal-cïr: . below. If one nirai follows a mà-cïr. If one nër follows a кпу-cïr (i. 5) vanci-talai.e.) *4. a disagreeing combination would be found after an áciriya-cfr (i. this type of linkage with a рп-cïr as its first member will also never occur in a venpà. non-agreeing. In case. either in nër.3 and 4. 4.).5. an áciriya-talai is always agreeing. (The combination of nër after a рп-cir is also understood as belonging to this type of linkage.4. With kani-cïr: (With nilal-cïr: *4Я. agreeing. or if one nër follows a vilam-cïr. 3) vencïr-ventalai. An iyarcir-ventalai thus is the disagreeing linkage with an iyarcïr as its first member. If one nirai follows a kani-cïr or a nilal-cïr. the linkage is of this type. the linkage is of this type. nirai after mâ-cïr or nër after vilam-cïr).INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY 175 Hence.e.

4. the definition of ati sets up the four-cfr line as the "standard" or "ideal" line. . acai is built from eluttu.176 ULRIKE NIKLAS In both kinds of vaňci-talai. that the term ati refers to the poetical line alone. *4. The later tradition on the other hand. Hence. here. cïr is built from acai. the five different forms of ati are distinguished with regard to the number of elutlu they contain within their four cïr. A kali-talai is always non-agreeing. 5. However.2. having the quality of a specific rhythm created by the different types of linkage (talai) and containing ornaments (tolai). AJ1 "Metrical Line".1 . If one nirai follows а кпу-сГг (or a рп-cïr) the linkage is of this type. cf. hence.1.8. seen from different points of view. ali must be built from lalai). (This definition is based on the object of describing each component part of poetry as built from the parts mentioned before. c) There are five different forms of ati. the names introduced by Tolkâp piyam are retained by the later tradition. b) Tolkâppiyam describes ati as that which has four cïr and that in which lalai and lolai occur. as there exists no special type of lalai for all the (our-acai cïr. a) ati is that in which one or more lalai occur. 7) kali-talai. — definition with regard to the number of cïr within one line (later tradition). the linkages with a kani-cïr as the first member have to be considered as the main types.9. They have been classified here. With kây-cïr: (With рп-cïr: _ _ _+ _л The linkage with кпу-cïr as its first member forms the main type of kali-talai. and it moreover is made clear. In the following synopsis. whereas the linkages with a nilal-cïr as the first member are subordinate. There are different kinds of definition for ati. *5. defined with reference to their respective measure.c): — definition with regard to the number of elultu within a four-cir line (Tolkâ ppiyam). lalai is built from cïr. defines the different kinds of ati with regard to the different number of cïr they contain. *5.7 and 4. Thus. whereas the linkage with рп-cïr as its first member is subordinate. Tolkâppiyam bases the definition of these five different kinds of ati on the "standard line" having four cïr. the five kinds of ali are shown with their different definitions according to the two different traditions of Tamil prosody as described above (5.

2. 2) etukai. ati-totai. 5) merkatuvdy. cïr-lolai. *6.e. or— within one line —in several metrical feet (cir). 5) alapetai. 3) iyaipu.1. Each of these will be explained in what follows. .INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY Synopsis of ati. There are five kinds of ornaments and seven methods of ornamentation. 7) murru. The seven methods are relevant for cïr-lolai alone. The five kinds of ornaments are called: 1) mónai. The seven methods of ornamentation are called: 1) inai. as they regulate the distribution of ornaments within one line. 2) polip pu. 3) or пи. 6) kïlkkatuvày. 4) muran. i. the kinds of ornament may occur either in several lines (ati). i.e. Mai denotes the several kinds of "ornament" (including alliteration and rhyme) as well as several methods of ornamentation. Number of cir (later tradition) 2 3 4 5 more than 5 6. 4) kulai. The five kinds are relevant for ati-totai as well as for cïr-lolai. 6. TOTAI Number of elutlu within a line of four-cir (Tolkáppiyam) 4-6 7-9 10-14 15-17 18-20 177 Name of the type of ali kuralali "dwarf line" cintati "short line" alavati "standard line" netilati line" "long kalinetilati "extremely long line" "Ornament" /"Ornamentation".

Each of the five kinds of ornament may occur in each of the seven methods of ornamentation. are rhyming.e. rhyme of the last phone (elultu) or metreme (acai) or metrical syllable (cïr)).4...178 ULRIKE NIKLAS 4. Example: periyôrai viyalialum ciriyorai ikaltalum (There are two muran in these lines: periyor "the great ones" are opposed to ciriyor "the small ones". alapelai-loiai exists with vowel-a/apeiai as well as with consonantalapetai. the second phones. It may be described as "antithesis" or a sort of "oxymoron": Two antithetical words are opposed to each other with regard to their meaning. 4. These apply to cïr-totai only..must be equal in measure. but rather an element of stylistics or rhetorics. 2) etukai: "rhyme" of the second phone. Hence. па.. ïi. Example: animalar.. 1) mónai: "alliteration" of the first phone (eluttu).. Example: aruliarum.) 3) iyaipu: "end-rhyme" (i.. may mix with each other to form this kind of ornament. and viyattal "praising" is opposed to ikaltal "scolding". while the first phones are short in both cases: a. while the first phones of the rhyming words. -rul-.e. (Here. The names and characteristics of these seven methods of ornamentation may be seen from the following chart: Method of ornamentation inai polippu oruu kulai mërkatuvây kïlkkaiuvày murru First cïr X X X X X X X Second cïr X Third cïr X X X X X X X X X X X Fourth cïr . arikkurar.3.) 5) alapetai: In this kind of ornament. 4) muran : This is not a sound-based ornament (as alliteration or rhyme). only the quantity of the phone (i.e. porultarum. The five kinds of ornament. The definitions are based on the alavaii (i.. пи. etc. The seven methods of ornamentation. Example: puyalë kulalë mayilë yiyalë.and po-. The seven methods of ornamentation describe the distribution of the specific kind of ornament among the four cïr of one line. line built from four cïr). the overlengthening) is of importance. whereas the quality is irrelevant..

This type of tolai. major importance. different forms which however are not to 7. The first four of these only are of combination of elements from venpâ and Each of these main types of verses has be confounded with the "subtypes". 3) anláli-lolai : One acai or cïr concluding one line (or stanza) is taken up again at the beginning of the next line (or stanza). pâvinam — subtype of verse. áciriyappá. 7.3. which were in older times obviously less common than the aforementioned ones. (Cf. They are: 1) centotai: blank verse. no rhyming or alliteration at all.5. kalippâ.2. Chapter Two CEYYULIYAL THE TYPES OF VERSES 7. hence not being original. On verses in general.INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY 179 *6. vaňcippá. marutpà. The main types of verses are: venpâ.) . Two main groups are to be distinguished: pâ — main type of verse. while marutpá is a áciriyappá.1. 7. There are three more types of totai. however. is met with very frequently from post-classical times of Tamil literature onwards. 2) irattai-totai: repetition of one cïr (or one full line).

associated with the first four of the main types of verses. which are called icai.: "variety").4.e. Some verse forms have as one characteristic a taniccol (i. One of the main aspects of a verse is its rhythm. namely ënlicai.) are allowed. turai and virullam. akaval-ôcai (with áciriya-talai) belongs to âciriyappà. There are mainly three of these subtypes. the rhyming of the second phone of the lines within one stanza.e. 8. There are mainly three different forms of icai. If there are two different sets of rhyme. *7. i.). "many varieties"). Another distinctive feature. 7.6. called ôcai. Verses are mainly defined with regard to the forms of cïr and lalai and to the number and forms of ati they are made up from. malar. thus giving more than two different phones in the place indicated. where laniccol forms a whole line by itself. If there are either more than two different sets of rhyme.7. (Not so in kalippà. a cir of the type nál. if there is no rhyming in their second phones. Thus.). VENPÂ VENPÂ. 3. *8. tuňkicai. VENPÂVINAM. iruvikarpa is also a stanza of two lines. 7. Thus.1.e. 5. ULRIKE NIKLAS pâvinam are subtypes. in their systematic places) the taniccol must be rhyming with certain other cïr of the stanza.1. A venpá may contain iyarcïr (cf. lullal-ôcai (with kali-talai) belongs to kalippá.2. ceppal-ôcai (with venlalai) belongs to venpá. two of them are rhyming and the third line has another sound.e. This is defined by the specific lalai which mainly belong to the specific type of verse. the stanza is iruvikarpa (i. the rhythm differs and will have some sub-forms.5. mainly of the venpá verse-types.) and кпу-cïr (cf. which refers to totai (cf. These taniccol are in most cases shown in writing by a dash put before them. *7. "two varieties"). the stanza is palavikarpa (i. 3.4. or (in a stanza of more than two lines) no rhyme at all. Most verses use more than one simple type of lalai. They may be defined only with reference to the different kinds of lalai that are permitted in the different metres. they will be explained in their systematic places here. a venpá is made up of alavali and cintali (cf.180 7.6.e.3. 1. 6. and more precisely to elukai. If all the lines of a stanza are rhyming in their second phone. 8. "detached word") or laniccïr (i. 4. 4.) In certain cases (shown below. namely tàlicai. The last cïr of the last ati must be an acai-cïr. "one variety"). or if.) and iyarcïr-ventalai (cf. кйси or pirappu. olukicai. There are four cir in each line except the last one which contains three cir only. .5. tuňkal-ócai (with vaňci-lalai) belongs to vaňcippá. and 2.e. Only vencïrvenlalai (cf. is vikarpâ (lit. Hence. the stanza is oruvikarpa (i.1. in a stanza with three lines only. "detached metrical foot").3.) only.

7. It may be oruvikarpa or iruvikarpa (cf. There are five forms of venpá which are defined by the number of ati that constitute the stanza and with regard to taniccol (cf. nèricai-venpâ. The last cïr of the second ati forms a taniccol (cf. 2. venpá is also called ceppal (i.5.3.5. innicai-venpà. hence it is also defined as muvatimukkal (i.1.1. "one line and three quarters".e. It may be without a taniccol like innicai-venpà (cf. pakrotai-venpá (i. 7.).1. 6. 6.e. 5. (Thus. in terms of cïr-totai. *8. pal-totai-venpà). innicai-venpâ. the first line being an alavati with four cïr and the second a cintati with three cïr only). leading thus to a complicated and strictly defined scheme of rhyme within the stanza.1.e.1.). As was shown above (cf. in this case.2. 8. hence also without fixed rules regarding rhyme.). 5. In that case it is called nëricai-cintiyal-venpâ. 7.e. 7.INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY 181 8. The five forms of venpá are: kural-venpà. all the four lines having the same etukai in their first cïr).6. *8. but it is without a taniccol. A cintiyal-venpá contains three ati and is also defined as ïratimukkâl (i. must be rhyming in elukai-îorm (cf.). .). one set of alliteration in the first two lines and another set in the last two lines). as the first two ati must necessarily be rhyming in their first cïr and the same sound pattern must occur again in the last cïr of the second ati. "two lines and three quarters"). cintiyal-venpá. cintiyal-venpá. *8.7. It may be oruvikarpa or iruvikarpa (cf. 6.7. there are three forms of icai which are to be defined for the venpâ metre as follows: a) ënticai-ceppal: only vencïr-ventalai occurs throughout the stanza. 7. cf.6. *8.) A nëricai-venpâ normally is iruvikarpa (i. In that case it is called innicai-cinliyal-venpà.4. *8.3. A kural-venpá contains two ati and hence becomes defined also as óratimukkál (i. "three lines and three quarters"). c) olukicai-ceppal: vencïr-ventalai and iyarcïr-ventalai both occur within one stanza. A nëricai-venpâ contains four ati.). nëricai-venpà.e.1. An innicai-venpâ contains four ali in the same way as nëricai-venpà (cf.) with the first cïr of the first ali and with the first cïr of the second ati. the second line is rhyming in the oruu way.e.). 8. . It may be oruvikarpa or palavikarpa (cf. It may have a taniccol in the same way as nëricai-venpà (cf.).6.1. 7. kural-venpá. Referring to its rhythm. "declaration"). b) tuňkicai-ceppal: only iyarcïr-venlalai occurs throughout the stanza.1.) which.4. but it may also be oruvikarpa (i.e.

pakrotai-venpá.9. No.1. VENPA VINAM. hence it is defined as palavatimukkál (i. The five forms of venpà: Name (subname) kural-venpâ nëricai-venpâ innicai-venpà cintiyal-venpá (nëricai-cinliyal-venpâ) (innicai-cintiyal-venpá) pakrotai-venpà 8. "many lines and three quarters"). veli-virutlam. a) General (i.2.2. There are two subtypes belonging to kural-venpâ (cf. There is no restriction on the number of cïr.) and three other subtypes of venpá.2. ven-lurai. cïr: iyarcïr kâycïr acai-cïr (very last cïr of a stanza only). A stanza of this type has two lines of equal length. kural-vencenturai.I.182 ULRIKE NIKLAS *8. A pakrotai-venpá contains between five and twelve aii. oruvikarpa and palavikarpa occur. b) The five forms of venpá are described again in short in the following chart.4. 8. 8. *8. kural-tâlicai.2. . lalai: iyarcir-venlalai vencïr-ventalai. ven-tâlicai.e. referring to all the forms of venpà): aii: alavati (all lines but the last one) cintali (last line of a stanza only).e.1. Synopsis of venpà. of aii 2 4 4 3 taní с col no yes no vikarpa oruvikarpa iruvikarpa oruvikarpa iruvikarpa oruvikarpa palavikarpa oruvikarpa iruvikarpa yes no no 5-12 oruvikarpa palavikarpa 8.1.8. They are: kural-vencenlurai.

The stanza may contain between three and seven lines. 7. 3.1. ÂCIRIYAPPÂVINAM.1.2. 8. An âciriyappâ may contain different kinds of cir but it is usually made up of akavarcïr (cf.e. and 2.5.) with a defective talai. c) olukicai-akaval: different types of lalai mixed. 3) A kural-venpâ (cf. all the three dealing with the same topic. . in their systematic places. but with defective talai.1. veli-viruttam. 2) A stanza with two equal lines (as in 8. agreeing in nër throughout the stanza. but the second line shorter than the first one.2. ven-tâlicai. âciriyappâ is called akaval (i. The laniccol will be the same throughout the stanza. An âciriyappâ. b) luňkicai-akaval: only âciriya-talai. ÂCIRIYAPPÂ ÂCIRIYAPPÂ.). there are no rules for rhyming.1.INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY 183 It should be of "flowing and regular" rhythm (which is not defined more precisely).2.4.2. The types of ati differ with regard to the different forms of âciriyappâ and will be mentioned below. kural-tàlicai. This type is oruvikarpa or palavikarpa (cf. There is no restriction on the number of cir within each line.akaval: only âciriya-talai.). 8. 9.3.4. addressing"). The stanza has three or four lines with originally four cir each. and the contents should be of "excellent thought".). The three forms of icai are to be defined as follows: a) ënticai. There are two forms of this subtype: 1) One stanza of the cinliyal-venpâ type (cf.3. 9. Besides the two types of âciriya-talai (cf. which may or may not change within the stanza.). the last few lines being shorter by a few cir than the previous lines. 8. agreeing in nirai throughout the stanza.2. 7.1. *8. 9. 1.3. There are no specific rules regarding vikarpa. *8. too.) and vencïr (cf. With regard to its rhythm.6. ven-turai.4. but it may also vary. other types of lalai are permitted. The rhythm may be continuous throughout the stanza.1.2. 7. 9.) *8. 4.2.). A laniccol is attached as fifth cir to each single line of the stanza. and 4.5. must contain at least three lines and should not have more than 1 000 lines.1.4. 2) A combination of three stanzas of the cinliyal-venpâ type (cf. but with defective rhythm and not containing "excellent thought".). (This rule refers to icai. "calling. 3. There are three forms of this subtype: 1) A stanza containing two lines of any length. *8.

/ .). inaikkural-âciriyappà.2. repetition of a line (or part of a line). *9. *9. atimarimantila-àciriyappà. the other lines may be .2.). ÀCIRIYAPPÂVINAM. *9.1. 9.13.e. with the penultimate line shorter than the other ones. kalinetilati does not occur frequently).2.2. 5. each time with a different meaning. line with more than five cïr. There are two forms of this subtype: 1) One stanza made up of three lines of equal length (with no restriction on the number of cïr).2. àciriya-tàlicai. and all the three stanzas dealing with the same topic. inaikkural-âciriyappà.4. There are three subtypes belonging to âciriyappà: âciriya-lâlicai. This subtype has a stanza made up of four lines of any length.6.2. nêricai-àciriyappà. âciriya-lurai. An âciriya-turai stanza may or may not use the stylistic element of matakku. nilaimantila-àciriyappà. *9. *9. This verse-type is made up only of alavali. àciriya-turai.7. 2) A combination of three stanzas made up of three equal lines each.of any type (though.4. i.e. Only the penultimate line must be a cintati. àciriya-viruttam. 5.1. A stanza of this type is made up mainly of alavali (cf. that each single line forms a complete structure by itself with regard to form and content. so that all the lines of the stanza are freely interchangeable. . A slightly different form of this subtype has the first and the third line shorter than the other lines. A stanza of this type is made up of alavali only. *9.184 ULRIKE NIKLAS 9. alimarimantila-âciriyappâ. *9. 1 . áciriya-viruttam. nilaimantila-àciriyappà. There are four forms of âciriyappà: nëricai-àciriyappa. In this type of verse.1. but it must be built in such a way. the first and the last line of the stanza must be alavati (cf. This subtype has a stanza made up of four equal lines of the kalineiil type. without any exception. 9. i.

"jumping"). 4) ampolaraňkam. Not all these elements will occur in all the forms of kalippà. 10. c) pirinticai-tullal: venlalai and aciriya-talai occur together with kali-talai. but even they are rather rare in a kalippà). 6) curitakam. 10. the specific forms of ati will be mentioned in their systematic places. KALIPPÂ.INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY 10. 3) arâkam. b) akaval-tullal: kali-talai and ventalai are mixed.5.). too. They are: 1) taravu. 2) làlicai. . làlicai is again taking up the topic of the poem as given in taravu and depicts it further. One tàlicai has between two and four lines. There may be three or six tàlicai in a poem. iyarcïr (mostly karuvilam and kuvilam. (Note.1. lëmà and pulimà occur scarcely only). The rhythm of kalippá is called tullal-ôcai (i. The main difficulty lies in the fact that it is to be defined more by means of content than by means of form. 10. ff. In what follows here.1.5. kalippà contains six elements which occur in different combinations in the different forms of this metre. as will be shown below (cf. 5) laniccol.3. In what follows here. 10. kalippà is a very complex metre and difficult to describe. The most common cïr in a kalippà are: kây-cïr starting with nirai. not going too far into the details.4. Mostly kuvilankày-cïr and karuvilaňkáy-cír are used. tàlicai. kani-cir (only those having nër as middle part are permitted. taravu. Some poems even have twelve or more. Hence. Mostly kuvilankày-cïr and karuvilankày-cïr are used.2. are open to exceptions. the six elements will be described one by one.5. that the rules given in 10. 10. only the basic elements and the most important forms and subdivisions of this metre will be described.e.1. taravu mentions in short the theme or topic of the poem. describing the same theme in several different ways (according to the number of tàlicai).) 10.3.2. there are no fixed rules valid for all the types of kalippá. but it must always be shorter by at least one line than the preceding taravu. It has between three and twelve lines. 185 10. 10.6. It has three forms: a) ënticai-tullal: only kali-talai throughout the stanza. Regarding ati.

6. 8. 5) mayaňkicai-koccaka-kalippa (with three subforms): a.5. Mostly karuvilam-cir are used. It may be very short. cirren: 16 X 1 (or 8 X 1) kuralati. It is in the form of either an âciriyappâ (cf.).1. not having more than one or two lines. three làlicai. taniccol in kalippà is a single word forming a whole line by itself. 10. ottâlicai-kalippà. curitakam is the last element of a kalippà. ampólaraňkam praises a person's grace or heroism or the grandeur of actions. arâham is employed for praising a God or a person. 9.5. nèricai-ottàlicai-kalippà.1. с vannaka-orupôku. curitakam. 1. But some forms of kalippá may have more than one taniccol interspersed between the different elements.6. 3) vannaka-ottàlicai-kalippâ. ampotaraňkam. An elaborate ampotaraňkam has four parts: përen: 2x2 alavati. 2) venkalippâ 3) koccaka-kalippà 1) laravu-koccaka-kalippâ. thus indicating the beginning of the poem's final section. ilaiyen: 8 X 1 (or 4 X 1) ciniali.1.5. 2) ampôiaranka-ollàlicai-kalippà.5.3. This form consists of: one laravu.5. It has mostly kày-cfr and iyarcîr.) or a venpà (cf. one curilakam. 2) taravinai-koccaka-kalippà. but it may also be longer (without details about the upper limit of lines). ampôtaranka-oriipôku.4. one taniccol. 10. 10. There are three main forms of kalippà. the first and third form having several subforms each: 1) oiiàlicai-kalippà 1) nëricai-ottàlicai-kalippà.6. 4) pakràlicai-koccaka-kalippâ. 3) cikràlicai-koccaka-kalippà. 6.1. * 10. One line should not have less than four cir. h. taniccol. alaven: 4x1 alavali. aràkam. tâlicai-orupôku. 10. . It is used mostly as last but one element of a kalippà.186 ULRIKE NIKLAS 10. 10.

vannaka-ottàlicai-kalippà.). This type is usually built from four alavati having mainly (or even throughout) kây-cfr only. not having kali-lalai). 8.7.6. may change their order. and 10. There may occur lines with rhythms other than tullal-ôcai (i. karuvilaňkani.3.1. The last line of the stanza behaves as in a venpa.1.3. This form consists of one taravu only. allowing only a few vencïr-venlalai in the stanza. pulimá-.6.e.1.2.2. three tàlicai.5.3. except for having a taniccol after each single element. one ampótaraňkam.). 1 .1. which are uncommon in the other forms of kalippâ. b) curitaka-taravinai-koccaka-kalippâ. This form is closely resembling nëricai-ottâlicai-kalippâ (cf.2. hence: .6.3.6. three tálicai. 1 .6. A venkalippa must have more than four lines (without an upper limit). ampôtaranka-ottàlicai-kalippâ. which consists of: two taravu one laniccol one curitakam. 10. taravu-koccaka-kalippà There are two different types of this form of koccaka-kalippa: a) iyarraravu-koccaka-kalippá.). which consists of: one taravu one taniccol one curitakam. 10. being a cinlati and having as last cïr an acai-clr (cf. one laniccol. b) curitaka-taravu-koccaka-kalippâ. This form consists of: one taravu. This form of kalippu may take some of the six elements (cf.6.and kuvilaňkani-cír may occur. * 10. *10. one curitakam. which has two taravu only. cikrâlicai-koccaka-kalippà.6. * 10.2. * 10. and 3. which consists of only one taravu.3. There are two different types of this form of koccaka-kalippa: a) iyarraravinai-koccaka-kalippa. one curitakam. kali-talai will be predominant. four aràkam. 7.6. taravinai-koccaka-kalippà.INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY 187 * 10.3. Also těma-. may enlarge or shorten them. * 10.2. one ampótaraňkam. This taravu has many alavati and a predominant tullal-ôcai (cf. This form consists of: one taravu. venkalippa. one laniccol. * 10.) only.1. koccaka-kalippa.

second tálicai.3. pakràlicai-koccaka-kalippà. mayaňkicai-koccaka-kalippa. one laniccol. There are three subforms of this type. * 10. more than three tâlicai (taniccol facultatively between the tálicai). but it may change their order and it may shorten or enlarge them.6.6.5. third tálicai. which are called огирбки: a) lálicai-огирбки has only one lálicai one taniccol one curitakam. This form will take all the six elements (cf. hence : two taravu. one laniccol.5. . six tâlicai. * 10. first tâlicai. c) vannaka-огирбки has either taravu or tálicai one laniccol (facultatively) four or more aràkam full ampóiaraňkam one laniccol one curilakam. one taniccol. 10. one taniccol. one taniccol.4. arâkam. ampotaraňkam. one curilakam. one curilakam. This form consists of: one taravu (one laniccol facultatively). one taniccol (after the last tálicai). There may occur kani-clr with nirai as middle part.). b) ampôlaranka-orupôku has either taravu or tálicai shortened ampóiaraňkam one laniccol one curitakam. one curitakam.3. (again) lálicai. which are uncommon to other forms of kalippá.188 ULRIKE NIKLAS one taravu.

vencir or vaňci-cir. Each one of these half-lines must start with a nër-acai. 1. throughout the stanza.e. and 4.6. 12.).3. agreeing. kalivirullam is composed of four alavali (i. 189 •77. 12. *11. 2) A combination of three verses on the same topic. which is the name of one of the subtypes of the kali metre.1. 4. throughout the stanza.2. repetition of a line (or part of a line) each time with a different meaning. VAŇCIPPA' 12. It is built up mainly of iyarcir. line with four cir). (Note: This Iàlicai. which should be of equal length.INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY 11. A kattalai-kalippà contains eight half-lines with four cir each. KALIPPÂVINAM. VANCIPPÀV1NAM.1.. /2. and if consisting of four lines.2. The three forms of this rhythm are to be defined as follows: a) ěnticai-tuňkal: only vaňci-talai. kattalai-kalippà. kattalai-kalitturai.) kali-tàlicai may consist of two or more lines. A full vaňcippa is built up as follows: three (or more) lines as described in 12. 4. kali-tàlicai. should not be confounded with the iàlicai in 10. hence a kattalai-kalippà contains four lines with eight cir each.5. too. b) akaval-tuňkal: only vaňci-ialai. and 4.e. (In poems of this type. is often employed in the second and third ali).8.). kali-viruttam.3. The first four cir of each line should preferably be iyarcir.1. the stylistic element of matakku. 3. There are two forms of kali-tàlicai: 1) One single stanza.). It has kural-ati and cintati.2. and they must be connected in the ventalai manner (cf. It will take mainly vaňci-talai (cf.5.).5. *12.1. where it denotes one of the six elements of kalippà.1. i.5.4. It is composed of four nelilati (i.) and of nilal-cir (cf. "of slow movement"). 11. without an upper limit.e.1. and 2. 12.e. line having five cir). The last line of the poem must be longer than the other lines. 1. *11. It does not employ lullal-ôcai (cf. line having five cir). kali-turai.7. vaňcippa consists of kani-cir (cf. The fifth cir of each line must be kuvilankày or karuvilaňkay. *11. A katlalai-kalitturai should have as its last letter an -ë.4. 10.7. kali-lurai is composed of four netilali (i. Two half-lines together count as one full line. The rhythm of vaňcippa is called tuňkal-ócai (i.2. c) pirinticai-tunkal: both forms of vaňci-talai occur together with other forms of ialai. . disagreeing. VAŇCIPPA'.e. 3.

2. 10. The first part of the stanza has the form of a venpa (cf.). Different forms of marutpâ may be defined only with regard to the contents or themes of the respective poem.)» the second part (mainly the last two lines) has the form of an âciriyappâ (cf. 10.).2. vâyuraivalttu and ceviyarivuruu. vaňci-viruttam.1.5. This subtype is composed of three stanzas. all of them dealing with the same topic. one akaval-curitakam (cf. marutpà will be employed mainly in some turai of the puram-genre of Tamil poetry. *13. vaňci-turai.. mainly in puram-kaikkilai. vanci-tâlicai. vâlttu. 9.). 4. Each of these stanzas consists of four lines with two cïr each.2.2. 12. This subtype has one stanza built up from four lines with three cïr each.1. 12.2. MARUTPÂ. . 13.1.3. ULRIKE NIKLAS one ianiccol (cf. especially 9. *12. This subtype has only one stanza built up from four lines with two cïr each. marutpa is composed of elements of venpá and of âciriyappà. VAŇCIPPAVINAM.5.1.6. 8.1. *13.

in his translation of Tolkáppiyam (cf. including those listed above. except talai. Other translations use the term "sound". and more so with regard to eluttu in poetics. hence — by the same token— would be free of any special connotation and open to a new definition. as there are a number of elements which count well among the eluttu.) The high number of elements in this ancient treatise is due to the fact that these "literary compositions" are considered in all their aspects. By purpose we chose a term which is rather uncommon and very seldom used. elullu may denote the graphic or alphabetical sign. that by the term "phone" we want to designate all the possible components of the Tamil term elullu together. It appears to be highly difficult (if not impossible) to comprise the whole concept of eluttu within one single term in English. eluttu "phone". alapetai or âylam). laying some stress anyhow on the phonetical aspects. But this is only one part of the whole and — for our purpose— the most peripheral one. but should rather try to find another term which is general enough to offer the possibility of being interpreted (or: newly defined) within this very special connotation. which is unprecise. Let us state. (Nevertheless.g.1. the symbol drawn to represent a single sound as well as a whole syllable (and this alone is sufficient — strictly speaking— to reject the term "letter" which refers to the "alphabetic script" rather than to a syllabic one). Some notes on the English nomenclature chosen (or coined) here for the "six elements" seem to be necessary: 1. . talai is treated in some detail in Tolkáppiyam too. Albert. not only with regard to prosody proper as in the later grammatical works. which seems to be more appropriate in the circumstances given here. single phonetic unit" — and eluttu may comprise more than that. but which anyhow carries the connotation of "a basic.).0.PART TWO ANNOTATIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS II. but which are never "phonemes" in the exact linguistic sense (e. then. xii f. D. The old tradition of Tamil prosody (Tolkáppiyam) enumerates 34 elements. Bibliography) discusses this problem in short and tries to find a solution by explaining eluttu as "Phonemic Representation" (pp. To put it briefly: We can't depend on any of the previous endeavours. Previous translations mostly use the term "letter" which refers mainly to the graphic or alphabetic aspect and by this reflects the obvious etymological derivation of the Tamil term from the verb elutu "to write".

3. under certain circumstances. (Cf. talai "linkage". no term from any other prosodical system is applicable to it. Earlier endeavours to translate totai by "rhyme" or "alliteration" must be rejected. as it carries the connotation of "speech unit containing one vowel (or sibilant)". Hence. we searched for a term which. are not considered as eluttu on their own. which is not necessarily the case with acai. (Cf. ali "metrical line". 4. Hence. we chose to retain the simple but unmistakable term "line". where in the first example tërnlu counts as one single eluttu only.192 ULRIKE NIKLAS elutlu denotes a single sound (a vowel or a consonant) as well as a whole syllable. though they are written and pronounced (cf. The concept of acai is peculiar to the Tamil system of prosody alone. hence seven methods of ornamentation.2. 1. just as the term "phoneme" indicates the smallest phonetical unit bearing sense. Hence.). whatbeing used to denote a whole "stanza" instead of a single This term denotes also is often called "verse" in English. totai is twofold in its denotation: on the one hand it refers to the five different kinds of ornament known to Tamil prosody. primarily. which have to be taken into consideration while forming an acai ("metreme"). should be free of any connotation from other contexts.. . All these aspects we claim to include in the term "phone". as the two ornaments muran and alapeiai-totai can't be grouped under them. This term should be understood in the exact sense of the English word as given by CHAMBER'S 20th Century Dictionary: "an act or mode of linking". 5.) "rhyme" is rather apt to denote iyaipu and perhaps . 4) and 5). the term "syllable" itself is misleading. there exist "sounds" which. even a very complex one. and on the other hand it denotes seven possibilities of arrangement of these ornaments within one line. hence this term could be taken over without any difficulty. and which secondly should indicate the position of acai within the system.e. i. totai "ornament" /"ornamentation". The most common solution of calling acai "metrical syllable" leads to complications. the term "metreme" was coined with the idea that it should indicate "the smallest metrical unit which is of relevance for the system". 6. 6.) elultu is often used to denote those sounds only.3. But as the term line only. Earlier endeavours to describe this concept in terms known to us have led to misunderstandings. П. due to the connotations these terms carry with them. clr corresponds in its function and position within the system to what we know as "foot of a verse". as consequently we have to distinguish between "metrical" and "linguistic" syllable. clr "metrical foot". which have a place-value in the metrical system. Consequently.5. being however well aware of the fact that this definition goes far beyond its original sense and hence considering it as a "terminological auxiliary".2. 2. moreover. too. for instance below. "verse" is ambiguous. acai "metreme".

stopconsonants will always be represented by one single sign each. in fact. the phonological parts of Tamil grammars give general information about all aspects of elullu and the prosodical parts show additions and exceptions from the general rules. ulâam). irrespective of their actual pronunciation. as far as they are relevant to prosodical purposes. vowel as well as consonant. — In vowe\-alapetai. above. . whereas "alliteration" may be used with reference to monai.g. it should be noted that vallinam does not denote the phonological shape of the sound in actual speech performance.7.INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY 193 elukai. hence. mellinam nasals and itaiyinam semivowels and liquids. the a/ape/at'-vowel may form one metreme on its own (cf. Hence. ilu becomes iklu) alapetai denotes the overlengthening of one elullu. It may be formed by means of Sandhi-rules. yet. In terms of linguistics. both these terms denote single elements of totai rather than the whole system itself. below. Referring to the "groups of consonants" (cf. but rather a general quality of the specific elullu. or it may be used in poetry in order to change a short syllable into a long one in places where this is needed. 1. ta лпт na P ta *p na u pa lu ma uj i/o ? га со la nj va & la m la *p ra an na л к This system has one single Latin letter for each single Tamil sign. but not in Tamil grammatical theory. ILL The transliteration of the Tamil alphabet follows that of the Madras University Tamil Lexicon: £\ a <tfc à £ù i ní 2-й 2а п т е г? è S ai 3 о <& о 7) à*i ^ аи Б ка ts/ na & ca <5> ňa L. I I.g. (E. c). (The distinction of tenues and mediae does exist in speech performance. /7.I. verïi. âyiam is a "phone" which may occur between a short vowel and a following stop consonant.1. In pronunciation this combination becomes one single overlong syllable. But this opinion seems to be rather untenable.7. representing I or I (after short vowel and followed by a stop consonant). in metrical scanning. But this form of alapetai occurs very rarely only. 2.). a long vowel is lengthened further by adding to it the short vowel of the same sound quality (e. that the whole concept of elullu was essentially different in the phonological part of traditional Tamil grammars from the concept in the prosodical part of those grammars (especially with reference to Tolkàppiyam).) There is a widespread opinion. Consonant-a/apdai is formed by doubling the respective consonant. vallinam represents plosives.

Especially overshort и poses many problems which can't be dealt with here.. Nevertheless.2. dropping the alapeiai vowel) forms a mrat'-ending two-acai cïr. above. as otherwise there would be cïr consisting of a single acai only. and below. i. This rule is relevant mainly to the venpâ metre (cf.b and 5. above.194 ULRIKE NIKLAS 11Л.1.JO" L b) = Both solutions in scanning the third cïr are permissible here. 8.). 5. Examples for the different possible stuctures of a nër-acai: a (=V) ka (=CV) at (=yC) kal (= CyC) à (=V) ka (=CV) ál (=VC) kál (=CVC) 11. nanantalai yulakam valaii nëmiyotu nïrcela aliral nimirnia putta màal âtukotip pôlap patâar In all these three examples.e. whereas in other metres these rules are more open to exceptions. a) = = — (i. as only in venpâ the prescriptions for cïr and talai have to be followed in a strict manner. thus leading to one correct vencïr-ventalai. Examples for ati kuru anil matal the different structures of a nirai-acai: (=V-CV) ala (=CV-CV) kurà (=V-CVC) anàr (= CV-CVC) kalám (= V-CV) (=CV-CV) (= C-CVC) (= CV-CVC) . vellantfp palia tenaverïip -pullinanlaň -' J'_ _'l . hence the rules for cïr and talai are very strict.2.2. 5.e. it should be mentioned here.). As an example. counting the alapetai vowel as one metreme) forms a three-acai cïr ending in nër. b) — = (i. as they demand a thorough and detailed study.3. With regard to alapetai. definition of ati with regard to the number of eluttu (cf. the second line of MUTTOLLÀ YIRAM 2 is given here. it is often difficult or even impossible to decide whether it should be counted as a metreme or should be dropped. the alapetai vowels must be counted as one metreme each.e. leading to one correct iyarcïr-ventalai. II. All these examples are taken from MULLAIPPÂTTU . it is one line of a venpâ verse. which are not permissible in the respective places. that the dropping of syllables containing overshort и is essential for the definition of the different kinds of ali according to Tolkàppiyam.2. 11.4. Some examples for alapetai that must be counted as a metreme will follow here.2.

split into the single acai.INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY 195 11.2. The phenomenon of nërpu and niraipu occurs according to the later tradition of Tamil prosody only as the very last cir of venpá stanzas. Each line will be quoted first in its original form. four stanzas from TIRUKKUfíAL are given here. naccilaivër kôkkôtai nátu nac/cilai/vër кбк/кб/lai nàtu (2) kallârlôl kal/lâr/iôt muraiyô murai/ y 6 yurtirainîr yur/tirai/nîr killi kiï/li kaliru kaliru moyttu moyltu yulaku yulaku =+ (23) (15) (1) venaninrâr vena/nin/rár vëli vë/li 113. only some last lines of stanzas from MUTTOLLÀYIRAM will be given here as examples. the symbols for the respective acai will be indicated. As a third step.2. a stanza from KURUNTOKAI is given here. Accordingly. These are venpá stanzas of two lines. and following that.7.2. Each one of the four kinds of acai-cïr will be shown in the following four examples. As an example for the splitting into nër-acai and nirai-acai. As examples for the use of acai-cïr. marappinu moltuk kolalàkum parppan pirappolukkan âkka kunrak ketum гпккат (593) mikulikkan (134) milantëmen kaittutai poruttanru rallâvà yàr nattan oruvanlaň nakuiar . пбтеп пепсё пбтеп пепсё пбт/еп neň/сё пбт/еп neň/сё imaitfyp imai/tfyp amailar amai/lar amaivila amaijvila panna pan/na kannïr kan/nïr tànki iáňjki kamainianaň kamainjlanaň rákuta rá/kuta kâtalar ká/talar пепсё neň/сё пбтеп пбт/еп II. the last cïr of the last line must be an acai-ïr.5.

9 of YÂPPARUNKALAKKÀRIKAI. The first 16 lines show all the 16 different forms of potuccïr as their first cïr. MUTT0LLÂ YIRAM-6 málai vilaipakarvàr killik kalaintapuc cala virpayil porpâ mikuvalôr vdnakam rurantai lanmaiilàl pôlumë yakam collavin munivinru tuňcum tënë -kalaiyë vëlvalavan KURUNTOKAI-6 nallen ranrë y aman tinitatan nantalai ôryàn kinarë yulakamun manra luňcú.33. This example for potuccïr is taken from the commentary for kárikai No. however. though this syllabe is followed by another one within the same cïr. mâkkal II. As there scarcely exist stanzas having either iyarcïr or uriccïr alone.5.) 1) ankanvânat tamarararacarum [lëmâianpu] 2) veňkaliyánai [kuvilanlanpu] 3) valivàrkunlan [pulimàtanpuj vëlvëniarum maňkaiyaruň . (Additionally to the symbols.4. that in lines 11. so that in these cases nër-acai consisting of one short syllable only will occur. 13 and 15 the scanning of the first cïr must take into consideration the wordboundaries within the cïr. and II.3.3.196 mërcen irappa karappá riiiliar nirappàrai riravanmi ULRIKE NIKLAS porultu yellà nenru mirappir (1067) (784) 11. the pattern-words for all the 16 poluccïr will be given. It must be noted. in what follows. too. these two groups are taken together here and some stanzas containing both these types of cïr (as well as acai-cïr in the case of a venpa) will be quoted and scanned.

INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY 4) kalimalarëntik [karuvilantanpuj 5) ciňkaňcumania [lëmànarumpu] 6) konkivaracôkin [kuvilanarumpu] 7) celunïrppavalat [pulimànarumpu] 8) mulumalipuraiyu fkaruvilanarumpuj 9) veňkanvinaippakai [tëmànarunilalj 10) ponpunainetumatil [kuvilanarunilal] 11) anantacatuttaya [pulimànarunilal] 12) nanantalaiyulakuta kalalntiraiňcac maniyanaimicaik kolunilarkïlc tiralkâmpin mukkuiainïlal viliveytap putaivalaippa mavaiyeyta navainïnka 197 fkaruvilanarunilalj 13) mantamáruta maruňkacaippa [tëmàtannilal] 14) vaniaratuniumi [kuvilalannilal] 15) vilaňkucámarai [pulimàtannilal] 16) nalaňkilarpumalai fkaruv ilatann ilal] 17) initirun 18) taruneri natâttiya 19) riruvati paravutuň ninriyampa yelunlalamara nanicoritara vâtilan ciiliperra porultë .

kulailônra natal laraear — liraiko = — ф -A = . mukalti niniya nakáa vakattinná ~ . «^«agreeing in nirai».I ninkilai . Examples: a) TIfíUKKURAL-824.Ф mutitla pinrai yenkurai ^ =_^__^_ = i véntumál kaitolu tirappal = /-=(^.. n «disagreeing».A ~ =-l/j -".. Example: NARRINAI-102 (quoted after YÀPPIYAL.A . 57) (áciriya-talai agreeing in nër and àciriya-talai agreeing in nirai). Note: Here and henceforth the different kinds of talai will be indicated by the following symbols : и «agreeing in nër».Л = .6./ =--/ maruňkir cëri yáyi ^ = ф ф ф nammalaik kilavork kuraimati yimmalaik "ú =-/==/_= / kának kurauar matamaka .A Ф -+ II . As the venpà metre underlies very strict rules...=ф palavin câra lavarnátiu ..(\ = . niraimalipôl \Jj yânaimë \Jj mlaltàr i/j mûran (\ = = .A muraiyô venaninràr moyllu =' .".tf . In each example.. only those forms of talai being under discussion in the respective systematic place will be indicated by those symbols.I ' .<\ vaňcarai yaňcap patům b) MUTTOLLÂYIRAM-lb.. iyarclr-venlalai is always disagreeing (n) and uenclr-uentalai is always agreeing in nër (и).A ' liraiyô venavan titamperuta linri .. ventalai should not only be found within one line of the stanza but also as the linkage from one line to the next..ф = . koluňkural kuraitla cevvàyp paiňkili = = 4ц = _^__^_ = j yaňca . and IIAA.I = / tënal káva lâyina lenavë ' =.5 and IIA.198 ULRIKE NIKLAS HAJ.\b ninkurai = ceytal . p.\Jj palkôl ..= é IIA. These two forms of ventalai are the only forms of talai permitted in venpà stanzas....h ..= lômpi yárpataň kontu .\b = / ./I \b \b ..

= = = vencámarai putaipeyartarac ..5.9. Example from the commentary for kârikai No.) celvappôrk katakkannan ceyirtterinia cinavàli A = -"-A = = .2.8. 11 of YÂPPARUNKALAKKÀRIKAI. 11.-". 11 of YÂPPARUNKALAKKÀRIKAI.... disagreeing n.) II. All the general statements of Tolkàppiyam concerning ali refer to a line of four cïr only.7. Lines of those metres which demand more or less cïr for one ali are described as permitted exceptions to this rule.4.-"-/ mullaittàr maramannar mutittalaiyai murukkippóy A .4.4.rf =--/ ellainïr viyankonmu vitainulaiyu matiyampón -~ . in the later tradition of Tamil prosody. Scanning this cïr in the usual way (— =) would lead to an âciriya-talai here.A .A =--/ mallalôn kelilyànai marumampàyn tolittatë * A . agreeing ^ and vaňci-talai. always disagreeing. too. (vaňci-talai. For the author of Tolkàppiyam ali is simply "that which contains four cïr". it .-".A = . and II.= é '= = ..). (kali-talai. that only the first three lines of this stanza have vaňci-talai. II..* yenavàn kinili notuňkiua viraivanai manamoli meykalin vanaňkutu makilntë -" --/--"/ .A A = = . as the commentary of YÀPPARUNKALAKKÀRIKAI calls this stanza a kalippâ with unperturbed kali-talai.1.. that (over)short и may be dropped in scanning.Л -* .A = =H (*Note: The first cir of the last line must be scanned with consideration of the wordboundary. Example from the commentary for kárikai No. In order to understand the definition of ali according to Tolkàppiyam.4. it is essential to note.5./ "// Note. misunderstandings are created.A centâmarai nànmalarmicai . The essential difference between the two traditional definitions of ali is very often overlooked and hence. which are based on a line containing four cïr only.) manlànila é maruňkacaippa / . that is to say..INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY 199 II. the rest of the stanza consists of iyarcïr only.A . This fact also provides the logical background for the definition of the different methods of ornamentation (6.

) viritiraip peruňkatal valaiiya vulakamum (This line has four cir with together sixteen elullu. YÀPPA- . hence. 11. i. 1. monai: mâvum pullum valivayir patara mánir virinta puvuň kumpa mâlai totutta kčtaiyuň kamala malai vanta vàtai màyô linnuyirp purallirut tarrë (The first cir of each line are alliterating in their first phone: ma.200 ULRIKE NIKLAS does not have place-value. m and v. iërnlu lërnlu cârntu cárnlu (This line has four cir with together four elultu only. ai. whereas the third cir has two elultu: nin and ra. besides the normal rhyming of sounds of the same quality. п. and the remaining two cir are made up from five elultu each. e.) kamaň ceppátu kanlana molimô (This line has four cir with together ten elultu. 50 of the ceyyuliyal of Tolkáppiyam.) àru cuti niru puči (This line has four cir with together six elutlu. the following sounds. the first. second and fourth cir are made up of one single elultu each. vowelless consonants and -u dont count. are understood as rhyming with one another within the same group: Vowels: a. i. too. б. â. while the second and fourth cir consist of two elullu each. As an example. Consonants: ň and n. Examples taken from the commentary for karikai No. the first and third cir are made up from one elullu only each. the second cir has six eluttu.) II. that the alapetai of the third cir has a place-value here. each single cir consists of one single elultu only. au.6. о. illustrating Tolkâppiyanar's definition of the different kinds of all. It must be noted.1. 18 of BUŇKALAKKARIKAI.) kunru kontu ninra mátu (This line has four cir with together five elultu. the first and second cir are made up from two eluttu each (the final -u of ceppátu being without place-value). ë. which is the uppermost limit according to Tolkáppiyam. и.63. and the last two cir consist of three elullu each. I and с. It must be noted that. counting as one eluttu. we will quote some lines from Hampuranar's commentary for nurpá No. The first cir has four elutlu.) amarkani namarkatantavar pataivilaňki yetirnirralin (This line has four cir with together twenty elutlu. each cir consisting of four eluttu.

4. 20 of YAPPABUŇKALAKKÁRIKAI. maňňcu. iyaipu: innakaît tuvarvàyk kilaviyu manankë nanmá mënic cunaňkumá ranaňke àtamait tôli yutalu manankë arimatar malaikkanu manankë tirunutar poritta iilaiamu manankë All these lines are rhyming in the end: anaňke. while the first phones of all the lines are short.6. etukai ponni nanna poricunaň këniip (inai) pannaruň kóňki nannalaň kavarri (polippu) minniva rolivatan táňki manniya (oruu) .INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY 201 2. 1. alapetai: áa valiya valavanran parppinô Hi riraiyuňkon tiralaip palliyul tuun tiraiyalaippat tuňcá tiraivanról mëe valaippatta патрб narunutál бо vulakkun tuyar Each line starts with a vowel-a/ape/ш. Consonant alapelai occurs very seldom. muran: irulparan tanna munir maruňkin nilavukuvii tanna venmana lorucirai irumpi natxna karuňkóllup punnai ponni nanna nuntá tiraikkuň cirukutip paratavar matamakal perumatar malaikkanu mutaiyavà lanankë Always two successive lines have muran-lotai in their first cïr: irul "darkness" and nilavu "light" irumpu "iron" and pon "gold" and peru "big" ciru "small" 5. II. I. I. The name of the respective methods of ornamentation will be given within brackets at the end of each line. Consonant-a/apeíaí is possible only with the consonants of the me//mam-group and y. and only in poetry. v. The following examples are taken from the commentary for kârikai No.4. The first example shows all the seven possible methods for elukai-tolai and the second example those for alapelai-totai. 3. Examples: maňňkalam. etukai: vatiyërka nïrmalka vànporulkuc cenrár katiyâr kanaňkulay kánárkol káttul itiyin mulakkaňci yïrhkavul nëlam p itiyin purattacaitta kai The first cir of each line are rhyming in their second phone: ti.

Examples from YÂPPARUNKALAKKÂRIKAI. 3.6. 53 f. pp. muran cïralip përaka lalku lolkupu (inai) curuňkiya nucuppir perukuvatan táňkik (polippu) kuvinlucunaň karumpiya koňkai virinlu (oruu) ciriya periya nikarmalark kôlailan (kulai) velvalail Шип cëyarik karuňkanum (mërkaiuvây) irukkaiyu nilaiyu mënteli liyakkamun (kïlkkatuvây) tuvarvâyt tmcolu muvantenai muniyâtu (murru) enru minnana mâkumati ponrikal netuvër porval lôyë As muran is an ornament based on the meaning of the words.5. as it will be nearly impossible to find four words that are "antithetical" among themselves.) II. 1) centotai putta vënkai viyancinai yëri mayilina makavu nâtan nannutar koticci manattakat tóně . (Note that murru-muran in the seventh line is a sort of "auxiliary construction" only. heaped up" — virinlu "spread. alapetai tuai tua maraimala rulakkip (inai) рпик kuvalaip рбо iaruníik (polippu) káayc cenner karittup pó~oy (oruu) máat tâan moot lerumai (kulai) lëem punalitaic cčor pàan (mërkaiuvây) mïi náarn tukaluň cïir (kïlkkatuvây) ее ráar nïi nïir (murru) uran ceyla kënmai àyvalait tolik kalará nâië One more example will show all the seven possible ways of muran-iolai. consisting of two individual pairs of muran. it can't be understood without a detailed explanation here: First line (inai): cir "small" — per "big" Second line (polippu): curuňku "small" — peru "big" Third line (oruu): kuviniu "joined.202 ULRIKE NIKLAS nannira manmulai minniiai varutti (kulai) ennaiyu milukkan tunnuvit tinnatai (mërkaiuvây) anna menpeiai polap panmalark (kïlkkatuvây) kanniyam punnai yinnilar runniya (murru) mayilër câyal vânutal ayilvë lunkanem marivutolait tanavë 2. expanded" Fourth line (kulai): ciriya "small" — periya "big" — nikar "equal" Fifth line (mërkaiuvây): vel "white" — сё "red" — karum "black" Sixth line (kïlkkaluvây): irukkai "sitting" — nilai "standing" — iyakkam "moving" Seventh line (murru): iuvar "astringent" — Urn "sweet" / uvantu "rejoicing" — muniyâtu "not being angry".

too.e. Moreover.) The following stanza is palavikarpa.) II. as the different kinds of vikarpa are defined with respect to the second phone of a line only. preceded by a short phone in each line. Lines three and four have -li as second phone each. repetition of a whole line): lines four and five. There are rhymes in the first two lines and in the last two lines.e. ariya varaikïntu kâttuvâr yàrë periya varaivayiraň kontu -ieriyir kariya varainilai yárkáyntá lenceyvár periya varaivayiraň kontu This stanza is oruvikarpa: all the four lines have -ri. Examples from YÀPPARUNKALAKKÂRIKAI. ulaku. pp. (This stanza is actually rhyming in four phones over all the four lines: -riya varai-\ however.5. repetition of a single phone): tu and pa in the last three lines. taiamantu támaraiyin rátá talavan ilamantic celvatanaik kantu -peiaiňeniu pulik katavataikkum putturë poykalin tiili natâyinâ ппг This stanza is iruvikarpa: the first and second line have their second phone each. vaiyaka mellàn kalaniyâ vaiyakattuc ceyyakamë nárricaiyin rëyankal ceyyakallu vânkarumpë tonlai valanàtu vánkarumpin càrëyan nàllul talaiyurkal câratta . cîr-anlàti ( their second phone. but the three lines that come in between have different phones not fitting to neither of the two sets of rhyme in the beginning or the end of the stanza. this is of less importance in this specific context. repetition of a metreme): mati in the first two lines. repetition of a metrical foot): mukkutai and ácanam in lines two. thus forming a circle of the whole poem. 72 and 78. ati-antáti (i. in both cases preceded by a long phone. acai-antáti (i. in both cases preceded by a short phone. is repeated as the last word of the last line.INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY 203 2) irattai-totai оккитё уоккитё уоккитё уоккит vilakkinut cïreri уоккитё уоккит kulakkotlip puvi niram 3) anláti-totai ulakutan vilakku moliiika lavirmati matinala nalikkum valaňkelu mukkutai mukkutai nïlar porputai yàcanam âcanat tirunta tirunioli yarivanav vàcanat tirunta tirunioli yarivanai yarivucë rullamô taruntavam purintu tunniya màntara lenpa pannaruň cirappin vinmicai yulakë (All the four possible kinds of antâti are included in this stanza: eluttu-anláti (i.e.e. three and four. the first word of the first line.

PPI — 7: nëricai-venpâ. iruvikarpa.. iruvikarpa. PPI — 1: kural-venpà.. máta rilavitalpôn mânpirrô mátavanál .8.Ф vànô raruntu maruntu . the taniccol -vinrun rhymes with ninrimin and munranta) vánirku vaiyakam pônratu vánatlu mïnir kanaiyàr maramannar -vànattu (Here.4. cïr and talai will be indicated by means of the symbols introduced earlier (cf.Ф .= . VENPÂ. oruvikarpa.8..ф . though being of the same structure.3. Examples from MUTTOLLÀYIRAM (poems 3.6.Ф .).204 kalliyë tànërra ânërrân kaccip maya kacci ULRIKE NIKLAS puramelláň carukkarai yakam kattiyul màmaniyë II.Ф---Ф-+Ц PPI — 2: kural-venpà.<\ = = . acai.7. 37 — the first two lines of each poem only).= -\])--/\=--ф . the taniccol -vànallu rhymes with vânirku and mïnir Types and subtypes of verses The examples for the different types and subtypes of verses are generally taken from PÂPPÀVINAM (henceforth: PPI). metremes of the types nërpu and niraipu do occur only as the very last cïr of a venpa.[b .1. olukicai.A Л -+ // (According to the later tradition.Ф . II. II. 2. In all the examples that follow.1. lirumakalô pârmakalô tennaraňkan verpil = = . olukicai.6.. the taniccol -cinti rhymes with nanti and panta) ninrimin mannlr nerunar riraikonarnlu munranta mannar mutitákka -vinrun (Here.4.8. 16. that's why the two last cïr have been scanned in different manners here.= . nanti nilaňcinaiyum punnaik kuvimolium panta rilaňkamukin pálaiyuň -cinti (Here.= -ф---ф--/\ = = ф kàvalanpor ráláň kamalattë -pâvalartam . A few examples will be taken from CITAMPARACC'eYYUTKÙVAI (CCK) and from Caňkam literature. and П.ф = .) II.A varumakalô yarôvim màtu = = . nâvalavan pinpônla nannïrl tiruvaraňkaň .. 4.4.. and 2.5. olukicai.= .

oruvikarpa. olukicai.INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY 205 pámálai cuttátap pâmâlai yaiyevanô ---\Jj---\Jj---\Jj . hence. II. palavikarpa.= -Ф---Ф.L7. kâvalarpôr kàvalarpôr kàtan kamalananlai — = -{[)— = — (b . PPI — 12: innicai-venpû.A nilamicaitàln tëtti netumá lumakkun = = -<ь--А'='-А= -А talamicaippë rinpan tarum = = .ф lennë yulakiyarkai yen --.\Jj .— A — = — \jj kâvalanaik kâvalartuyk kâvalenak karrunarntôr . oruvikarpa.A ="= .A = H PPI — 16: innicai-venpâ. ulaku pukalaraňkai tuttamameyň ňánat = .= A -' = '.Ф vâlà tiruntilën vâlttinë -nàlànârk =' -'-A = A -' = A .= -Ф kollâ viraiaň kurikkolpa vërucilar =' .\Jj kàvalanë kâvalanë kâtiiyenak kanlurruň .\Jj .A = // IL8. In the following stanza. we have refrained from giving an example here.= . oruvikarpa.I/ .\b -+ a The taniccol at the end of the second line (-pàvalartam) is rhyming in the second phone with the first cïr of the first line as well as with the first cïr of the second line.= -ф= .il Note: innicai-venpâ of iruvikarpa-type do occur..= -ф. PPI — 23: nëricai-cintiyal-venpâ..6.\b -".= -\jj.Ф -". olukicai. the laniccol will rhyme with the first cïr of all the lines.= -\j).Ф kâlànë nenninaiyiň kár --.= .ф — = .A = = -_ é . though they are not very common..ф .= .'-' ..A tïkkolaiyir ceyporulë celvamena ninranará .A tilaka rutanpayinru cenru -pulavïr ' = -A = = ".A = =" A .1. PPI — 6: nëricai-venpâ.= А.8. olukicai.= .A = .= .ф .ф iàmà niiarkkalikkuň cálpu — A '= =' .— \Jj kàvalakà vennàr kalar Ф -".ф .ф .— Ф — A . kannanarul parràrnan kalviyë celvamenak .'..= -ф.ф -' . këlà tiruntilën këcavâ venpatanai -'. as that poem is oruvikarpa. olukicai.

206 ULRIKE NIKLAS PPI — 24: nëricai-cintiyal-venpâ. olukicai. line 6 rhymes withe line 7. olukicai.(\ = = . olukicai..ú . .A yilaňku melilaraňkal tempirán palpukalaip — . imiltiraimr ňálat tiruliriya vànrôyn = = -^--r^ = = -^-A tumilkatirven linka lulaněyeň ňánrum = " . PPI — 21: pakrotai-venpâ.ф -A = .ф vaikaraiyâ yalkiravin mâlaiyâ \b yâmanây .\b = .8. oruvikarpa.A — A = = .\h . line 3 rhymes with lines 4 and 5.viliyeluti nâluminai verpeluti nálu = = .// PP/ — 26: innicai-cinliyal-venpá... valimatuttár ф mâran (\ manivaraimën ф mátar ^ =' = ..I..A .A — .Л // PPI — 25: innicai-cintiyal-venpá.A = — \jj .yb '-..4.-= = .\ù vintulá -" yoňki milaikoňkin komparula = A — A = .\jj — = — (b .ф ...II There are three sets of etukai-totai in this stanza: line 1 rhymes with line 2.. olukicai.. tantuláy márpan valamalaicár lanpuravin -= A .A valaňcey cuvana vatavaraipôn mátám -" = .~ ~~ ~~ = ' ~ maruntupira vippinikku màlar -tarumpinikku = = -\Jj..ф .A = -'A ф polaňcey malilko puraňcikara panti = .ф = A . PPI — 20: pakrotai-venpâ.= .\Jj vàuntamarun tenpár mátal .A // II.Ф .\b pátinár pátamalar pátip panimutimër — A — . palavikarpa..8.<\ . iruvikarpa.A ='..ý mantuká rukka kuruntivalai vantalavan — — A — — A = .. olukicai. côlai malaiyalakar lônmàlai kâmurumun . oruvikarpa. iruvikarpa..ф cutinàrk kuntô luyar -"A -".= -\Jj--A=s = .= -ф rennënît lilia levan -" --. tiruntilaiyày \J) máran A riruvuy A moliyë A = .\Jj — = — \Jj — = -\Jj--/\ moliyeluta -"-' lámo moli .=(\~'=-(Ь.A = .yjj ..

ф — \b -+ II VENPÂVINAM. 207 IL8. all the other combinations being of the iyarcïr-ventalai type. but only áciriyaialai agreeing in nër or in nirai. CCK — 29: kural-vencenturai. the last cïr of the stanza has two acai.(\ kontateva -" nanneňce kuru . cempon vëynta celumani manrat . 11. has more àciriya-lalai than venlalai.ф . ampuya mátán purumâl malarppatan tampamen . PPI — 32: kural-tàlicai (type 2). PPI — 29: kural-vencenturai..ф & = -// The second line of this stanza doesn't show a single ventalai.A = A -"".8.= ..INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY kantuká -" renru katukkai yuianmalartal " — é .— Only the last linkage of this stanza is an àciriya-talai.~ A râyntilàr A tarma é meytâr// ~. which is forbidden in regular forms of venpá.23.-Ц é = This stanza has mostly àciriya-lalai] the last cïr is made up of two acai.A = ф = ^ -'. PPI — 33: kural-tàlicai (type 3). Moreover. antar náyaka naraňkana tatittali ranimuti micaipunai tuyôr =' = mantu \b tentiraik é katarpuvi -"-"= yitaippira A vàre = . the last cïr of the stanza is made up of two acai.2.tampon mëruvuk katimuti yinrë This stanza.A panlunaň -" këlvar paruvaň kurittatenak = .. PPI — 30: kural-tàlicai (type 1). the last cïr of the poem consists of two acai. perunul pirapala karpalin тага = -r^ == г^-="Л -". too. puravalarnïi làrlamakkup pumakalkôn rirunaraiyu riravalarik kâmam yaman "/ .Л norunul ' karpa tutiya muyirkkë = .2.

A =" .~ Ф .ф .A = = .ф . untik káymá nitarpë ruraiyâ -".= vonrilaiyë lantàma menrarivà ràr \b .\Jj — — — \Jj —=—{[).II kontà rilanciyantârk kômàn kurukurul .= ..\b .. -.aracirukkum perumânàrk kàtceyyâ renceyvâr = = .A = ..-."=' .\Jj rontark kâtcey pavar This stanza has mostly âciriya-talai agreeing in nër. oruvikarpa.II All these three stanzas have perfect venpá forms and features.\b .= . the rest of the stanza has the features of a regular kural-venpà.A = .208 ULRIKE NIKLAS There are two kali-lalai in this stanza .. CCK — 35: venturai.// This stanza contains some features that are not allowed in regular uenpâ-poems: kali-lalai and áciriya-talai agreeing in nër.\Jj Ф ..\Jj yâtimuta lenrarivâ râr . IL8. IL8.5.уь = = .\b tanmâ caravuraitta iantamilppâ vinrërrë .= = . \Jj .Ф .A ' « ..\b ..= .2.\b .= — nôtiyanu lonrilaiyë luilamanà ràyananë -=-(b.A ==\ь — A = -.2. PPI — 36: ven-tálicai (type 1).(\ .= -\lj-= .ф . vânmà caravaluitum vàca makilliámal ..\b rantat tappâ lantá matlán . paracirukkun tamilmuvar páttirukkun tirumanrir paracon =' -.\b vânmàvi -lenrarivà ràr — ^ _--= _ ф -Ц valiyarvây vînatanka vàcavaku làmpuyattà -== .A = -~-ф-'--ф-~--А muracirukkum patainamanâr munnàku mannàlë -"-.4. besides iyarcîr-venialai. the last cir is built from three acai.^ .. PPI — 41: ven-tálicai (type 2). what distinguishes them from regular cintiyal-venpâ poems is the fact that here only all the three stanzas together form a full poem and that all the three must deal with the same topic.y = -A ^ -"rënti A .A = --' ф vanta A taritturaitta ф vantamilppà ф .= .(\ = -".

.A A àrà A vamutan A rarulvày A piravà A = = = ÀCIRIYAPPÂ. konkulër válkkai yaňcirait lumpi -=A--\b-= A ... olukicai." = A -tarulkurvây // =-- .^ = . olukicai. PPI — 34: veli-viruttam.A luraivan гаттп ráně = -' Ф ~. II. oruvikarpa.кь -'.А maraiyala ráki manral takte -' = = A -.ф -" = (\ /I PPI — 35: veli-viruttam.2.nàrà A yananë = '(\ nararpër = -A pukala A -tarulkurvây = '="-ф përâ A yiravà A pirarië A nayavà -= = = -A -tarulkurvây ф ="-kurà liuanë namanâr kurukà -larulkurvâu =' .A -■ .8.A payiliyatu kelïiya nalpin mayiliyar = = .ф táváta përinpan tanaivilaivár càrruvatu -mukunlanâmam = = Ф . too.. KURUNTOKAI — 2: nëricai-âciriyappà...9.A mëvâ namanvan lalakká tolippaiuvu -mukuntanàman .INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY 209 11. there occur iyarcïr-ventalai.A = 'A =' .\b .\b kâman ceppâlu kantátu molimô ... One more example: KURUNTOKAI — 97: nëricai-àciriyappà .— Ф -' . tannen katukkai kannír kalullara -"-'A = .й) — \b — = . vencïr-venlalai and kali-lalai. four lines.9..кЬ ânà nôyotu kána laktë -~-кЬ .A = ~= .1.'. .— A . oruvikarpa.ф .ф .I/ Besides the two types of àciriya-talai.A = = . three lines. yànë yïntai yënë yennalanë . CCK — 43: inaikkural-áciriyappá with alavali. kuralati and cintati..A = -A = ' = .5.A .A ="= A -'-'A = = ~é ceriyeyir = = " ^ rarivai f\ kuntalin ý "= — = ~ nariyavu mulavônï yariyum puvë =■= ^ =__^ ^ .кь ф -'-Ц II. Normally.I. which underlines its character as "calling" or "adressing". five lines. an àciriyappà will end in -ë.ф -" = .4.= A -'. four lines. muvá maraikku • muianmoliyây ninratuvu -mukunianàma = .A = = .кь -"-A .\b .6.

PPI — 77: aciriya-làlicai (type 1).ф — ф кь uàrak tarinlici nôvë càrar -.1.7. = = ^ == ^ = .A cirukóttup perumpalan tuňki yaňkival = -"." "The supreme one among the Hymns is the 'Talmilveda-hymn'.= = .\b .(\ iulikali nalipali tamilmarait luiiyë = = \цЬ) = = ^ = = (^=-^ matikali natipali máranun matiyë ■ .1 ú .i/ As the definition of this kind of áciriyappá is very much based on the contents of the poem." ÀCIRIYAPPÂVINAM IL9. KÛRUNTOKAI — 18: nilaimantila-áciriyappá.= 'é uyirtavac cirilu кйтатб peritë = ^=-^.210 ULRIKE NIKLAS venmatik -' kanni cutum A -".(\ = A — \!j -.2. irunila muvati yenavalarn toňkiya = = A-=é = = A = ^ lirumaru márpanaic cintaiyul vaippava = = A A---\b--=é rorupolu iinumila ruruvaion rilarë . stating that every line should be complete in itself.= ' é .rf = . liraiňcutum .A natikali natipati varacura natiyë = = ^j.= = = vin'micaip pôkiya vliuperra poruttë — = ^__^_=_^ _ _ a ^ II.. vëral veíi vërkôt palavin — \Jj — (b A = ." "The supreme one among the intellects is Màran's fine intellect.ф kannutar -' ' kalavul ф = -' = ' é punniyap ^ poiuvi ф Шит у/) puňkala ^j.9.6..\Jj càra nàtan cevviyai yàkumati '-'-' .1.2.Ф -'..= ^=-11 H. it seems necessary to give a translation of this stanza: "The supreme Lord among the Lords is the Husband of Laksmï.A .. PPI — 72: atimarimantila-aciriyappá patikali nalipati lirumakal patiyë = =^ ==^= = ^ = .9." "The supreme one among the rivers is the river 'Varacura'.A = A .

ф =.A ceňcor riruvày moliyunarnta cïlallâr — A = .\jj = .A = .A = = . PPI — 78: âciriyatturai (first..\b vantip piravi valaippat tulalârë ..9.é -'.Л .. CCK — 54: âciriyaviruitam with four equal lines made up from eight cïr each.A = -A = ..INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY PPI — 76: âciriya-tàlicai (type 2).A .A — Ф -.= .A —A = = -ф — \IJ.ф \b vaňcap piravi valaippat tulalârë -' ...A = A '.A maruvarukkan mativalivân yamànan rïnïr mannenumen = = -~A = = -A = .A == -\ù ф mâyap piravi valaippat A'tulalârë -.2.A .. third line is alavati).-A mulaiyenumàn malakkalirrin munnirutti vinaiyënaik .ф .--// àyal takumà latiparavu màranâr — A = .ф .A = .A = = ..A '= --H II.Ф — A kalaipayilvan lamilkkurukur makilmâran varaiyanaiyïr kalpa tàntfr ..A = = .= .= A 211 nëyat tiruvây moliyunarnta nânaliâr .\b — // II.Ф .\ù — Ф = -A vakaiyuruppin vativu konta -A — Ф — A oruvanukku moruttikku muruvon ràlav vuruvaiyik = = -/i= .A = = . kaňcal tirumâl kalalparavu màranâr .9.A lorultanenkô vorutti yenkô = = .ф . aruvarukku mulakavâl vataňka nttlôrk kânantap peruvàlvâ = = .ф .. second and fourth lines are kalinetilati.2.A kolaipayilvël viliputaitla taranilaiyô varanilaiyô kuru vïrë =~ = = -A= = .A « .A = .3.A = =<^= -\j)--(i)---A=--ú mátal kâtta -'...A = .A = .A = .A = .A = . alaipayilpàr katalkataintan ramutalitta tiruvaraňkat tamutai yëllun = = -A = -A — -A = = .A .4.A = = — II — tanlik A karunmàlpor = --^-=-^-= ralparavu màranâr (\ cintit iuraittatiru vâymolilër cirkunattâr — .

CCK — 58: ampótaraňka-ottálicai-kalippa [taravu. cïr. made up of six alavati with an additional invocational line at the beginning]: pëlaimïr pëlaimïr рптаппи ticaimukanum puyalvannap pannavanum .// KALIPPÂ.Л . made up of four lines each]: itantaluvuň kunicilaikkai yikanmaravar loiukanaiyo iulanrelilon cularvalivër kunavàla loruialaiyàr rotarntelunin ramarërcen pakamâran runaiyaticër titan laluvun tatiyarenat teralarunan karuluvanë vâttânait turumaravar vayiravalar pilamperikai kôttànai yutanvarilen kurilaivë lavarmàrpir rittânai vinaiyalippa numarërriv viyatulapat tôttànait tolumàran ronlarinan karuluvanë kulirmalivà nakaturiňcuň koliltërin kuluvinolu molitikalvan pataimarava rutanrelilvain nutivëlâr kalipayihen tolilpuriva numarëlvan karunëca nalipayinan makilmara natiyarinan karuluvanë [taniccot]: enavànku [curitakam.2. made up of four lines and built as a nëricai-àciriyappâ]: kanuti kanuti kanaliter kelinun tânuvi nilaitava rinunlava râvurai kunrucul kurmparar kotuneri yonrunï yaluňkaňa rurale kutiyë IUO. [taravu. In this and the following chapter (KALIPPÂVINAM). on the other hand..L PPI — . Stress will be layed. on the six elements of kalippâ.1.212 ULRIKE NIKLAS iruvarukku murittâka voruva renrôr iyarcolila .6. which will be named and explained in square brackets [ ] each in its systematic place..92: nëricai-ottàlicai-kalippa.A teninyunmar -"-"-" rencol kënë ф -"..ý -".1.A = '= . IL10. acai and talai won't be indicated as there exist nearly no restrictions for these three elements in the kalimetre. made up of six alavati]: kílálaň kulirulirai kelukatanmur rakanňálai tàlàla micaipavala varuvaraiyuň karuvaraiyun tamavenaváň kamaittalolir ranmaiyuta norutalaiyá yematematen retirunarin nuyircekuttït iirunôkkir kalaicivanlu variparantu kavinperuuár kulaipôlnta valipuraimân matarmalkkan malipuraivâ narunuiâal [three lâlicai.A — Ф -".6.

[laniccoî\: ànkorucâr [curitakam. pukalu vàrcilar. made up of nine lines and built as a nëricai-âciriyappà]: mulirà vilamulai malalaiyan tmcol maňkai marriva naňkulak koluntu kanaňkulai yavarotum vanaňkina nirpac côrntatu mëkalai nekilntana tôlvalai cántamuň karinlalu laralamun lïnlana 213 . first part: përen of 2x2 alavalí]: aruňkalai kavarnlunï ralikkap perranum iruňkalai yiniiemak kenpa rôrcilar nanniraň kavarntunïr nalkap perranum ponnira minitenap pukalva rôrcilar [ampôtarankam. viravu vàrcilar. made up of four alavati each]: pàriita pěrantaň cirupanti kolappeytu várittan punarruňcu màlukku mâlceyvïr vërittan kulalárkai valaikolla vilainiëyô puriitu vïnkuvanum puyamenpàr cilamàiar conmâlai totuttaninla tontarkkut lunaivaráy nanmâlaik kulaliyarpà nallirulir celavallïr panmâta ruyirkollal paliyanrë pakaikollum vinmára nuyirkonta vilikkenpár cilamátar aňkamalan mulaillalaiyë palikkalanà vaiyamilum maňkaiyarka nalaňkavarván palikkulalu màlavaiiïr laňkalariaň kiyamummaip puramanrë talaiyanpin naňkaiyartam puramumaiu nakaikkenpár cilamátar [ampôlarankam. valu vàrcilar. ôiu vàrcilar. third part: ilaiyen of 4x1 cintatí]: nalanalintu nirpâr cilar nànturantu nirpâr cilar kalanalintu nirpâr cilar kankalulnlu nirpâr cilar [ampôtarankam. second part: alaven of 4x1 alavati]: iërinai nôkkiyë tirivar circilar ërinai nôkkiyë yeluvar circilar târinai nôkkiyë talarvar circilar marinai nôkkiyë marulvar circilar [ampôtarankam. fourth part: cirren of 8x1 kuralati]: pàtu vârcilar.INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY kàmannu purantaranuň katavularum putaineruňka irukôttuk kitaintavitu kitaiyavarpal làniicaippa orukôttu malakaliru milankôvu mutanpôta amponmani matirrillai nataràca nanimarukil cemponmanip polantintërt tiruvuláp pôiunkàl [three tàlicai. paravu vàrcilar. makilu vàrcilar. âtu vàrcilar.

PPI — 94: vannaka-ottálicai-kalippá [taravu. first part: përen of 2x2 alavati]: vaňcanaiyór valiveluttu màlulanà maraipayinra kaňcanaikkoti rurakëcan katumporaiyait tavirttanaiyë kurukulallàr nurruvaraik kurruvanát tiniliruttit tarumanmuta lavarkkavani taniyálak koluttanaiyë [am polar aňkam. made up of six alavati]: pumátu nilanmanippun poliyavilpon nitalppunitat iëmulai naruňkalapaň cerimárpat titaimuyaňka valapparitâm pakirantat tappuramu makattatakki yulappililaň katirutayat tolikilarpě ruruváyu nannaraňkat tanukkatoru nayantanuvá kiyumolilkur iennaraňkat laravanaimër relintirukan valarntuláy [three tàlicai.6. second part: alaven of 4x1 alavati]: kaliperuňkar pinalàtai kaliyâma yaintanaiyë valipatuntu tanumàki matakkôlai cumantanaiyë tatipântan ranakkaliyàt lamaniyanà talittanaiyë vitikântar kulappilpala vëlamavai kontanaiyë . made up of two alavati each]: laraniyu levarotu muraniya peruvira liraniyan varanenu maranara vikalinai orupatu ciramula nirupatu karamula nirulana tuyarmicai porukanai cilarinai maraiyava riraiyava ruraivayin vatuvurai paraipala nuyirpuku maraikala linaiyinai mutalaiyi nitaruru matamalai matuvinu lutavuka venumurai yatanotu mulavinai [am pótar aňkam.13.214 ULRIKE NIKLAS ivvá ráyina livalë cevvitin àmpar puvin mullaiyu mukailtila ilaiyól cálavu mamma muliyól póluň káma пбуккё IL10. made up of four alavati each]: orucutaraň corupamuta nurupamamain torucutarô lirucularâyk kunamorumun renalàki muraimuraiyë pataippataiyu malippataiyam purampokkip palipiraňká titaippatuká valaininaten retuttateva narulutiyë ninranavá yiyaňkinavdy nïtiyapal luruvaliltôn ponriyaná leluntaperum punarpalinla vuyirkalainl yemmânë tiruvutarat tiruttiyakâ varkavarmr kaimmâran kevanômun kaikkonta tarululiyë purampayinra vinaivalicàr pôkkuvara vinumpiriyà tarampayinra tanuvulatë latarkavarrai yeluttanaiyâ yunnïrmai yarranamàyn iurunarakir pukuvaturïik kannïrkon lakanrakalák kávaleva narulutiyë [four aràkam.

The last line of the stanza is built like a venpá-line. this last line has venlalai only.INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY [ampotaraňkam. having three cïr only and ending in an acairccïr. third part: itaiyen of 8x1 cintati]: tátakai yutaluyir pókkinai iápatan manalitar nïkkinai niïaka likaipali tïrttanai nëcamul lavanotu cërttanai villinai mitilaiyil valaitianai melliya lilamulai tilailtanai vallara vatalketa natittanai marutinai mutalotu mutittanai [ampôtarankam. This predomination of kali-talai is of greatest importance. acai. as another kind of verse.2. belongs rather to the venpâ-metre and not to kalippâ and is called kalivenpá. Moreover. PPI — 105: venkalippá ponneluňkun renaccerintu minnenalá kulirmatipón lalirpuraimel kutaticaiván nalalpunaivë A nunukitaiyav rolirvalatiak laliccuvatun kalircurukkik iuvarenrá / pulaillelumen vëypuraiyun komalappuň talarntanavey kotitlëri larrampárt / pulakamulai tunaimenrót kompanná yónenrár notumaraintá táralaippar / .6. fourth part: cirren of 16x1 kuralati]: urittayirkat lunlanaiyë návalanpin naianlanaiyë uralitaikat tuntanaiyë natittanaiman natanlanaiyë maritlunirai kàilanaiyë kôvalaril liruiianaiyë valaňkinaiyaiň kâiianaiyë kôlviiaiyë liruiianaiyë kuianalamun pâtinaiyë pullinaivâ yilanlanaiyë kulalinirpan pâtinaiyë puranianaipâ ritantanaiyë paiarcakalam potittanaiyë tellamutaň kaiainlanaiyë pakaiiumarup potittanaiyë iëvarulan kataintanaiyë [tanicco(]: enavânku [curitakam. Note: In this example. being basically similar with venkalippá (having many alavati and ending in a cintati with yenpâ-features) but having a predominant ventalai. whereas the rest of the stanza has a predominant kali-talai (as indicated). válivá liyavë 215 IIJO. made up of four lines and built as a nëricai-àciriyappâ]: inaiyatan maiyavâ mennaruň kunatli ninaivaruň káva nikaltiinai yataná ninnatu karunaiyu nîyu manniya tiruvutan. cïr and ialai (with restriction to kali-lalai only) will again be indicated as they are of great importance for the definition of this specific type of kalippá.

3.216 ULRIKE NIKLAS ponpunaipun manimárpir puravalavin riruvïru = -' A milvaiki -"narunlëcen = .= A = linaiuarunli / maraiyatalir . (Here. made up of six lines and built as a nëricai-âciriyappà]: palpe ruli cellinu malikat kollaiyuň cella láku màkalin alavil kula malakkanur rulalumen talarvu nôkkày pôlu. nôkkin karunaicey larulà yallai arunalam palutta vátalval lôyë II.A = = .a " a = = /.-.a / muiirtiraippâ làliuinvàn = -/-=-.-"'.6. that this stanza is built mainly from kây-cïr and with kalilalai): atikonia kunippanrë yaripirama mulalànër = -".^ tuyileluniu viraikamaltár makilmâran meuttamilccor kurukurin =■ --■ -.A mukaturiňcu A mutauakirik A = '= = -katirvarumun cërtal katan — 63: iyarraravu-koccaka-kalippá. cïr and ía/ai will be indicated in order to show clearly.A A r^ kulikonia patipôlu milatlàlir kuňcitamě = -"./.A ' nankulattem -"--. without any other elements.A ="-.2.A .A = -"".A mutikonta talaivanakkin kunippellá muraimuraipóyk = — ~ A — — — A ~ — A — = — A katikonta polirrillai natarácan kalarkálir --" . too. which consists of two taravu only.A = -1 /-=-// — 64: curitaka-taravu-koccaka-kalippa [laravu]: mallânta liraiiniôt iulâymuialu maninâvir collánta maraimutalum palamňkut tolaiveyta pallànlu calaccellâ vilaiyôrum panippeyla allánta nalliruli lalalàtun tolilinaiyë [taniccoí\: atanál [curitakam. CCK — 65: laravinai-koccaka-kalippà (type b)..A = -. No special example is given for the first type of taravinai-koccaka-kalippá.—" .6 vaikaraiváyt . [First taravu]: kulaituňku kalaimenrót kômàri kolaikkankal ilaituňku mulaikkanvait tëyeytâ nâneyta .<< 7 ruyilamarntu -.

3.INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY ulaituňku kuyilënka vurumultî уикапакки malaituňku polirrillai manimanru nataňceyvoy [Second taravu]: mïnërrin ruvacallán ranituňca vililiôynin ànërrin ruvacamô vatalërri nurtiyô kânërra painkûlin kavalamàk kanattinkan vànërra pakirantam vàymatukka vallatë [ianiccoí]: enaváňku [curilakam. and built as a nëticai-âciriyappa]: paintulây mavulip pannava nuvappa anianar paliccavu maraitin puňkavan muniyán munivan pôlum anaiya tanre yànrôr kaianë П.6. made up of four lines.10. CCK — 66: cikrálicai-koccaka-kalippá [taravu]: maraiiaňku tirumanri nalaňkaniu makilpuiiuk karaitaňku patavarava mimaiyàtu kanvilippak kuraitatïku kalainiraiyir kolilaikkuň kollenru niraitaňku talaiyuvavu nirampâlu nirappeytum piraitaňku cataikkarraip perumparrap puliyurôy [First laniccoí\: enaváňku [First tálicai]: vellerukkuň karumpâmpum ponmattu milaicciyema lullirukkum perumànin rirumàrpi nuravaluttum kallirukkuň kulalumaiyàn mulaiccuvattaik katuvotuňkum mulleyirra karaiyarava mulaiyenru nulaiyumàl [Second taniccol]: atdanru [Second lálicaí]: cilaikkôtu porumaruppir pukarmukanin rirumàrpil mulaikkôtu porucuvattaik kanlunin. mulavuttôl malaikkôli vilaiyàium paruvaliu marrulian kolaikkôtu pattavenak kulaintumanaň kalankumàl [Third taniccol]: atâanru [Third tálicai]: vilamárnta cutarilaivël vitalainin manimárpil vatamárnta mulaiccuvattaik kantutan maruppentai tatamarpam vitarceyyac camarceylán kollenru katamárveň kavutcirukat kayácuranai viyakkumâl [Fourth taniccol]: alanâl 217 .3.

3.4. made up of two alavaii each]: kalikamalap purvaivailluň kannanár kánánin atikkamala mulikkamala mariyàië maritumë mutiolilin mularrolilôn mutiyilantán ranaiyikalnta altolilir kenirramiyë mariiolirkum vallamë irukkóla mittuminnu munarátu lentainin tirukkôla miyámunarntu ciniikkak katavamë nánmaraikkun turaikanlàr lôlilantâr nâvilantin kunmaraikka maraippunlë muyltunarvu periyamë tâmatikan marantumarit talaikontár kalaivalla mámatikal yâmatikan maravâmai yutaiyamë palakalaiyuň kulamaraiyum payinrunarntum payankollà lulakalaiyuň cilakalaiyu munaràlë munarlumë \laniccoí\: aianàl [curitakam. CCK — 68: mayankicai-koccaka-kalippâ [Two taravu]: cunmukatia curimukaňka niraitiârppat lotukalalvây vànmukatla malaikkulaňkan maripunalvây matuttennak kânmukalta matukaraltin kulamîntik kaiimalarvâyt tënmukakkum polirrillait tiruccirram palatturaivôy purputamun tolaiveyta nilaiveytâp pulaiyutampin irputavu tirantiravâ vinpavï leytavoru narputavu iiranlanna narumpoluvi naňkaiyulan arputavu mânanta natampayilu maravôykël [Six tàlicai]: evvitalli lepporulu moruňkunna virukkunl vevvitaltai yetuttamutu ceytatumôr viyappàmë .218 ULRIKE NIKLAS [curitakam. CCK — 67: pakràlicai-koccaka-kalippâ [laravu]: orunôkkam pakalceyya vorunôkka mirulceyya irunôkkir rolilceytun tuyilceylu milaittuyirkal karunôkkâ uakaikarunaik kannôkkan ceyuňánat iirunôkka varunôkka mirunôkkun ceyacceytu тагипбккит polirrillai manimanru nalanceyvôy [Six tàlicai.5.10. made up of three lines and built as a nëricai-aciriyappà]: cilaimukaň кбНитас cillarit tataňkan mulaimukaň kotlina nakumâl malaimukaň kôllunin marpuya marainlë II. made up of three lines and built as a nëricai-àciriyappâ]: ammanin ranmai уеттапб runartar karitë yelitë ydlal peritë karunai ciriyë màlië IL 10.3.6. б.

made up of 8 kuralati only. [tanicco(]: enavànku [curilakam made up of five lines and built as a nericai-áciriyappá]: neňcakaň kulaintu nekkunek kurukanin kuňcita carana maňcalit tiraiňcutum 219 . tamaru nï. Шуи nï. hence containing cirren only]: tantai ní. cintai nï. yâvu nï. unarvu nï. cïva nï. piraru nï.INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY enpayilá vulakataňka vorunotiyi leriltilunï vinpayilu meyinmunru merittatumôr vïràmë peruvellap pakirantan larittitunï peyarttumalai poruvellap punarkaňkai tarittatumór pukaláme mâyaiyinà lanaittulaku mayakkunl màmunivar cëyilaiyàr cilartammai mayakkiyatôr cirappâmë mëtakka puvanaňka tolaittilunï vekuntâypôl màiakkan peruvëlvi iolaitlalumôr vanmaiyë ôruruvây niraintanï yiruvarkkan runarvariya përuruvon rutaiyaiyày ninratumôr perumaiyë [arâkam in four parts]: arivini laripava rarivatai yalatoru kuriyini larivuru kuriyinaiyalai ulavayi nulavala vunarvatai yalaturai alavayi nalavitu malavinaiyalai aruveni nuruvamu mulaiyuru veninaru vurumavu mulaiyavai yupayamumalai ilateni nulatula ieninila lilatula ialaleni ninaturu varipavarevar [Six tâlicai]: ettoliluň karanaňka lirantaninak kilaîyainlu meyttolilcey vatumatikël vilaiyàttu nimiliamë cïrâllu ninakkilaiyac cïrâllun cirumaruňkur përàtti vilaiyàttun peyarttàki nataniatë meytluyara muyirkkeylum vilaiyàttu mulakïnra attiruvuk kilaiyatuvu mavarporuttë yumanrë innarulë mannuyirkat kettolilu mïnretutta annaimuni vatuntanayark karulpuritar këyanrë evvuruvu ninnuruvu mavaluruvu menranrë avvuruvum pennuruvu mânuruvu mâyavë cinnalá tavalillai yavalalâ nîyillai enninï yëyavanu mavalumu yiruttiyâl [laniccol]: atanâl [ampotaraňkam.

1L4.) araiporu lamUiaru maniyail táruvai valakkapi laiyinai nákinaii ~ Л = A .é luraitoruň culitteri iokuii párkala = = Ц^)= = ^j) = — \jj — = 4L) niraiyamil tuyirttapal valani karkkumë = = ^L) = =|^==_^=11 This stanza contains only iyarcïr. but only áciriya-lalai (и and "w) and iyarcïr-venlalai (n). PPI — 116: kali-iurai.2. PPI — 119: kalivirutlam. alani vátara nilantulár yávare yánu mitani láritai panipava rámenan meyyë yutani láiaváy ňálimun pirinari yurunïrp pataru mákalir reruttatáyk kalittatu páynte 11. CCK — 74: kalialai-kaliliurai (cïr and lalai indicated). cîr and talai have again been indicated. >b II. táypon rulakaliila iaňcaimul verpanaiyáy cëypôn roliyutaiyán ceňkait lalaitáluň cëypôn roliyutaiya kontilanen cittirattál vâypôn rinivailen colli maruppan vinaiyënë PPI — 1 12: kali-iàlicai (type 2). karumpuň curumpu marumpum porumpalaik kámarvilvěl --A--A--A = = A 'A naraimarai .220 ULRIKE NIKLAS mummalam potinta mulumalak kurampaiyir cemmán tiruppatu tírntu meymmaiyir polinla vïtuperra poruttë Note: No special examples will be given for the three subforms of mayaňkicaikoccaka-kalippâ . hence there does not occur even a single kalilalai.L PPI — 113: kali-iálicai (type 1).113.11. KALIPPÂVINAM. ILll. neyyamar vela netuma laraňkattun naiyarik kanniyai yâren vinnu mariyenyán ceňcutar vela lirumá laraňkattun naňcanak kanniyai yárena vinnu mariyenyán cempuka vela tiruma laraňkattun nampamar kanniyai yárena vinnu mariyenyán II. (Note: As ôcai is playing an important role in the definition of this specific metre.

".= .L == & = .i puntaliranrë putaipeyarmellati -=■-"-/='= = A nanpâ patarpukal rutarivan máran polilë paruňkucan tokaiya titane VANCIPPÂVINAM. the second and third lines have as third clr a кпу-cïr each instead of an iyarcir. Note: No example is given for II.= ^ koliyëtalaritai konmuvëkula -' .12. PPI — 126: vaňcippá (cf.2..INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY 221 irumpuň karainturu kacceyyu mâlirum putitanrë = -A = = A---\Jj-=é = .~ = .II Note.--'--'. VANCIPPÂ.= =A kántalantunaimala ravaiyëkaiyum ..1. 11. that this stanza is not strictly following the rules: the first line doesn't end in a kày-cïr.I -' = = A yamputtunaiyë yarimatarunkan .. but in а рп-сГг.1.A A làtaravinpata A mâmëkatitatan .I ---'-"/ kunicilaiyiranlë kotunanpuruvam panimàmatiyë palitírnanmukaň = '.).A virumpum perumpuli yurempi rànarun mëviloru -" = A = A = = A \b A turumpum pataittalik kummaki lántat lokuiiyaiyë = A = = A = A -■".= -/ = . PPI — 127: vancittâlicai..3.'. naraimakil тага nurainaka râtavar maraimoli ninaitoru nirai ialàrumë tirumakil mura narunaka ràtava rarutalai ninaitoru murukumen niraiyë ponmakil тага nankai râtavar munnurai ninaitoru mennirai yilavë . paimporkunrë panaiyilavanamulai . II.1.. 5. II.A = = .= .12.. 12.

kontur tirumakil mârpinar ceniâ maraiyati cërpavar iantâ valamurai nârana nantá mantanai yâlvarë 11. 12. máran kurár várár lávě ULRIKE NIKLAS II.13. 12. PPI — 128: lanlamil rankům nanpura kantuyi MARUTPÂ.222 II.2. 2. PPI — 131: vaňcivirullam. váynla makilmáran málvaraiman kannimaikku móniakalu nïrmen mukaivátum -puntalirk kánilam patartaluň kantana manila makalë yanaňkalan mananë (The first two lines of this stanza are built as a nëricai-venpâ. PPI — 132: maruipá. having ventalai throughout. vaňci-turai. note the e/uA-at-rhyme in the first two lines. vâynla doesn't disturb it!) . including the taniccol of the second line: -y.3.

ottâlicai-kalippâ. Ю. 9.1. oruu. 4.1. uri-cîr. akaval-luňkal. 8.6. 9.5. acai. 7. 9. 6.5. cf.6. irattaitotai. 6..4. vowelless consonants precede consonant-vowel combinations..2.5.. 9. 1. âciriya-cïr. 9. akavarcîr.. cf. 8. cf. alavati. 1.6.1. 12.3. 6. 8..7. 10. b. 3. âciriya-talai. 9. 12. olukicai-akaval. 10. 3. iyarcïr-ventalai. âciriya-cîr.5.З.2.. iyarcïr.I. 7.. cf.7. with a reference to the place where they are actually found in this index. acai-cïr. 10.5.6. alimarimantila-âciriyappâ.. âciriyappâvinam.1. oruvikarpa.2. 11.2. olukicai. ënticai-akaval. 4. cf. 8. icai.5.4. etukai. cf. 6.1. a reference to the first part will be relevant for the same paragraph number in the second part.2..1. 1. 1 1 . 10.6. onriya.1. iyaipu. ampôtaranka-oltâlicai-kalippâ. olukicai-ceppal. âciriya-viruttam. iruvikarpa. 5. 8.1. acai-clr. 3. âciriyattalai.1. as the counting of paragraphs in the first and the second part is synchronized. 7.4. 9.4.2. âciriya-cîr. uriccîr. а.1. 9. In these cases.. 8. 3.. âytam [к] precedes all other consonants).2. Only in case a term was introduced in the second part or some very important additional information was given there. innicai-venpâ. âciriya-talai. âciriya-tâlicai. .2. cf. 0. cf. innicai-cintiyal-venpâ. itaiyinam.. ampôtaranka-orupôku. .1. inai. akaval-luňkal.1. akaval-ôcai. ënticai-tullal. akavarrullal.2.5.2.. akaval-lullal. 1.6. Ô.5. 10.7. 4.2. 10. inaikkural-âciriyappâ. aràkam. âciriyattâlicai.1. 10. 7. kattalai-kalitturai.2. ôralimukkâl.. . ïratimukkâl.1.2.3. irattai-totai. 10. ënticai-tunkal. acaiccîr. 2. 4.3. for the sake of clarity.5.5. 6. alapetai.. . cf.. too.1.6. Many of the compound terms have been given in a form with sandhis split.INDEX This index is mainly based on the first part of this work only. antâti-totai. 6. ënticai-ceppal. 4. 10. 4.3..1.3.1. 8. (alapetai-totai): 6.4. âciriya-tâlicai. 0. 7.3.7. âciriyaccïr.4.2. cf.1. 9.1. 4. antâtittotai. 7.1.7. akaval-lullal.2.2. âciriyappâ. 6. II. 10. И.. ati.3. onrâia. 6. akavarruňkal.. elultu. 9. too. 9.e.1. âytam. âciriya-turai. the correct sandhi-forms are included in the alphabet.. âciriya-cïr. direct reference to the second part will be made.2. . 6. antâti-totai. 6. 3. uri-cïr.. âciriyatturai.1. Hence..4. cf.2. 7. cf. ënticai. àciriya-turai.2. ampótaraňkam.2. 6. as far as there is any "illustration or annotation" on that paragraph. ôcai. 10.2..З.З.2. 3. 9.2.. kattalai-kalippâ.1 .6.6. 7. irattai-totai.5.7. 1. Tamil Terms The order is that of the Tamil alphabet according to the principles of the Tamil Lexicon of Madras University (i.3.6.

1.2. tuňkicaicceppal. 10.2. kalitturai. 3.2. 10.. 8.3.4..5. tuňkicai-ceppal.2. 6. 8.2.5. Ыш. 1. tarauu. ceppal-ôcai. curitakam.6..6. 1. kali-turai.8. 8.1. viruttam. palavatimukkál.. potu-clr..2. 10.2. 10. 10... tuňkicai-akaval.1.1 .. 5.. 1.. 1. cf.1. cintiyal-venpâ.. 2.4. vaňcippá. vaâcittàlicai. kani-cïr. 7.. . 1 1 . pakrotai-venpá.3. 12. 10.З.4. cf. 9. tunkal-ôcai.1. b. mâ-cïr. 9.1. cf. 9.5.7. 8.2. ianiccïr. . 2. nilal-cïr.1.2. 7.7. 3. 10. nërpu. kây-cïr.8. cf. мф/.2. 10.6. 4.З.2.. .1. vaňci-turai. kurriyal-ukaram. 12. 9. vanci-cîr.3.2. oenpůvinam.2.9.6..5. 9. kani-cïr. 10. vaňcittalai. vanci-cîr. 10. 1. cf.6.4..7. centotai.6.6. 1.2.5. 4..2.1. 2.3. 6. oen/uraí.1.6. 8..3.З.4...7.3. mayankicai-koccaka-kalippâ.2.1. 4. kalittâlicai.. 7. /сп/ш.6. cfp. vaňciviruttam. 8.2. 10. 7... vaňcippůvinam."7.. 4. kali-tálicai. 10.6. vaňcitturai. kural-venpá. 2.2.2.. l.2. 12. kali-talai..6. /cunï.5. iâ/icai (rhythm): 7.4.1..3. 4.2. 7. kaniccïr. palavikarpa.1.1.7.. 10. nâl-cïr..1. 10.6. cf. 13. tâlicai-orupôku..6..2. vaňci-talai.. pakràlicai-koccaka-kalippâ. 8.2. . nilaimantila-áciriyappá. 5. 6. cintati. . 8. 8. koccaka-kalippà. ventálicai. 10.. taravinai-koccaka-kalippâ. 1. iaravu-koccaka-kalippá. něricai-ottálicai-kalippá.2. 7. 6.2. cf. ven-tâlicai.6. pirinlicai-luňkal. a. pakrotai-venpà. vannaka-orupôku.6.... 6. niraipu. cikrálicai-koccaka-kalippá.1. cf.4. с. a.6. 7.2.5. veíi-viruttam. .3. шУш. vencír.7.6. kalivirutíam. nëricai-venpâ. pirinticaittûnkal.. 8. kalippávinam. kural-vencenturai.5. 10.2. 7. 2.7. koccakakkalippâ. mufa/ (eluttu). 8. muvatimukkâl. 5.6.2. kural-tàljcai. 8... 7. 1 1 . murru.5. vallinam. tuňkicai-ceppal. 8. 7.2. pal-totai-venpá. 3. marutpâ. cf. vannaka-ottâlicai-kallippà.5. 10.1. kural-ialicai. 8.4. (kalippâ): 10. 10. 0. netilati. 3. 1. vaňci-talicai.. 1. cár pu (eluttu). nëricai-cintiyal-venpâ. 4. рп-cïr. tuňkicai.. 10..4.5.Í!b. kurattálicai. vaňci-talai.1.I.5.1. pâvinam... 12. 3. vaňci-turai.2.2. 8. potu-cïr.2. 7. 8.7. 7. mërkaiuvày.6. 7.1. muran.2. . 7. kâycclr.7.1.3. 8.6. пег. 6. kuralati. cf. 10.5. 10. mellinam.1. 6.1.2. cf.2. kalittalait cf.I. 7.5..6. 8. 2. 6. 3. 0. pirinticaittullal. pirinticai-tullal. 3.2..1.6. 9.1.6. Ю..5. 6.6. vikarpa. 8. 4. b. 3.3. 10. 6. 7. cf. 8.6. mônai. /urai. 10.1.2. 6..6. 3. 0.3. 3. tullal-ôcai.3. vencír-ventalai.. 6.1. 12. 10. kali-turai. 3. 10.1. poiuccîr.1.6.3. malar-cîr.1. kali-talai. cf. cf. kurriyal-ikaram. kây-cir. 9. 3. 10. kali-tálicai. 6. vilam-cir.З. 3.2. venkalippá. 7. 11. ven-turai. 7.. cf.6.6. /a/a/.4. taniccol. 6.2. 8.2. 6. vaňci-tálicai.3..5.З. pirinticai-tullal. 8. 12.2. 10. oanciccîr. venturai. 10.3. venpá. 12.2..1. 10. cf.5.6.5. 3. koccaka-kalippá.. cf. 10.224 ULRIKE NIKLAS nëricai-uciriyappà.1.6.6. 3.1.2. pirinticai-tuňkal. 8. 4..1. kalippâ.2. 5.. polippu.2.3.3. kalinelilali. 8. 11.1. kiïkkatuvây. ventàljcai.1.2. pâ. . 8. 8.

where they are first introduced.2.. 5.). linkage: U agreeing in nër (II. . = + niraipu (2.7. the respective Tamil term will be given within brackets.1. For the sake of clarity.4.. a. stop-consonants foot.2. following the English term.1.4.) plosives cf.1. П non-agreeing (II.1.1. 1.2. 1.4.7. place-value 11. ^ agreeing in nirai (1 1.. overlengthening (alapelai) 1.6. verse. = nirai (2.). .1. 2. . ornament/ornamentation (totai) 0.8. b. disagreeing (onrâta) 4. overshort i (kurriyalikaram) 1.1. 7.1. О. variety (vikarpa) 7.).6. 4.1. semivowels 1 1.1.1.. metrical foot (cïr) O. liquids II..1. a. 4..1. — h nërpu (2. primary phone (mutal-eluttu) 1. 7.4.1. 1.I.INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY 2. 1. -main type of verse (рй) agreeing (onriya). nasals II. 7. Symbols Throughout the text. stop-consonant 1 1. a. b. and 1 1..3. 1.1. detached metrical foot (taniccir). overshort и (kurriyalukaram) 1.8..nër (2. rhythm (ôcai or icai) 1 '. cf. line. long vowel (nelil) 1. 7. cf. 6.. detached word (taniccol).4. metreme (acai) 0. 7. 3. and П.1. and П.1. a.).4.3. -subtype of verse (pâvinam) 7.7'. 1. secondary phone (cárpu-eluttu) 1. а. metrical foot.1.).4.1. English Terms 225 "passim" parttheirthe index includes only the most which have English technical terms which are used This for of Tamil counterparts. and some of important been newly coined here.2.1. melremes: . 1. 3..4.). 4. phone (eluttu) 0. a few symbols have been used which are listed here along with their definitions and the indication of the places.3. metrical line (ati) 0.0.3.. short vowel fkuril) 1. metrical line. 2.). linkage (talai). 1.6.

Tirunelvëli: Caivacittânta nûrpatippuk kalakam. Râjakôpâlâccâriyar. Itu U. Vë. Cennai: U. Cáminátaiyar elutiya kurippuraiyutan. Càminàtaiyar . CITAMPARACCEYYUTKÔVAI. Porulatikâram. Citamparacceyyutkôvai.. Tiruttanikai Vicákapperumájaiyar iyarriya Yâppilakkanam. Napputanàr iyarriya Mullaippâttu. 1932. Vë. (Ed. U. Ilakkana vijakkam. Kë. Vol. Kumarakuruparacuvàmikal arujiyatu. 1935. 5: Yàppiyal. Rà. 1962. 2. Vê. Càminàtaiyar nulnilaiyam.. 1964.. Arumporulvilakkattutan. Ceyyujiyal. Atikajáciriyar). Mullaippâttu. MUTTOLLÂYIRAM. (in print). 1983. Tirunelvëli: Caiva cittânta nûrpatippuk kalakam. Cennai: Stár piracuram. 3. Modem Introductory Tamil Books.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Cômacuntaranàr ekitiya vijakkavuraiyutan. Kumarakuruparacuvàmikaj iyarriyatu. Maturai: Tamilccaňkam. Tolkàpiyyam. Yàpparunkalakkârikai. Cennai : Kapïr accukkûtam. Po. Amirtacâkaranâr arulicceyta Yàpparunkalakkârikai. Citamparacceyyutkôvai. Taňcávur: Tamil University. 1968. Annàmalainakar: Annâmalai University. 1985. Muttoljàyiracceyutkal (108). 1947.. Itu Ki. Iràkavaiyankàràl paricôtikkappattana. Kunacàkarar uraiyum. Tamil Literature. 1971. Tolkâppiyam. Vellaivàranar. Ceyyuliyal. Ilampuranarurai. Mûlamum. elutiya urai àràycci mutaliyavarrutan. Tirunelvëli: Caivacittânta nûrpatippuk kalakam. 1963. (Ed. Kuruntokai. Maturai: Tamilccaňkam. Vë. Pâppàvinam. Traditional Tamil Grammatical Works. Kuruntokai. Uraivalam. Pàppàvinam. Tolkàppiyam. . Irâmânujaiyankàràl paricôtikkap perratu. Maturai: Kâmarâj University.

English Books.: The Commonness in the Metres of the Dravidian Languages. Annie M. 1985.: Tolkappiyam (in English). D. 1977. S. Annamalainagar: Annamalai University.] . Dissertation. Trivandrum: Dravidian Linguistic Association. 1943. [Note: The monograph "Classical Tamil Prosody: an Introduction" by Kamil Zvelebil (Madras. Thomas. New Era Publications. 227 Albert.C. Chitamparam Chettiyar. (An English Trans. Phonology and Morphology. Trivandrum: Kerala University (1974).) Madras: International Institute of Tamil Studies. and hence couldn't be taken into account here.: Tamil Prosody through the Ages. 1989) appeared. Subrahmanyan.: Advanced Studies in Tamil Prosody.INTRODUCTION TO TAMIL PROSODY 4. when this paper was already in print. Unpublished PhD. A.