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The headers are the lectures, thus approach… lecture 1

Motivation lecture 2 etc


OB formulas........................................................................................................................................3
Approach Technical/Human............................................................................................................3
The broad picture:.......................................................................................................................3
Scientific management................................................................................................................3
Business environment:................................................................................................................4
Motivation.......................................................................................................................................4
Personality theories.....................................................................................................................4
Distinction between process/content and cognitive/behavioural traditions................................5
Expectancy theory (Vroom; Porter & Lawler)............................................................................6
Goal theory (Locke) ..................................................................................................................6
Equity theory (Adams)................................................................................................................6
Hackman and Oldham’s work design model...............................................................................7
Management & Leadership.............................................................................................................8
Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles....................................................................................................8
Ohio State Studies.......................................................................................................................8
McGregor: Theory X and Theory Y............................................................................................9
Blake & Mouton..........................................................................................................................9
Quinn’s HRM model.................................................................................................................10
Situational theories :..................................................................................................................10
Vroom & Yetton’s contingency model......................................................................................11
Hersey & Blanchard’s situational leadership model.................................................................11
Human Resources Management....................................................................................................12
The four roles in HR management............................................................................................12
The Psychological Contract......................................................................................................12
The types of psychological contract .........................................................................................13
The Michigan model.................................................................................................................13
The Harvard model....................................................................................................................13
The Rutgers model....................................................................................................................13
The Warwick model..................................................................................................................14
The Bath model.........................................................................................................................14
Groups and teams......................................................................................................................14
Different types of groups...........................................................................................................14
Stages of group and team developement.......................................................................................15
Bass and Ryterband...................................................................................................................15
Woodcock..................................................................................................................................16
Tuckman....................................................................................................................................16
Belbin’s team roles....................................................................................................................17
Teams........................................................................................................................................17
Conflicts:...................................................................................................................................18
Consequences of competition....................................................................................................18
Reactions...................................................................................................................................18

Social networks:........................................................................................................................19
Casciaro & Lobo.......................................................................................................................19
Likeability ................................................................................................................................19

.......................................................................................................................................................19
Organisation structure:..................................................................................................................20
Centralisation............................................................................................................................20
Differentiation:..........................................................................................................................20

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The headers are the lectures, thus approach… lecture 1
Motivation lecture 2 etc
Integration:................................................................................................................................20
Functional structure ..................................................................................................................21
Divisional structure...................................................................................................................21
Matrix structure.........................................................................................................................21
Influences on structure?............................................................................................................22
Greiner:......................................................................................................................................22
Phases of growth.......................................................................................................................23
Culture...........................................................................................................................................23
Manifestations of culture...........................................................................................................24
Three levels of culture. .............................................................................................................24
National culture ............................................................................................................................25
Hofstede....................................................................................................................................25

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The headers are the lectures, thus approach… lecture 1
Motivation lecture 2 etc

OB formulas

Approach Technical/Human

The broad picture:

1900-1930 1930-1960 1960s 1970-2000


Management Classical school/ Human Human Contingency
and rational approach relations resources view
organization
theory
Assumptions Economic person Social Self Complex
about human person actualizing person
nature person
Role of Control employee Creating a Motivation Facilitate
management behavior good of all employee
’climate’ employees development
Focus of Plan and organize Well-being Challen- Self-
managerial of ging jobs management
control employees

Scientific management

• Frederich Taylor
o Clear distinction between planning a job
o Jobs should be standardised and simplified
o Each worker should conduct a minimum of movements
 Was the ’Father’ to mass production techniques
• Frank Gilbreth
o ’Father’ of time and motion methodologies
o Suggested reductions in working day, brief rest periods, experimented with lighting
conditions, music, canteen facilities – have workers complex needs?
• Henry Gantt
o Introduced detailed instruction cards
o Developed new payment systems, combining basic and bonus schemes

Hawthorne studies by Chester Barnard

• It was the attention that the control group of workers received which contributed to
productivity improvements
• Human needs = complex
• Workers in groups were able to influence the level of their output – via social pressures
they could control output

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• Workers did not necessarily seek to maximise production in order to receive enhanced
bonuses – social pressures stronger than managerial concerns
o motivation
o group work
o leadership/management
o the informal organisation

Business environment:

Motivation
Personality theories
Nomothetic approach (personalities are Idiographic approach (individuals have
fixed, determined by heredity, and connot be unique characteristics, but personality can be
significantly influenced by environment) moulded and both personality and behaviour
are influenced by environment)

 Trait theories  Psychodynamic theory


− Identification of types of − Freud: personality developed
personality by parental relationships and
− Prediction of behaviour the effects of various types of
 Humanistic approach trauma
− Development of the individual  Jung’s personality theory
− How people perceive − 4 dimensions of personality
themselves − Used by Myers to develop the
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator –
basis for personality testing

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Motivation lecture 2 etc

Distinction between process/content and cognitive/behavioural traditions

The following are different theories which are alike:

Maslow: Aldefer’s McClelland Herzberg


Self-actualization Growth
He claimed Hygiene – context factors:
humans are • company policy
Self-esteem controlled by 3 • Remuneration: pay
things: • Relationship with
Relatedness − Need for
Esteem of others peers/subordinates
Achievement • Status/promotion
• Job security
− Need for
Security Motivators – content factors
Power
Existence
• Sense of achievement
Physiological needs − Need for
Affiliation • Recognition
• The work itself
• Responsibility
• Advancement
• Personal growth

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Expectancy theory (Vroom; Porter & Lawler)

• Humans act according to their conscious expectations that a particular behaviour will lead
to specific desirable goals
• Recognises that individuals differ: that we are all unlikely to value the same outcomes
equally
• Consequences (management):
o Important that rewards are actually valued
o The reward system should reflect that high performance/desired behaviour also
leads to better rewards

Goal theory (Locke)

• Similariteis with the expectancy approach


• ’Goal theory proposes that both motivation and performance will be high if individuals are
set specific goals which are challenging, but accepted, and where feedback is given on
performance.’ (Brooks, page 52)

Equity theory (Adams)

 3 components in Adams’s model:


− Inputs (the effort an individual makes)
− Outputs (intrinsic and extrinsic rewards)
− Comparison with others
 Insight into the relationship between rewards and the likely satisfaction individuals gain
from them
 The level of satisfaction and potential motivation resulting from an individual’s receiving a
reward cannot be considered in isolation.

Indvidual Input Comparison of others input



Indvidual Output Comparison of others output

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Hackman and Oldham’s work design model

The model

Job dimensions Psychological states Outcomes


Skill variety Experienced Higher
Task identity meaningsfulness at work motivation
Task significance
㌌㏒ 좈 琰茞 ᓀ Higher quality
Ü
Autonomy Responsibility Higher
satisfaction
Feedback Knowledge of actual Lower
activities/results absenteeism and
turnover
Jobs that will have the five characteristics will have a high
motivational potential. A person’s qualifications, growth needs, and
general job satisfaction will modify the result.

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Management & Leadership


Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles
Interpersonal roles Conclusion:
 Figurehead  Managers do not spend most of their
 Leader time planning, organising,
 Liaison coordinating and controlling – as we
Information processing roles thought they did…
 Monitor  They have many different – and equal
 Disseminator) important – tasks/roles, and their
 Spokesperson everyday life is characterized by many
Decision-making roles interruptions and short term decisions
 Entrepreneur
 Disturbance handler
 Ressource allocator
 Negotiator

Management vs leadership

Management: Leadership:
 Short focus  Long focus
 Stability  Change
 Do things right  Do the right things
 Problem solving  Problem identification
 Systems and structure  People
 Authority  Influence
 Control  Trust
 Transactional  Transformaitonal

Ohio State Studies


The leader provides a lot of
Less emphasis is placed on structuring guidance about how tasks can be
Consideration

High employee tasks while the leader completed while being highly
concentrates on satisfying employee considerate of the employee needs
needs and wants and wants

Primary emphasis is placed on


The leader fails to provide necessary structuring employee tasks while
Low structure and demonstrates little the leader demonstrates little
consideration for employee needs and consideration for employee needs
wants and wants

Low High
Initiating structure

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McGregor: Theory X and Theory Y


− Leaders and managers could be differentiated from one another according to their
attitudes and assumptions about human natur
− Theory X leaders consider subordinates to be lazy, reluctant to assume
responsibility and lacking in ambition – should be controlled and directed
− Theory Y leaders assumes that individuals align themselves with organisational
goals – require little control and direction

Blake & Mouton


− Suggest that a manager’s style can be identified and mapped according to the
’people’ and ’task’ orientation

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Quinn’s HRM model

Situational theories :

Fiedler
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Leader- G G G G P P P P
or context
Characteristics of the situation

member
relations:
poor/good
Task S S U U S S U U
structure:
structured/
unstructured
Power S W S W S W S W
position:
weak/strong
Situation Highly Average Highly unfavour-
favourability favourable situational able situation
situation favourability
Most effective Task oriented Relationship Task oriented
leader orientation oriented

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Vroom & Yetton’s contingency model

Hersey & Blanchard’s situational leadership model

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Human Resources Management


Hard HRM: Soft HRM:
 A human ressource management  A human ressource management
perspective which emphasizes the full perspective which emphasizes the
utilzation of employees in a formal, need to develop the potential and
calculating and dispassionate manner, resourcefulness of employees in order
to be treated in a manner similar to to encourage commitement and high
any other resources available to the performance in pursuit of shared
organization organizational goals

 Leadership: task-oriented style  Leadership: people-oriented style.

The four roles in HR management

The Psychological Contract

If this contract is
broken this happens:
 Low job satisfaction
 Poor performance
 High staff turnover
 Feelings of anger and
betrayal
 Erosion of trust

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The types of psychological contract

The Michigan model


 People should be managed like any other resource
 Personnel policies must match, or be aligned with, the organization’s strategy
 Problems:
 Narrow focus on aspects of HRM
 Ignores context

The Harvard model


 Best known and most widely cited
 Influential in Britain and continental Europe
 As the Michigan model: Personnel policies must match, or be aligned with, the
organization’s strategy
 Considers a wider range of factors than the Michigan model
 Problems:
− Precise nature of causal links remains vague…

The Rutgers model


 Identify 12 contrasting employee behaviours
− Some of these are appropriate for an organization strategy that involves cost
reduction (cf. McGregor, Theory X)
− Others are appropriate for an organization strategy that involves innovation (cf.
McGregor, Theory y)
 Establish organization strategy and required employee behaviours – next step is to
determine HR practices appropriate for encouraging those behaviours
− HR manager is offered 5 practice ’menus’
 If the organization’s strategy changes, then it may be necessary to adjust some of the menu
items

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The Warwick model


 Extension of the Harvard model
 The model has 5 elements
1) HRM content
2) Outer context
3) Inner context
4) HRM context
5) Business strategy context

The Bath model


 Attempts to explain how HR policies are linked to performance (the so-called’black box’
problem)
 Case-study research: focuses on the underlying processes through which HR policies
influence employee behaviour and performance

 To perform beyond the minimum requirements of a job:


− Ability
− Motivation
− Opportunity

Groups and teams

 Groups: (page 84)  Teams: (page 84)


− Schein: a group is any number of − Katzenbach: a team is a small
people number of people with
· Who interact with one complementary skills who are
another committed to a common purpose,
· Who are psychologically performance goals, and approach
aware of one another for which they hold themselves
· Who perceive themselves mutually accountable.’
to be a group − Self-directed teams (pages 85-
87)
− Self-managed teams (pages 85-
87)

Different types of groups


Formal groups: Informal groups:
 Are established in a planned way either  Are spontaneously created. They can be
permanently or temporarily. Their aimed at problem-solving purposes, but
purpose is to help solve problems more often fulfill the group member’s
derived from the goals of the pychological needs
organization

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Formal groups help: Informal groups help:


 To solve complex tasks  To fulfill affiliation needs
 To produce creative ideas  To develop and maintain a common
 To coordinate across departments identity
 To increase decision-making ability  To establish and test social reality
 To facilitate implementation  To reduce fear and insecurity
 To ease socialization and training  To accomplish tasks

Stages of group and team developement


Bass and Ryterband

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Woodcock

Tuckman

Remember Adjourning is in Tuckman 1

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Belbin’s team roles

Teams
High performing team Group think
 In order to develop high performing  Even in a strongly cohesive group,
teams, it is necessary that the team is pressure is placed on members to fall
thinking ’we’ instead of ’I’ into line and conform to the group norms
 Cooperation in the group characterized  Groupthink: ’a mode of thinking in
by: which people engage when they are
− Trust – to the other members of deeply involved in a cohesive group, in
the team which strivings for unanimity override
− Loyalty – to the decisions made motivations to realistically appraise
− Initiative – to carry out decisions alternative courses of action.
− Responsibility – work and  Symptoms of groupthink:
cooperation − Groups feels invulnerable;
− Reliability – in all situations excessive optimism
− Energy - everybody must − Those who oppose the group are
contribute ’stupid’, corrupt and weak
− Respect – we are all different − Pressure is applied to anyone
− Commitment - results who opposes the prevailing mood
− Evaluation - improvement of the group
− Silence is taken as consent
− Members of the group censor
themselves if they feel they are
deviating from the group norms

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Conflicts:
Intra-group (in the group): Inter-group (between groups):
 Extreme personalities in the same  Some competition between groups are
group/team fine
 The members compete about (limited)  But necessary with the ’right balance’
ressources between friendly competition and
 Some members are ’free riders cooperation between the groups
 Competition between groups in an
organisation: leads to greater motivation
and is only a good thing?
− Need to be aware of potential
consequences

Consequences of competition
Intra-group: Inter-group:
 Increased loyalty within group, no  Identification of ’enemies’
disagreement  ’We’ and ’the others’
 Increased formalisation  Strong selective perception and single
 Focus on the job/task (and not social loop-learning
activities)
 Acceptance of ’one taking the control’
 Increased structure/organized
 Members must conform to the group
norms

Reactions
Winner reactions: Loser reactions:
 Increased group solidarity  ’It is not our fault’; question the result
 More focus on social aspects (having a  Who to blame?
nice time)  The group seems to break up
 Increased interest in the individual  Some groups try to work their way out
member: situation and problems of the problems
 No focus on experiences/ single-loop  Douple-loop learning
learning  Meaning they are ”broken” they
 Meaning they “know” they are have to rethink everything and
good enough and face the risk start from scratch.
that they might just stop trying.

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Social networks:

Casciaro & Lobo


• Organisations are designed to ensure that people interact in ways necessary to get their jobs
done
• Offer insights into how people choose those they work with
• Informal relationships are important

Likeability

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Organisation structure:

Centralisation

Centralisation:
Advantage: decision are more likely to be consistent and jobs at lower levels should be
simplified because important decision are removed
Disadvantage: slows down the pace of decision making, employees can feel that they
have little responsibility /feel that they are not important

Formalisation:
Formalisation is the tendency of an organisation to create and impose written rules and procedures
for working (Brooks, page 182)
E.g. job descriptions, staff manuals

Span of control:
Span of control refers to the number of employees that report directly to a manager (Brooks, page
183)
Number of subordinates reporting directly to a manager is commonly 10-12
As the span of control increases so does the problem of control and coordination

Differentiation:
 Vertical differentiation is the extent to which an organisation structure comprises different
levels of authority’ (Brooks, page 182)
 An organisation with many reporting levels in its hierarchy and which is organised into
many diferent product/service areas whould be highly differentiated

Integration:
 The extent to which different levels in the hierarchy are coordinated (vertical integration)
and the extent to which coordination occurs acress functional areas (horizontal integration)

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Functional structure

Divisional structure

Matrix structure

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Influences on structure?

Business
Size ICT
Environment

Structure

Strategy Technology

Greiner:

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Phases of growth

Flexibility

Creativity  Collaboration­
Delegation­
phase phase
phase

Leadership­ Red tape­
Autonomy      ???? crisis
crisis crisis
crisis Control­
crisis

Direction­
Coordination­
phase
Stability phase
(Greiner, 1972)

Culture

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Manifestations of culture

Artifacts and creations


Words, logo, gestures, dress-code, jargon, pictures, etc which are manifestations of the
organisational culture
Heroes
Real or imaginary persons, who posses highly valued characteristics of a culture, and
thus serve as models for behaviour (founders)
Myths and stories
Real events or ’urban legends’ replicated among employees that carry the essence of the
organisational culture and its values
Rituals
Collective activities (ways of greeting, social ceremonies) considered essential within
the culture

Three levels of culture.

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National culture

Hofstede

 Four cultural dimensions emerged from his data:


− Power distance
− Individualism/collectivism
− Uncertainty avoidance
− Masculinity/femininity
 Power distance
− Power distance represents the social distance between people of different rank or
position

 Individualism / collectivism
− Individualism reflects the extent to which an individual relies on a group (a
collectivist approach) or takes the individual initiative in making decisions, solving
problems and engaging in productive activity
 Masculinity / femininity
− Masculinity is one of the more complex variables introduced by Hofstede. It reflects
values which are widely considered to be more ’masculine’, such as assertiveness,
competitiveness and results orientation, whereas ’feminine’ values can be seen to be
cooperative and to show greater awareness of feelings and equal opportunities
 Uncertainty avoidance
− Uncertainty avoidance essentially reflects porole’s attitudes to ambiguity in a ociety
or country

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