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W3C Recommendation 08 December 2008
This version: http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-mobileOK-basic10-tests-20081208/ Latest version: http://www.w3.org/TR/mobileOK-basic10-tests/ Previous version: http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/PR-mobileOK-basic10-tests-20081103/ Editors: Sean Owen, Google Jo Rabin, dotMobi (and before at Segala) Please refer to the errata for this document, which may include some normative corrections. See also translations.
Copyright © 2008 W3C® (MIT, ERCIM, Keio), All Rights Reserved. W3C liability, trademark and document use rules apply.
This document defines the tests that provide the basis for making a claim of W3C® mobileOK™ Basic conformance and are based on W3C Mobile Web Best Practices [Best Practices]. The details of how to claim mobileOK conformance will be described separately. Providers of content which passes the tests have taken some steps to provide a functional user experience for users of basic mobile devices whose capabilities at least match those of the Default Delivery Context (DDC). mobileOK Basic primarily assesses basic usability, efficiency and interoperability. It does not address the important goal of assessing whether users of more advanced devices enjoy a richer user experience than is possible using the DDC.
Status of this Document
This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/. This document was developed by the Mobile Web Best Practices Working Group as part of the Mobile Web Initiative. Please see the Working Group's implementation report. A complete list of the editorial changes since the previous version of this document is available. Please send comments about this document to firstname.lastname@example.org (with public archive). This document defines machine-verifiable tests, based on the W3C Mobile Web Best Practices [Best Practices]. Although content authors are not expected to use this document directly, participants of the Working Group expect tools that implement the tests defined in this document to greatly improve the authoring of content that addresses the browsing experience of users on a broad range of devices. This document has been reviewed by W3C Members, by software developers, and by other W3C groups and interested parties, and is endorsed by the Director as a W3C Recommendation. It is a stable document and may be used as reference material or cited from another document. W3C's role in making the Recommendation is to draw attention to the specification and to promote its widespread deployment. This enhances the functionality and interoperability of the Web. This document was produced by a group operating under the 5 February 2004 W3C Patent Policy. W3C maintains a public list of any patent disclosures made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) must disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy.
Table of Contents
1 Introduction 1.1 Scope
1. and describes how to emulate the DDC when requesting that content.1 Relationship to Best Practices 1.17 PAGE_TITLE 3.1 Object Element Processing Rule 3.6 EXTERNAL_RESOURCES 3.4. This document describes W3C mobileOK Basic tests for delivered content.3 Beyond mobileOK 1.3 Claiming mobileOK conformance 2 Conformance 2. For example.7 GRAPHICS_FOR_SPACING 3.10 White Space 3 mobileOK Basic Tests 3.1.3 Testing Outcomes 2.9 Validity 2.24 TABLES_NESTED Appendices A Acknowledgments (Non-Normative) B References (Non-Normative) C Relationship between Best Practices and mobileOK Tests (Non-Normative) 1 Introduction mobileOK Basic is a scheme for assessing whether Web resources (Web content) can be delivered in a manner that is conformant with Mobile Web Best Practices [Best Practices] to a simple and largely hypothetical mobile user agent.1 AUTO_REFRESH and REDIRECTION 3. user agents or mobile devices. should etc.14 NON-TEXT_ALTERNATIVES 3.1.3 HTTP Request 2.5 DEFAULT_INPUT_MODE 3.20 STYLE_SHEETS_SUPPORT 3.3 CHARACTER_ENCODING_SUPPORT and CHARACTER_ENCODING_USE 3.2 HTTPS 2. the Default Delivery Context.4.4.4. it must not be assumed that a claim that a resource is mobileOK conformant implies that it is of higher informational value.18 POP_UPS 3.4 CONTENT_FORMAT_SUPPORT and VALID_MARKUP 3. 2.2 Out of Scope 1.6 CSS Style 2.4 Conduct of Tests 2.4 HTTP Response 2.1.12 MINIMIZE 3. mobileOK does not imply endorsement or suitability of content.4.10 LINK_TARGET_FORMAT 3.15.2 Validity of the Tests 2.2 Applicability 1.4.1 Scope 1.4.21 STYLE_SHEETS_USE 3.1.11 MEASURES 220.127.116.11 Meta http-equiv Elements 2.16 PAGE_SIZE_LIMIT 3.7 Included Resources 2.15 OBJECTS_OR_SCRIPT 3.1 Order of Tests 2.13 NO_FRAMES 3.9 IMAGES_RESIZING and IMAGES_SPECIFY_SIZE 3.8 Linked Resources 2.22 TABLES_ALTERNATIVES 3.4.1 Scope .23 TABLES_LAYOUT 3.2 CACHING 3. is more reliable. It is not a test for browsers. more trustworthy or is more appropriate for children than any other resource.1 Use of Terms must.8 IMAGE_MAPS 3. and is not intended to imply anything about the way these should behave. The intention of mobileOK is to help catalyze development of Web content that provides a functional user experience in a mobile context.19 PROVIDE_DEFAULTS 3.
It will be possible to make claims in a machine-processable form. Many Best Practices relate not just to the document (e.g. Content providers should provide an experience that is mobileOK Basic conformant to ensure a basic level of interoperability. No specific PASS outcome is defined for any test. mobileOK Basic conformance says nothing about richer. experiences that may be available. are advisable but do not meaningfully translate into concrete tests.1 Relationship to Best Practices mobileOK Basic tests are based on a limited subset of the Mobile Web Best Practices. That is.g. should etc. such as a Web site. It will often be possible. conforms to mobileOK Basic.4 Conduct of Tests . Where terms are used with the meanings defined in [RFC 2119] they are highlighted in the text e. and generally desirable. but to how it is delivered to a mobile device (e. 2. more sophisticated. 2. In any test. PASS is required from all tests in order to claim mobileOK Basic conformance. 1. and hence the tests.1 Scope 1. must. like TESTING.0]) have been followed. The tests should not be understood to assess thoroughly whether the content has been well-designed for mobile devices. or may indicate that the content under test is close to violating a Best Practice. CACHING). It will also be possible to notify end users of the presence of the claim by means of a human-readable mark. The tests assess whether the content can be provided in a way that achieves basic usability. The details of the mechanism for claiming mobileOK conformance will be described separately.1. 1. and interoperability with mobile devices. efficiency. Tests may also generate a number of informative warnings which do not affect whether a test has PASSed or not.1 Use of Terms must. Providers are encouraged to provide enhanced experiences as well when these are appropriate to their application and devices that are accessing them. resolving a URI will result in mobileOK Basic conformant content that is delivered in a mobileOK Basic conformant manner. the tests do not apply solely to content or document instances. are not promoted as guidance for achieving the optimal user experience.1.2 Validity of the Tests mobileOK tests are only meaningful when the URI under test resolves to HTML content delivered over HTTP. mobileOK Basic conformance should be considered only a first step towards building a harmonized experience for mobile users. A warning may indicate that it could not be conclusively determined whether the content under test conforms to a Best Practice (and thus does not FAIL).1. PASS is achieved if and only if there are no FAILs.3 Claiming mobileOK conformance A standard mechanism will be defined that allows content providers to claim that a URI or group of URIs. mobileOK Basic says nothing about what may be delivered to non-mobile devices.3 Testing Outcomes Individual tests may result in PASS or FAIL. 1.2 Out of Scope Some Best Practices. interoperable with a large number of mobile devices. The capabilities of many devices exceed those defined by the DDC. 1.2 Applicability The tests apply to a URI. Their outcome is machine-verifiable.3 Beyond mobileOK The Best Practices. VALID_MARKUP). Content passing the tests demonstrates that the content provider has taken basic steps to provide a functional experience for mobile users. 2 Conformance 2. hence claims of mobileOK Basic conformance are easy to check. to provide an experience designed to take advantage of the extra capabilities. Passing the tests means that when accessed as described in 2.4. 2.g. nor does it say anything about whether other guidelines for development of Web content (such as [WCAG 1. Conformance merely demonstrates that a basic experience is available.1.3 HTTP Request.
21 STYLE_SHEETS_USE points out that style sheets should be used in preference to markup elements such as center.4 HTTP Response).4.10 LINK_TARGET_FORMAT where the HEAD method may be used (See 2. FAIL If the certificate has expired. even though the center element is also disallowed by the test for 3. Use the HTTP GET method when making requests.1.4. except for 3.text/css. Note: As noted under 2.1 Order of Tests mobileOK Basic does not prescribe the order in which tests are to be carried out as they may be executed independently.3 HTTP Request The following HTTP request headers inform the server that it should deliver content that is compatible with the Default Delivery Context.wap. 2.org/2006/07/mobileok-ddc) Include an Accept header indicating that Internet media types understood by the Default Delivery Context are accepted by sending exactly this header: Accept: application/xhtml+xml.4.q=0. or is not yet valid.1.8 Linked Resources for a discussion of the POST method).image/gif Include an Accept-Charset header indicating that only UTF-8 is accepted by sending exactly this header: Accept-Charset: UTF-8 Do not include cookie related headers. Carry out as many tests as is reasonable. when represented in an absolute form.4 Conduct of Tests 2.1 of [RFC 2617]. User-Agent Header) : User-Agent: W3C-mobileOK/DDC-1. Creators of implementations of the tests described in this document are encouraged to provide as much information as possible to users of their implementations.image/jpeg.4.2 HTTPS Note: Arbitrary root certificates (including self-signed certificates) should be regarded as trusted. Where possible they should not stop on FAIL and specifically they should: Provide information about the cause of warning or failure (each warn and FAIL is individually identified). this is deliberate and is intended to allow testing environments to provide as much information as possible. have either the http or the https scheme. Continue individual tests as far as is possible.4.4.2.w3.43. When resolving a URI.xhtml+xml. Requests should not be made for . FAIL 2.text/html.0 (see http://www.application/vnd.q=0.8 Linked Resources the URIs that are relevant to mobileOK are those that. Once authentication information has been included in a request. For example the test for 3.2. Some tests have been designed to assess aspects of the content that are disallowed by other tests. Include a User-Agent header which starts exactly as follows (indicating the Default Delivery Context.4 CONTENT_FORMAT_SUPPORT and VALID_MARKUP. if the URI has the scheme https: If the certificate presented does not match the requested URI.4. and which may be extended in accordance with [RFC 2616] Section 14. warn If certificate validation otherwise fails.7 Included Resources and 2. subsequent requests for the same realm must include authentication information as described in Section 2 and under "domain" in Section 3. Implementations must support URIs with both http and https scheme components. Include authentication information if required (see 2.
4. Requests should not be made for URIs with schemes other than http and https. the mobileOK Basic Tests should be applied to the content.15. If the HTTP status indicates that authentication is required (e. Otherwise. 2.4.16 PAGE_SIZE_LIMIT Include this response under the count as described under 3.4. FAIL.6 EXTERNAL_RESOURCES Re-request the resource using authentication information If the response relates to a request for a linked resource (see 2.6 EXTERNAL_RESOURCES If there is no HTTP Location header.e.8 Linked Resources): Continue with the test (see 3.that. note that a 404 or 5xx response for the resource under test does not result in a FAIL in order to allow for the possibility of testing an application's error page. do not proceed with further tests.4. other than 404.10 LINK_TARGET_FORMAT ) and warn Otherwise (i. If an HTTP request does not result in a valid HTTP response (because of network-level error. FAIL If the HTTP status indicates redirection (status code 3xx): Do not carry out tests on the response If the response relates to a request for the resource under test. FAIL Carry out tests on the response Include the size of the response in the "total size" as described under 3.e. Note: Below. warn If the resulting URI is not a URI with the scheme http or https.e.16 PAGE_SIZE_LIMIT Include this response under the count as described under 3.10 LINK_TARGET_FORMAT .1 Object Element Processing Rule.4. have either the http or the https scheme. or any of its Included Resources (see 2. or nonHTTP response). warn If the HTTP status code is 404 or 5xx If the response relates to a request for the resource under test. 401) or a 406 when carrying out the 3. i. Note: If the test below results in a FAIL. continue with the test (see 3. for Included Resources). FAIL.4 HTTP Response Note: Implementations must support basic and digest authentication.7 Included Resources): If authentication information was supplied in the HTTP request (i. FAIL If the HTTP status represents failure (4xx). DNS resolution error.7 Included Resources): Include the size of the response in the "total size" as described under 3.g. or any of its Included Resources (see 2. a request for authentication (e. Re-request the resource using the URI formulated above. authentication failed) or if no authentication information is available.8 Linked Resources). create an absolute URI by combining the value of the Location header with the absolute URI of the request to which this is a response. status code 401): If the response relates to a request for the resource under test. when represented in an absolute form. FAIL .g. If the URI identified by the HTTP Location header is a relative URI. do not re-request the resource with authentication information). continue with tests on the response and warn If the response relates to a request for a linked resource (see 2.
warn 2.5 Meta http-equiv Elements Documents can include meta elements with an http-equiv attribute.providing they are unqualified as to presentation media type or qualified by presentation . aside from the following: The Refresh header as specified in 3. mobileOK Basic test implementations must ignore values specified in such elements.1]) elements whose type attribute is "text/css".7 Included Resources Some tests refer to Included Resources. as follows: For each meta element with an http-equiv attribute: If a matching HTTP response header does not exist.6 CSS Style) @import directives in the CSS Style . when represented in an absolute form.4. resources linked by CSS @import at-rules whose presentation media list is either not present or is present and contains the value "all" or "handheld" In the course of assembling the CSS Style use only those CSS rulesets that are not restricted as to their presentation media type or whose presentation media type list contains "handheld" or "all".1 AUTO_REFRESH and REDIRECTION The Content-Type header as specified in 3.15. attribute in this section refers to pseudo-attribute.2 CACHING Check for consistency with HTTP headers.6 CSS Style images included by background-image and list-style-image properties in the CSS Style (see 2.4. Included Resources are defined as those that are referenced by the following: the src attribute of img elements the data attribute of object elements (see notes below) the href attribute of link elements and xml-stylesheet processing instructions as defined in 2. warn If a matching HTTP response header exists but its value differs from the content attribute value. Assemble the CSS Style by using the contents of: the style attribute of any element (use of the style attribute is deprecated in XHTML Basic 1.6 EXTERNAL_RESOURCES ).4. FAIL 2.4. When retrieving resources. Note: In the case of xml-stylesheet processing instructions.6 CSS Style Some tests refer to "CSS Style" information. which are resources external to the resource being tested and yet vital to rendering that resource and whose URI has the "http" or "https" scheme. these are sometimes considered substitutes for HTTP response headers. Examples include image and style sheet resources.16 PAGE_SIZE_LIMIT ) and resource count (see 3.4. Multiple references to cached resources are counted only once in regard of page weight (see 3. 2. style resources linked via link elements and xml-stylesheet processing instructions. and whose media attribute is either not present or is present and contains values "all" or "handheld" (case-insensitive).3 CHARACTER_ENCODING_SUPPORT and CHARACTER_ENCODING_USE The Cache-Control header as specified in 3.3. caching directives should be observed. where: the rel attribute contains "stylesheet" but not "alternate" (case-insensitive) the charset attribute is either not present or is present with value "UTF-8" (case-insensitive) the type attribute is either not present or is present with value "text/css" the media attribute is either not present or is present and contains value "all" or "handheld" (case-insensitive).1 Object Element Processing Rule.1 [XHTML Basic 1.
3 mobileOK Basic Tests . In addition.providing they are unqualified as to presentation media type or qualified by presentation media type "handheld" or "all" (case-insensitive) as defined in 2.21 STYLE_SHEETS_USE for treatment of such values.8 Linked Resources Linked Resources are resources linked to from the resource being tested (other than the resource itself).9 Validity Several tests refer to the validity of aspects of a resource.e. any img or object element which occurs in the fall-back of an acceptable object element is not an Included Resource). 2. Note: Forms with method attribute "POST" (case-insensitive) are permissible in documents under test.4.1 Object Element Processing Rule (i. White space has the same definition in this document as in XML. otherwise supply empty values. JPEG An image is a valid JPEG image if it follows the format defined in Annex B of the [JPEG] specification UTF-8 A resource is considered to be valid UTF-8 if its bytes represent the valid UTF-8 encoding of some string. the characters SP. CR and LF. is described in the relevant section.15.6 CSS Style @import Note: In some circumstances object elements may act as synonyms for other elements such as img and iframe. CSS A resource is considered a valid CSS resource if it conforms to the grammar defined in [CSS Level 1]. For XML 1.0] it is defined in http://www.4.1 Object Element Processing Rule (i. objects that are "tasted" to determine their Internet content type but are then discarded are not Included Resources).16 PAGE_SIZE_LIMIT and 3.10 White Space Several tests refer to white space. the action attribute of form elements whose method attribute is not present or is present with value "get" (case-insensitive).e. The presence of at-rules. but are not checked by mobileOK Basic (posting might cause side effects such as the addition of unwanted records to a database). In these cases it is noted in the relevant section when to regard object elements as equivalents for other elements. Note: When submitting forms use default values where supplied. as regards 3.4. See 3. TAB. section 4 2.e. Linked resources are defined as those that are referenced by: the href attribute of a (anchor) elements. GIF An image is a valid GIF image if it conforms to the grammar defined in section 25 of the [GIF] specification. This section defines specifically what this means. Note: Resources referenced by descendants of an object element that itself refers to an Included Resource are not considered to be Included Resources as discussed under 3.org/TR/REC-xml/#sec-common-syn as being: S ::= (#x20 | #x9 | #xD | #xA)+ i. Appendix B.w3. Note: Resources that are retrieved as references from object elements and whose Content-Type HTTP header is not set to "image/jpeg" or "image/gif" are not considered to be Included Resources as discussed under 3.directives in the CSS Style . Their treatment. properties or values or combinations of properties and values that are not specified in [CSS Level 1] does not constitute a validity failure for CSS.0 [XML 1. as defined in [RFC 3629].4. 2.6 EXTERNAL_RESOURCES . but which are not vital to rendering that resource whose URI begins with the "http" or "https" scheme when represented in an absolute form. the @media at-rule and the presentation media list for the @import at-rule are taken into account when evaluating CSS.15.
adding an If-Modified-Since request header whose value matches that of the Last-Modified response header If the HTTP response contains a Last-Modified header and its value is again the same. If a meta element is present with http-equiv attribute value of "refresh". This test verifies that a DDC-like device which only accepts UTF-8 encoding may access the resource in UTF-8 encoding. FAIL Continue the test using the value from the meta content attribute as though it were specified in the appropriate header.2 CACHING The purpose of the test is to alert providers to the fact that their content may not be cached. warn If a Refresh HTTP header is present. adding an If-None-Match request header whose value matches that of the ETag response header If the HTTP response contains an ETag header and its value is again the same. Resources may be represented using other encodings where appropriate. warn If any cache related header contains an invalid value. Tests are organized alphabetically by the Best Practice from which they derive. FAIL Else. and the HTTP response status is not 304 (Not Modified). the value of the HTTP header must be used . and hence this test fails if a resource is not encoded in UTF-8. warn If the HTTP response contains an ETag header. referring to those headers. This test requires that character encoding is explicitly specified and recognizes the following methods of specification: . if it would be beneficial to do so. The test does not require that resource always be encoded in UTF-8. warn If the HTTP response contains a Last-Modified header. warn 3. and the Expires header specifies a date which is not later than what the Date header specifies. the test merely checks that the resource is available in UTF-8 encoding. warn If an Expires and Date HTTP header are present.5 Meta http-equiv Elements. warn If a Cache-Control HTTP header is present and contains value "no-cache". or contains value "max-age=0".1 AUTO_REFRESH and REDIRECTION This test does not determine whether the user is able to opt out of refresh. warn If a Pragma HTTP header is present and contains value "no-cache".3 mobileOK Basic Tests This section describes tests for mobileOK Basic. FAIL Else. Note: Where both a meta element with http-equiv attribute and the corresponding HTTP header are found. If the URI specified in the header value is not the current resource's URI. warn 3. 3. Request the same URI again. If the HTTP response contains neither an Expires nor Cache-Control header If no meta http-equiv element is present.4. and the HTTP response status is not 304 (Not Modified).3 CHARACTER_ENCODING_SUPPORT and CHARACTER_ENCODING_USE The DDC is defined to support only UTF-8 encoding.see also note under 2. if requested. Request the same URI again. Where a test derives from more than one Best Practice it is placed according to the one that occurs first in dictionary order. If the URI specified as part of the content attribute is not the current resource's URI.
9 Validity).1 and XHTML MP 1..1. an "html document" is a document that has "html" as its root element. FAIL If character encoding is specified in more than one way.2. <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="application/xhtml+xml. Note: In the following.This test requires that character encoding is explicitly specified and recognizes the following methods of specification: HTTP Content-Type header application/xhtml+xml. warn 3. If the HTTP Content-Type header specifies a character encoding other than UTF-8.0.xhtml+xml".4.. FAIL If the DOCTYPE refers to a known XHTML version.. or "text/html". "regardless of its stated DOCTYPE" means that when assessing validity against the XHTML Basic 1.xhtml+xml". XHTML Basic 1.4 CONTENT_FORMAT_SUPPORT and VALID_MARKUP Note: In the following.0.wap. and whose content attribute specifies a character encoding meta . FAIL If the document is not an HTML document. warn If the document does not contain a DOCTYPE declaration. FAIL If the HTTP Content-Type header specifies an Internet media type starting with "text/": If there is no meta element with http-equiv attribute that specifies UTF-8 character encoding. and whose http-equiv attribute is "Content-Type". charset=UTF-8"/> . XHTML-MP 1. FAIL If the DOCTYPE is not an XML DOCTYPE.1 or XHTML-MP 1. FAIL If the HTTP Content-Type header does not specify a character encoding: If there is no XML declaration. charset=UTF-8 XML declaration <?xml version="1. is not "application/xhtml+xml".0" encoding="UTF-8" ?> element that is the first child of the document's head element. validate against that DOCTYPE and if invalid. If the document's Internet media type. or by replacing the given DOCTYPE with the appropriate DOCTYPE for the DTD under test. warn If the document is an HTML document and it has an XML DOCTYPE: If the document does not declare the html namespace on its html root element. and not all values are the same.7 Included Resources: Request the resource If the HTTP Content-Type header value of the response starts with "text/" but does not specify UTF-8 character encoding..wap. or UTF-8 character encoding is not specified in the XML declaration.2 DTDs this may be carried out by inserting a DOCTYPE if none is present. as specified in the HTTP response Content-Type header. FAIL If the document's Internet media type is "text/html" or "application/vnd.4. FAIL If the document is not valid UTF-8 (see 2. "application/vnd. warn . FAIL For each resource specified by 2. "a known XHTML version" means XHTML Basic 1. XHTML-MP 1. Note: In the following.
2 User Agent Behavior of XHTML Basic 1.5 DEFAULT_INPUT_MODE Note: inputmode is part of [XHTML Basic 1.1 Object Element Processing Rule whose type attribute is not specified.4. and an inputmode attribute is not present.4 HTTP Response) to a running total. warn For each textarea element: If the element's inputmode attribute is invalid according to Section 5.4. FAIL If the element is empty and an inputmode attribute is not present. warn If (regardless of its stated DOCTYPE) the document does not validate against the XHTML Basic 1. Therefore this machine-testable test merely warns about the presence of small (at most 2x2) transparent images and FAILs larger ones.6 EXTERNAL_RESOURCES Retrieve the resource under test. small transparent images are often used in e-commerce sites for user tracking purposes.7 Included Resources): If the response specifies an Internet media type that is not "text/css". For each unique Included Resource. "image/jpeg" or "image/gif".4 HTTP Response) to the running total. FAIL If the element's value attribute is missing or empty.4. validate against that DOCTYPE and if invalid. It is believed that few if any sites would use transparent images of any significant size for tracking. For each img element and object element which is an Included Resource (see 2.1]. However.7 Included Resources): . If the total exceeds 10.1 [XHTML Basic 1. and possibly vital enough to the business interests of mobile sites.If the DOCTYPE refers to a known XHTML version.4.1 [XHTML Basic 1.9 Validity).9 Validity). FAIL 3. FAIL If the Internet media type is "text/css" and the content is not valid CSS (see 2. warn 3.1].1]. For each input element with attribute type whose value is "text" or "password" or whose type attribute is missing: If the element's inputmode attribute is invalid according to Section 5. warn Otherwise (if the DOCTYPE is not known).1 DTD: If (regardless of its stated DOCTYPE) it does not validate against the XHTML-MP 1. FAIL If the Internet media type is "image/gif" or "image/jpeg". Include in the count only those objects retrieved under the 3.7 Included Resources: Request the referenced resource Add the number of HTTP requests that are required to retrieve the resource (see 2. as defined in 2.4. and add the number of retrievals required to obtain the resource (see 2. FAIL For each Included Resource (see 2.4.7 GRAPHICS_FOR_SPACING The intent of this Best Practice is to avoid using transparent images for spacing.15 OBJECTS_OR_SCRIPT ) and the response specifies an Internet media type that is not "image/jpeg" or "image/gif". and the resource is not valid (see 2. The practice is common enough.4. FAIL 3. and those whose content type is either "image/jpeg" or "image/gif" irrespective of whether the type attribute is specified. FAIL If an image is required (see also 3.15. warn If this total exceeds 20.2 DTD.2 User Agent Behavior of XHTML Basic 1. FAIL If a style sheet is required and the response specifies an Internet media type that is not "text/css". that it is undesirable to fail sites that use such small transparent images.
10 LINK_TARGET_FORMAT Note: 404 and 5xx HTTP status do not result in failure when conducting this test.4.7 Included Resources): If all pixels are transparent. warn If either dimension exceeds 2 pixels. warn 3. warn If the Content-Type header value of the HTTP response does not specify a charset parameter. For each linked resource. warn For each document internal reference (links in the document under test that refer to the document itself): If there is no target for the reference or it is invalid (e. Note: The document body of linked resources is not examined. '#'). warn 3. For each img element and object element which is an Included Resource (see 2. FAIL If the value specified by either the height or width attribute is greater than the corresponding dimension of the image.7 Included Resources): If a usemap attribute is present. as defined in 2.11 MEASURES Note: The intrinsic size of images must be specified as attributes of the img element and not as CSS properties (see 3.7 Included Resources): If the height or width attribute are missing.3 HTTP Request. FAIL For each img element and object element which is an Included Resource (see 2.8 Linked Resources: Request the resource If the Content-Type header value of the HTTP response is not one of the Internet media types listed in the Accept header in 2. FAIL 3. No unit is specified.9 .4.3 HTTP Request.4.g. FAIL If more than one image with all transparent pixels is present.18.104.22.168 IMAGE_MAPS If an input element with type attribute set to "image" is present. FAIL If the height or width attribute do not specify a size in pixels. If image height and width are both less than or equal to 2 pixels.For each img element and object element which is an Included Resource (see 2. FAIL If an ismap attribute is present.9 IMAGES_RESIZING and IMAGES_SPECIFY_SIZE Note: The height and width HTML attributes specify pixels when they are used as a number. warn If the value specified by either the height or width attribute is less than the corresponding dimension of the image. or does but it is not consistent with the value of the Accept-Charset header in 2. FAIL 3.
FAIL If there is no type attribute.4.7 Included Resources: Add the size of all the response bodies that are required to retrieve the resource (see 22.214.171.124 PAGE_SIZE_LIMIT Retrieve the document under test. as defined in 2.7 Included Resources). FAIL Add to a running total (total size) the size of all the HTTP response bodies that are required to retrieve the document under test (2. FAIL Note: In the case of resources that are referenced more than once in the document under test.7 Included Resources. For each object element that has no object element ancestor (other than the context node) in this context: If the object element is empty. objects that must be assessed . If the total exceeds 20 kilobytes. as indicated by its Content-Type HTTP header does not match that stated in the type attribute. 3. they are cached. For each unique Included Resource. warn If it is not already cached (see 2.1 Object Element Processing Rule For each img element that has no object element ancestor (other than the context node) in this context: Treat this image as an Included Resource (and carry out appropriate tests).4.1 Object Element Processing Rule whose type attribute is not specified.If an applet element is present. as discussed under 2. Include in the total only those objects retrieved under the 3.4. ignore img and object elements that are descendants of the current object element. if its size (excluding any redirections discussed under 2. Note: A warning is issued when the Internet media type indicated by the type attribute is not compatible with the Default Delivery Context because some user agents do not take into account the type attribute of object elements and this may cause the user agent to retrieve large incompatible objects with consequences to performance and cost. warn If the content of the object element consists only of white space. Note: Where the 3. warn If the Internet media type indicated by the Content-Type HTTP Header of the retrieved resource is not "image/jpeg" or "image/gif".15. Note: An HTTP 406 status on retrieval of a resource referenced by an object element does not constitute a FAIL.4 HTTP Response). retrieve the referenced resource (ignoring the type attribute) If the Internet media type of the retrieved resource. FAIL Set the context to the root element and apply the Object Element Processing Rule 3.4 HTTP Response) exceeds 10 kilobytes.4 HTTP Response) to the running total.4. and where.15.1 Object Element Processing Rule yields a resource that is found to be cached. it is the initial retrieval of that resource (as determined by the first reference in document order) that counts towards the total. warn Reapply this rule using the current object element as the context Otherwise (the object is an acceptable image): Treat this object as an Included Resource (and carry out appropriate tests). and those whose Internet media type as indicated by the Content-Type HTTP header is either "image/jpeg" or "image/gif" irrespective of whether the type attribute is specified.4.
18 POP_UPS For each a. If the document contains any basefont. and base element: If a target attribute is present. i. warn 3. If a title element is not present in the head element. warn If all styles are restricted to presentation media types other than "handheld" or "all" by means of @media at-rules. and the multiple attribute is not set to "multiple". a simple page of text).19 PROVIDE_DEFAULTS For each radio button group within a form element (input elements with type "radio" that share the same name attribute value): Check that exactly one input element within this group has its checked attribute set to "checked". warn If the CSS Style contains at-rules (other than the @media at-rule.21 STYLE_SHEETS_USE This test looks for elements in the Text Extension module defined by [XHTML Modularization]. and are not supported. del.22 TABLES_ALTERNATIVES .4. or is empty.Where the 3. bdo. dir. small. FAIL 3.6 CSS Style) contains rules referencing the position. or values that are not recognized as being specified in CSS Level 1. If its value is not one of "_self". sup or tt elements. Note: This test does not require that any CSS Style is used. in XHTML Basic. menu. ins. font. and the presentation media type list of the @import at-rule). warn If there is more than one option element whose selected attribute is set to "selected". warn 3. big. some of which are not supported in XHTML Basic [XHTML Basic 1.10 White Space). or contains only white space (see 2. or if the value of a recognized CSS Level 1 property is incompatible with the property. properties. warn If any element has a style attribute.20 STYLE_SHEETS_SUPPORT If the CSS Style (see 2. and if this is not the case. form. It also looks for commonly-used elements and attributes that were deprecated in HTML 4. FAIL If the document contains any b. no presentation information is required at all (for example. FAIL 3. display or float properties. 3.1].1 Object Element Processing Rule yields a resource that is found to be cached. objects that must be assessed in the course of yielding the cached resource count towards the total.15.4. link. warn For each select element: If there is no nested option element whose selected attribute is set to "selected". or "_top".17 PAGE_TITLE This test does not determine whether the title is meaningful. center. or are deprecated. "_parent". s. strike or u elements. since in some cases. warn 3. sub.
Masayasu Ishikawa. 29 July 2008 (See http://www. S. P. Chisholm. J. Mark Baker. Yergau. ICRA François Daoust. T.1. June 1999 (See http://tools.81. L. J. W3C Recommendation. J.0 Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.txt) JPEG Recommendation T. eds. Shinichi Matsui.0 . W3C Recommendation.org/html/rfc2617) RFC 3629 UTF-8. W3C B References (Non-Normative) Best Practices Mobile Web Best Practices 1.w3. G. Gettys. Leach. Version 89a. W3C Recommendation 17 Dec 1996. 29 July 2008 (See http://www. FAIL A Acknowledgments (Non-Normative) The editors would like to thank members of the BPWG for contributions of various kinds.org/Graphics/GIF/spec-gif89a. a transformation format of ISO 10646. Stewart. S.w3. Shane McCarron.0. W3C Phil Archer.w3. Hostetler. L. Toshihiko Yamakami (eds). H. Ted Wugofski.ietf. March 1997 (See http://tools.org/html/rfc2119. Mogul.. Masinter. FAIL 3. Charles McCathieNevile. CompuServe Incorporated.pdf) RFC 2119 Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels. FAIL For each nested td element: If the element contains only an image (or equivalent object) whose actual dimensions are 2x2 or less. Mark Birbeck (eds). Lawrence.If a table element exists. 08 October 2008 (See http://www.1 XHTML™ Basic 1.org/TR/2008/REC-xhtml-modularization-20081008/) XML 1. R. June 1999 (See http://tools. W. Jacobs. Subramanian Peruvemba.24 TABLES_NESTED For each table element: If it contains a table element.org/html/rfc3629) WCAG 1. J.1. revised 11 Jan 1999 (See http://www. P.org/TR/1999/WAI-WEBCONTENT-19990505/) XHTML Basic 1. Vanderheiden and I.1 Request for Comments: 2616. Bert Bos.org/TR/2008/REC-xhtml-basic-20080729/) XHTML Modularization XHTML™ Modularization 1. Bradner. warn 3. For each table element: If it contains at most one tr element. Peter Stark. Frystyk. A.HTTP/1. F.org/Graphics/JPEG/itu-t81. W3C Recommendation.txt) RFC 2616 Hypertext Transfer Protocol -.w3. level 1. 5 May 1999 (See http://www.org/html/rfc2616) RFC 2617 HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication. Leach. Luotonen. W3C Recommendation. Jo Rabin. Hallam-Baker. 18 September 1992 (See http://www.ietf.ietf.w3.0.w3. Håkon Wium Lie. Berners-Lee.org/TR/2008/REC-mobile-bp-20080729/) CSS Level 1 Cascading Style Sheets.ietf.w3. P. FAIL If no tr element contains more than one td element. Masayasu Ishikawa. Fielding.org/TR/1999/REC-CSS1-19990111/) GIF GRAPHICS INTERCHANGE FORMAT. 1990 (See http://www. Daniel Austin. November 2003 (See http://tools. Franks.23 TABLES_LAYOUT This test does not catch all cases where tables are used for layout purposes. The editors acknowledge significant written contributions from: Dominique Hazaël-Massieux.
François Yergeau. C.0 Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.XML 1. Jean Paoli. Tim Bray.org/TR/2008/REC-xml-20081126/) C Relationship between Best Practices and mobileOK Tests (Non-Normative) This appendix lists all Best Practices and indicates whether each has a corresponding test in mobileOK Basic. Best Practice mobileOK Basic ACCESS_KEYS AUTO_REFRESH X AVOID_FREE_TEXT BACKGROUND_IMAGE_READABILITY BALANCE CACHING X CAPABILITIES CENTRAL_MEANING CHARACTER_ENCODING_SUPPORT X CHARACTER_ENCODING_USE X CLARITY COLOR_CONTRAST CONTENT_FORMAT_PREFERRED CONTENT_FORMAT_SUPPORT CONTROL_LABELLING CONTROL_POSITION COOKIES DEFAULT_INPUT_MODE DEFICIENCIES ERROR_MESSAGES EXTERNAL_RESOURCES FONTS GRAPHICS_FOR_SPACING IMAGE_MAPS IMAGES_RESIZING IMAGES_SPECIFY_SIZE LARGE_GRAPHICS LIMITED LINK_TARGET_FORMAT LINK_TARGET_ID MEASURES MINIMIZE MINIMIZE_KEYSTROKES NAVBAR NAVIGATION NO_FRAMES NON-TEXT_ALTERNATIVES OBJECTS_OR_SCRIPT PAGE_SIZE_LIMIT PAGE_SIZE_USABLE PAGE_TITLE POP_UPS PROVIDE_DEFAULTS REDIRECTION SCROLLING STRUCTURE STYLE_SHEETS_SIZE STYLE_SHEETS_SUPPORT STYLE_SHEETS_USE SUITABLE TAB_ORDER TABLES_ALTERNATIVES X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X . M.w3.0 (Fifth Edition). W3C Recommendation 26 November 2008 (See http://www. Eve Maler. Sperberg-McQueen.
TABLES_ALTERNATIVES TABLES_LAYOUT TABLES_NESTED TABLES_SUPPORT TESTING THEMATIC_CONSISTENCY URIS USE_OF_COLOR VALID_MARKUP X X X X .
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