Team Monterey 5 Infrastructure Team Waste Management in the Cantons of Jiquilisco, El Salvador A Waste Management Guide

Monterey Institute of International Studies A Graduate School of Middlebury College

Prepared by: Karin Orr Brooke Greco Heather Bessette Scott Depies Report Editor: Adele Negro

Acknowledgements
The Team Monterey 5 (TM5) El Salvador Infrastructure Team would like to acknowledge the support we received on this project. We would like to thank the Junta Directiva of Asociación Mangle for being available to guide us and inform our work. We would especially like to thank the team in Isla de Méndez: environmental engineer and Program Coordinator Nicolas Funes, for his patience, support, and valuable insight; staff at Asociación Mangle including; Program Director, Walberto Gallegos; agronomist Carlos Barahona; and park ranger and representative of the Asociación de Desarrollo Comunal Isla de Méndez (ADESCOIM), José Ofelio Herrera Martinez. They all contributed significantly to this report and strengthened our ability to carry out research while in El Salvador. We would like to thank EcoViva for providing logistical and informational support to our delegation, which greatly enhanced our experience during our stay, particularly Chema Argueta, who was our logistics coordinator, Nathan Weller for his preliminary guidance, and our devoted drivers and guides; Mario Martinez, Cleto Marquez, and Lolo. We would also like to thank our host families, who accommodated us so well. We also want to thank our student translator, Antonio Armendáriz, who worked tirelessly with our team. Lastly, we would like to thank Team Monterey faculty member, Adele Negro, for her consistent translation and interpretation work, as well as for exhibiting her strong dedication to Team Monterey, from beginning to end. Thank you.

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Executive Summary
The goal of TM5’s Infrastructure Team was to create a waste management program template for rural and protected communities within the cantons of Jiquilisco neighboring Isla de Méndez. The Infrastructure Team members were familiar with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) handbook titled, “A Handbook on Waste Management in Rural Tourism Areas - A Zero Waste Approach”, which considers the full life cycle of trash in developing communities and rural tourism areas. The UNDP model of “zero-waste” focuses on the concept that both consumers and producers are responsible for the 3R’s of waste management: reduce, reuse, recycle. The information gathered in Isla de Méndez has helped the team adapt this UNDP waste management model to fit the current situation and needs of Isla de Méndez and the larger Bay of Jiquilisco area. Our framework represents how the UNDP zero-waste methodology can be best applied to Isla de Méndez currently and in the future. With the help of the community members of Isla de Méndez, Program Coordinator Nicolas Funes and the Junta Directiva of Asociación Mangle, the Infrastructure Team was able to gain a better understanding of the unique dynamics and circumstances of the Bajo Lempa Region. The Infrastructure Team looked closely at the present pilot waste management project of 2011 that is being conducted in Isla de Méndez. In this report, we describe how, on the basis of our research, the leaders and community of Isla de Méndez and the surrounding areas can create a successful waste management program. Our recommendations define in detail the following steps of the UNDP waste management model: 1. Preliminary Actions: identifying needs of the community, designating primary project leaders, establishing goals and objectives of the program, creating an approach paper, and conducting a baseline assessment. 2. Understanding the Problem 3. Policy Formation 4. Action Plan 5. Fundraising and/or identifying resources 6. Finalizing Waste Management Program: information campaign, hiring and training of personnel, implementation The team is confident that the local community can succeed in implementing a waste management program that will better the standard of living of residents and improve the quality of the natural habitat of the Bajo Lempa region. A final recommendation is for Team Monterey 6 to conduct a follow-up study on the current waste management pilot project in Isla de Méndez.

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Introduction & Background
Project Scope & Methodology Project Scope The core goal of this project was to create a waste management program template for neighboring rural and protected communities of Zone 1 within the cantons of Jiquilisco. Over a three-week time period, from January 2 to January 22, 2011, TM5‘s Infrastructure Team gathered information through various activities with 25 Isla de Méndez community members, the Program Coordinator, Nicolas Funes, and the Board of Directors of Asociación Mangle. TM5 chose to focus studies on Isla de Méndez because of the community’s nine-year history of waste management efforts. The current 2011 waste management pilot program is also located in Isla de Méndez Methodology TM5 Infrastructure team adapted a handbook put forth by the United Nations Development Programme, entitled A Handbook on Waste Management in Rural Tourism Areas - A Zero Waste Approach, to the conditions of Isla de Méndez for the purpose of adapting this model to other cantons in the Bay of Jiquilisco area. The team was informed of the potential utility of the handbook by EcoViva and, after close observation, decided that its step-by-step instructions were specifically suited to rural and protected areas and could easily be customized to conditions such as those in the Jiquilisco area. During the first week in El Salvador, the TM5 Infrastructure Team met with the Junta Directiva of Asociación Mangle to discuss the current waste management project. After a series of meetings with Program Director, Walberto Gallegos, environmental engineer and project coordinator, Nicolas Funes, agronomist Carlos Barahona, and park ranger and representative of Asociación de Desarrollo Comunal Isla de Méndez (ADESCOIM), José Ofelio Herrera Martinez, TM5 designed and proposed several project ideas for the Infrastructure team to implement. Asociación Mangle chose the proposal to create a general waste management template, which could be used to expand waste management systems to other communities in the Bajo Lempa. During the second week, members of ADESCO’s Environmental Committee held their first meeting of 2011 at Villa Tortuga, which was attended by members of communities outside Isla de Méndez as well. The Infrastructure Team attended the meeting and led an informal group discussion with the Environmental Committee regarding the history of waste management projects in the area. The team was also given the following three reports to analyze, each detailing the waste management efforts during the preceding nine years: ● Descripción del Medio Social, Económico y Cultural, Medio Físico y Biológico en Su Área de Influencia (FIAES-Cuadro No. 3) (2005) ● Resultados del Estudio de Caracterización de los Residuos Sólidos, Realizado en el Canton Isla de Méndez, Municipio de Jiquilisco, Departamento de la Unión (2009) ● Conservación del medio ambiente y manejo adecuado de los residuos sólidos en la Isla Méndez, municipio de Jiquilisco, departamento de Usulután (2010)

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With the information gathered from the Environmental Committee, the aforementioned reports and additional primary research, the team decided to conduct a waste flow mapping activity with the community members of Isla de Méndez. The purpose of the mapping activity was to determine the major sources of waste and further understand current waste management behavior in the region. During the third and final week, the team created a questionnaire for health, education, and community leaders that was organized with the support of Asociación Mangle. The 25 questions were devised to fill gaps in the team’s understanding of the past 9 years of waste management projects in Isla de Méndez, as well as to assess the community’s understanding of the current 2011 pilot project. While only seven people attended the meeting, all sectors were represented. Later in the week, the team filmed an interview about the 2011 pilot project with the project coordinator, Nicolas Funes, in order to obtain footage of the waste management process and document vital information, which would be valuable for Team Monterey 6. Background The community of Isla de Méndez is located in the Municipality of Jiquilisco, department of Usulután, in southeast El Salvador. The population consists of approximately 1,307 inhabitants, comprising 375 families, of which 27.4% are women, 24.8% men, and 27.8% children1. The community receives the majority of its economic revenue through fishing, extracting mollusks, and agricultural production, all of which heavily rely on a healthy environment. The Bay of Jiquilisco was declared a Ramsar Site in 2006, and a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 2008. (See map attached). Understanding the Problem The problem of poor waste management in Isla de Méndez is obvious, even by mere observation. Solid waste is scattered throughout the streets, black smoke clouds of burning trash regularly fill the air, ash rains from the sky, and public spaces are heavily littered with trash. In a recent study done in the region through the sponsorship of Friends of the Earth, Spain, it was found that 83% of households in the region burned their solid waste. Many dangers are associated with the incineration of trash, such as the emission of carbon monoxide, cadmium, sulfur dioxide, mercury, hydrochloric acid, nitrogen oxides, lead, dioxins, and furans into the air2. All of these toxic pollutants have negative environmental and health impacts. A study carried out in Isla de Méndez in 2009 showed that one of the largest causes of prevailing mortality rates within the region was acute respiratory illness3. Furthermore, children who live near incinerators have been found to have higher rates of stomach, colorectal, liver and lung cancers4. However, over the past nine years (2002-2011), Asociación Mangle has worked to improve the problem of poor waste management. Its staff has begun to tackle the issue of waste management by initiating various efforts to manage the waste.






























































1

Descripción del Medio Social, Económico y Cultural, Medio Físico y Biológico en Su Área de Influencia (FIAES-Cuadro No. 3) (2005), p.1. 2 Blue Ridge Environmental Defense League, Incinerator Pollution: Landfills in the sky, http://www.noburn.org/downloads/Incinerator_Pollution_landfill_in_the_sky.pdf.
 3 Resultados del Estudio de Caracterización de los Residuos Sólidos, Realizado en el Canton Isla Mendez, Municipio de Jiquilisco, Departamento de la Union (2009), p.2. 4 Ibid, Blue Ridge.

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In the present pilot waste management project of 2011, Asociación Mangle intends to improve the lives of 2,300 inhabitants, 1,200 of them women, in 5 communities from the Isla de Méndez.5 Asociación Mangle will also be implementing an educational awareness campaign to teach environmentally friendly behavior to community members, which they can then employ at home. These practices are essentially composting, separating waste by origin, recycling and reusing. Asociación Mangle will also be installing the first Centro de Acopio Comunitario (CAC) as a location for the transfer of recyclables. Since 2002, Asociación Mangle has held a series of community-based workshops that have taught a significant number of community members about the life cycle of their trash. These workshops continue to be influential, even nine years later. Community members of the region have begun to understand the importance of separating their waste and are easily able to differentiate organic from nonorganic waste. However, through discussion with former workshops participants, TM5 found that the meaning of trash separation varied from person to person.

Animals
are
often
seen
eating
trash


The majority of community members expressed to TM5 that organic materials are separated and buried to be allowed to decompose, but non-organic waste had no local central location to be dumped, and is therefore either burned or buried. TM5 found that ‘burying’ trash varied from placing it in a pit to burning the waste inside the pit. In Isla de Méndez, the frequency of households burning trash is partially due to a lack of alternatives, which puts the population at a heightened risk of health complications. To date, no local studies have been done to prove causation of trash incineration with respect to health risks. In 2009, Asociación Mangle collaborated with the Municipality of Jiquilisco, Friends of the Earth, Spain, Asociación de Desarrollo Comunal Asociacion Manglé (ADESCOIM), Comité de Desarrollo Empresarial y Medioambiental de Puerto Parada (CODEPA), and the Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional para el Desarrollo (AECID), to conduct an eight-day research project on waste management in Isla de Méndez. The study was meant to determine the amount of garbage collected and the types of waste generated within households. Twenty-three families participated in the study, and researchers weighed what was intended to be a ‘days worth’ of waste from each household. However, to the dismay of researchers, the amount collected as being the daily sum generated was incorrect. It was discovered that family members had brought more than a day’s worth of trash for measurement. According to the eight-day study, approximately 1.07 kg/ per person/day






























































5

Conservación del medio ambiente y manejo adecuado de los residuos sólidos en la Isla Méndez, municipio de Jiquilisco, departamento de Usulután (2010), p.17.


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was generated in the region. Researchers compared this figure to international indices that stated that rural communities in Latin America typically generate between 0.2 to 0.4 kg/per person/daily. Study researchers therefore settled on a value of 0.53kg/per person/day as a more accurate account of waste generation in the area, despite their collection of conflicting primary data6. Unfortunately, no subsequent studies have been done. Proper data collection is fundamental when determining how to resolve a problem. In the case of the protected area of Isla de Méndez, in order to understand the problem of poor waste management, one must understand the multiple variables that contribute to it. During our team’s project work in El Salvador, we observed three crucial factors contributing to the problem: inadequate infrastructure for correct waste disposal, minimal resources to fund proper infrastructure, a lack of alternatives for waste management (such as a central
Trash
pile
to
be
incinerated
in
Isla
de
Méndez
 


location for waste disposal) perpetuated problematic behavior.

which

Within this report, TM5 has included our general observations at the end of some of the guidelines, found in italics. These remarks are largely included for the purpose of informing the TM6 waste management team of important observations that may pertain to their future work and are titled, Team Monterey 5 Observations.

Guideline Framework
Introduction The information gathered in Isla de Méndez has helped TM5 adapt a United Nations Development Program (UNDP) handbook titled, “A Handbook on Waste Management in Rural Tourism Areas - A Zero Waste Approach” to the conditions of the region. Throughout this report, we often refer to this handbook as the UNDP Handbook. The UNDP “zero waste” model, demonstrated in this handbook, is applicable to the current situation and needs of Isla de Méndez, as well as the larger Bay of Jiquilisco area. The UNDP “zero waste” model was chosen for its holistic approach to waste management, which unlike other models, considers the full lifecycle of trash with special consideration to developing communities. While we recognized the difficulty of following such a model in an area only beginning to develop a waste management system, TM5 also felt the “zero waste” model is an excellent approach that can be more strictly implemented as waste management systems become more established in the region. The UNDP model of “zero-waste” puts forth the concept that both consumers and producers are responsible for the 3R’s of waste management: reduce, reuse, recycle. The following






























































6

Ibid, Resultados, p.4.

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Framework, is an adaptation of the UNDP zero-waste methodology and how it may be best applied to Isla de Méndez. (See Appendix for a map of Isla de Méndez). Framework 1. Preliminary Actions When the decision is made to develop a waste management system, there are several preliminary steps that should be taken prior to beginning the project. Completion of these preliminary steps will set the program up for success. 1.1 Needs of the Community Community consultations must be performed to determine the needs of each community. This consultation can take the form of Town Hall Meetings, surveys or focus groups. The priorities discovered will form the bases for deciding which interventions will be implemented. If it is found that the community has higher priorities than waste management, such as education, potable water or other basic services, it may be necessary to explain why waste management has been placed ahead of these other priorities. Additionally, how the organization plans to address these other needs should be discussed. Collaboration with the community in deciding which programs to pursue will help to ensure community support and participation. Going forward with a program that does not have community support may alienate the populace and affect the success of the program. Consultation with the community must take place throughout the process of developing and implementing a waste management system. The community should be treated as a partner in the program and should be aware of goals and strategy for implementation, as well as what role and responsibility the community will have. Community input should also be included when developing the goals, scope and strategy of the program 1.2 Establishment of primary project leaders Once it is determined that waste management is a problem for the community, it is necessary to designate a group of primary leaders. This group should contain a community leader/organizer, a technical specialist in waste management, and personnel responsible for community education and capacity training. This group of primary leaders will have overall responsibility for the development and operation of the waste management system. The responsibilities of each individual leader should be clearly outlined and understood by all members of the group. This outline should serve as the initial step in creating a management structure for the program, that is expanded when new personal join the project. When completed, the management structure will be clearly outlined, without any overlapping responsibilities, and it will contain established routes of communication between the different areas of the program. Furthermore, an existing management structure with clearly defined titles, roles and responsibilities will be beneficial to external organizations (such as Team Monterey 6) in evaluating the program in the future. 1.3 Goals and objectives of the Program Before specific elements of a waste management system are designed, the goals and objects of such a program should be articulated by program directors, in consultation with community leaders and community members. Selection of program goals should include not only overall

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objectives but also short, medium, and long term goals. The time frame for achieving established goals should also be discussed during the consultations. 1.4 Initial Report In order to determine the type, size and extent of a waste management system needed to meet overall goals, local environmental researchers partnered with community members are encouraged to collect data for the Initial Report and Baseline Assessment. Once collected, the data should be analyzed to determine what resources and skills are needed and what local resources exist which can be used for ADESCO
meets
with
TM5
to
discuss
a
waste
 the project. This analysis should be management
plan
 incorporated into a report, which is called here, the Initial Report. The type of data collected for the analysis should include information regarding the area’s geography, an analysis of the population, including gender and age groups, as well as main occupations and corresponding wages. Information pertaining to waste dumps, major waste producers, any existing waste management techniques used, and expertise available in the geographic area, relating to waste management, should be collected. 1.5 Baseline Assessment After completion of the Initial Report, the data collected can also be used to perform a Baseline Assessment of the current situation concerning waste management in the region. This Baseline Assessment should included the level of understanding and capacity of the community in regards to waste disposal, an analysis of the amount and type of waste generated by the community, a list of available resources, and any existing infrastructure that may be utilized in any future projects. The assessment should also include the capabilities of the municipality in regards to waste management. The purpose of the baseline assessment is to establish current levels of waste and means of disposal. Not only will the baseline assessment provide information needed for developing the intervention, but later, can compared with data collected after the intervention has started to determine what effect the intervention is having. 2. Understanding the Problem Data Collection: Proper mechanisms for obtaining the desired data will help determine the best possible mechanism leading to a solution(s). Often, poor waste management is the result of many obstacles; therefore, data collection must reflect the varied nature of the problem through diverse data collection techniques. The UNDP Handbook suggests the use of socio-economic surveys, mapping, and interviews as tools to use when trying to understand ‘why’ there is so much waste in a given community. I. Socioeconomic surveys A socioeconomic survey helps to determine: the population, number of families in a community, the age groups within the families, number of public or business locations

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that generate waste, types of waste accumulated, how waste is managed, and peoples’ understanding and attitude on waste management. In Isla de Méndez, 23 families were gathered to determine these statistics, but for future studies local businesses and other institutions should also be encouraged to participate. Example templates of surveys are attached in the appendix. These survey templates are directly modeled after the UNDP Handbook and are not the original work of TM5. II. Mapping Mapping the waste flow of a community will help locate where the waste comes from, the origin of waste, and help plot where and how it is typically disposed7. Mapping should be done with the immediate stakeholders of the project and can be carried out in small groups. (If participants of this activity are organized by family members and/or neighbors it may provide better results). Mapping is more effective when working with smaller regions where the communication between neighbors and knowledge of the community resources (stores, churches, schools, etc.) is clearer.8 Mapping can also be an effective tool for communities with low literacy rates, because symbols and illustrations can replace words, and the results are an illustrative map Waste
flow
mapping
activity
with
TM5
in
Isla
de
Méndez
 available to help researchers, project managers, and others to determine the flow of waste. After each group draws their map they should be asked to explain their map, while another participant asks probing questions about the meaning of their illustrations and take notes on their answers. The accompaniment of specific questions and answers may further complement this exercise, as the drawings may be difficult to decipher outside of the exercise. In addition, creating a non-threatening environment where participants will not feel guilty about their waste disposal practices is fundamental to receiving accurate results (often, this may require the absence of authority figures when doing the exercise). When working with participants with varying educational levels, a step-by-step explanation of the exercise may be more effective than giving a summary of the anticipated results of the exercise at the outset. In addition, if the host of the meeting is able to provide maps of the community from the start, more time will be available to focus on plotting the waste flow. A visioning






























































7

Shibu Nair and C. Jayakumar. "A Handbook on Waste Management in Rural Tourism Areas - A Zero Waste Approach." UNDP.org - India. Dec. 2008, p. 22. 8 Booklet #5, Peace Corps, Model Sessions: Participatory Analysis for Community Action (PACA) Tools, p.1-8.


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exercise may also take place in which the participants redraw a map of how they would prefer to see waste managed in their community. Team Monterey 5 Observations: TM5 conducted a pilot mapping exercise with community members of Isla de Méndez and noted the strengths, weaknesses, and general observations of the exercise. These may be taken into consideration when executing this exercise in communities that have a similar demographic composition as Isla de Méndez. Strengths: maps were a catalyst for an open dialogue; questions lead to other informative answers; explanation were given of certain vocabulary clarifying misinterpretations; ice breaker stimulated creative ways of reusing organic and non-organic materials; individually each Team member gained informative insight into the participants who could not read or write; drawing did not inhibit communication. Weaknesses: low attendance; a fishermen’s meeting coincided with mapping exercise; meeting started an hour later than scheduled; 25 people were expected to attend and only 8 women came (ages 11-70); example map we brought intimidated participants, causing hesitation to participate; explanation of exercise was misunderstood; too much attention was paid to detailing an accurate portrayal of community versus plotting areas relevant to flow of waste management. Observations: only women attended the exercise despite all genders being invited (suggesting that perhaps it is mostly the women who manage the household waste); women were more willing to speak to women team members; ‘burying’ waste meant digging a hole and then burning inside hole, as well as ‘burying’ and covering with dirt; ‘recycling’ means separating organics from non-organics. After the mapping exercise took place, TM5 realized that it would have been more helpful to consult with Eco Engineer Funes before our meeting in order prevent avoidable confusion on the directions of the activity. III. Observation/Interview reports Observation reports help to identify the impact of waste accumulation on different sectors designing a waste management plan. There are many development tools that may be of use to any given community when writing the observation report. TM5 suggests the community have a stakeholder analysis and an analysis of the local markets. i. Stakeholder Analysis: A stakeholder analysis will help researchers identify the people who will benefit from, be harmed by, and/or influence the success or failure of a development activity. It helps to identify the varying needs of different stakeholders as well as narrow down the best solutions for different sectors. Stakeholders are often categorized as key, primary, and/or secondary stakeholders, each with specific characteristics. The benefits of doing a Stakeholder Analysis are: to help identify the interests of different groups, to find ways to receive support from those who favor the project, identify risks and plan for strategies to overcome them, identify real development, improve the project and reduce negative impacts9. (See































































9

Department for International Development (DFID), Tools for Development: A handbook for those

11


stakeholder identification table below and Appendix for Stakeholder Analysis template.) Table 1: Resource from Department for International Development (DFID)10 Key Stakeholders Primary Stakeholders Secondary stakeholders All other individuals or institutions that may have an interest, role, or stake in the activity.

Individuals, groups, institutions Individuals,groups or institutions that can significantly influence affected/impacted by the activity or are important to the success both positively and negatively. of an activity.

When trying to identify and categorize stakeholders within a waste management project, it is helpful to ask questions such as: 1. Where does the waste come from and who produces it? 2. Who is responsible for managing the waste? 3. How can the behaviors of community members impact the project once it is in place? 4. Who has something to gain from this project? Who has something to lose? 5. Who is funding the project? Examples of stakeholders in a waste management pilot plan would be: community members in general, women, farmers, trash or recycling collectors, local business owners, students, churchgoers, environmentalists, local and international NGOs that work within the community, local businesses, tourists to the region, funders of the project, corporations that reuse bottles, and others. ii. Market Analysis Within a zero waste model, reducing, reusing, and recycling are all interconnected when contributing to the prospect of a well-managed waste system. An identification of the opportunities for reduction and reuse within local markets may lead to the emergence of potential solutions, as well as sustainable business opportunities which could stimulate the local economy.

The UNDP suggests some of the following topics as focal points for observation reports: a. Farming: determine how many people work in agriculture, the quantity and variety of crops in the region, the physical distance of the crops from waste piles, any obstacles to farming (drought, flood, pesticides, etc.), fertilizer use (commercial v local, organic v non-organic), the number of farmers practicing organic farming, and local institutions that support farming and agriculture. b. Scrap Market (can, glass, tin, paper, collectors): how many people are collecting, who is collecting, what is being collected, where is it being taken, is it generating income, if so, how much, how frequent is the collecting, and what quantities of materials are being collected and/or sold/traded.





































































































































































































engaged in development activity, parts. 2.1-2.4. 10 Ibid, 10.


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c. Natural and Human Resources: If natural resources are available locally, who uses the natural resources, who has the skills to use the resources in an efficient way, who is interested in learning these skills, and are these products available for use outside of the community. d. Markets: Is there a market for organic materials, and/or a market for reusable non-organic materials (glass, cans, plastic bags). What is the frequency of reuse and recycling in households by: heads of household (often women), artisans, children, elders, others in the community. e. Transportation: Means of transport within the region (horse, cart, bicycle, bus, car, truck), frequency of use, which means is more suitable to the infrastructure of the region, cost of maintenance and upkeep, potential contribution to waste management (for example, the use of bicycles to transport recyclables or deliver compost). Team Monterey 5 Observations: TM5 learned that community members in Isla de Méndez were purchasing commercial fertilizer for $12/lb while fertilizer made from local organic waste was simultaneously being produced in the region. TM5 also learned that in the 2008 pilot program, households were spending .25 cents a week on garbage pick-up (via horse and cart), but would be willing to pay up to .50 cents a week if it meant ensuring that the system would be sustainable. TM5 also found that the greatest grievance regarding the pilot garbage pick- up in 2002 was that, after the death of one of the two cart horses, the cart load capacity dropped by half, reducing the amount of garbage pick- up and subsequently causing community members to stop paying, which resulted in the termination of the service. TM5 was also informed that horses are both costly to purchase (an estimated $300) and to upkeep (a cost that was expressed as exceeding the means of community members). IV. Clean-Up Drive Clean-up drives in locations where there is no central waste management system help to generate data on waste within public spaces, foster a sense of shared responsibility for managing waste, provide initiative to keep public spaces clean, increase local awareness, and provide an immediate result (or a quick win) of a more pleasant space for all community members. All sectors of the community can participate, particularly institutions that operate in units and are thus easy to organize (churches, schools, organizations, workplaces). Separation of the waste collected will make possible the identification of the most common types of trash, which may be done by dividing the labor according to the type of waste collected (for example, one person only collects paper, another glass, etc). Proper sanitary gear should be worn, including gloves, masks, and any other protective apparel available, particularly by children who are participating. Children should be encouraged to participate, but should be forbidden to handle glass, toxic materials, and any other hazardous or harmful waste. Innovative and creative strategies (such as games) may also help to motivate community members to participate. Team Monterey 5 Observations: TM5 found that the first clean-up campaign effort in Isla de Méndez was initiated by ADESCO in Fall 2010 and only adults were allowed to participate. Community members expressed

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gratification with the end result claiming that the soccer field was litter-free and available for use. 3. Policy Formation The development and application of a waste management policy is an important component of a waste management plan. Waste management policies define the roles and responsibilities of consumers, businesses, public institutions, environmental organizations and other social actors. Policies should include the goal of the waste management plan, a strategy for implementation, and the achievements the project leaders envision as measures of success. The support and involvement of the local as well as national government are key elements in formulating and enforcing a waste management policy. Municipalities, for example, can draft legislation or launch projects that respond to the problem of waste in local communities. A waste management policy, for instance, may authorize or forbid certain activities, such as operating a dumping site near Isla de Méndez. The policy should specify how such a site will be operated and monitored, and how the success of the site will be measured. Lastly, a waste management policy may provide incentives to the local community (individual families, local schools, farmer’s cooperatives, etc) and businesses (such as Villa Tortuga in the case of Isla de Mendez) that reward appropriate waste management and encourage environmentally clean activities. Such an incentive could be the availability of low-priced compost to local farmers through a waste management policy that subsidizes and encourages a local community composting program.
Sign
prohibiting
the
pollution
of
the
Bay
of
Jiquilisco.
 “Prohibited
to
throw
garbage:
We
protect
our
 resources,
take
care
of
our
environment”


4. Recommendations for an Action Plan At this stage, an action plan, including timeline and budget, must be developed. The action plan should outline the implementation of the project and include specific goals, objectives, outputs and activities along with the measurable indicators of change. An effective action plan will be designed with “internal” and “external” components. “Internal” components are activities that will create behavioral change and should be given the most emphasis. Educational trainings should be held throughout the community in an effort to involve as many community members as possible. Those chosen to participate in any initial pilot project should represent different geographical areas of the community. To aid in waste reduction the activities should include an explanation of the importance of using reusable and alternate materials. The community should also discuss techniques for communal waste

 14


reduction (such as purchasing sturdy refillable water jugs for families to buy water in bulk, rather than using individual water bottles). The “external” component is the physical infrastructure necessary for the waste management project, such as the building to serve as the Community Collection Site (Centro de Acopio Comunitario--CAC). The timeline will show the progression of the project over a minimum period of three years. It is important that a plan be drawn up to ensure the long-term sustainability of the project. The budget proposed should fully detail all expected costs. It should incorporate aspects that may lead to revenue generation (i.e., conducting a market study for producing compost, business training for the sale of organic products to regional markets, a public display of products generated from waste materials, etc.). 5. Fundraising and Resource Identification Community organizations like Asociación Mangle play a key role in mobilizing resources from a variety of sources and attracting a broad base of support for development projects. A successful waste management plan will identify key sources of funds, human resources and materials needed to implement and sustain the program. For example, Amics de la Terra Balears, a Spanish branch of the international environmental organization Friends of the Earth, was identified as the grant source for the current pilot project in Isla de Méndez. Many of the human resources in that project are volunteer members of the community, and often the materials needed to start the program are included in the approved grant budget. One of the challenges facing community or nongovernmental organizations is how to ensure that programs, such as the current pilot waste management program in Isla de Méndez, continue to function in the
“Don’t
throw
trash
from
the
buses”
 sign
painted
on
building
walls
in
 Suchitoto,
El
Salvador


longer term. Long-term success depends on the involvement of multiple stakeholders in handling the complexity, costs, and coordination of such a program.

An integrated approach to waste management wisely utilizes available funds and encourages voluntary participation from all levels of society, including community members, community foundations, local institutions and local governments. For example, household-level composting can be coordinated with local agricultural programs to exchange locally produced compost. Community leaders can lobby the local municipality to consider waste management programs as business opportunities. The

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municipality can select and sell valuable resources from within the waste (such as plastic bottles), and, at the same time, agree to safely process and dispose of non-organic wastes. A potential project for Team Monterey 6 could be the creation of a model financial sustainability plan for the program. An additional opportunity for Team Monterey 6 could be devising an income generation strategy for local waste management programs (i.e. business plan for fertilizer made from compost and/or recyclable materials resale programs). 6.1 Finalizing a Waste Management Program Once funding has been approved, a review of the draft action plan is necessary to ensure that the available funds are adequate to implement the program. Primary leaders must make any adjustments needed to the program if a budget shortfall exits. Adjustments may also be required to the goals and objectives originally established if funding is insufficient to meet these goals. During the finalizing process, solutions to potential problems that may arise during the implementation of the program should be developed. This will ensure that the program will remain operational. 6.2 Information campaign After the program has been finalized, an informational campaign should take place to inform the community of the upcoming program. The information provided should include the reasons for the program; the different elements of the new program, including its goals, objectives, and operation; the harmful effects and damages caused by the current waste disposal methods, and the role and responsibilities of the community. The informational campaign can also provide a means to inform the community of job openings, hiring schedules and required skills. 6.3 Hiring and training of personal Before the program can be implemented, personnel needed for daily operations must “Reduce,
Recycle,
Reuse.
In
this
home
we
separate
 be hired and given the necessary training. our
solid
waste”
sign
found
on
buildings
in
Suchitoto,
 This personnel should be included in the El
Salvador
 organizational diagram, which describes 
 the responsibilities of each worker and indicates the person to serve as manager or supervisor. Additionally, any training of the community in separating waste and utilizing the waste management system will have to be conducted before the implementation phase is begun.

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6.4 Implementation Once the program is being implemented, operations will require close oversight so that adjustments can be made in the event any unforeseen problems arise during the initial stage. Oversight should include consultation with the community to obtain input on program performance. 6.5 Monitoring and Evaluation As the project is being implemented it will be necessary to monitor and evaluate project performance. Project leaders should begin planning for monitoring and evaluating during the preliminary action phase, as the goals and objectives of the program are being established. Monitoring and evaluation are valuable when determining what effects, if any, the intervention is having on the community. This is accomplished by collecting data on selected indicators, which change as a result of the intervention. For example, one potential indicator of the effects of a recycling awareness campaign over time is the percentage of recyclable material that is discarded with non-recyclable waste. If the data collected shows a decline in the percentage of recyclable material since the inception of the intervention, then this is an indication that the program is having the intended effect. However, if the data reveals that the percentage of recyclable waste has remained constant or has increased, it is necessary to reevaluate the intervention. In such an event, project personnel and community leaders must determine why the intervention is not having the intended effects and what changes must be made.
Planter
made
entirely
of
reused
solid
waste
 materials
,
Suchitoto,
El
Salvador


The selection of indicators is not an easy one. Changes to indicators can occur for reasons other than as a result of the intervention. For this reason indicators are to be chosen not individually but as a group. A cluster of indicators has the advantage of representing the effects of an intervention from different angles. In this way, when the group of indicators shows the expected results, it is possible to attribute the changes directly to the intervention with greater certainty. Indicators should be selected by their level of accuracy, reliability, appropriateness, and usefulness to the project. Accuracy pertains to the preciseness of measurement. For example, the weight of an object is an accurate form of measurement because the result does not need to be interpreted and is easily understood. Reliability refers to the ability to achieve the same results time and time again. An experiment is reliable when the same results occur every time it is performed. Appropriateness concerns the relationship between the indicator and the goal or objective. An indicator is appropriate when there is little or no need to explain how it relates to the project objectives. Finally, an indicator’s usefulness in explaining the effects of the intervention should determine the reason for its selection as an indicator.

 17


Once indicators have been selected it is necessary to establish baseline measurements so that comparisons can be made once further data are collected. Initial data on indicators are collected during the development of the approach paper and baseline assessment. After the program has started, data on the selected indicators should be collected periodically and results reported. This is the monitoring potion of the program and provides information on what progress, if any, is being made. Evaluation generally takes place at the end of an intervention, but can also take place after certain, predetermined milestones. Evaluation goes into much greater detail than monitoring, since it involves an analysis of the value of the intervention and whether such an intervention is the best use of resources. Evaluations should also investigate lessons learned and identify best practices to be implemented in other or future interventions.

Conclusions
In order to have a successful waste management plan it is necessary to have extensive preplanning and strong coordination of the plan with all of those involved who will be affected by the desired outcome. The basic steps outlined in this report have been designed by the UNDP and adapted by TM5 to increase help facilitate project successes and ensure the efficient use of resources in the region. The framework is designed to help begin the planning process for waste management development in the communities surrounding Isla de Méndez, as was requested by Asociación Mangle. This report is meant to be a guide to community organizations when they attempt to design a waste management plan from the bottom up. The entire report is essentially a sequence of recommendations to achieve a step-by-step approach to implementing a waste management model according to the UNDP’s “zero waste” model. It is recommended that this be used as a guide to the planning process but customized according to the specific characteristics of each area where it is implemented. In addition, it is recommended that Team Monterey 6 in 2012 dedicate an Infrastructure Group to conduct an in-depth follow-up of the current waste management pilot plan in Isla de Méndez and surrounding communities. Specifically, the team is encouraged to evaluate and analyze the progress and success of the 2011 pilot program for waste management in Isla de Mendez, especially with a view to ensuring its sustainability. After a thorough evaluation is conducted, further information on the pilot plan can be added to this guide, in order to inform other community organizers of the project strengths and weaknesses.

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Bibliography Conservación del medio ambiente y manejo adecuado de los residuos sólidos en la Isla Méndez, municipio de Jiquilisco, departamento de Usulután (2010). Descripción del Medio Social, Económico y Cultural, Medio Físico y Biológico en Su Área de Influencia (FIAES-Cuadro No. 3) (2005). Nair, Shibu, and C. Jayakumar. "A Handbook on Waste Management in Rural Tourism Areas A Zero Waste Approach." UNDP.org - India. Dec. 2008. Resultados del Estudio de Caracterizacion de los Residuos Solidos, Realizado en el Canton Isla Méndez, Municipio de Jiquilisco, Departamento de la Union (2009). Blue Ridge Environmental Defense League, Incinerator Pollution: Landfills in the sky, http://www.no-burn.org/downloads/Incinerator_Pollution_landfill_in_the_sky.pdf, Glendale Springs, NC, (Accessed 1/3/11). Department for International Development (DFID), Tools for Development: A handbook for those engaged in development activity, parts. 2.1-2.4. Booklet #5, Peace Corps, Model Sessions: Participatory Analysis for Community Action (PACA) Tools.

Appendix
1. Glossary of Terms Amigos de la Tierra- Friends of the Earth (foe.org) botadero- landfill basurero- dump site centro de acopio comunitario (CAC)- community collection center desechos sólidos- solid waste composta- compost Concejo Municipal- Municipal Council enterrar- bury estiércol composta- animal waste fuentes- sources manejo de desechos sólidos- solid waste management manzana- a measure of land nieve seca- styrofoam presupuesto- budget proyecto piloto- pilot project huerta- vegetable garden inorgánico - inorganic incinerar- incinerate reciclar - refers to the separation of organic and non-organic waste, or the act of ‘recycling’ Fortalezas, Oportunidades, Debilidades, Amenazadas (FODA)- acronyms for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis Reserva de Biósfera de Jiquilisco- Biosphere Reserve of Jiquilisco

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Map of the Community of Isla de Méndez, Jiquilisco, Usulután (see pg.4). Source: Asociación Mangle

Table template for Stakeholder Analysis: Resource: World Health Organization, Stakeholder Analysis power point (page 11). Stakeholder Stakeholder Interest(s) in Assessment of Impact Potential Strategies for the Project Obtaining Support for Reducing Obstacles

Note: These survey templates are directly modeled after the UNDP: A Handbook on Waste Management in Rural Tourism Areas - A Zero Waste Approach, Annexure 1, with very minor changes by TM5. 


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Survey Template on Domestic Waste Generation and Disposal Date: 1. 2. 3. 4. House No. Name: No. of family members in home Quantity of Waste Generated Male Adults Children Total 5. Mode of disposal –Biodegradable Burning/Burying/Dumping/Animal feed/Composting/biogas/Others Biodegradable Non-biodegradable Quantity generated per day (Kg) 6. Mode of Disposal – Non- Biodegradable Burning Paper Metal Glass Cloth Wood Plastic Other; (please specify) 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Do you feel that waste is a problem in your area? Yes/No Do you know the problems of burning/burying of waste? Yes/No Are you interested in composting? Do you have suggestions for waste management? How will you be involved in the process of waste management? What kind of personal expertise can you contribute to this? Burying Dumping Sold/given to Recyclers Others Female Total

Total

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Socio Economic Survey Template on Waste Generation and Handling in commercial establishments Date: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Name of Establishment: Name of Owner: Type of Ownership Own/Rent/Lease/Others Classification of establishment (Store, vegetable store, textiles, tailor, hair saloon, other) Quantity of Waste Generated Biodegradable Quantity generated per day (in Kg) 6. Mode of disposal –Biodegradable Burning/Burying/Dumping/Animal feed/Composting/biogas/Others 7. Mode of Disposal – Non- Biodegradable Burning Paper Metal Glass Cloth Wood Plastic Other; (please specify) 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 
 Do you know the problems of burning/burying of waste? Yes/No How will you be involved in the process of waste management? What kind of personal expertise can you contribute to this? Who do you think is responsible for waste management in your region? What are your suggestions for waste management? Burying Dumping Sold/given to Recyclers Others Non-biodegradable Total

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