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Two-dimensional Motion

125

7.1.1

GOAL:

a) Assuming an engine that can deliver as much power/torque as demanded, calculate the maximum

attainable acceleration ẍ and the normal forces at each tire.

b) Which tires (front or back) feel the most normal force?

GIVEN: The weight of the car is 4100 lbs. The coefficient of friction between the tires and the

ground is 0.85.

ASSUME: The car doesn’t rotate - the motion remains rectilinear.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS

a)

Force balance: −mg *

+ F1 *

ı + N1 + N2 *

= ma *

ı

*

ı: F1 = mẍ (1)

*

: N1 + N2 = mg (2)

(2) ⇒ N1 = mg − N2 (4)

(4)→(3)⇒ F1 + 3N2 − 3 mg − N2 = 0

F1 + 6N2 − 3mg = 0

3mg − F1

N2 = (5)

6

3mg − F1 3mg + F1

(5) →(4)⇒ N1 = mg − = (6)

6 6

We know that the maximal tractive force is equal to µNT OT AL and since N1 + N2 = mg (from (2))

we have

F1 = µ N1 + N2 = µmg (7)

126

(3 − µ)mg (3 − 0.85)4100 lb

(7)→(5)⇒ N2 = = = 1469.2 lb

6 6

(3 + µ)mg (3 + 0.85)4100 lb

(7)→(6)⇒ N1 = = = 2630.8 lb

6 6

b)

The rear tires feel 79% more normal force than the front tires.

127

7.1.2

GOAL: Determine by what percentage the normal forces change of the vehicle accelerates forward

at 0.25 m/s2

GIVEN: Car’s mass, length, acceleration and position of mass center.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Force balance: S*

ı + (N1 + N2 − mg) *

= mẍ *

ı

*

ı : S = mẍ (1)

*

: N1 + N2 = mg (2)

SOLVE:

When ẍ = 0,

(1)⇒ S=0

(3)⇒ N1 = N2

Thus, from (2),

mg

N1 = N2 =

2

When ẍ = 0.25g, we have :

S = 0.25mg (4)

hmg

(2)→(5)⇒ N2 − (mg − N2 ) = −0.25

L

0.25h

2N2 = mg(1 − )

L

128

mg 0.25h

N2 = (1 − ) (6)

2 L

mg 0.25h

(6)→(2)⇒ N1 = (1 + ) (7)

2 L

% increase for N1 :

(0.7)

100(0.25 (1.35) ) = 13%

% decrease for N2 :

(0.7)

100(0.25 (1.35) ) = 13%

The normal force increases at the rear tires and decreases at the front.

129

7.1.3

GOAL: Find N1 and N2 that enforce zero rotation on the car.

GIVEN: Geometry, dimensions and mass of car.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: We’ll first look at the system when there’s no ground present

(and no gravity as well). In this situation there are no normal forces on the wheels.

0.2mgh

Moment balance: Sh = I θ̈ ⇒ θ̈ =

I

The response to S is a counter-clockwise rotational acceleration.

Now, add N1 and N2 , as shown.

+ S*

ı = mẍ *

ı

*

ı : S = mẍ (1)

*

: N1 + N2 = 0 (2)

SOLVE:

−0.2mgh

(1),(2),(3) 0.2mgh + N2 L2 + N2 L1 = 0 ⇒ N2 = L +L (4)

1 2

0.2mgh

(4) → (2) ⇒ N1 = L +L

1 2

This shows that a positive force must be exerted at the rear wheel and a negative force at the

front to counter rotation. When a real car is accelerating, there’ll be additional normal forces to

counteract the car’s weight. The forces N1 and N2 just found are the additional forces that act in

consequence of the car’s acceleration.

130

If the normal forces due to gravity (with no acceleration) are given by N1g and N2g , the result of

0.2mgh 0.2mgh

accelerating will be to change them to N1g + L +L and N2g − L +L

1 2 1 2

131

7.1.4

GOAL:Find the necessary acceleration so that the car could pull a wheelie

GIVEN: Length of car and position of mass center.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Force balance: S*

ı + (N1 + N2 − mg) *

= m(ẍ *

ı + ÿ *

)

*

ı : S = mẍ (1)

*

: N1 + N2 = mg (2)

Moment balance about L2 N2 − L1 N1 + hS = I θ̈ (3)

G:

ASSUME:

ÿ = θ̈ = 0 and N2 = 0 (4)

SOLVE:

(1),(4)→(3)⇒ hmẍ − L1 N1 = 0 (5)

gL 50

ẍ = 1 =

h 24 g = 2.1g

132

7.1.5

GOAL: Find maximum θ for which a car can climb a hill.

GIVEN: Car is moving at a constant speed.

DRAW:

* *

ı

*

b1 cos θ sin θ

*

b2 − sin θ cos θ

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: Applying a force balance gives us

* *

S b 1 + (N1 + N2 ) b 2 − mg *

=0 (1)

We assume that tipping isn’t occurring and therefore θ̈ = 0. Thus we can do a static moment

balance:

Sh + N2 L2 − N1 L1 = 0 (2)

* *

SOLVE: Resolving (1) in the ( b 1 , b 2 ) directions gives us

*

b1 S − mg sin θ = 0 ⇒ S = mg sin θ (3)

*

b2 N1 + N2 − mg cos θ = 0 (4)

Tipping occurs when N2 = 0. Substitute in (4) to get

N1 = mg cos θ (5)

L1 50

−1

mgh sin θ = L1 mg cos θ ⇒ tan θ = ⇒ θ = tan = 1.123 rad (6)

h 24

Therefore, θmax = 1.123 rad = 64.4o and S = mg sin θmax = 2705 lb. The power on a level road

is given by

F ·v = (2705 lb)(88 ft/s) = 2.38 × 105 lb· ft/s = 433 hp

133

7.1.6

GOAL: Compare time to distance performance for wheelie vs no wheelie.

GIVEN: Two configurations of the vehicle - all wheels on the ground versus only the back wheels

on the ground, with associated normal force distribution.

DRAW:

CASE A: Wheelie

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

(N − mg) *

+ S*

ı = mẍA *

ı

SOLVE: At the no-slip limit, S = µs N . Thus,

1 2

ẋ = ẍ∆x = (26.4 ft/s2 )(200 ft) ⇒ ẋA = 102.8 ft/s

2 A

Time to travel this distance is

CASE B: No wheelie

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

(N − mg) *

+ S*

ı = mẍB *

ı

SOLVE: At the no-slip limit, S = µs (0.85N ). Thus,

1 2

ẋB = ẍ∆x = (22.4 ft/s2 )(200 ft) ⇒ ẋA = 94.7 ft/s

2

Time to travel this distance is

So we’d conclude that wheelies are worth doing. The run without a wheelie took 8% longer.

134

7.1.7

GOAL: Determine if the Batmobile has the same kind of normal force reaction at the tires as a

normal car.

GIVEN: Batmobile dimensions, position of mass center and acceleration.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Moment balance about h

N2 L2 − N1 L1 − T =0 (1)

G: 2

* * *

Force balance: Tn1 + (N1 + N2 − mg)n2 = mẍn1

*

ı : T = mẍ (2)

*

: N1 + N2 − mg = 0 (3)

SOLVE:

h

(3)→(1)⇒ N2 L2 − L1 (mg − N2 ) − T =0

2

hT

N2 (L1 + L2 ) = mgL1 + (4)

2

If T = 0 then we have (from (3) and (4)):

mgL1

N2 = (5)

L1 + L2

mgL2

N1 = (6)

L1 + L2

These are the normal force values for no acceleration.

Now let ẍ = 0.9g:

(2)⇒ 0.9mg = T (7)

h 0.9h

(7)→(4)⇒: (L1 + L2 )N2 = mgL1 + m(0.9g) = mg L1 +

2 2

!

mgL1 h

N2 = 1 + 0.45 (8)

L1 + L2 L1

!

mgL2 h

N1 = 1 − 0.45 (9)

L1 + L2 L2

You can see by comparing (8) to (5) and (9) to (6) that the formal force at the rear tires has gone

135

down and the front has increased. This is exactly opposite to the result from a normal car.

136

7.1.8

GOAL:

Determine what level of deceleration would be just sufficient to cause the rear tire’s contact force

to go to zero.

GIVEN: The rider is moving at constant velocity. The result of squeezing the brakes is to produce

*

a force that acts in the b 1 direction and goes through both tire/road contact passages.

ASSUME: Motion remains rectilinear - the bicycle doesn’t rotate.

DRAW:

* *

ı

*

b1 cos θ sin θ

*

b2 − sin θ cos θ

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

* * *

Moment balance: −mg * + (N1 + N2 ) b 2 + FB b 1 = ms̈ b 1 (1)

where s measures distance along the sloped surface, positive upward.

SOLVE:

* *

* * *

−mg sin θ b 1 + cos θ b 2 + (N1 + N2 ) b 2 + FB b 1 = ma b 1

*

b1 : −mg sin θ + FB = ma (2)

*

b2 : −mg cos θ + N1 + N2 = 0 (3)

If N2 = 0 then (2) and (3) become

FB − mg sin θ

s̈ = (4)

m

N1 = mg cos θ (5)

To get our answer we need to go beyond a force balance and look at moments:

Moment balance: FB (30 in) + N2 (13 in) − N1 (23 in) = 0

Letting N2 = 0 yields

N1 (23 in)

FB = (6)

30 in

23

(5), (6) ⇒ FB = mg cos θ (7)

30

137

23

30 mg cos θ− mg sin θ

(7), (4) ⇒ s̈ =

m

s̈ = 22.4 ft/s2 = 0.7 g

Thus we see that a pretty strong deceleration is needed to send the rear tires normal force to zero.

138

7.1.9

GOAL:

Determine where Captain Insanity should grip the car in order to exert the minimum force. De-

termine as well the position that leads to a maximum force.

GIVEN: The rear tire (of a rear wheel drive car) is spinning at 88 rad/s and the coefficient of

friction is 0.8. The mass of the car is 1500 kg. Captain Insanity can grip the car within the interval

indicated (20 to 30 inches from the ground).

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Since the car is stationary the acceleration of the mass center is zero:

Force balance: (−F1 + F2 ) *

ı + (N1 + N2 − mg) *

=0

*

ı : F1 = F2 (1)

*

: N1 + N2 = mg (2)

Moment balance: (54 in)N2 − (54 in)N1 + (36 in)F2 − (36 in − y)F1 = 0 (3)

ASSUME: The rear tire slips. Because of this we have

F2 = µN1 = 0.8N1 (4)

SOLVE:

(1), (4) → (3) ⇒ (54 in)N1 − (54 in)N2 + y(0.8)N1 = 0

54 in − 0.8y

N2 = N1 (5)

54 in

54 in − 0.8y

(5) → (2) ⇒ N1 = mg − N1

54 in

54 in + 54 in − 0.8y

N1 = mg

54 in

(54 in)mg

N1 = (6)

108 in − 0.8y

0.8(54 in)mg 635, 688 N·in

(4), (6) → (1) ⇒ F1 = =

108 in − 0.8y 108 in − 0.8y

139

F1 is minimized if y is minimized (and vice versa)

108 in − 0.8(20 in)

108 in − 0.8(30 in)

The moment induced by Captain Insanity pulling on the car acts to reduce the normal force at

the rear. If the normal force is reduced then the slip force is reduced in proportion. Thus a

larger moment arm (gripping lower) will enhance the applied moment and reduce the level of force

required.

140

7.1.10

GOAL: Find the configuration when ẍ = g/2

GIVEN: Masses and lengths of links as well as the fact that their accelerations are oriented

horizontally.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

We are given θ̇1 = θ̇2 = θ¨1 = θ¨2 = 0 and a*G = ẍ *

ı , a*G = ẍ *

ı

1 2

Link AB:

Force balance: (V − S) *

ı + (U − T − mg) *

= mẍ *

ı

*

ı : V − S = mẍ

V = S + mẍ (1)

*

: U − T − mg = 0

U = T + mg (2)

Moment bal- L L L L

U sin θ1 − V cos θ1 − S cos θ1 + T sin θ1 = 0 (3)

ance: 2 2 2 2

Link BC :

Force balance: S*

ı + (T − mg) *

= mẍ *

ı

*

ı : S = mẍ (4)

*

: T − mg = 0 (5)

Moment bal- L L

T sin θ2 − S cos θ2 = 0 (6)

ance: 2 2

SOLVE:

S

(6) ⇒ tan θ2 = (7)

T

141

g

mẍ ẍ 1

(4), (5) → (7) ⇒ tan θ2 = = = 2 =

mg g g 2

θ2 = tan−1 ( 21 ) = 26.6◦

2S + mẍ

tan θ1 = (8)

2T + mg

g

3mẍ ẍ 1

(4),(5)→(8)⇒ tan θ1 = = = 2 =

3mg g g 2

θ1 = tan−1 ( 21 ) = 26.6◦

142

7.1.11

GOAL: Determine if the switch is triggered or not.

GIVEN: System geometry, masses and coefficients of friction.

DRAW:

* *

ı

*

b1 cos θ sin θ

*

b2 − sin θ cos θ

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

We’ll first look at the alarm without m1 . A static force balance yields :

* *

N b 2 + (Fk − FA ) b 1 − m2 g *

=0

*

b1 : Fk − FA − m2 g sin θ = 0

FA = Fk − m2 g sin θ

For the given parameter values :

ASSUME:

Because FA > 0 we initially have a positive contact. Now, look at what happens with m1 placed

on m2 . Assume static conditions hold.

Mass m1 :

* *

−m1 g *

+ T b2 + S b1 = 0

*

b1 : S − m1 g sin θ = 0 (1)

*

b2 : T − m1 g cos θ = 0 (2)

Mass m2 :

143

* *

(Fk − FA − S) b 1 + (N − T ) b 2 − m2 g *

=0

*

b1 : FA = Fk − S − m2 g sin θ (3)

*

b2 : N − T − m2 g cos θ = 0 (4)

SOLVE:

(1) ⇒ S = m1 g sin θ (5)

FA = Fk − g sin θ(m1 + m2 )

FA < 0 implies a loss of contact and subsequent triggering of the switch. To be sure of this result,

however, we need to verify that our initial assumptions haven’t been violated.

From (5),

S = (1.5 kg)(9.81 m/s)(0.4695) = 6.909 N

From (2),

T = m1 g cos θ = (1.5 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )(0.8829) = 12.99 N

Since Smax < S we see that the static assumption is invalid and m1 slips along m2 . Thus we have

to move from a static analysis to a dynamic one. Our new set of FBD=IRDs are shown below.

We’ll assume that m1 slides along m2 and thus we know that the interfacial force is therefore given

by µ1 T .

(3),(6)⇒ FA = Fk − µ1 T − m2 g sin θ

FA = 10 N − 8.043 N = 1.957 N

FA > 0 tells us that contact isn’t lost and the switch isn’t triggered.

144

7.1.12

GOAL: Determine the acceleration ẍ for which the switch contact will open.

GIVEN: System configuration and prestress due to spring.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

m = m1 + ρ(L1 + L2 + L3 )

= 1.1 × 10−2 kg + (2.5 × 10−2 m)(0.1 kg/m) = 1.35 × 10−2 kg

Force balance:

(T1 − T2 − Fk ) *

ı + T3 *

= mẍ *

ı

*

ı : T1 − T2 − Fk = mẍ (1)

*

: T3 = 0 (2)

Moment balance: X *

MG = 0 (3)

SOLVE: Calculate r*G/

O

L3 * L L L

m r*G/ = −ρL3 ( ) + ρL2 ( 2 ) *

+ ρL2 ( 2 *

− 1*ı ) + m1 (L2 *

− L1 *

ı)

O 2 2 2 2

ı + 8.519 × 10−3 *

O

Now we can do the moment balance about G. Using the result that T3 = 0 this gives us

(8.52 × 10−3 m)T1 − (0.25 N)(1.85 × 10−2 m) = 0 (4)

At the point at which contact is lost, T2 goes to zero. Using this in (1) gives us

T1 − 0.25 N = (1.35 × 10−2 kg)ẍ (5)

145

7.1.13

GOAL: Find a cyclist’s speed during steady-state cornering.

GIVEN: The turn’s radius and the cyclist’s lean angle.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

We’ll use a force balance and a moment balance.

ASSUME:

Since the cyclist is at a constant lean angle and speed we have

θ̇ = θ̈ = 0 (1)

where θ is the cyclist’s inclination angle.

v2 v2 v2

aG = = = (2)

r 40 ft − (3 ft) sin(20◦ ) 38.97 ft

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Force balance: (N1 − mg) *

+ F1 *

ı = ma*G (3)

SOLVE: !

v2 *

(2) → (3) ⇒ (N − mg) *

+ F1 *

ı =m ı

38.97 ft

Equating Coefficients:

v2

*

ı: F1 = (5)

38.97 ft

*

: N1 = mg (6)

38.97 ft 38.97 ft

(5), (6), (7) ⇒ v2 = F1 = (0.3640)N1 = (38.97 ft)(0.3640)(32.2 ft/s)

m m

v 2 = 456.8 (ft/s)2

146

7.1.14

GOAL:

(a) What are the forces being applied by the supports to the stand’s floor?

(b) What is θ̈ equal to?

(c) How do the results compare to the case of an inverted pendulum problem that’s tipped over

from the upright (unstable) equilibrium?

GIVEN: θ = 60 degrees, θ̇ = −0.936 rad/s, m = 15 kg

DRAW:

* *

ı

*

b1 sin θ − cos θ

*

b2 cos θ sin θ

ASSUME: The top of the stand doesn’t rotate but rather remains horizontal as it tips over.

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: √ ! √ !

3* 1* 3* 1*

Force balance: F1 + ı + F2 + ı − mg * = m (a1 * ı + a2 *

)

2 2 2 2

1 1

*

ı: F1 + F2 = ma1 (1)

2 2

√ √

3 3

*

: F1 + F2 − mg = ma2 (2)

2 2

√ √

3 1 3 1

Moment balance: −F1 m + F2 m = 0 ⇒ F1 = F2 (3)

2 2 2 2

SOLVE:

Since the motion of the floor involves no rotation, the mass center’s acceleration is the same as

point B:

√ ! √ !

* *

*

2

*

3* 1* 2 1* 3*

a = aB = (3 m)θ̈ − b 1 + (3 m)θ̇ −b2 = (3 m)θ̈ − ı + + (3 m)θ̇ − ı −

2 2 2 2

√ ! √ !

3 1 1 3

a*B = *

ı − (3 m)θ̈ − (3 m)θ̇2 + *

(3 m)θ̈ − (3 m)θ̇2

2 2 2 2

147

ı −(2.598 m)θ̈ − 1.314 m/s2 + *

a*B = * (1.5 m)θ̈ − 2.276 m/s2

ı + a2 *

Since a* = a1 * this gives us

(3), (4), (5) → (1), (2) ⇒ F1 = m −(2.598 m)θ̈ − 1.314 m/s2 (6)

√

3F1 = mg + m (1.5 m)θ̈ − 2.276 m/s2 (7)

√

(6), (7) ⇒ 3 −(2.598 m)θ̈ − 1.314 m/s2 = g + 1.5θ̈ − 2.276 m/s2

(8) → (6) ⇒ F1 = 15 kg −(2.598 m)(−1.635 m/s2 ) − 1.314 m/s2 = 44 N

F2 = F1 = 44 N

Now let’s consider a pendulum with a tip mass m. If we sum moments about the attachment point

O we’ll obtain

X *

*

MO = I α

g

θ̈ = sin θ

L

For θ = 30 degrees we have

9.81 m/s2

θ̈ = (0.5) = 1.635 rad/s2

3m

Use energy to find θ̇:

148

1

mL2 θ̇2 + mgL cos θ = mgL

2

1

mL2 θ̇2 = mgL(1 − cos θ)

2

2 √ !

2g 2(9.81 m/s ) 3

θ̇2 = (1 − cos θ) = 1− = 0.8762 (rad/s)2

L 3m 2

θ̇ = 0.936 rad/s

These results match those found in the rigid body problem. The conclusion is that the non-rotating

body with massless supporting links behaves like a point mass would.

149

7.1.15

GOAL:

Find the tension in each of the cords supporting a rectangular body.

GIVEN: At the instant shown θ̇ = 0 and θ = π3 rad. L = 1.1 m and m = 20 kg AB = CD = 2 m

DRAW:

ASSUME:

From geometry

√ !

3* 1*

a* = a ı −

2 2

√

3

a1 = a

2

a

a2 = −

2

This is only valid for the release instant. Once the block begins to move it will have an additional

acceleration component due to centripetal acceleration. The block itself doesn’t rotate as a rigid

body.

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

√ ! √ !

1* 3* 1* 3*

Force balance: T1 ı + + T2 ı + − mg *

= m (a1 *

ı + a2 *

)

2 2 2 2

1 1

*

ı : T1 + T2 = ma1 (1)

2 2

√ √

3 3

*

: T1 + T2 − mg = ma2 (2)

2 2

√

3 * L* ¯ L

Moment balance about A: T2 L k − mg k = I(0) + m (* ı −* ) × (a1 *

ı + a2 *

)

2 2 2

√

3 * L* L

T2 L k − mg k = m (a1 + a2 )

2 2 2

√

3T2 − mg = m (a1 + a2 ) (3)

SOLVE:

Using the known orientation of the center of mass’s acceleration (shown in the ASSUME step),

gives us

150

√

1 1 3

T1 + T2 = ma (4)

2 2 2

√ √

3 3 1

T1 + T2 − mg = − ma (5)

2 2 2

√

√

!

3 1

3T2 − mg = ma − (6)

2 2

This leaves us with 3 equations and 3 unknowns. √ √

√

!

1 1 3 3

(4), (5) ⇒ T1 + T2 = − 3 T1 + T2 − mg

2 2 2 2

√

2T1 + 2T2 = 3mg (7)

√ √

(7), (4) ⇒ 2 3ma = 3mg ⇒ a = g2 (8)

√

√

!

mg 3 1

(8), (6) ⇒ 3T2 − mg = −

2 2 2

T2 = mg(0.683) (9)

Thus

151

7.1.16

GOAL: Determine the plate’s acceleration and the forces in the links immediately after the sup-

porting wire is cut.

GIVEN: System dimensions and mass. φ = 30◦ .

DRAW:

* *

ı

*

b1 sin φ cos φ

*

b2 − cos φ sin φ

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

The massless links are pinned and therefore can’t support apply any moments to the plate. They

have no mass and therefore the forces acting at each end must be equal and opposite. If the forces

weren’t equal and opposite then the links would experience an infinite acceleration due to their zero

mass - something that’s physically not acceptable.

Because of the system geometry the plate can only translate - no rotation is possible. Thus the

moment sum about its mass center must be zero. Finally, because the system is released from rest

its initial velocities (both translational and rotational) are zero - hence the only acceleration will

*

be from acceleration of the plate’s mass center, which, by geometry, will be in the b 1 direction.

* *

Force balance: −ma b 1 = (T1 + T2 ) b 2 − mg *

*

ı : −ma = −mg cos φ (1)

*

: T1 + T2 − mg sin φ = 0 (2)

T1 cos φ(0.1 m) − T1 sin φ(0.25 m) − T2 cos φ(0.1 m) − T2 sin φ(0.25 m) = 0

SOLVE:

(1) ⇒ a = g cos 30◦ = 8.5 m/s2

152

7.2 Rotation About a Fixed Point

153

7.2.1

GOAL: Determine the areal density of a piece of a two-part structure

GIVEN: r*G = (4.739 * ) cm; ρA = 1 kg/m2 and dimensions are specified.

ı + 3.544 *

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

SOLVE:

r*A = (3 *

ı + 3*

) cm (2)

r*B = (11 *

ı + 5.5 *

) cm (3)

(1), (2), (3) ⇒ [(36 cm2 )ρA + (10 cm2 )ρB ] r*G = (36 cm2 )ρA (3 *

ı + 3*

) cm+

ı + 5.5 *

) cm

*

ı: 170.6 kg/m2 + 47.4ρB = 108 kg/m2 + 110ρB ⇒ ρB = 1.00 kg/m2

*

: 127.6 kg/m2 + 35.4ρB = 108 kg/m2 + 55ρB ⇒ ρB = 1.00 kg/m2

ρB = 1.00 kg/m2

154

7.2.2

GOAL: Find the mass moment of inertia about the x-axis in terms of both ρ and m.

GIVEN: Dimensions of the thin rod and mass per unit length ρ.

DRAW:

Z

2

IO = rdm dm

/O

body

where the infinitesimal mass can be expressed in terms of the density as dm = ρdz. Thus, we can

use Z

2

IO = ρ rdm dz (1)

/O

body

SOLVE:

3 3

L 1 3 4 L 1 27 3 1 7

Z

4

2

(1) ⇒ IO = ρ z dz = ρ z = ρ L + L3 = ρL3

− 41 L 3 − 14 L 3 64 64 48

Since we are given linear density, the mass of the rod is m = ρL. Therefore, IO in terms of density

or in terms of mass is

7 3 7 2

IO = 48 ρL = 48 mL

155

7.2.3

GOAL: Determine Iyy and Iy0y0 for the illustrated body. Express your answer in terms of both

the density ρ and total mass m.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

a) From Appendix B, we know that the moment of inertia of a sphere about a central axis of

rotation is:

2

I = mR2

5

4πR3

The volume of a sphere is 3 and so:

m= and I = =

3 (5)(3) 15

Finding I yy is equivalent to finding I for half of a sphere.

5 5

Iyy = 21 ( 8ρπR 4ρπR

15 ) = ( 15 )

The mass of our half sphere is:

1 4ρπR3 2ρπR3

mh = ( )=

2 3 3

Thus:

2m R2

Iyy = h

5

This is the same formula as for a complete sphere. Note, however, that the mass for Iyy (mh ) is

one half the mass of the full sphere.

b) To find Iy0y0 , we can use the parallel axis theorem.

We know that

Iy0y0 = IG + (R − rG )2 mh (1)

2

Iyy = IG + rG mh (2)

If we find rG , we can then calculate Iy0y0 using our answer to a) and (1),(2).

ZR

*

mr G = z(ρπx2 dz) *

(3)

0

156

x2 = R2 − z 2 (4)

ZR

(3)→(4)⇒

*

m r G = ρπ z(R2 − z 2 )dz *

0

ρπR4 *

m r*G = (5)

4

The volume is:

1 4 3 2

V = πR = πR3 (half a sphere)

2 3 3

The mass is:

2

m = ρV = πR3 ρ (6)

3

2ρπR3 * ρπR4 *

(5),(6)⇒ rG =

3 4

3R *

r*G = 8 (7)

2

Iyy = IG + rG mh

2mh R2 9mh R2

2

3R

= IG + mh = IG +

5 8 64

2 9

IG = − mh R2 (8)

5 64

(8)→(1)⇒ Iy0y0 = IG + (R − rG )2 mh

2

2 9 5R

Iy0y0 = − mh R2 + mh

5 64 8

Iy0y0 = ( 25 + 25

64 − 9

64 )mh R

2 = 13

20 mh R

2

2πρR3

Using mh = 3 gives:

13 5

Iy0y0 = 30 ρπR

157

7.2.4

GOAL: Find mass moment of inertia about the x axis.

GIVEN: Geometry of thin cylindrical shell.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: Z

Center of mass: m r*G/ = r*dm/ dm (1)

O O

Z

Moment of inertia about O: IO = r*dm/ · r*dm/ dm (2)

O O

Parallel Axis Theorem: IO = IG + m r*O/ · r*O/ (3)

G G

SOLVE:

ı + y*

= r cos θ *

ı + r sin θ *

(4)

O

Z π

* 2

(1), (4) ⇒ ρπrh r G/O = ρhr (cos θ *

ı + sin θ *

) dθ (5)

0

r π 2r

(5) ⇒ r*G/ = (sin θ − cos θ) = (6)

O π 0 π

* *

First find Ix0 x0 using: m = πρrh, dm = ρrdzdθ, r*dm/ = y *

+ z k = r sin θ *

+ zk (7)

x0

(2), (7) ⇒

158

Rπ h/2

r2 sin2 θ + z 2 dz dθ

R * *

R

Ix0 x0 = rdm/ ·rdm/ dm = ρr

x0 x0 0 −h/2

π/2

R h/2

r2 sin2 θ + z 2 dz dθ

R

= (2)(2)ρr

0 0

h/2

π/2

R z3

= 4ρr r2 sin2 θz + dθ

3

0

0

π/2

R π/2 hr2 sin2 θ h3

hr 3

θ

rh3

= 4ρr + dθ = 4ρr − sin 2θ + 24 θ

0 2 24 2 2

0

ρπhr 3 ρπh3 r mr2 mh2

= 2 + 12 = 2 + 12

mr2 mh2 4mr2

I¯xx = Ix0 x0 − m r*G/ · r*G/ = + −

O O 2 12 π2

mh2

I¯xx = mr2 1

2 − 4

π2

+ 12

159

7.2.5

GOAL: Find r, IO , and IC for a quarter-circle of thin rod

GIVEN: Rod’s shape

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Z

IO = |rdm/O |2 dm

Body

SOLVE:

Z π/2 h i

IO = rρ (r sin θ)2 + (r − r cos θ)2 dθ

0

Z π/2

= r3 ρ (2 − 2 cos θ) dθ = r3 ρ (2θ − 2 sin θ) |π/2

0

0

I0 = ρr3 (π − 2)

Z π/2 Z π/2

2 3

IC = (rdθρ) r = r ρ dθ

0 0

ρr 3 π

IC = 2

IG + mr̄2 = IC (1)

IG + mL21 = IO (2)

(1) → (2) ⇒ m r̄2 − L21 = IC − IO

" " 2 2 ##

ρπr 2 r̄ r̄ ρr3 π

r̄ − r− √ + √ = − ρr3 (π − 2)

2 2 2 2

Let r̄ = rd

ρπr3 h 2 √ i

−π

d − d2 + 2d − 1 = ρr3 +2

2 2

√

2 2

d=

π

160

√

2 2

r̄ = rd = π r

161

7.2.6

GOAL: Find mass moment of inertia in terms of ρ and r2 .

GIVEN: Geometry of uniform disk with circular hole.

DRAW:

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: Z

Moment of inertia about arbitrary IO = r*dm/ · r*dm/ dm (1)

point O: O O

Parallel Axis Theorem: IO = IG + m r*O/ · r*O/ (2)

G G

SOLVE:

ρπr4

Z r Z r

(1) ⇒ I¯ of arbitrary ¯

Idisk = * *

(τ e r · τ e r ) ρ(2πτ )dτ = 2ρπ τ 3 dτ = (3)

uniform circular disk∗ : 0 0 2

∗ note – τ is a dummy variable of integration that takes the place of r in the expression for dm.

ρπr14

(3), (2) ⇒ Ihole/ : Ihole/ = + mhole (2r1 )2 (4)

O O 2

!

ρπr2 4 ρπr14

Itotal/ = Isolid disk/ − Ihole/ ⇒ Itotal/ = − + ρπr1 2 (2r1 )2 (5)

O O O O 2 2

256ρπr2 4 9ρπr2 4 4

(4), r1 = r42 ⇒ Itotal = − = 247ρπr

512

2

512 512

162

7.2.7

GOAL:

Express the mass moments of inertia of the annular pipe in terms of ρ and m, the total mass of

the pipe.

GIVEN: Pipe’s dimensions.

DRAW:

SOLVE:

The easy way to solve the problem is to solve for the mass moment of inertia for a solid cylinder of

radius r2 and for a solid cylinder of radius r1 and then subtract Ir1 from Ir2 .

Ihoop = 2πrdrρh r2

| {z }

dm

r1 r1 πρhr14

Z Z

3

Ir1 = 2πρhr dr = 2πρh r3 dr =

0 0 2

πρhr24

Ir2 =

2

πρh

r24 − r14

IAA = Ir2 − Ir1 = 2

Mass of a cylinder with radius r2 : πr22 hρ

Mass of the annulus: πρh r22 − r12 = m

r22 − r12 r22 + r12 =

IAA = 2 2

IBB = IAA + mr22

or

(3r22 +r12 )m

IBB = 2

163

7.2.8

GOAL:

Express the mass moments of inertia of the annular pipe in terms of ρ and m, the total mass of

the pipe.

GIVEN: Figure’s dimensions.

DRAW:

SOLVE: 2

For a rigid rod, we know that I about its mass center is mL

12 and the parallel axis theorem lets us

find I about some other point. We’ll solve this problem by breaking the body into three rigid rods

and determining their mass moments of inertia about G.

m

z }| {

ρ(2L1 )(2L1 )2 2

I¯AC = = ρL31

12 3

ρ(2L1 )(2L1 )2 2

I¯BE = = ρL31

12 3

ρ(2L1 )(2L1 )2 2

I¯DF = = ρL31

12 3

2 8

IACabout G

= I¯AC + md2 = ρL31 + 2L1 ρL21 = ρL31

3 3

2 8

IDFabout G

= I¯DF + md2 = ρL31 + 2L1 ρL21 = ρL31

3 3

8 2

I¯ = IACabout G

+ IDFabout G

+ I¯BE = 2 ρL31 + ρL31

3 3

I¯ = 18 3

3 ρL1 = 6ρL31 = mL21

IA = IG + m 2L21 = 3mL21

164

7.2.9

GOAL: Find IB for an irregular body.

GIVEN: Body’s dimensional mass and IA .

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

IA = IG + md2

SOLVE:

IA = IG + md21

√

140 kg·m2 = IG + (20 kg)( 2 m)2

IG = 100 kg·m2

IB = 200 kg·m2

165

7.2.10

GOAL: Find IO

GIVEN: Shape of body and linear density.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

We’ll treat the body as being composed of two pieces: the H-shaped piece at the bottom (piece 1)

and the vertical piece projecting from it (piece 2).

IO = IG + md2

SOLVE:

IG = = = =

12 3 3 3

2ρb3 2ρb3

IO = + m(c2 + a2 ) = + 2bρ(c2 + a2 ) (1)

3 3

1

2ρa3

IO = + (2aρ)c2 (2)

3

2

1 1

IO = mc2 = ρc3 (3)

3 3

2ρb3 2ρa3 1

(1), (2), (3) ⇒ IO = 2[ + 2bρ(c2 + a2 )] + + 2aρc2 + ρc3

3 3 3

!

4(0.3)3 2(0.5)3 1

IO = (5 kg/m) + 4(0.3)(1.82 + 0.52 ) + + 2(0.5)(1.8)2 + (1.8)3 m3

3 3 3

IO = 47.5 kg·m2

166

7.2.11

GOAL: Find the center of mass and IA of the equilateral triangle

GIVEN: outer edge linear density ρed = 4 kg/m, inner areal density ρin = 25 kg/m2 , L = 0.8 m

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Parallel axis theorem IA = IG + mtotal (rG/ )2

A

and we’ll break the overall calculation into two pieces, that of the inner

triangle

and the outer edges

IG = IG + 3 IG

in ed

where in refers to the inside triangular area and ed refers to the surrounding edges.

SOLVE:

The center of mass will be the center of the equilateral triangle due to symmetry. Each of the

medians intersect at this point, which will be directly above O.√ √

1 ◦ 3 3

r̄ = rG/ = L tan 30 = L= (0.8 m) = 0.231 m

O 2 6 6

√

r̄ = 63 L = 0.231 m above O

From Appendix B we know that the mass moment of inertia of a right triangle is given by

m 2 2

a +b

18

where a and b are the two shortest sides of the triangle.

√ !2

3L mL2

2

m L

IG = + =

T 18 2 2 18

167

mL2

2

L

IG = IG + m =

T 6 12

The mass of our triangular piece is given by √ !

1 L 3L

m= ρ

2 2 2

and thus our total mass moment of inertia about G (remembering to double our current value in

order to account for two triangular pieces) is

√ √

3ρL4 3(25 kg/ m2 )(0.8 m)4

IG = = = 0.370 kg· m2

in 48 48

Now consider the contribution from the edges. First consider the edge BC with midpoint O. From

a previous example the mass moment of inertia about a bar’s center was found to be 12 1 L3 ρ .

ed

Find IG using the parallel axis theorem. Keep in mind that the center of mass of the 1 edge is

ed

at point O and point G is the center of mass of the entire

body.

IG = IO + med (r̄)2

ed ed

√ !2

1 3 1

IG = L3 ρed + (Lρed ) L = L3 ρed

ed 12 6 6

1

= (0.8 m)3 (4 kg/m) = 0.341 kg· m2

IG

6 ed

Now combine the mass moment of inertia of the inside with the mass moment of inertia of 3 edges.

IG = IG + 3 IG = 0.370 kg· m2 + 3 0.341 kg· m2 = 1.394 kg· m2

in ed

mtotal = min + 3 Lρed = 6.928 kg + 3 [(0.8 m)(4 kg/m)] = 16.528 kg

√ √ √ √

L 3 L 3 L 3 (0.8 m) 3

rG/ = h − r̄ = − = = = 0.462 m

A 2 6 3 3

IA = IG + mtotal (rG/ )2 = 1.394 kg· m2 + (16.528 kg)(0.462 m)2 = 4.920 kg· m2

A

IA = 4.920 kg· m2

168

7.2.12

GOAL: Find the in-plane rotational inertia, IA .

GIVEN: Dimensions, ρ = 12 kg/m2 , L = 1.6 m

DRAW:

IA = IG + mrG2

/A

To find the rotational inertia about the center of mass, we can find the rotational inertias of the

triangle and the ring separately because their centers of mass are

at the same point. This gives us

IA = IG + IG + mrG2 (1)

tri ring /A

We can employ the parallel axis theorem again to help us find IG by choosing a point B, located

tri

on the midpoint of a leg of the triangle,

IG = IB − mtri rG2 (2)

tri tri /B

SOLVE: To find the rotational inertia of the triangle about B, we can use symmetry to integrate

just over half of the triangle. The integration limits for the x axis are simply 0 to L2 , but for the y

√ √

axis we must integrate between 0 and 23 L − 3x.

√ √ √ √

L 3 L 3

L− 3x L− 3x

1

Z Z Z

2 2

2 2 2 2

IB =2 (x + y )ρdydx = 2ρ x y + y 3

2

dx

tri 0 0 0 3 0

√ √ !3

L

3 2 √ 3 1 3 √

Z

2

= 2ρ Lx − 3x + L − 3x dx

0 2 3 2

√ √ √ !4 L2

3 3 3 4 1 3 √

= 2ρ Lx − x − √ L− 3x

6 4 12 3 2

0

√

3 4

ρL ⇒ IB =

tri 24

The distance from B to G can be found just from the geometry of the triangle, knowing that G

lies at the intersection of the medians. Thus, √

1 ◦ 3

rG/ = L tan 30 = L

B 2 6

√

The mass of the triangle is mtri = ρAtri , where the area is Atri = 21 L( 21 L tan 60◦ ) = 3 2

4 L . Therefore,

169

√

3 2

the mass is mtri = 4 ρL .

√ √ ! √ !2 √

3 4 3 2 3 3 4

(2) ⇒ IG = ρL − ρL L = ρL

tri 24 4 6 48

The rotational inertia of the ring about point G can be found using polar coordinates such that

dm

√

= ρdr(rdθ). The

√

inner radius of√the ring is equal to the difference between the

√ height of triangle,

3 3 3 3

2 L, and rG/ = 6 L. Thus, ri

= 3 L. The outer radius is ro = ri

+ 0.4L = 3 + 0.4 L.

B √

3

Z 2π Z ro Z 2π Z

3

+0.4 L

IG = r2 ρdr(rdθ) = ρ r3 drdθ

√

ring 0 r 0 3

L

i 3

√ √ !4 √ !4 Z

2π 3 +0.4 L

1 4 3 1 4 3 3 2π

Z

=ρ r √ dθ = ρL + 0.4 − dθ

0 4 3

L 3

4 3 3 0

⇒ IG = 1.259ρL4

ring

We still need the last term in (1): mrG2 , where m is the total mass and rG/ is the same as the

/A A

√

3

inner radius of the ring, ri = 3 L. The total mass m is

√ √ !2 √ !2 √

3 2 3 3 3 2

m = mring +mtri = ρπ ro2 − ri2 + ρL = + 0.4 − 2

ρπL + ρL

4 3 3 4

⇒ m = 2.387ρL2

Therefore,

√ √ !2

3 4 3

(1) ⇒ IA = ρL +1.259ρL4 + 2.387ρL2 L = (2.090)(12 kg/m2 )(1.6 m)4 = 164.4 kg· m2

48 3

IA = 164.4 kg· m2

170

7.2.13

GOAL: Find IO of the illustrated body.

GIVEN: Body’s shape, constituent parts and densities.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

We’ll construct the mass moment of inertia through use of the parallel axis theorem and the known

(from Appendix B) formulas for the mass moments of inertia of a right triangle and a solid semi-

circle.

SOLVE:

First we’ll find the mass moment of inertia of the triangular piece.

m m L2

IG = t L2 + L2 = t

18 9

" 2 #

L2

L mt L2

IO = IG + mt + = (1)

3 3 3

mt = = = 1.25 kg (2)

2 2

(1.25 kg)(0.5 m)2

(1), (2) ⇒ IO = = 0.104 kg· m2

3

Now consider the solid semi-circle.

msc L2

IA =

4

√ !2

2 2L

IG + msc = IA

3π

msc L2 8msc L2

IG = −

4 9π 2

m L2 9π 2 − 32

IG = sc

36π 2

√ !2

L 2 2L

IO = IG + msc √ + (3)

2 3π

2

√m

0.5

π 2

msc = (4 kg/ m2 ) = 0.785 kg (4)

2

171

Both these components added together give us our total mass moment of inertia about O:

IO = 0.335 kg· m2

172

7.2.14

GOAL: Find I of the illustrated body about the z axis.

GIVEN: Body’s shape

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

IA = IG + m(rA/ )2 (1)

G

Z

|r|2 dm (2)

Body

SOLVE:

First we’ll find the mass moment of inertia of the bar about G: !

1 r 2

I = m (4r)2 +

AB 12 AB 2

This problem is interesting because there are three bodies, not just one. However, it’s stated that

the two wheels are freely pivoted at their center. Thus they won’t rotate as the bar rotates about

G - they behave exactly like point masses at A and B. Hence their contribution to the moment of

inertia is simply md2 , where m is the individual mass and d is the distance to G:

2 !

1 r

IG = m (4r)2 + + 4mA r2 + 4mB r2

12 AB 2

1 65

IG = (1.8 kg)(0.2 m)2 + 8(0.2 m)2 (0.8 kg)

12 4

IG = 0.3535 kg· m2

173

7.2.15

GOAL: Find I about the z axis of a paraboloid of revolution. For y = 0 we’re given that z = ax2 .

GIVEN: Body’s shape.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: We’ll form the overall mass moment of inertia by using the

formula for the mass moment of inertia of a disk, mr2 /2 and stacking the disks one on top of

another to fill in the solid body.

SOLVE:

The volume of a disk with radius x and height dz is given by

dm x2 ρπx4 ρπz 2

dI = dz = dz = dz (1)

2 2 2a2

z

Z0

ρπz 2 ρπz03

I= dz = (2)

2a2 6a2

0

z z

Z0 Z0 ρπz02

ρπz

m= ρπx2 dz = dz =

a 2a

0 0

mz

I = 3a0

174

7.2.16

GOAL: Find I about the z axis of a paraboloid of revolution. For y = 0 we’re given that z = ax2 .

GIVEN: Body’s shape.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: We’ll use the general equation for a body’s mass moment of

inertia:

Z

|r|2 dm

Body

From the figure it can be seen that the actual mass in a band of height dz is greater than dz

multiplied by the band’s perimeter because of the slant of the shell’s surface.

z = ax2 ⇒ dz = 2ax dx

SOLVE:

The area of the band found by rotating the illustrated differential piece of the shell around the z

axis is given by

1

dA = 2πx dz (1)

sin θ

dz dz dz

sin θ = p = q = √ (2)

(dx)2

+ (dz)2 dz

dx 1 + ( dx )2 dx 1 + 4a2 x2

√ !

dx 1 + 4a2 x2 p

(1), (2) dA = 2πx dz = 2πx 1 + 4a2 x2 dx (3)

dz

p

(3) ⇒ dm = 2πρx 1 + 4a2 x2 dx (4)

Now that we have dm we can find I

x

Z0 p

(4) ⇒ I= 2πρx3 1 + 4a2 x2 dx

0

q

z

where x0 = a. This is a bit easier if we re-express it in terms of z, using z = ax2 and dz = 2ax dx:

z

Z0 √

ρπ

(4) ⇒ I= 2 z 1 + 4azdz

a

0

2 (1+4az)3/2

Integrating by parts, with u = z, dv = (1 + 4az)1/2 , du = dz and v = 3 4a gives us

175

z

z Z0

0 3/2

ρπ z (1 + 4az)

I = 2 (1 + 4az)3/2 − dz

a 6a 6a

0 0

" #

ρπ z0 (1 + 4az0 )3/2 (1 + 4az0 )5/2

I= 2 −

a 6a 60a2

I=

60a4

Expressing the result in terms of the mass m means we need to find m (not surprisingly).

z z

R0 R0

m = 2πρ sinx θ dz = 2ρπ x(1 + 4a2 x2 )1/2 dx

0 x0

0

(1 + 4a2 x2 )3/2

= 2ρπ = ρπ2 (1 + 4az0 )3/2

12a2

6a

0

m(6az0 − 1)

I=

10a2

176

7.2.17

GOAL: Find Izz and Iyy of the washer.

GIVEN: areal density ρ

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

For Izz we need the distance from each differential mass element to the z-axis. This is represented

by r

Z Z 2π Z r Z 2π Z r

2 2 2 2

Izz = r dm = r ρ(dr)(rdθ) = ρ r3 drdθ

body 0 r 0 r

1 1

For Iyy we need the distance from each differential mass element to the y-axis. This is represented

by r cos θ

Z Z 2π Z r Z 2π Z r

2 2 2 2 2

Iyy = (r cos θ) dm = r (cos θ) ρ(dr)(rdθ) = ρ r3 (cos θ)2 drdθ

body 0 r 0 r

1 1

m

ρ= (1)

π(r22 − r12 )

SOLVE:

First find Izz " #r

2π r 2π r4 2

Z Z Z

2 3

Izz = ρ r drdθ = ρ dθ

0 r

1

0 4 r

1

ρh 4 i Z 2π 2πρ r24 − r14

Izz = r2 − r14 dθ = (2)

4 0 4

177

" #

m

4 4

2π r − r

π(r22 − r12 ) 2 1 2m r24 − r14

(1) → (2) ⇒ Izz = =

4 4 r22 − r12

2m r24 − r14

Izz = 2πρ

4 4

4 r2 − r1 = 4 r 2 − r 2

2 1

" #r

2π r 2π r4 2

Z Z Z

2 3 2

Iyy = ρ r (cos θ) drdθ = ρ (cos θ)2 dθ

0 r

1

0 4 r

1

2π 2π

ρh iZ ρh i θ sin(2θ)

Iyy = r24 − r14 (cos θ)2 dθ = r24 − r14 +

4 0 4 2 4 0

πρ h i

Iyy = r24 − r14 (3)

4

" #

m

4 4

π r − r

π(r22 − r12 ) 2 1 m r24 − r14

(1) → (3) ⇒ Iyy = =

4 4 r22 − r12

m r24 − r14

Iyy = πρ

4 4

4 r2 − r1 = 4 r 2 − r 2

2 1

Note that Izz and Iyy differ by a factor of 2. It is easier to rotate the washer about the y-axis than

the z-axis.

178

7.2.18

GOAL: Find Izz of the sold half-sphere.

GIVEN: density ρ, mass m, radius R. (For clarity, R will represent the radius of the half-sphere

and r will be used for the variable of radial integration.)

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Cylindrical coordinates will be used to find Izz . The distance from each differential mass element

to the z-axis is r. The z limits of integration

√ are simply z = 0 to z = R, however the r limits of

integration are r = 0 to the curve r = R − z 2

2

√ √

Z Z 2π Z RZ R2 −z 2 Z 2π Z RZ R2 −z 2

2 2

Izz = r dm = r ρ(dr)(dz)(rdθ) = ρ r3 drdzdθ

body 0 0 0 0 0 0

2 2

V = πR3 , m = ρV = ρ πR3

3 3

3m

ρ= (1)

2πR3

SOLVE:

√ " #√R2 −z 2

Z 2π Z RZ R2 −z 2 Z 2π Z R r4

Izz = ρ r3 drdzdθ = ρ dzdθ

0 0 0 0 0 4 0

ρ

Z 2π Z Rh i2 ρ

Z 2π Z Rh i

2 2

Izz = R −z dzdθ = R4 − 2R2 z 2 + z 4 dzdθ

4 0 0 4 0 0

" #R " #Z

ρ 2π 2R2 z 3 z 5 ρ 2R5 R5 2π

Z

4

Izz = zR − + dθ = R5 − + dθ

4 0 3 5 0

4 3 5 0

ρ 8 5 4

Izz = R [2π] = ρπR5 (2)

4 15 15

4 3m 2

(1) → (2) ⇒ Izz = 3

πR5 = mR2

15 2πR 5

4

Izz = 15 ρπR

5 = 25 mR2

179

7.2.19

GOAL: Find Ix0 x0 , the mass moment of inertia about the x0 axis of the half-spherical shell.

GIVEN: areal density ρ, mass m, radius R. (For clarity, R will represent the radius of the

half-sphere and r will be used to represent cylindrical coordinates)

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

First find the center of mass. Then find Ixx , the mass moment of inertia about the x axis. Use the

parallel axis theorem to find I¯xx , the mass moment of inertia through the center of mass, parallel

to the x axis. Use the parallel axis theorem again to find Ix0 x0 , the mass moment of inertia about

the x0 axis. Note that all of these lines are parallel.

Z Z 2π Z R Z 2π Z R

center of mass mr̄ = rdm = ρz(dz)(Rdθ) = ρ zR dzdθ

body 0 0 0 0

Z 2 Z 2π Z R 2

Ixx = rdm dm = rdm ρ(dz)(Rdθ)

/x−axis /x−axis

body 0 0

A = 2πR2 , m = ρA = ρ2πR2

m

ρ= (1)

2πR2

2

parallel axis thm: Ixx = I¯xx + mr̄2 , Ix0 x0 = I¯xx + m rx0

/G

SOLVE:

Find the center of mass " #

2π R 2π z 2 R R2 2π

Z Z Z Z

mr̄ = ρ zR dzdθ = Rρ dθ = Rρ dθ = πρR3

0 0 0 2 0 2 0

h i R

mr̄ = πρR3 = ρ2πR2 r̄ ⇒ r̄ =

2

Determine rdm in order to find Ixx . Each differential element is a distance of z away from

/x−axis

of h away from the x, z plane.

p

rdm = z 2 + h2 (2)

/x−axis

Now find h. Consider cylindrical coordinates (r, θ, z). The distance of a point described by cylin-

drical coordinates to the x, z plane is given by h = r sin θ. Consider describing the surface in

cylindrical coordinates.

180

2

h

2 2 2 2

z +r = R ⇒ z + = R2 ⇒ z 2 (sin θ)2 +h2 = R2 (sin θ)2

sin θ

p

h2 = R2 − z 2 (sin θ)2 ⇒ h = sin θ R2 − z 2 (3)

q q

(3) → (2) ⇒ rdm = z 2 + (sin θ)2 (R2 − z 2 ) = z 2 (1 − (sin θ)2 ) + R2 (sin θ)2

/x−axis

With rdm out of the way, find Ixx .

/x−axis

Z 2π Z R 2 Z 2π Z R

Ixx = rdm ρ(dz)(Rdθ) = Rρ z 2 1 − (sin θ)2 + R2 (sin θ)2 dzdθ

/x−axis

0 0 0 0

" #

2π z3 R

Z

Ixx = Rρ 1 − (sin θ)2 + zR2 (sin θ)2 dθ

0 3 0

" #

2π R3

Z

Ixx = Rρ 1 − (sin θ)2 + R3 (sin θ)2 dθ

0 3

R4 2π R4 2π

Z h i Z h i

Ixx = ρ 1 − (sin θ)2 + 3(sin θ)2 dθ = ρ 1 + 2(sin θ)2 dθ

3 0 3 0

R4 1 4π 4

2π

Ixx = ρ 2θ − sin 2θ = ρR

3 2 0 3

Now use the parallel axis theorem to find I¯xx , the mass moment of inertia through the center of

mass. 2

¯ 2 4π 4 ¯ R

Ixx = Ixx + mr̄ ⇒ ρR = Ixx + m (4)

3 2

4π m 2

¯xx + mR 2 1 5

(1) → (4) ⇒ R 4

= I ⇒ I¯xx = mR2 − mR2 = mR2

3 2πR2 4 3 4 12

With I¯xx known, use the parallel axis theorem again to find Ix0 x0

2 2

5 R 5 1 2

Ix0 x0 = I¯xx + m rx0 = mR2 + m = mR2 + mR2 = mR2

/G 12 2 12 4 3

2 2h i 4π 4

Ix0 x0 = mR2 = ρ2πR2 R2 = ρR

3 3 3

4π

Ix0 x0 = 3 ρR

4 = 23 mR2

Note that Ix0 x0 has the same value as Ixx . This means that it is equally as difficult to spin the shell

around the x axis as compared to the x0 axis.

181

7.2.20

GOAL: Find I xx of a sphere (mass moment of inertia about the x axis).

GIVEN: Body’s shape

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: We’ll use the general equation for a body’s mass moment of

inertia:

Z

|r|2 dm (1)

Body

and break the body into a stack of disks. The figure√shows a cross section of the body (x = 0) and

a representative disk, with thickness dy and radius R2 − x2 .

SOLVE:

From symmetry, we need only calculate the mass moment of inertia from x = 0 to x = R and then

double the result to obtain the complete answer.

R Rπρ(R2 − x2 )2

I xx = 2 2 dx

0

RR

R4 − 2R2 x2 + x4 dx

= πρ

0

8ρπR5

= 15

ZR 4πR3

V =2 π R2 − x2 dx =

3

0

4πρR3

and thus the mass is m = 3 .

Factoring this from our mass moment of inertia gives us

2mR2

I xx = 5

182

7.2.21

GOAL: Find I about the z axis.

GIVEN: Body’s shape

DRAW:

IA = IG + m(rA/ )2 (1)

G

Z

|r|2 dm (2)

Body

SOLVE:

Let the height of the pyramid by given by h. The figure shows a cross-section of the pyramid,

taken parallel to the xy plane, at a height z. I’ve also drawn in a complementary triangle to form

a square (dashed lines). The point O indicates the origin of the x,y,z axes.

dIA of the square is, from Appendix B,

2

dm 2 ft − z

12 2

2

ρ(2 ft − z)4 dz ρ(2 ft − z)4 dz

or, using dm = ρ 2 ft2− z

dz, 96 . One half of this is 192 . This gives us

dIA of the triangle.

Now use

G

G 3 2

Thus we have

ρ(2 ft − z)4 dz 1

2 2

2 ft − z 2 ft − z 1

dIG = − ρ dz

192 2 2 2 18

ρ(2 ft − z)4

dIG = dz

288

Now find dIO :

G

ρ(2 ft − z)4

2 2 2

1 2 ft − z 2 ft − z 2

= dz + ρ dz √

288 2 2 2 3 2

183

ρ(2 ft − z)4

= dz

96

Z 2ft Z 2ft

ρ(2 ft − z)4 ρ

IO = dz = [16 ft4 − 32 ft3 z + 24 ft2 z 2 − 8 ftz 3 + z 4 ]dz

96 96

0 0

" # 2ft

ρ z5 ρ 5

= 16 ft4 z − 16 ft3 z 2 + 8 ft2 z 3 − 2 ftz 4 + = ft

96 5 15

0

ρ 5

IO = ft

15

The volume of the pyramid is given by

1 ft·1 ft·2 ft 1

Vol = = ft3

6 3

and thus the mass is m = ρ

3 ft

3

ρ

3( ft3 )

IO = 315 ft2 = m

5 ft

2

184

7.2.22

GOAL: Find IO

GIVEN: Body’s shape

DRAW:

m 2

IA = h1 + h22

12

m 2

IB = L + N2

18

SOLVE:

m = ρ (2ab)

2

a

IO |R = IG + m

1 2

" #

b 2 a2

2

m a

= (2b)2 + a2 + m =m +

12 2 3 3

2ρab 2

IO |R = b + a2

3

2

c 2 b

IO |T = IG + m 3 + 3

2

m

(2b)2 + c2 + m 2 2

= 18 9 c +b

m ρbc

2b2 + c2 = 2 2

= 6 6 2b + c

2

IO = IO |R + IO |T = ρ 2ab b 2 + a2 + bc b2 + c

, m 2a b2 + a2 + c b2 + c2

IO = 6a

3 2 2

185

7.2.23

GOAL: Determine a body’s mass moment of inertia in terms of ρ and m.

GIVEN: Body’s dimensions.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

We’ll project our body into four pieces: 1, 2, 3 and 4, as shown, calculate their respective mass

moments of inertia about O and then sum the components.

From Appendix B we find that the mass moment of inertia of a rectangle (with sides of length a

and b) about its mass center is given by

m 2

IG = a + b2

12

m

a2 + b2 .

and a right triangle’s mass moment of inertia about its mass center is given by 18

SOLVE:

The mass moment of inertia about O for right triangle

" 1 is given by # !

2 2

m1 2 2

2b a b2 a2

IO1 = a + b + m1 + = m1 +

18 3 3 2 6

The mass moment of inertia about O for rectangle 2 is given by ! !

m b2 c2 b2 c2

IO2 = 2 b2 + c2 + m2 + = m2 +

12 4 4 3 3

Adding these two components and expressing the individual masses in terms of the dimensions and

areal density gives us ! ! !

ρab b2 a2 b2 c2 ab2 a3 b2 c c3

IO1 + IO2 = + + ρbc + = ρb + + +

2 2 6 3 3 4 12 3 3

From symmetry we can simply double this to determine the overall mass moment of inertia:

2

IO = 2ρb ab a3 b2 c c3

4 + 12 + 3 + 3

To find the answer in terms of the overall mass we need to first calculate the mass:

m = ρ(ab + 2bc) = ρb(a + 2c)

Factoring this out from our IO gives us

IO = a 2m ab2 + a3 + b2 c + c3

+ 2c 4 12 3 3

186

7.2.24

GOAL: Determine a body’s mass moment of inertia in terms of ρ and m.

GIVEN: Body’s shape.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

We’ll decompose the body into 3 pieces, an inner rectangle and two outer half-discs.

The mass moment of inertia of a rectangle about its mass center and a half-disc about B are

m 2 mr2

IG = a + b2 , IB =

12 2

respectively.

4r

The distance from B to the half-disc’s mass center is given by h = 3π .

SOLVE:

The mass of the total system is found from !

2 πr2 ρ

m = 2(2r) ρ + 2 = ρr2 (8 + π)

2

The mass moment of inertia about O for the rectangle is given by

m h i 40r4 ρ

IO = rect (4r)2 + (2r)2 =

12 3

In order to find the mass moment of inertia of the half-disc about O we first need to determine

what it is about the half-disc’s mass center and then apply the parallel axis

! theorem.

9π 2 − 32

IB = IG + mh2 ⇒ IG = mr2

18π 2

To find the mass moment of inertia about O we take IG and add md2 where d is the distance from

the half-disc’s mass center to O:

(6π + 4)r 2

! !

2 2

2 9π − 32 2 81π + 96π

IO = mr +m = mr

18π 2 3π 18π 2

Adding together our mass moment of inertia for the rectangular piece and two half-discs (and using

the appropriate mass for each half-disc) gives us !

40r4 ρ 2

2 2 81π + 96π

IO = + (ρπr )r

3 18π 2

81π+336

IO = r4 ρ 18

2

IO = 8mr

81π+336

+π 18

187

7.2.25

GOAL: Find I about x axis for a solid body.

GIVEN: Body’s geometry

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

SOLVE:

As shown above, we’ll solve by subtracting the mass moment of inertia of a hemisphere from that

of a disk to obtain the final result.

From Appendix B, the mass moment of inertia of the solid disk about the x axis is given by

!

(3r)2 (2r)2 43 2

IDisk =m + = mr

4 3 12

and the mass moment of inertia of a hemisphere about the x axis is

2

IHemi = mr2

5

The mass of the disk is π(3r)2 (2r)ρ = 18πr3 ρ

The mass of the hemisphere is 23 πr3 ρ

Thus IBody = 43 2 3 2 2 2 3

12 r (18)πr ρ − 5 r ( 3 )πr ρ

2 − 15

The mass of the body is given by

2 52

mBody = 18πr ρ − πr3 ρ = πr3 ρ

3

3 3

2 − 15 52

188

7.2.26

GOAL: Find I¯ for a chainring

GIVEN: Chainring’s geometry. a = 2.5 cm, ρ = 8.6×10−4 kg/ cm2

DRAW:

SOLVE: This problem can be broken into several pieces. The figure shows a quarter of the

chainring. The easiest part is the outer ring, for which we have

1 πρ h 4 4

i π 8.6×10−4 kg/cm2 h i

1

IO = (4a) − (3a) = (10 cm)4 − (7.5 cm)4

4 2 8

= 2.309 kg cm2

We then have a pie-shaped piece, OBC, for which we have

2 πρ (3a)4 (19.47)

IO = = 0.2312 kg cm2

2 (360)

Which used θ = 19.47◦ , found from

Triangle OAE:

1

mOAE = (5 cm) (1.768 cm) 8.6×10−4 kg/cm2 = 0.0038 kg

2

0.0038 kg

I OAE = (5 cm)2 + (1.768 cm)2 = 0.00594 kg cm2

18

3

IO = 0.00594 kg cm2 + (0.0038 kg) (3.3̄ cm)2 + (0.589 cm)2

= 0.0495 kg cm2

189

1

mCDE = (2.071 cm) (2.5 cm − 1.768 cm) 8.6×10−4 kg/cm2 = 0.000652 kg

2

0.000652 kg

I CDE = (2.071 cm)2 + (2.5 cm − 1.768 cm)2 = 0.000175 kg cm2

18

4

IO = 0.000175 kg cm2 + (0.000652 kg) (5.69 cm)2 + (2.26 cm)2

= 0.0246 kg cm2

h h ii

1 2 3 4

IO = 4 IO + 2 IO − IO + IO

IO = 10.885 kg cm2

190

7.2.27

GOAL: Determine a body’s mass moment of inertia in terms of ρ and m.

GIVEN: Body’s shape.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

We’ll project our body onto two planes - the x, z plane and the x, y plane. We’ll need the formulas

for the mass moment of inertia of a rectangular body as well as that for a rod.

The mass moment of inertia of a rectangle (with sides of length a and b) about its mass center is

given by

m 2

IG = a + b2

12

1

The mass moment of inertia of a rod of length L is 12 mL2 about its mass center and 13 mL2 either

of its ends.

SOLVE:

x, z plane:

Consider Figure (a). The mass of the body is found from the rectangular piece and the rod:

mrect = 2ρab, mrod = ρbc

m = ρb(2a + c)

The mass moment of inertia about O for the rectangle"pieces are given by

2 2 # 2 2

!

2ρab 2

a b a b

IOrect = a + b2 + 2ρab + = 2ρab +

12 2 2 3 3

The mass moment of inertia about O for the bar is given by

b2 ρb3 c

IO = ρbc =

bar 3 3

The total mass moment of inertia is the sum of these two components:

191

IO = 2ρb 3 2 b2 c

3 a + ab + 2

2

IO = 2m a3 + ab2 + b2c

3(2a + c)

x, y plane:

Consider Figure (b). The mass of the body is found from the rectangular piece and the two rods:

mrect = ρbc, mrod = ρab

The mass moment of inertia about O for" the bars is given# by !

2

b2 b 2 b2 2b2 2

IO = ρab + + c + ρab = ρab +c

bars 12 2 3 3

The mass moment of inertia about O for the rectangle

! "isgiven by

2 2 2 2 # " #

b c b c b2 c2

IOrect = ρbc + + ρbc + = ρbc +

12 12 2 2 3 3

The total mass moment of inertia is the sum of these two components:

2

IO = ρb 2ab 2 cb2 c3

3 +c + 3 + 3

IO = m 2ab2 + c2 + cb2 + c3

(2a + c) 3 3 3

192

7.2.28

GOAL: Find the mass moment of inertia of a body about the x axis.

GIVEN: Body’s shape and orientation.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

The figure shows the body projected onto the y, z axes. We’ll find the mass moment of inertia

about the mass center, O, using the formula for the mass moment of inertia of a rod along with

the parallel axis theorem.

SOLVE: " 2 2 # !

c2 c b c2 b2

I1 = ρac + + = ρac +

12 2 2 3 4

!

b2

I2 = ρab

12

!

c2 b2

I3 = ρac +

3 4

h i

2c3 cb2 b3

IO = I1 + I2 + I3 = aρ 3 + 2 + 12

193

7.2.29

GOAL: Determine the reaction forces at the hinge of a bar.

GIVEN: Bar is released from rest at an angle of θ = 55 degrees.

DRAW:

* *

ı

e*r sin θ − cos θ

e*θ cos θ sin θ

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

mgL sin θ mL2

Moment balance about O: − = θ̈ (1)

2 3

L * L 2*

* * *

Force balance: −R1 e r + R2 e θ − mg = m θ̈ e − θ̇ e r

2 θ 2

mL 2

e*r : −R1 + mg cos θ = − θ̇ (2)

2

mL

e*θ : R2 − mg sin θ = θ̈ (3)

2

SOLVE:

(1) ⇒ R1 = mg cos θ

R1 = 0.574mg

L

(2), (3) ⇒ R2 = mg sin θ − m θ̈ (4)

2

3

(1), (4) ⇒ R2 = mg sin θ − mg sin θ

4

R2 = 0.205mg

194

7.2.30

GOAL: Find a*A and moment, M .

GIVEN: Shape of body. Reaction force is (0.944 *

ı + 3.46 *

) N. r = 2.0 m, ρ = 0.5 kg/ m.

DRAW:

* *

ı

*

b1 cos θ sin θ

*

b2 − sin θ cos θ

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:√

From Appendix B we have r = 2 π2r

r * r * 2 * 2 *

r*G/ = r − √ b2 + √ b1 = r b1 + r 1 − b2

O 2 2 π π

2 *˙ 2 *˙ 2 * 2

* *

vG = r b1 + r 1 − b 2 = rθ̇ b 2 − r 1 − θ̇ b 1

π π π π

2 2 2 2 2

* *

*

aG = b 1 −r 1 − θ̈ − rθ̇2 + b 2 rθ̈ − r 1 − θ̇

π π π π

* *

For our problem θ = 0 and thus *

ı, *

aligns with b 1 , b 2

π 2 2 2 2 2 *

Force balance: * *

T1 ı + T2 = rρ −r 1 − θ̈ − rθ̇2 *

ı + rθ̈ − r 1 − θ̇

2 π π π π

π 2 2

*

ı: T1 = r 2 ρ − 1− θ̈ − θ̇2 (1)

2 π π

π 2 2 2

*

: T2 = r 2 ρ θ̈ − 1 − θ̇ (2)

2 π π

We now need IO

ρπ 3

IC = mr2 = r (3)

2

IG + mr2 = IC (4)

ρπr3 ρπr 8

(4) ⇒ IG = IC − mr2 = − r2

2 2 π2

2 !

1 2

IG = r3 ρπ −

2 π

195

IO = IG + m|rG/ |2

O

2 ! !

1 2 ρπr 4r2 4 4

3 2

= r ρπ − + 2 +r 1− + 2

2 π 2 π π π

IO = ρr3 (π − 2) (5)

SOLVE: We’re given the reaction forces on the pivot and know that the forces on the bar are equal

and opposite. Thus

T1 = −0.944 N (7)

T2 = −3.46 N (8)

Solving (1) and (2) for θ̈ and θ̇2 (using (7), (8)) gives us

(9) → (6) ⇒ M = −5.03 N·m

* * *

a*A = θ̈ k × (2 *

ı + 2*

) m + θ̇ k × (θ̇ k × (2 *

ı + 2*

) m)

= (−2θ̇2 − 2θ̈) *

ı + (2θ̈ − 2θ̇2 ) *

m/s2

a*A = −4.40 *

196

7.2.31

GOAL:

Find the reaction forces acting at O in terms of θ̇, M , m and L.

GIVEN: System configuration.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Force balance:

L

*

b1 : R = ma1 = −mθ̇2 (1)

2

*

L

b2 : T = ma2 = m θ̈ (2)

2

Moment balance:

* * L mL2

b3 : b3 : M −T = θ̈ (3)

2 12

SOLVE:

2

(1) ⇒ R = − mL

2

θ̇

L 12 L

(2) → (3) ⇒ T =m M −T

2 mL2 2

6M

T (1 + 3) =

L

3M

T = 2L

197

7.2.32

GOAL:

Determine the effect that a transmission has on the ultimate angular acceleration of a main gear.

GIVEN: System configurations.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

For Case (a) we have a single moment balance:

For Case (b) we have two moment balances, one for each gear:

Fr

−F r2 = I¯2 θ̈2 ⇒ θ̈2 = − ¯ 2 (2)

I2

M − I¯1 θ̈1

M − F r1 = I¯1 θ̈1 ⇒ F = (3)

r1

ASSUME: The gears for Case (b) roll without slip on each other and thus we have

r2

θ̈1 = − θ̈ (4)

r1 2

SOLVE:

M

(1) ⇒ θ̈2 = I¯

(5)

2

!

r2

−M

r1

(2), (3), (4) ⇒ θ̈2 = (6)

I¯1

" ! !#

r2

I¯2 1 +

r1 I¯

2

Comparing (5) and (6) shows that applying the moment to a smaller gear (r1 < r2 ) will increase the

angular acceleration of the primary gear (Gear 2) by the ratio r2 /r1 . If I¯1 = 0 then (6) simplifies

to !

r2

M

r1

θ̈2 = −

I¯ 2

which shows the effect clearly.

198

7.2.33

GOAL: Determine Sam’s vertical acceleration after grabbing hold of the cable.

GIVEN:

2 m of cable was hanging free of the spool at the time Sam grabbed it. The spool has a mass of 80

kg and a radius of 1.1 m. The cable has a linear density of 0.5 kg/m. The axle/spool interface has

enough friction that 11 N·m of torque is needed to start the spool turning. Sam’s mass is 75 kg.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Moment balance about O, spool: −11N·m + T1 r = Isp θ̈ (1)

ASSUME:

−rθ̈ = ÿ (4)

SOLVE:

Isp = + r2 mcable = + (1.1 m)2 (0.5 kg/ m)(50 m) = 78.65 kg· m2 (5)

2 2

−78.65 kg· m2

(1), (4), (5) ⇒ −11N·m + T1 (1.1 m) = ÿ = −(71.5 kg· m)ÿ (7)

1.1 m

(2) ⇒ T1 − T2 − (9.81 m/s2 )(1 kg) = (1 kg)ÿ (8)

71.5 kg· m

(7) ⇒ T1 = − ÿ + 10 N = −(65 kg)ÿ + 10 N (10)

1.1 m

(8), (10) ⇒ −(65 kg)ÿ + 10 N − T2 − 9.81 m/s2 = ÿ =⇒ (66 kg)ÿ = −T2 + 0.19 N (11)

199

7.2.34

GOAL: Find the time for a reel of rope to unwind.

GIVEN: Reel geometry and mass distribution.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

X Fr

Moment balance about O: MO = IO α ⇒ F r = IO α ⇒ α = (1)

IO

SOLVE:

Part (a):

The mass moment of inertia about the pivot is given by

IO = 4me2

Integrating gives us

Fr

ω(t) = t + C1

IO

Fr 2

θ(t) = t + C1 t + C0

2IO

Applying the initial conditions: ω(0) = 0, θ(0) = 0 allows us to evaluate the constants of integration

C1 = 0, C0 = 0 and therefore we have

Fr 2

θ(t) = t

2IO

L

To fully unwind rope, rθ(tf ) = L ⇒ θ(tf ) = r

L Fr 2

= t

r 2IO f

r r

2IO L 8mLe2

tf = =

F r2 F r2

Part (b):

How does the unreel time change if r is doubled? Let r0 = 2r

s s s s

2IO L 8mLe2 8mLe2 1 8mLe2

t0f = = = =

F r02 F r02 4F r 2 2 F r2

t0f = 12 tf

Part(c):

The effect of doubling radius is significant. It halves the required time to fully unreel.

200

7.2.35

GOAL:

Find the “sweet spot” of a uniform rod.

GIVEN: System configuration.

DRAW:

ASSUME: To minimize the magnitude of the reaction force, we’ll look for a solution for which it

is equal to zero.

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

2

L L

Force balance:

* *

−T e r + (S − F ) e θ = −m θ̇2 e*r + m θ̈ e*θ

2 2

2 2

L L

*

er : T =m θ̇2 = m ω2 (1)

2 2

L

e*θ : S − F = m θ̈ (2)

2

SOLVE: !

mLr

(2), (3) ⇒ S=F 1− (4)

2IO

Setting S to zero gives us

2IO

r= (5)

mL

mL2

For a uniform bar IO = 3 . Using this in (5) yields

2L

r= 3

201

7.2.36

GOAL: Compare tension in two configurations of suspended masses after support cut

GIVEN: System configurations.

DRAW:

X * * L

MG = I θ̈ k ⇒ T1 = I θ̈ (1)

2

Balance of forces X*

F = ma*G ⇒ (T1 − 2mg) *

= m(a1 *

ı + a2 *

) (2)

SOLVE:

CASE A: Moment of inertia I = 0. From (1), we get

L

T1 =0 ⇒ T1 = 0 (3)

2

1

CASE B: Moment of inertia I = 2 mL2 . From (1), we get

L T2 L/2 T2

T2 = I θ̈ ⇒ θ̈ = 2

= (4)

2 mL /2 mL

* L* L

a*G = a*D + α

*

× r*G/ = 0 + θ̈ k × (− ı ) = − θ̈ *

(5)

D 2 2

direction, (2) gives

L

T2 − 2mg = −m θ̈ (6)

2

1 4mg

T2 − 2mg = − T2 ⇒ T2 = (7)

2 3

Hence, a center placement causes smaller tension.

202

7.2.37

GOAL: Show that IA 6= IB + m|rA/ |2

B

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

IA = IG + mrA2

/G

and

IB = IG + mrB2

/G

SOLVE:

Rewriting these yields

IG = IA − mrA2 (1)

/G

IG = IB − mrB2 (2)

/G

/G /G

/G /G

The only way (3) can be the same as IA = IB + mrA2 would be for

/B

/B /G /G

or

/B /G /G

As one can see, (4) will not hold unless the angle θ is 90◦ . Being that this will not hold true in

general, we conclude that IA is not always (or even usually) equal to IB + mrA2 .

/B

203

7.2.38

*

GOAL: Find α for disk

GIVEN: Frictional moment, dimensions and masses

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

For the static case we have T1 = (12 kg)g, T2 = (7 kg)g

A static moment balance about O gives us

= 2.94 N·m

2.94 N·m exceeds the static frictional moment of 2.0 N·m and thus the pulley disk will rotate.

Moment balance about O : IO θ̈ = T1 r1 − T2 r2 − 2 N·m (1)

For the 12 kg mass we have

Force balance: (12 kg)ẍ1 = (12 kg)g − T1 (2)

For the 7 kg mass we have

Force balance: (7 kg)ẍ2 = (7 kg)g − T2 (3)

ASSUME:

Our system constraints are

204

ẍ1 = r1 θ̈ = (0.2 m)θ̈ (4)

SOLVE:

(4) → (2) ⇒ T1 = (12 kg)(9.81 m/s2 ) − (12 kg)(0.2 m)θ̈

(6), (7) → (1) ⇒ (0.4 kg·m2 )θ̈ = (0.2 m)[118 N − (2.4 kg·m)θ̈]−

θ̈ = 0.625 rad/s2

*

*

α = 0.625k rad/s2

205

7.2.39

GOAL: Find angular acceleration of a pivoted plate and reaction forces at the pivot.

GIVEN: Body’s dimensions and orientation. m = 0.12 kg.

DRAW:

* *

ı

*

b1 sin θ − cos θ

*

b2 cos θ sin θ

where θ = tan−1 43

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Due to the pin at O and the fact that ω = 0 initially,

*

a*G = rG/ α b 2 (1)

O

*

Force balance: F*

+ S*

ı − mg *

= mrG/ α b 2

O

*

ı: S = mrG/ α cos θ (3)

O

*

: F − mg = mrG/ α sin θ (4)

O

m

IG = ((0.06 m)2 + (0.08 m)2 ) = 1.00 × 10−4 kg·m2

12

SOLVE:

−(0.04 m)(0.12 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )

(2), (5) ⇒ α= = −118 rad/s2 (6)

4 × 10−4 kg·m2

*

*

α = −118k rad/s2

(4), (6) ⇒ F = (0.12 kg)(9.81 m/s2 ) + (0.12 kg)(0.05 m)(−118 rad/s2 )(0.8) = 0.612 N

206

7.2.40

GOAL: Find the tension in the rope.

GIVEN: Length and weight of log and configuration of rope.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

√ √

e= 2L 1 − sin θ (1)

ė = −vD (2)

Lθ̇ cos θ

(1),(2)⇒ vD = p

2(1 − sin θ)

p

v* 2(1 − sin θ)

θ̇ = D (3)

L cos θ

θ̇2

(3)⇒ θ̈ = θ̇2 tan θ − cos θ(1 − sin θ)−1 (4)

2

SOLVE:

At θ = 0, θ̇ = 0.3143 rad/s, θ̈ = −0.04938 rad/s2

−mgL T

Moment balance at A: IA θ̈ = +√ L

2 2

slg (−0.04938 rad/s2 ) = − + √

32.2 3 2 2

T = 280 lb

207

7.2.41

GOAL: Find maximum deceleration that allows box to remain on roof.

GIVEN: Dimensions of box and force produced by tape.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Force balance: −N2 *

ı + (N1 − mB g − 2df0 l) *

= mB ẍ *

ı

*

ı : −N2 = mB ẍ (1)

*

: N1 − mB g − 2df0 l = 0 (2)

SOLVE:

90 lb

mB = = 2.80 slg

32.2 ft/s2

d 28

(3), (4) ⇒ N2 = −N1 = −(129 lb) = −95.2 lb (5)

h 38

N2 95.2 lb

(5) → (1) ⇒ ẍ = − = = 34.1 ft/s2

mB 2.80 slg

208

7.2.42

GOAL: Find the equilibrium speed ω for a flyball governor.

GIVEN: Dimensions and masses of the device.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

We’ll just analyze one half of the problem, using half of the spring force. Links 1 and 2 are massless

and so there can’t be any unbalanced forces or moments.

Moment balance, Link 1: −(N2 + Fsp ) sin θ + N1 cos θ = 0 ⇒ N1 = (N2 + Fsp ) tan θ (1)

ı = (N2 − mg) *

− (N1 + N3 ) *

ı

− (N2 + 2Fsp ) tan θ *

ı

*

ı : −ω 2 (d + L sin θ)m = −(N2 + 2Fsp ) tan θ (3)

*

: N2 = mg (4)

The spring’s change in length is 2L(1 − cos θ) and we’re only using one half of the total force for

each half of the flyball governor. Thus we have

1

Fsp = [2kL(1 − cos θ)] (5)

2

SOLVE:

209

[mg + 2kL(1 − cos θ)] tan θ

(4), (5) → (3) ⇒ ω2 =

m(d + L sin θ)

r

[mg + 2kL(1 − cos θ)] tan θ

ω=

m(d + L sin θ)

210

7.2.43

GOAL: Find the exact equation for θ̈(t) as well as the equation for θ̈(t) under the assumption

that the center of mass of the reel, plus the rope still wrapped around it, is located at the reel’s

geometric center. Determine if the rope leave the reel at the same time for both cases. Use a

computer simulation to answer this question.

GIVEN: System geometry.

(a) Exact analysis

DRAW:

* *

ı

e*r − cos θ − sin θ

e*θ sin θ − cos θ

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

For an exact analysis, whenever a partial turn of rope exists on the reel there will be an unbalanced

moment due to it. Thus we need to find the center of mass of a partial turn of rope and then

calculate the moment it supplies to the general equations of motion.

The length of a partial wrap of rope is given by

(2π − θ)r

where θ is the amount the reel has rotated. The mass of this partial wrap is given by

(2π − θ)rρ

Z 2π

r(2π − θ)ρr = ρr2 dθ e*r

θ

211

(sin θ *

ı + (1 − cos θ) *

)r

r= (1)

2π − θ

The rotational inertia of the reel plus rope about its center of rotation is given by

We can now sum moments and forces. Note that the forces through the reel’s axis of rotation have

been neglected since they will not contribute to the angular acceleration.

X * * *

Moment balance: MO = T r k + r̄ e*r × (2π − θ)ρrg(− *

) = IO θ̈ k

* r(sin θ *

ı + (1 − cos θ) *

)×*

*

T r k − (2π − θ)ρrg = IO θ̈ k

(2π − θ)

* * *

T r k − ρr2 g sin θ k = IO θ̈ k

SOLVE:

(4)→(3)⇒ (Ireel + Lρr2 )θ̈ = ρr2 g(θ − sin θ)

ρr 2 g(θ−sin θ)

θ̈ = (I +Lρr2 )

reel

212

(b) Approximate analysis

DRAW:

SOLVE:

Moment balance, reel: (Ireel + (L − rθ)ρr2 )θ̈ = rT (5)

Force balance, unwrapped

ρy ÿ = ρyg − T (6)

rope:

kinematics: y = rθ (7)

r 2 ρgθ

(5), (6), (7) ⇒ θ̈ = (I +r 2 Lρ)

reel

(c):

No, the rope doesn’t completely unreel at the same time. Performing a numerical integration for

both cases produces an unrolling time of t = 11.40 s for the approximate case whereas the exact

analysis requires 11.75 s to finish unrolling.

213

7.2.44

GOAL: Determine how many full rotations a wheel will undergo before coming to rest.

GIVEN: Coefficient of friction between wheel and wall/floor is µ and the initial rotational speed

is ω0 .

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Force balance: (N1 − µN2 ) *

ı + (N2 + µN1 − mg) *

=0

*

ı : N1 − µN2 = 0 (1)

*

: N2 + µN1 − mg = 0 (2)

mr2

Moment balance about G −µN2 r − µN1 r = θ̈ (3)

2

SOLVE:

2µg(1 + µ)

(1), (2), (3) ⇒ θ̈ = −

r(1 + µ2 )

θ̈ is a constant angular deceleration and thus we can easily integrate: θ̇ = ω0 − θ̈t. After a time t

we’ll have

2µg(1 + µ)

θ̇ = ω0 − t

r(1 + µ2 )

ω0 r(1 + µ2 )

θ̇ = 0 ⇒ t=

2µg(1 + µ)

θ = θ0 + ω0 t + 21 θ̈t2

ω 2 r(1 + µ2 ) ω02 r(1 + µ2 )

= ω0 t + 12 θ̈t2 = 0 −

2µg(1 + µ) 4µg(1 + µ)

2 2

ω0 r(1 + µ )

=

4µg(1 + µ)

The number of turns η is given by

θ

η=

2π

and thus the number of turns is

ω02 r(1 + µ2 )

η=

8πµg(1 + µ)

214

7.2.45

GOAL: Find the time need for a rotating disk to come to rest.

GIVEN: Geometry of disk and ground interface conditions.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Consider a differential ring with thickness dr and at radius r from the center of the disk. Let the

mass density/unit area of the disk be ρ.

Friction force acting on the element: dF = µ(ρ2πrdr)g

SOLVE:

ZR

(µρ2πg)R3

(1)⇒ T = (µρ2πg)r2 dr = (2)

3

0

T

θ̈ = (3)

I

2µρπgR3 /3 4µg

(2)→(3)⇒ θ̈ = 1 2 )R2

= (4)

2 (ρπR 3R

This angular acceleration is constant and thus we have

0 = ω0 − θ̈t∗ (5)

3ω R

(4)→(5)⇒ t∗ = 0

4µg

215

7.2.46

GOAL: Determine the force applied to a car due to its wheel’s imbalance eccentricity when trav-

eling at a given speed.

GIVEN: Mass of wheel, imbalance eccentricity, wheel geometry and speed of car.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS

*

To determine the wheel’s rotation speed we’ll use v*O = ω k × r*G/ and to evaluate the imbalanced

O

mass’s acceleration we’ll use the centripetal acceleration eω 2 .

SOLVE:

v (60 mph)(5280 ft/mile)(12 in/ft)

ω= = = 81.2 rad/s

r (13 in)(3600 s/hr)

aG = eω 2 *

* 40 lb 0.05 in 2 *

F = ma*G = *

2 12 in/ft ω ı = 34.2 ı lb

32.2 ft/s

216

7.3 General Motion

217

7.3.1

GOAL: Find rocket’s equations of motion.

GIVEN: Each engine is 0.5 m from rocket’s centerline, rocket has mass m and mass moment of

inertia I

ASSUME: Rocket is a uniform bar of length L

DRAW:

* *

ı

*

b1 cos θ sin θ

*

b2 − sin θ cos θ

FORMULATE EQUATIONS/SOLVE:

1 1

I θ̈ = N2 ( ) − N1 ( )

2 2

I θ̈ = 21 (N2 − N1 )

*

(N1 + N2 ) b 2 = m(ẍ *

ı + ÿ *

)

*

ı: mẍ = −(N1 + N2 ) sin θ

*

: mÿ = −mg + (N1 + N2 ) cos θ

218

7.3.2

GOAL: Find the angular acceleration of a cylinder.

GIVEN: System geometry and parameters.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

C serves as a point of rotation. From rest θ̇ = 0.

ASSUME: ÿ = −rθ̈ (1)

SOLVE:

(1),(2),(3)⇒ I θ̈ = −r(mg − 0.2k − mÿ) = −r(mg − 0.2k + mrθ̈)

0.2k − mg

θ̈ = 3

2 mr

θ̈ = = −37.2 rad/s2

1.5(15 lb)(0.5 ft)

32.2 ft/s2

219

7.3.3

GOAL: Find the speed of a disk’s mass center after dropping for 0.339 s.

GIVEN: Disk’s mass and rotational inertia properties, spring constant and initial conditions.

ASSUME: There are no lateral forces and therefore the disk will move vertically. Thus the point

at which the string leaves the unrolling disk will have zero velocity.

DRAW:

means that

ÿ = −rθ̈ (1)

A force balance in the *

direction gives us

I θ̈ = −T r (3)

mg − ky + kL

(1), (2), (3) ⇒ ÿ =

m + I/r2

Numerically integrating ÿ from t = 0 to t = 0.339 s, with initial conditions of y = 0.5 ft, ẏ = 0

yields a final position of y = 1.50 ft (displacement of 1.0 ft) and a speed of

ẏ = 4.633 ft/s

220

7.3.4

GOAL: Find the instantaneous linear and angular acceleration of the body.

*

GIVEN: m = 40 kg, a = 0.8 m, b = 0.5 m, c = 2.2 m, F = 10 *

N

DRAW:

ASSUME: constant linear density, each segment has identical width and depth

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

We’ll apply a moment balance about G and a force balance at G.

The total mass of the system, along with the total segment lengths, gives us the linear density of

the structure.

40 kg

m = ρ(c + 4b + 2a) ⇒ ρ = ⇒ ρ = 6.90 kg/m

(2.2 m + 4(0.5 m) + 2(0.8 m))

SOLVE:

The bulk of this problem involves finding IG but first the center of mass needs to be determined.

The center of mass can be determined by using multiparticle concepts from Chapter 5. Consider

defining axes at the center of the I-bar part of the body. Call this point O. Consider the mass of

bar c and the mass of the I-bar component:

m = ρc = (6.897 kg/m)(2.2 m) = 15.17 kg , m = 40 kg − m = 24.82 kg

bar c I-bar bar c

The center of mass of the entire structure is now found by finding the mass center of two mass

particles, using the mass values just calculated and located at the mass center of the two respective

pieces. The I-bar has a center of mass at point O (the origin) and bar c has a center of mass at

x = 2c . From Chapter 5:

Σmi ri (24.82 kg)(0) + (15.17)(1.1 m)

r̄ = = = 0.417 m

m 40 kg

Thus the center of mass is 0.417 m to the right of Point O along bar c.

We can now find IG . Recall that the mass moment of inertia of a bar about its center is given

1

by 12 ρL3 . This relationship will be applied multiple times in order to find the total mass moment

of inertia for the structure. First we’ll consider the horizontal top piece of the I-bar and label its

center as B.

1

I-bar top: IB = ρ(2b)3

12

Use the parallel axis theorem to find IO due to this segment.

I-bar top:

1 4

IO = ρ(2b)3 + (ρ2b)(a)2 = 2(0.5 m)(6.897 kg/m) (0.5 m)2 + (0.8 m)2 = 4.989 kg· m2

12 12

Now consider the middle of the I-bar with center at point O

1 8

I-bar middle: IO = ρ(2a)3 = (6.897 kg/m)(0.8 m)3 = 2.354 kg· m2

12 12

221

The total mass moment of inertia of the I-bar about O is the sum of the mass moment of inertia

of the I-bar middle plus twice the massmomentof inertia of the I-bar top.

IO = IO + 2 IO = (2.354 + 2(4.989)) kg· m2 = 12.33 kg· m2

I-bar: I-bar middle top

Now use the parallel axis theorem to find the mass moment of the I-bar about point G which is

the center of mass of the entire body. Note that O is the center of mass of the I-bar.

I-bar: IG = IO + (m )(r̄)2 = 12.33 kg· m2 + (24.824 kg)(0.417 m)2 = 16.65 kg· m2

I-bar I-bar I-bar

Next we’ll consider bar c. Denote its center point by D.

1 1

bar c: ID = ρ(c)3 = (6.897 kg/m)(2.2 m)3 = 6.120 kg· m2

12 12

Use the parallel axis theorem to find the mass moment of inertia of bar c about point G.

bar c:

c 2

IG = ID + m − r̄ = 6.120 kg· m2 + (15.17) (1.1 m − 0.417 m)2 = 13.192 kg· m2

bar c bar c 2

The total mass moment of inertia of the entire body is the sum of the mass moment of inertia of

bar c and the I-bar.

I = I + I = 13.19 kg· m2 + 16.65 kg· m2 = 29.85 kg· m2

total: G G bar c

G I-bar

M Fa (10 N)(0.8 m)

θ̈ = G = = = 0.268 rad/s2

IG IG 29.85 kg· m2

θ̈ = 0.268 rad/s2

F 10 N

aG = = = 0.25 m/s2

m 40 kg

m/s2

a*G = 0.25 *

222

7.3.5

GOAL: Find the acceleration of mass A with respect to the ground.

GIVEN: Mass and moment of inertia of the pulley, mass of the hanging block and system dimen-

sions.

DRAW:

ẍB = θ̈R (1)

(1)→ (2)⇒ aA = 3aB (3)

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

block A: mA g − T2 = mA ẍA (4)

Summing moments:

SOLVE:

I ẍA

(5)→(6)→(3)⇒ mB g + 3T2 = mB + 2 (7)

R 3

3(m +3m )g

ẍA = B A

(7)→ (4)⇒ m +9m + I2

B A R

223

7.3.6

GOAL: Find time for mechanism to move into a given configuration

GIVEN: Dimensions, masses and applied torque

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

We’ll only need to apply moment balances on the two bodies - their motions will be purely rotational.

Let β be the absolute rotation angle of the satellite body and θ be the rotation of the outer links

with respect to the satellite body.

" #

Ilinks =2 = 8 kg m2

12

(8 kg) (3 m)2

Isat = + 2 (4 kg) (1.5 m)2 = 24 kg m2

12

Moment balance, links: 24 N m = 8 kg m2 β̈ + θ̈ (1)

Moment balance, body: −24 N m = 24 kg m2 β̈ (2)

(2) → (1) ⇒ 24 N m = 8 kg m2 −1 rad/s2 + θ̈

32 rad/s2 = 8θ̈

θ̈ = 4 rad/s2 (3)

(a) The angular acceleration is constant and so

t2 π √

π

θ̈ = rad ⇒ t = 2 s = 0.886 s

2 2

(b) The absolute acceleration of the outer links is β̈ + θ̈ = 3 rad/s2 Thus

t2

3 rad/s2 = 2π rad ⇒ t = 2.05 s

2

224

7.3.7

GOAL: Determine the needed thrust for the legs to lose contact with the ground immediately

upon application of the thrust.

GIVEN: Mass of the lander body is mB , mass of each of the two legs is mL .

ASSUME: The leg/moon interface is frictionless. We’ll approach the solution by first assuming

that the lander takes off and the legs remain in contact with the ground, giving us the kinematic

constraint that the motion of the tip that’ in contact with the ground moves purely horizontally.

There will, of course, be a normal force associated with this condition. We’ll then apply the

condition that the normal force is zero, which will give us the limit case at which the force lifting

the lander is just capable of causing a loss of contact.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Force balance, body: 2P − mB g + T = mB −L sin θθ̈ (1)

L

Force balance, leg, vertical: −P + Q − mL g = mL − sin θθ̈ (2)

2

Moment balance, leg,

about B:

L L L L L

−mL g sin θ + QL sin θ = I θ̈ + mL − sin θ sin θθ̈ + cos θ cos θθ̈

2 2 2 2 2

L L2

−mL g sin θ + QL sin θ = I θ̈ + mL θ̈ cos(2θ) (3)

2 4

SOLVE:

At the moment of liftoff Q goes to zero and so we have

L

−mL g sin θ

θ̈ = 2 (4)

(3) ⇒

!

L2

I + mL cos(2θ)

4

225

L

(2) ⇒: P = −mL g + mL sin θθ̈ (5)

2

T = ! + (m + 2m )g

(4), (5) → (1) ⇒ L2 B L

2 I + mL cos 2θ

4

226

7.3.8

GOAL: Find ā and α in configuration (a) and ā and ω in configuration (b).

GIVEN: The springs have an unstreched length of 0.5 m. L = 2 m, m=2 kg and k = 10 N/m.

DRAW:

* *

ı

*

b1 cos β − sin β

*

b2 sin β cos β

sin θ

β = tan−1

2 + cos θ

Shown above are the applied forces and unit vectors needed to approach the problem. Below, the

system’s configuration initially (State 1) and finally (State 2) are shown.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

(a)

* *

Force balance: T b 1 − T b 1 = ma¯* ⇒ a¯* = 0

The forcing is symmetric and only serves to spin the bar.

Moment balance about G : I¯θ̈ = 2(1 m)T sin (θ − β) (1)

Force due to each spring as a function of θ:

q

T =k (2 + cos θ)2 + sin2 θ − 0.5 m

√

T = 10 5 + 4 cos θ − 0.5 N (2)

(2 kg) (2 m)2 √

(1), (2) ⇒ θ̈ = 2 sin (θ − β) (10 N·m) 5 + 4 cos θ − 0.5

12

√

θ̈ = 30 5 + 4 cos θ − 0.5 sin (θ − β) rad/s2 (3)

227

For θ = 45◦ we have β = 14.64◦

α = θ̈ = 34.84 rad/s2

(b) To numerically integrate the equations of motion we express them in first order form, letting

y1 = θ:

ẏ1 = y2

5 + 4 cos y1 − 0.5 sin y1 − β rad/s2

p

ẏ2 = 30

sin y

with β = tan−1 2 + cos1 y

1

π 3π

Numerically integrating from y1 = 4 to 4 yields

θ = 2.356 rad

θ̇ = 11.40 rad/s

t = 0.282 s

228

7.3.9

GOAL: Find time for a drawbridge to rotate 60◦

GIVEN: Mass and dimensions of drawbridge. m1 = 200 kg, m2 = 150 kg, and L = 4 m.

DRAW:

The drawbridge system, the system’s two FBD=IRD diagrams and a set of coordinate transforma-

tion arrays are shown.

* * * *

ı ı * *

c1 c2

* * *

b1 cos θ sin θ , c1 cos η − sin η , b1 cos(θ + η) sin(θ + η)

* * *

b2 − sin θ cos θ c2 sin η cos η b2 − sin(θ + η) cos(θ + η)

1 − sin θ

−1

η = tan

cos θ

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

L * L *

Force balance, bridge:

* * *

F ı + N − m1 g − T c 1 = m1 *

θ̈ b 2 − θ̇2 b 1

2 2

* * * *

F (cos θ b 1 − sin θ b 2 ) + (N − m1 g)(sin θ b 1 + cos θ b 2 )−

h * *

i L * L *

T cos(θ + η) b 1 − sin(θ + η) b 2 = m1 θ̈ b 2 − m1 θ̇2 b 1

2 2

L

*

b 1: F cos θ + (N − m1 g) sin θ − T cos(θ + η) = −m1 θ̇2 (1)

2

*

L

b 2: −F sin θ + (N − m1 g) cos θ + T sin(θ + η) = m1 θ̈ (2)

2

229

L m L2

Moment balance about O: −m1 g cos θ + T sin(θ + η)L = 1 θ̈ (4)

2 3

SOLVE:

Relate y to θ:

√ q

Conservation of Rope: y = 2L = L2 (1 − sin θ)2 + (L cos θ)2

√ √

y = 2L[1 − 1 − sin θ] (5)

√ 1 1 θ̇L cos θ 1

ẏ = − 2L( )(1 − sin θ)− 2 (− cos θ)θ̇ = √ (1 − sin θ)− 2

2 2

" #

θ̈L cos θ 1 θ̇2 L 1 cos2 θ

ÿ = √ (1 − sin θ)− 2 − √ (1 − sin θ)− 2 sin θ − (1 − sin θ)−1 (6)

2 2 2

(6) → (3) ⇒

" " ##

T θ̈L cos θ 1 θ̇2 L 1 cos2 θ

g− = √ (1 − sin θ)− 2 − √ (1 − sin θ)− 2 sin θ − (1 − sin θ)−1 (7)

m2 2 2 2

0 − cos(θ + η) cos θ sin θ

θ̈

−m1 L sin(θ + η) − sin θ cos θ

2

T

−m1 L2

sin(θ + η)L 0 0 F

3

L√

cos θ (1 − sin θ)− 21 1 0 0

N

2 m2

m1 g sin θ − m1 L 2 θ̇

2

m1 g cos θ

= m1 g L cos θ

2

cos2 θ(1 − sin θ)−1

2

g + θ̇√L (1 − sin θ)− 2 sin θ −

1

2 2

From here we can numerically integrate. Doing so yields

The complete plot of θ as a function of time is shown below.

230

231

7.3.10

GOAL: Find force acting on massless rope to open a door at a fixed rate

GIVEN: Geometry of the system and velocity of the rope past point A

DRAW:

* * * *

ı *

ı *

c1 c2

* * *

b 1 cos θ sin θ , c 1 cos η − sin η , b1 cos(θ + η) sin(θ + η)

* * *

b 2 − sin θ cos θ c 2 sin η cos η b2 − sin(θ + η) cos(θ + η)

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

q √ √

*

|rB/ |= L2 (1 − sin θ)2 + (L cos θ)2 = 2L 1 − sin θ

A

*

d2 | r B |

/A

If the rope is drawn in at a constant speed then dt2

=0

d2 | r*B/ |

" #

θ̈L cos θ θ̇2 L cos2 θ

A

= √ (1 − sin θ)−1/2 − √ (1 − sin θ)−1/2 sin θ − (1 − sin θ)−1

dt2 2 2 2

*

d2 | r B |

/A

Setting dt2

= 0 yields

θ̇2 cos2 θ

θ̈ = (sin θ − (1 − sin θ)−1 ) (1)

cos θ 2

L mL2

Moment balance about O: −mg cos θ + T L sin(θ + η) = θ̈ (2)

2 3

SOLVE:

L mL2 θ̇2 cos2 θ

(1),(2)⇒ −mg cos θ + T L sin(θ + η) = (sin θ − (1 − sin θ)−1 ) (3)

2 3 cos θ 2

−1 1 − sin θ

η = tan (4)

cos θ

d| r*B/ | −θ̇L cos θ

A

= √ (1 − sin θ)−1/2 = −v

dt 2

232

√

2v 1

θ̇ = (1 − sin θ) 2 (5)

L cos θ

mL θ̇2 cos2 θ mg cos θ

(3)⇒ T sin(θ + η) = (sin θ − (1 − sin θ)−1 ) +

3 cos θ 2 2

mL cos2 θ mg cos θ

T = θ̇2 (sin θ − (1 − sin θ)−1 ) + (6)

3 cos θ sin(θ + η) 2 2 sin(θ + η)

We can integrate (5) to find θ, θ̇ and use this in (6) to find T . Doing so yields t = 5.636 s to get

θ = 1.396 rad

233

7.3.11

GOAL: Find governing equations for a coupled body problem.

GIVEN: The cart has mass mc and is acted on by force F . The cart exerts a moment M at point

O. The bar has mass ma and mass moment of inertia I O

DRAW:

* *

ı

*

b1 cos θ sin θ

*

b2 − sin θ cos θ

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: P * *

Moment Balance, Pendulum: MO = IO θ̈ b 3 − mlxa0 b 2

* * * *

−ma gl sin θ b 3 + M b 3 = IO θ̈ b 3 + ma (−l b 2 ) × ẍ *

ı

* * * * * *

−ma gl sin θ b 3 + M b 3 = IO θ̈ b 3 + ma (−l b 2 ) × ẍ( b 1 cos θ − b 2 sin θ)

* *

ı + lθ̈ b 1 + lθ̇2 b 2 )

ı = ma (ẍ *

lum:

*

ı: −N4 = ma (ẍ + lθ̈ cos θ − lθ̇2 sin θ) (1)

+ (f + N4 ) *

ı = mc ẍ *

ı

*

ı: f + N4 = mẍ (2)

234

7.3.12

GOAL: Plot θ versus time for t = 0 to t = 5 s.

GIVEN: mtri = 4 kg, ρ = 2 kg/m, m = 4 kg.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: Because point P is fixed, and is therefore not accelerating, we’ll

choose to write the moment balance about point P :

* *

ΣMP = IP θ̈ k (1)

In order to find the moment of inertia about point P , we can find the moments of inertia of the

triangle, rod, and point mass about P separately, and then add

them up:

IP = IP + IP + IP (2)

tri rod mass

The moment of inertia of the triangle about its center of mass is IG = 91 mtri L2 . The distance

tri

√

2

from its center of mass to P is rG/ = 3 L. Using the parallel axis theorem, the moment of

P tri

inertia of the triangle about P is thus

√ !2

1 2 1

IP = mtri L2 + mtri L = mtri L2 (3)

tri 9 3 3

We know the moment of inertia of the rod about the midpoint of AC is mrod r2 , where the mass

rod

of the rod is mrod = ρπrrod = √12 ρπL. We also know that the distance from the midpoint of AC to

the center of mass of the rod is π2 rrod . With the parallel axis theorem, we can then find the moment

of inertia of the rod about its own center of mass: 2

2 4 ρπL3

2

IG = mrod r − mrod

r = 1− 2 √

rod rod π rod π 2 2

= π2 rrod + √L2 = π+2 √

L

The distance from from the center of mass of the rod to point P is rG/ π 2

.

P rod

Thus, if we again use the parallel axis theorem, we find the moment of inertia of the rod about P

to be

2

ρπL3

4 1 π+2 L

2

IP

= IG

+ mrod rG = 1− 2 √ + √ ρπL √

rod rod /P

rod π 2 2 2 π 2

π+2

⇒ IP = √ ρL3 (4)

rod 2

The moment of inertia of the point mass about point P is simply

235

2

2L

2

IP = m rmass/ =m √ = 2mL2 (5)

mass P 2

1 π+2

(3), (4), (5) → (2) ⇒ IP = mtri L2 + √ ρL3 + 2mL2 (6)

3 2

The net moment applied about point P is due only to gravity acting at the center of mass.

* *

ΣMP = rG e*r × −mnet g *

= −rG mnet g sin θ k

The position of the center of mass relative to point P is

√

1

2 √ π+2 2

rG = mtri rG/ + mrod rG/ + mrmass/ = mtri L+ 2mL+ ρL

mnet P tri P rod P 3 2

√

!

2 π+2 2

ΣMP = − mtri L + 2mL + ρL g sin θ (7)

3 2

√ √

ΣMP − 32 mtri L + 2mL + π+2 2 ρL2 g sin θ

(6), (7) → (1) ⇒ θ̈ = = 1 2 + π+2

IP m L √ ρL3 + 2mL2

3 tri 2

h√

2

√ π+2

i

2 (9.81 m/s2 ) sin θ

3 (4 kg)(1.2 m) + 2(4 kg)(1.2 m) + 2 (2 kg/m)(1.2 m)

θ̈ = − h i

1 2 π+2

√ (2 kg/m)(1.2 m)3 + 2(4 kg)(1.2 m)2

3 (4 kg)(1.2 m) + 2

Integrating this in MATLAB and plotting the results yields

236

7.3.13

GOAL: Solve for the angular acceleration θ̈ of the leg in terms of the given constants.

GIVEN: Leg dimensions and orientation.

DRAW:

*

ı *

e*r e*θ

*

e*r cos θ sin θ b1 cos β sin β

*

e*θ − sin θ cos θ b2 − sin β cos β

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Moment balance, pin P *

MA = I A φ̈ b 3 + r*G/ × ma*A (1)

A: A

ASSUME:

θ − β = φ = Constant (2)

SOLVE:

L* *

(1)⇒ ) = I A φ̈ b 3 + r*G/ × ma*A

b 1 × (−mg *

2 A

L*

(2)⇒ b × (−mg * ) = r*G/ × ma*A

2 1 A

L L

− (cos β e*r + sin β e*θ ) × mg (sin θ e*r + cos θ e*θ ) = (cos β e*r + sin β e*θ )× m rθ̈ e*θ − rθ̇2 e*r

2 2

L * mLr *

−mg cos(θ − β) k = θ̈ cos β + θ̇2 sin β k

2 2

L mLr

−mg cos φ = θ̈ cos β + θ̇2 sin β

2 2

g

−θ̇2 sin(φ − θ) − cos φ

θ̈ = r

cos(φ − θ)

237

7.3.14

GOAL: Determine the time for a bar to reach an orientation of 45◦

GIVEN: m = 2 kg, T = 20 N, L = 1 m.

ASSUME: We’ll initially assume the simplest, no-slip condition. If this solution isn’t supported

then we’ll move to a slip condition.

DRAW:

* *

ı

*

b1 cos θ − sin θ

*

b2 sin θ cos θ

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

L * L *

a*G = a*B + a*G/ = ẍ *

ı + θ̈ b 2 + θ̇2 b 1

B 2 2

L 2 L L L

*

aG *

= ẍ ı + θ̇ cos θ + θ̈ sin θ *

ı+ θ̈ cos θ − θ̇2 sin θ *

(1)

2 2 2 2

Force balance:

* *

L L ı

m(ẍ ı + θ̈(sin θ *

*

) + θ̇2 (cos θ *

ı + cos θ * ı − sin θ *

) = N*

− mg *

+T √ +√ −F*

ı

2 2 2 2

L L T

*

ı: mẍ + m θ̈ sin θ = −m θ̇2 cos θ − F + √ (2)

2 2 2

L L T

*

: m θ̈ cos θ − N = m θ̇2 sin θ − mg + √ (3)

2 2 2

L L TL TL

Moment balance about G: I θ̈ = F sin θ − N cos θ + √ cos θ + √ sin θ

2 2 2 2 2 2

L L TL

I θ̈ = F sin θ − N cos θ + √ (cos θ + sin θ) (4)

2 2 2 2

238

SOLVE: Assume no slip (ẍ = 0) and θ = 0◦ , θ̇ = 0

T T

(2) ⇒ 0 = −F + √ ⇒ F = √ = 14.14 N (5)

2 2

mL T

(3) ⇒ θ̈ = N − mg + √ (6)

2 2

NL TL

(4) ⇒ I θ̈ = − + √ (7)

2 2 2

Thus from (6) we have N = 12.0 N.

the maximum possible force resisting slip is given by

µN = (0.5)(12.0 N) = 6.0 N

Fmax = µN < F = 14.14 N and so the bar will slip.

Our initial assumption is therefore invalid and we have to proceed under the assumption of slip,

i.e. that ẍ 6= 0 and F = µN

L L T

(2) ⇒ mẍ + m θ̈ sin θ + µN = −m θ̇2 cos θ + √ (8)

2 2 2

L T

(3) ⇒ m θ̈ cos θ − N = −mg + √ (9)

2 2

L L TL

(4) ⇒ I θ̈ + N cos θ − sin θµN = √ (cos θ + sin θ) (10)

2 2 2 2

Putting this in matrix form gives us

−m L T

2 √

mL sin θ 2 θ̇ cos θ + 2

m 2 µ ẍ

mL T

mL cos θ 2 √

2 θ̇ sin θ − m1 g + 2

0 −1 θ̈ =

2

L (cos θ − µ sin θ) N

T√L (cos θ + sin θ)

0 I 2

2 2

[A][X] = [F ]

[X] = [A]−1 [F ]

Inverting as indicated allows us to find ẍ, θ̈, and N . Numerically integrating yields t = 0.3617

when θ = π 6 rad.

The plots show θ and the normal force N as functions of time.

239

7.3.15

GOAL: Find reaction force due to an impulse force applied to a rotating, rigid bar

GIVEN: System geometry

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: h i

Force balance: ı − 1.1Lθ̇2 *

m −1.1Lθ̈ * = (F − T ) *

ı −N*

*

ı : −1.1mLθ̈ = F − T (1)

*

: −1.1mLθ̇2 = −N (2)

L L L L mL2

Moment balance: −T ( − ) − F( − ) = θ̈

2 9 2 5 12

mL2 7T L 3F L

θ̈ = − − (3)

12 18 10

SOLVE:

L 7L L 3L

(1),(3)⇒ T( + ) = F( − )

13.2 18 13.2 10

T = −0.483F

Note: N is due to the steady swing of the bat, not the impact.

240

7.3.16

GOAL: A rod is supported by two massless strings up until one string is severed. Find the

acceleration of the rod.

GIVEN: System configuration.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Moment bal-

X

MG = I θ̈

ance:

L mL2

−T2 = θ̈ (1)

2 12

= m(a1 *

ı + a2 *

)

Equating coefficients :

*

ı : a1 = 0 (2)

*

: ma2 = T2 − mg (3)

ASSUME:

The string imposes a vertical translational constraint at A. Since there are no horizontal forces, the

acceleration at A is zero and we can relate the acceleration of the rod’s center of mass and θ̈:

* L L

a* = θ̈ k × *ı = θ̈ * (4)

2 2

SOLVE:

L

(4),(3)⇒ mθ̈ = T2 − mg (5)

2

L L mL2

(1),(5)⇒ −(mg + mθ̈ ) = θ̈

2 2 12

mL2 mgL

θ̈ = −

3 2

3g

θ̈ = − 2L (6)

241

(6)→(4)⇒ a*G = − 3g *

4

242

7.3.17

GOAL: A rod is horizontally suspended by two springs. Solve for the resultant acceleration of the

rod when the right spring breaks.

GIVEN: System configuration.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Because the force in a spring depends upon displacement, the tension on the left hand of the rod

is the same immediately following the break as just before. Thus we need to find T1 from the

equilibrium preceding the break.

The equations before the cut are:

Force balance, *

: 2T1 − mg = 0

mg

T1 = (1)

2

The equations after the cut are:

Force balance: (T1 − mg) *

= m(a1 *

ı + a2 *

)

*

ı : 0 = ma1 (2)

*

: T1 − mg = ma2 (3)

L mL2

Moment balance: −T1 = θ̈ (4)

2 12

SOLVE:

g

(1), (3) ⇒ a2 = − (5)

2

3g

(1), (4) ⇒ θ̈ = − (6)

L

So from (2), (5) and (6) we have:

a*G = − g2 *

m/s2

θ̈ = − 3g

L rad/s

2

243

7.3.18

GOAL: Find the system equations of motion.

GIVEN: System configuration.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS/SOLVE:

We’ll first look at the equilibrium case.

Force Balance, *

: FB + FA − mg = 0 (1)

O O

0.65

Moment Balance about G: 0.35FB − 0.65FA = 0 ⇒ FB = F (2)

O O O 0.35 AO

1

(2) → (1) ⇒ FA [ ] = mg, FA = 0.35mg (3)

O 0.35 O

O

FA and FB are prestress forces in the springs that keep the body horizontal when in equilibrium.

O O

Now we can move on to the dynamic case.

Force Balance, *

: −mg + FA + FB = mÿ

244

7.3.19

GOAL: Find equations of motion for idealized car model.

GIVEN: System configuration, masses and stiffnesses.

DRAW:

direction gives us

L L

−kA (y − θ) − kB (y + θ) = (mA + mB + m)ÿ

2 2

where we’re using sin θ ≈ θ and cos θ ≈ 1. Thus our first equation of motion is

7m

4 ÿ + (kA + kB )y + L2 (kB − kA )θ = 0

To determine our next equation of motion we first need to determine the mass center:

7m * Lm Lm

r G/ = −

4 O 2 4 2 2

1 *

r*G/ = −

mL b 1

14O

The mass moment of inertia about the bar’s mass center G can now be found:

2 2 2

mL2 L m 6L m 8L 11

IG = +m + + = mL2

12 14 2 14 4 14 42

Thus a moment balance about G gives us

11 L 6L L 8L

mL2 θ̈ = kA y − θ − kB y+ θ

42 2 14 2 14

3 3

mL2 θ̈ + 11 (8kB − 6kA )Ly + 11 (4kB + 3kA )L2 θ = 0

245

7.3.20

GOAL: Find the system equations of motion.

GIVEN: System configuration.

DRAW:

L

Force Balance: m(ÿ +θ̈) = −N1 − N2

2

L L

m(ÿ + θ̈) = −k1 (y + θ) − k2 (y + Lθ)

2 4

k1

mÿ + m L

2 θ̈ + (k2 + k1 )y + (k2 + 4 )Lθ = 0

* *

MA = I¯θ̈ k + m r*G/ × a*G

P

Moment Balance about A: A

L* 2mg L L

( ı )×[−(− + k1 (y + θ))] *

+ L*

ı ×[−(k2 (y + Lθ))] *

+ *ı ×(−mg *

)

4 3 4 2

mL2 * L L

= θ̈ k + m( *ı )×(ÿ + θ̈) *

12 2 2

k1 k mL2 L L2

−( + k2 )Ly − ( 1 + k2 )L2 θ = θ̈ + m ÿ + m θ̈

4 16 12 2 4

3 2 4 2 16 2

246

7.3.21

GOAL: Determine response of a board as it slides down a wall.

GIVEN: System configuration and parameter values.

DRAW:

and v*B = vB *

ı . Using

v*A = v*B + ω

*

× r*A/

B

gives us

*

v*A = vB *

ı − θ̇L b 1 = (vB − Lθ̇ cos θ) *

ı − Lθ̇ sin θ *

In the *

ı direction,

vB = Lθ̇ cos θ

In the *

direction,

vA = −Lθ̇ sin θ

The velocity of the center of mass is

L L

v*G = v*B + v*G/ = θ̇ cos θ *

ı − θ̇ sin θ *

B 2 2

and the acceleration of the center of mass

d* L

a*G = v G = [(θ̈ cos θ − θ̇2 sin θ) *

ı − (θ̈ sin θ + θ̇2 cos θ) *

]

dt 2

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: A force balance in the *

ı and *

directions yields

L

N1 = m (θ̈ cos θ − θ̇2 sin θ) (1)

2

and

L

N3 − mg + N2 = m (−θ̈ sin θ − θ̇2 cos θ)

2

Using N2 = µN1 gives

L

N3 − mg + µN1 = m (θ̈ sin θ − θ̇2 cos θ) (2)

2

Balance of moments gives

L

(N3 sin θ − µN1 sin θ − N1 cos θ) = I θ̈ (3)

2

247

SOLVE: Use (1), (2) and (3) to solve for θ̈

1

+ m( L2 )2 (2µ sin2 θ)θ̇2

2 mgL sin θ

θ̈ =

I + m( L2 )2 (1 + µ sin 2θ)

Start from θ(0) = 0.2618 and integrating to θ = 0.7856 yields an elapsed time of t = 0.698 s and

θ̇ = 1.84 rad/s

248

7.3.22

GOAL: Analyze the motion of a board that’s released from rest.

GIVEN: m = 10 kg, L = 2.0 m.

DRAW:

and v*B = vB *

ı.

Using

v*A = v*B + ω

*

× r*A/

B

gives us

*

v*A = vB *

ı − θ̇L b 1 = (vB − Lθ̇ cos θ) *

ı − Lθ̇ sin θ *

In the *

ı direction,

vB = Lθ̇ cos θ

*

In the direction,

vA = −Lθ̇ sin θ

The velocity of the center of mass is

L L

v*G = v*B + v*G/ = θ̇ cos θ *

ı − θ̇ sin θ *

B 2 2

and the acceleration of the center of mass

d* L

a*G = v = [(θ̈ cos θ − θ̇2 sin θ) *

ı − (θ̈ sin θ + θ̇2 cos θ) *

]

dt G 2

A force balance in the *

ı and *

directions yields

L

N1 = m (θ̈ cos θ − θ̇2 sin θ) (1)

2

and

L

N3 − mg + N2 = m (−θ̈ sin θ − θ̇2 cos θ)

2

Using the slip relationship N2 = µN1 gives

L

N3 − mg + µN1 = m (−θ̈ sin θ − θ̇2 cos θ) (2)

2

249

A moment balance about the center of the bar yields

L

(N sin θ − µN1 sin θ − N1 cos θ) = IG θ̈ (3)

2 3

1

+ m( L2 )2 (2µ sin2 θ)θ̇2

2 mgL sin θ

θ̈ =

IG + m( L2 )2 (1 + µ sin 2θ)

2

in which IG = mL 12 .

As you can see from the plots, increasing µ slows the system down, increasing the time needed to

reach θ = 45◦ ,and decreasing the associated angular velocity once an inclination of 45◦ is reached.

250

7.3.23

GOAL: Find the equation of motion of the system.

GIVEN: Layout of the system.

DRAW:

ASSUME: Consider only small angles, thus sin θ ≈ θ and cos θ ≈ 1. We can also neglect gravity

and θ̇2 terms.

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: If we consider moments acting about point O, our moment

balance is

* *

ΣMO = IO θ̈ k (1)

The moment of inertia about point O is

" 2 #

1 1 1

2

IO = IO + IO = (m1 L ) + ρL3 + ρL L = m1 L2 + ρL3 (2)

mass bar 12 2 3

To find the force exerted by each spring, which will allow us to determine the moment it generates

about point O, we need to find the displacement of the bar at point 1 (the end of the bar) and at

point 2 (the midpoint of the bar). With the bar in its horizontal position, the positions of these

points are given by

r*1 = −L *

ı

1

r*2 = − L *

ı

2

If the bar is rotated by a small angle θ, the new positions of these points are

ı − L sin θ *

≈ −L *

ı − Lθ *

1* 1 1

r1 ≈ − L*

r*2 = ı − Lθ *

2 2 2

Taking the difference between the initial and final positions of these points gives us the displace-

ments of each point:

∆ r*1 = −Lθ *

1

∆ r*2 = − Lθ *

2

The force exerted by the spring at point 1 is simply

*

F 1 = −k4 [∆ r*1 + y(t) *

] = −k4 [y(t) − Lθ] *

In order to find the force exerted at point 2, we need to simplify the arrangement of springs. The

two springs that are attached parallel to each other will always experience the same displacement,

251

therefore we can replace them with a single spring with an equivalent spring constant equal to 2k1 .

This equivalent spring is now in series with the spring that has a spring constant of k2 . Because the

magnitude of the force acting between these spring must be equal, we can say that k2 x2 = 2k1 x1 ,

where x1 and x2 are the deflections of each spring. If we were to replace these two springs with a

single equivalent spring, it too would need to exert a force equal to the force acting between the

springs, but would have a total deflection of x1 + x2 :

F = keq (x1 + x2 ) = k2 x2

!

k2 2k1 k2

keq + 1 x2 = k2 x2 ⇒ keq =

2k1 2k1 + k2

Therefore, the force acting at point 2 is due to this spring with a constant of keq and the spring

with a constant of k3 :

!

* * * *

1 2k1 k2

F 2 = −(keq ∆ r 2 + k3 ∆ r 2 ) = Lθ − k3 *

2 2k1 + k2

The net moment acting about point O is

1 *

* *

* *

*

ΣMO = L e r × F 1 + L e × F 2 − kθ θ k

2 r

1

* h *

i * *

* *

ΣMO ≈ L(− ı − θ ) × F 1 + L(− *

ı − θ*

) × F 2 − kθ θ k

2

!

* 1 k1 k2

⇒ ΣMO = − k3 − k4 − L2 θ − kθ θ + k4 Ly(t) (3)

4 4k1 + 2k2

k1 k2

+ 13 ρL3 θ̈ + 1

m1 L2 4 k3 + k4 + 4k1 + 2k2 L2 + kθ θ = k4 Ly(t)

252

7.3.24

GOAL: Find the equations of motion for a spring supported bar.

GIVEN: Bar mass and dimensions and spring constants.

DRAW:

ASSUME: Ignore lateral motion of the bar and restrict the motion to small angles and small

deflections.

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

First we’ll find the center of mass of the bar with respect to C, the bar’s geometric center. The

calculation is simplified by considering only two particles: the lumped mass and the center of mass

of the bar.

L m1 L

r̄ m1 + m2 = m1 ⇒ r̄ = (1)

4 4(m1 + m2 )

Next we’ll determine the forces FA and FB . These are equal to the vertical displacement of the

bar times the relevant spring constant:

L

FA = k1 (y − θ) (2)

2

L

FB = k2 (y + θ) (3)

2

The mass moment of of inertia about the center of the bar (point C) will be needed when summing

moments about this point.

m2 L2

2

L m2 m1

IC = + m1 = + L2 (4)

12 4 12 16

SOLVE:

Sum moments about the center of the bar

* * *

ΣMC = IC θ̈ k + r*G/ ×ma*c = IC θ̈ k − r̄ *

ı × m1 + m2 ÿ *

C

*

k : ΣMC = IC θ̈ − r̄ m1 + m2 ÿ (5)

m1 L

(1), (7) ⇒ ΣMC = IC θ̈ − ÿ (6)

4

m2 m m1 L

2

(6), (10) ⇒ ΣMC = + 1 L θ̈ − ÿ (7)

12 16 4

Now we’ll sum the external momentsabout

C.

L L L L2

ΣMC = FA − FB = k1 − k2 y − k1 + k2 θ (8)

2 2 2 4

253

(7), (12) ⇒

L L2 m2 m m1 L

k1 − k2 y − k1 + k2 θ = + 1 L2 θ̈ − ÿ

2 4 12 16 4

m m1 L

L2 k + k θ + L k − k y = 0

m

2

12 + 161 L2 θ̈ − 4 ÿ + 4 1 2 2 2 1

m L

a*G = ÿ − rθ̈ = ÿ − 1 θ̈

4 m1 + m2

m1 L L L

Force balance: m1 + m2 ÿ − θ̈ = −k1 y − θ − k2 y + θ

4 m1 + m2 2 2

m1 L

L k −k θ =0

m1 + m2 ÿ − 4 θ̈ + k1

+ k2

y + 2 2 1

254

7.3.25

GOAL: Find the equations of motion for the illustrated system.

GIVEN: bar mass m, lumped mass m1 , block mass m2 , geometry, springs k1 , k2 , k3 , k4

DRAW:

ASSUME: Only consider small angles of rotation (sin θ ≈ θ). Neglect θ̇2 terms.

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Find the center of mass of the bar with respect to the left end of the bar. The calculation is

simplified by considering only two particles: the lumped mass and the center of mass of the bar.

L L (2m1 + 3m)L

r̄ m + m1 = m1 +m ⇒ r̄ = (1)

3 2 6(m + m1 )

Consider displacements at A and B

2 2 1

xA = x1 + x2 − x1 = x2 + x1

3 3 3

5 5 1

xB = x1 + x2 − x1 = x2 + x1

6 6 6

Now consider rotation. Since each end will displace a different amount, the new bar will be at an

angle. The left end will displace a value of x1 and the right end will displace an additional x2 − x1 .

x − x1

sin θ ≈ θ ≈ 2

L

and from that comes:

ẍ − ẍ1

θ̈ = 2 (2)

L

Determine forces F1 and F2 . Springs 1 and 4 are in parallel with an equivalent spring constant of

(k1 + k4 )

5 1

F1 = k3 xB = k3 x + x (3)

6 2 6 1

h i 2 1

F2 = k1 + k4 xA − x3 = k1 + k4 x2 + x1 − x3 (4)

3 3

2 1

F3 = k2 xA = k2 x2 + x1 (5)

3 3

The mass moment of of inertia about the center of the bar (point C) will be needed when summing

moments about this point.

255

2

mL2 L m m

IC = + m1 = + 1 L2 (6)

12 6 12 36

SOLVE:

Sum moments about the center of the bar

* * *

L ẍ + ẍ

1 2 *

ΣMC = IC θ̈ k + r*G/ ×ma*c = IC θ̈ k − − r̄ *

ı × m + m1

C 2 2

L

ẍ + ẍ

1 2

*

k : ΣMC = IC θ̈ − − r̄ m + m1 (7)

2 2

ẍ2 − ẍ1 L ẍ + ẍ

1 2

(2), (7) ⇒ ΣMC = IC − − r̄ m + m1 (8)

L 2 2

L

simplify 2 − r̄ :

L L(3m + 3m1 ) (2m1 + 3m)L m1 L

− r̄ = − = (9)

2 2(3m + 3m1 ) 6(m + m1 ) 6(m + m1 )

!

ẍ2 − ẍ1 m1 L ẍ + ẍ

1 2

(8), (9) ⇒ ΣMC = IC − m + m1 (10)

L 6(m + m1 ) 2

m m ẍ2 − ẍ1 m1 L h

i

2

(6), (10) ⇒ ΣMC = + 1 L − ẍ1 + ẍ2

12 36 L 12

mL m1 L m L h

i

1

ΣMC = + ẍ2 − ẍ1 − ẍ1 + ẍ2

12 36 12

mL m1 L mL m1 L

ΣMC = − − ẍ1 + − ẍ2 (11)

12 9 12 18

Now sum moments

L

L

ΣMC = − F2 + F3 − F1 (12)

6 3

2 1

L

5 1

L

ΣMC = − k1 + k2 + k4 x2 + x1 − k1 + k4 x3 − k3 x + x

3 3 6 6 2 6 1 3

L L L

ΣMC = − k1 + k2 + k3 + k4 x1 − 2k1 + 2k2 + 5k3 + 2k4 x2 + k1 + k4 x3 (13)

18 18 6

mL m L mL m L L

− + 1 ẍ1 + − 1 ẍ2 + 18 k1 + k2 + k3 + k4 x1

12 9 12 18

(11), (13) ⇒ L

+ 18 2k1 + 2k2 + 5k3 + 2k4 x2

− L6 k1 + k4 x3 = 0

256

(2m1 + 3m)L ẍ2 − ẍ1

*

aG = ẍ1 + rθ̈ = ẍ1 + L

6(m1 + m)

=

6(m1 + m)

ẍ1 (4m1 + 3m) + ẍ2 (2m1 + 3m)

Force balance: m1 + m = −F1 − F2 − F3

6(m1 + m)

= −k3 x2 + x1 −(k1 +k4 ) x2 + x1 − x3 −k2 x2 + x1

6 6 6 3 3 3 3

+x1 13 k1 + 13 k2 + 16 k3 + 31 k4

6

+x2 23 k1 + 23 k2 + 56 k3 + 32 k4

−x3 k1 + k4 = 0

m2 ẍ3 = F2

= (k1 + k4 ) 23 x2 + 13 x1 − x3

m2 ẍ3 + k1 + k4 x3 − 13 k1 + k4 x1 − 32 k1 + k4 x2 = 0

257

7.3.26

GOAL: Find translational and rotational acceleration of rod.

GIVEN: Dimensions of rod and mass distribution.

DRAW:

ASSUME: Only small angles are considered and thus sin θ ≈ θ, cos θ ≈ 1.

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

1

Moment of inertia of rod: I¯ = mL2 (1)

12

*

Force balance: F = ma*G (2)

* *

Moment balance about G: MG = I¯θ̈ k (3)

L L

Kinematics of rod: yA = y + sin θ, yB = y − sin θ (4)

2 2

2

Parallel Axis Theorem: IO = IG + m rO/ (5)

G

SOLVE:

(2) ⇒ (m1 + 2m2 + ρL)ÿ = FA + FB (6)

L

(4) ⇒ FA = −kyA = −k y − sin θ (7)

4

L

(4) ⇒ FB = −kyB = −k y + sin θ (8)

4

2

1 L 1 1

(1), (5) ⇒ I¯ = Ibar/ + Im1/ + 2Im2/ = (ρL)L2 + 2m2 = ρL3 + m2 L2 (9)

G G G 12 2 12 2

L L

Moments about G ⇒ M G = − FA + FB (10)

4 4

Lk Lθ Lk Lθ kL2

(7),(8), (10), sin θ ≈ θ ⇒ MG = y− − y+ =− θ (11)

4 4 4 4 8

* * MG

(3) ⇒ MG k = I¯θ̈ k ⇒ θ̈ = (12)

I¯

258

2

− kL8 θ

(9), (11), (12) ⇒ θ̈ = 1 3 1 2

(13)

12 ρL + 2 m2 L

259

7.3.27

GOAL: a) Find θ̈ of the bar. b) Numerically integrate the equations of motion and comment on

the results.

GIVEN: System configuration and parameter values.

DRAW:

* *

ı

*

b1 cos θ sin θ

*

b2 − sin θ cos θ

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

* *

ı + Lθ̈ b 2 − Lθ̇2 b 1

a*B = a*A + a*B/A = ẍ *

* *

Force Balance: (N − mg) *

+T* ı + Lθ̈ b 2 − Lθ̇2 b 1 )m

ı = (ẍ *

* * * * * * * *

(N − mg)(sin θ b 1 + cos θ b 2 ) + T (cos θ b 1 − sin θ b 2 ) = (ẍ(cos θ b 1 − sin θ b 2 ) + Lθ̈ b 2 − Lθ̇2 b 1 )m

*

b 1: (N − mg) sin θ + T cos θ = (ẍ cos θ − Lθ̇2 )m (1)

*

b 2: (N − mg) cos θ − T sin θ = (−ẍ sin θ + Lθ̈)m (2)

I¯ = 0 since all the mass is concentrated at one point. Thus, summing moments about m we have

T L sin θ − N L cos θ = 0

N = T tan θ (3)

SOLVE:

(1), (3) ⇒ (T tan θ − mg) sin θ + T cos θ = (ẍ cos θ − Lθ̇2 )m

sin2 θ

T( + cos θ) = (ẍ cos θ − Lθ̇2 )m + mg sin θ

cos θ

260

(4), (5) → (2) ⇒ [sin θ(g sin θ + ẍ cos θ − Lθ̇2 ) − g] cos θ − sin θ cos θ[g sin θ + ẍ cos θ − Lθ̇2 ] =

g cos θ − g sin2 θ cos θ − ẍ cos2 θ sin θ + Lθ̇2 sin θ cos θ

Lθ̈ = ẍ sin θ − g cos θ ⇒ θ̈ = L

g g)

tan θ = ⇒ θ? = tan−1 ( ẍ

ẍ

For ẍ = g, tan θ = 1 ⇒ θ1 = π4 rad and θ2 = 5π4 rad.

Numerically simulate using initial conditions θ(0) = ( π4 +0.01) rad, θ̇ = 0 and θ(0) = ( 5π

4 +0.01) rad,

θ̇(0) = 0.

The first plot shows that perturbations from θ = π4 rad leads to an unstable situation with the

pendulum exponentially swinging away from the equilibrium position. A very different behavior

is exhibited in the second plot, for which the motion starts from θ = 5π 4 rad. This solution seems

stable - a small perturbation simply oscillates about the equilibrium position.

261

262

7.3.28

GOAL: Determine whether the vase will tip or slip first.

GIVEN: µ = 0.7, ω0 = 0.8, L = 2 m, d = 0.04 m, h = 0.09 m

DRAW:

* *

ı

*

b1 cos θ sin θ

*

b2 − sin θ cos θ

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

* * * * * *

Force balance: S b 1 + N b 2 − mg *

= mω0 k ×(ω0 k ×(L b 1 + h b 2 ) (1)

*

b 1: S − mg sin θ = −mLω02 (2)

*

b 2: N − mg cos θ = −mhω02 (3)

SOLVE:

(3) ⇒ N = mg cos θ − mhω02 (4)

Smax = µs N so our slip condition is

ω02 (L − µs h)

sin θ − µs cos θ = g (6)

This takes care of the slip condition. Now we need to consider the case of tipping. As we saw in

Example 7.14, we have the tip condition

hω 2

h sin θ − d cos θ = g 0 (L − d) (7)

ω02 (L − µs h)

(6) ⇒ sin θ − µs cos θ =

g

263

ω02 (L − µs h) q

sin(θ − φ2 ) = where a2 1 + µ2s and

a2 g

d ω (L − d)

(7) ⇒ sin θ − cos θ = 0

h g

s

2

ω (L − d) d

sin(θ − φ1 ) = 0 where a1 = 1+ and

a1 g h

d

φ1 = tan−1 (9)

h

For our parameter values this gives

(0.8 rad/s)2

Tip: sin(θ − 0.418 rad) = (2 m − 0.04 m) = 0.0026

(1.094)(9.81 m/s2 )

(0.8 rad/s)2

Slip: sin(θ − 0.611 rad) = (2 m − 0.7(0.09 m)) = 0.103

(1.221)(9.81 m/s2 )

264

7.3.29

GOAL: Find the instantaneous linear and angular acceleration of the triangle.

GIVEN: weight= 40 lb ⇒ m = 1.242 slg, L = 2 ft , F = 10 lb

DRAW:

ASSUME: constant linear density, each segment has identical width and depth, center of mass is

exactly in the center

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

general motion: MG = IG θ̈ , F = ma

ΣF = F *

−F*

=0 ⇒ a=0

L L FL

ΣMG = F +F = F L ⇒ θ̈ =

2 2 IG

SOLVE:

Choose O to be the center of the segment BC. The center of mass will be the center of the

equilateral triangle due to symmetry, some distance above O. √

1 ◦ 3

r̄ = rG/ = L tan 30 = L

O 2 6

IG is needed to find θ̈. Since each edge is identical and the same distance away from point G, find

the mass moment of inertia about G of one edge, and triple it. Recall that the mass moment of

1

inertia of a bar about its center is 12 mbar L2

1 m 1

IO |BC = L2 = mL2

12 3 36

Use the parrallel axis theorem to find IG |BC

√ !2

m 1 m 3 1

IG |BC = IO |BC + (r̄)2 = mL2 + L = mL2

3 36 3 6 18

1 1

IG = 3 IG |BC =3 mL2 = mL2

18 6

FL FL 6F 6(10 lb)

θ̈ = = 1 2

= = = 24.2 rad/s2

IG 6 mL mL (1.242 slg)(2 ft)

θ̈ = 24.2 rad/s2

265

7.3.30

GOAL:

(a) Calculate the acceleration of the mass center for each case under the assumption of pure rolling.

(b) Determine the conditions needed to ensure that slip doesn’t occur.

GIVEN: Bicycle wheel mass distribution for each case.

DRAW:

Case (a):

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

X *

MG1 = I1 θ̈1

X*

F = ma*

* *

F − S1 ı + N1 − mg = ma* = m a1 *

ı + a2 *

Equating coefficients:

*

ı : F − S1 = ma1 (2)

*

: N1 − mg = ma2 (3)

ASSUME:

Pure rolling ⇒ a2 = 0 and a1 = −rθ̈1

(1),(2),(3) become

−S1 = mrθ̈1 (4)

F − S1 = −mrθ̈1 (5)

N1 = mg (6)

Case (b):

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

X *

MG2 = I2 θ̈2

266

−S2 r = 0 · θ̈2 ⇒ S2 = 0 (7)

X*

F = ma*

F − S2 *

ı + N2 − mg *

ı + a02 *

= ma* = m a01 *

Equating coefficients:

*

ı : F − S2 = ma01 (8)

*

: N2 − mg = ma02 (9)

ASSUME:

Pure rolling ⇒ a02 = 0 and a01 = −rθ̈2

(7),(8),(9) become

S2 = 0 (10)

F − S2 = −mrθ̈2 (11)

N2 = mg (12)

(a):

(4), (5) ⇒ F + mrθ̈1 = −mrθ̈1

F

θ̈1 = −

2rm

For the case of all the mass in the rim

F

a1 = − 2m

F

(10), (11) ⇒ θ̈2 = −

rm

For the case of all the mass at the hub

a01 = − m

F

(b):

To ensure pure rolling we’d need the required traction to be less than the maximal allowable friction

force.

For cases (a) and (b) the normal force is equal to mg.

For case (a)

F

(4) ⇒ S1 = −mrθ̈1 =

2

S

Therefore we’d need to ensure that the coefficient of friction µ is equal or greater than 1 or

N

1

F

F

µ1 = 2

mg = 2mg

For case (b) (10) tells us that S2 = 0. Because this simplified model has zero rotational inertia

about its mass center, there exists no tractive ground force. Thus any µ2 greater than zero suffices.

µ2 > 0

267

7.3.31

GOAL: Find the acceleration response of a yo-yo.

GIVEN: Geometry of the yo-yo.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

m = m1 + 2m2 = 0.215 kg

m1 r12

I¯ = + m2 r22 = 4.007x10−5 kg·m2

2

−F r

Moment balance: I¯θ̈ = −F r1 ⇒ θ̈ = ¯ 1 (1)

I

F − mg

Force balance: mÿ = F − mg ⇒ ÿ = (2)

m

SOLVE:

(1) ⇒ θ̈ = −225 rad/s2

268

7.3.32

GOAL: A reel is pulled to the right with a force F . If slip occurs, in what direction will the reel

slip for the two cases?

GIVEN: System configuration for both cases.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

(a) Moment balance: −F r1 − Sa r2 = IG θ¨a (1)

ı + (Na − mg) *

= ma1 *

ı

Equating coefficients:

*

ı : F − Sa = ma1 (2)

*

: Na = mg (3)

ı + (Nb − mg) * ı

Equating coefficients:

*

ı : F − Sb = ma01 (5)

*

: Na = mg (6)

SOLVE:

If the reel is slipping then the frictional force at the reel/ground interface is known:

Sa = µNa = µmg, Sb = µNb = µmg (7)

F − µg

a1 = m

(2), (7) ⇒

−F r1 − µmgr2

(1), (7) ⇒ θ̈a = − IG

F − µg

a01 = m

(5), (7) ⇒

269

F r1 − µmgr2

(4), (7) ⇒ θ̈b = − IG

270

7.3.33

GOAL: A reel is pulled to the right by a constant force F . Find the acceleration of the reel’s

center of mass for two different winding arrangements.

GIVEN: System configuration for the two cases. System undergoes roll without slip.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

(a) Moment balance: −F r1 − Sa r2 = IG θ¨a (1)

ı + (Na − mg) *

= m(a1 *

ı + a2 *

)

Equating coefficients:

*

ı : F − Sa = ma1 (2)

*

: Na − mg = ma2 (3)

ı + (Nb − mg) * ı + a02 *

= m(a01 * )

Equating coefficients:

*

ı : F − Sb = ma01 (5)

*

: Na − mg = ma02 (6)

ASSUME:

We’ll assume that only horizontal motion occurs and thus

a2 = a02 = 0

For pure rolling, we have:

a1 = −r2 θ¨a

271

(3)⇒ Na = mg (9)

(6)⇒ Nb = mg (12)

SOLVE:

−F (r1 + r2 )

(7),(8)⇒ θ¨a = (13)

(IG + mr22 )

F (r1 − r2 )

(10),(11)⇒ θ¨b = (14)

(IG + mr22 )

Note that in both cases the angular acceleration is negative (since r2 > r1 ).

For case (a):

F r2 (r1 + r2 ) *

(13)⇒ a*G = ı

(IG + mr22 )

F r2 (r2 − r1 ) *

(14)⇒ a*G = ı

(IG + mr22 )

272

7.3.34

GOAL:

Find the cylinders angular and linear acceleration if µ = 0.1. Find the cylinder’s angular and linear

acceleration if µ = 0.3. Comment on the results.

GIVEN: m = 100 kg, r = 0.5 m. The coefficient of friction between the cylinder and the sloped

surface is µ.

DRAW:

* *

ı

*

b1 cos 30 − sin 30◦

◦

*

b2 sin 30◦ cos 30◦

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

mr2

Moment balance: −P r = θ̈ (1)

2

* *

Force balance: N b 2 − P b 1 − mg *

= ma*G

√ !

mg 3

* * *

b 1 −P + + b2 N − mg = ma1 b 1

2 2

mg

*

b1 : − P = ma1 (2)

2

√

* 3

b2 : N= mg (3)

2

ASSUME:

Two possibilities exist. Either there’s no slip and

a1 = −rθ̈ (4)

Or there is slip and

P = µN (5)

SOLVE:

Assume no slip:

mr2 mg mg

(1), (2) ⇒ θ̈ = −r − ma1 = −r + mrθ̈

2 2 2

!

3mr2 mrg

θ̈ = −

2 2

g

θ̈ = − (6)

3r

Assume slip

273

√

mr2 3

(1), (5) ⇒ θ̈ = −rµN = −rµ mg

2 2

√

3µg

θ̈ = − (7)

r

√

mg mg 3 mg √

(2), (5) ⇒ ma1 = − µN = −µ mg = (1 − 3µ)

2 2 2 2

g √

a1 = (1 − 3µ) (8)

2

(a):

Assume that µ = 0.1 supports a no slip condition.

(9.81 m/s2 )

(6) ⇒ θ̈ = − = −6.54 rad/s2

3(0.5 m)

mr (100 kg)(0.5 m)

(1) ⇒ P =− θ̈ = − (−6.54 rad/s2 ) = 163.5 N

2 2

√

3

(3) ⇒ N= (100 kg)(9.81 m/s2 ) = 849.6 N

2

The maximum frictional force is equal to µN = (0.1)(849.6 N) = 84.96 N. The force needed to

support no slip is 163.5 N. Since 163.5 > 84.96 we don’t have enough force available to ensure pure

rolling and therefore we have a slip condition.

√

3(0.1)(9.81 m/s2 )

(7) ⇒ θ̈ = − 0.5 m = −3.40 rad/s2

9.81 m/s2 √

(8) ⇒ a1 = 2 (1 − 0.1 3) = 4.06 m/s2

(b):

We’ve seen in (a) that the necessary friction force for no slip is 163.5 N. In the current case

µN = (0.3)(849.6 N) = 254.9 N. Since 254.9 > 163.5 we have a no-slip condition.

(9.81 m/s2 )

(6) ⇒ θ̈ = − = −6.54 rad/s2

3(0.5 m)

(c):

The results make physical sense. In Case (b) we’re rolling. In Case (a) we’re slipping and so would

expect a1 to increase (as the cylinder slips downslope) and θ̈ to decrease (since there’s less frictional

force acting at the contact point to spin the cylinder).

274

7.3.35

GOAL: Determine the friction force acting on a rolling cylinder, the cylinder’s acceleration and

the minimum coefficient of static friction to prevent slipping.

GIVEN: Slope is at an angle β and cylinder has a radius r, mass m and mass moment of inertia

I.

DRAW:

* *

ı

*

b1 cos β sin β

*

b2 − sin β cos β

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

* * *

mẍ b 1 = −mg *

+ S b1 + N b2

*

b1 : mẍ = S − mg sin β (1)

*

b2 : N = mg cos β (2)

SOLVE: No slip gives us:

ẍ

θ̈ = − (4)

r

I

(3), (4) ⇒ − ẍ = Sr (5)

r

I

(1),(5)⇒ mẍ = − ẍ − mg sin β

r2

!

I

m+ 2 ẍ = −mg sin β

r

ẍ = −mg sin β

!

(b) I

m+ 2

r

S = − I2 ẍ = Img2 sin β

(a) r mr + I

275

(c) Roll with slip means that S cannot exceed µN . This condition implies:

µmin N = S

S =

µmin = N Imgsin β = I tan β

mr2 + I mg cos β mr2 + I

276

7.3.36

GOAL: Determine the acceleration of a cylinder on a moving surface and the minimum coefficient

of static friction to allow no-slip conditions.

2

GIVEN: Cylinder has mass m, radius r, moment of inertia mr2 , the slope has an inclination angle

β and is accelerating upward at z̈.

DRAW:

* *

ı

*

b1 cos β sin β

*

b2 − sin β cos β

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

* *

Force balance: ma*m = −mg *

+ S b1 + N b2 (1)

The acceleration of the cylinder’s mass center is equal to the acceleration of the surface plus the

acceleration of the mass center with respect to the surface:

*

a*G = z̈ *

+ ẍ b 1 (3)

No-slip of the cylinder on the surface gives us

ẍ

θ̈ = − (4)

r

SOLVE: 2

Let I = mr

2 .

* * *

(3)→(1)⇒ m(z̈ *

+ ẍ b 1 ) = −mg *

+ S b1 + N b2

* *

* *

m (z̈ sin β + ẍ) b 1 + z̈ cos β b 2 = b 1 (S − mg sin β) + b 2 (N − mg cos β)

*

b1 : m(z̈ sin β + ẍ) = S − mg sin β (5)

*

b2 : mz̈ cos β = N − mg cos β (6)

I

(4)→(2)⇒ − ẍ = Sr (7)

r

I

(5),(7)⇒ m(z̈ sin β + ẍ) = − ẍ − mg sin β

r2

!

I

ẍ m + 2 = −m sin β(g + z̈)

r

277

*

* *

sin β(g+z̈)

a*G = z̈ *

+ ẍ b 1 = z̈ sin β − 1.5 b 1 + z̈ cos β b 2

(6)⇒ N = mz̈ cos β + mg cos β = m cos β(z̈ + g) (8)

I

(7)⇒ S=− ẍ (9)

r2

Using ẍ in (8) and (9), and applying S = µN gives us:

mI sin β(g + z̈)

= µmin m cos β(z̈ + g)

(mr2 + I)

tan β

µmin = 3

278

7.3.37

GOAL: Find the angular acceleration θ̈ of the spider.

GIVEN: System configuration and parameters.

DRAW:

e*r e*θ

*

b1 cos(φ − θ) sin(φ − θ)

*

b2 − sin(φ − θ) cos(φ − θ)

In the figure I’ve referenced a point C on one of the gears. φ indicates the absolute rotation of the

gear and θ indicates the spider’s rotation. C is in contact with the rim when θ = φ = 0. Since the

contact condition is no-slip, we know v*C = 0. Thus

O B

* * * *

= 0 + θ̇ k ×L e r + φ̇k ×R b 1

*

= θ̇L e*θ + φ̇R b 2

*

When θ = φ = 0, e*θ = b 2 and so

L

v*C = (θ̇L + φ̇R) e*θ = 0 ⇒ φ̇ = −θ̇ (1)

R

a*B = ω ω × r*B/ ) + α

~ ×(~ ~ × r*B/

O O

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

279

Spider:

*

k : M − 3N1 L = I¯S θ̈ (3)

Gear:

Force balance: (N1 − N3 ) e*θ − N2 e*r = mg a*B = mg (−θ̇2 L e*r + θ̈L e*θ )

*

k: I¯G φ̈ = −RN3 (6)

SOLVE:

I¯G I¯ L

N1 = mg θ̈L − = mg θ̈L − G (−θ̈ )

φ̈ |{z}

(5),(6)⇒ R R R

(1)

I¯G L

N1 = θ̈(mg L + ) (7)

R2

I¯G L

(7)⇒(3)⇒ M − 3Lθ̈(mg L + ) = I¯S θ̈

R2

L

θ̈(I¯S + 3L2 mg + 3I¯G ( )2 ) = M

R

θ̈ = M 2

L

I¯S + 3L2 mg + 3I¯G

R

280

7.3.38

GOAL: Find θ̇ and ṙ just as the masses reach the ends of the rods.

GIVEN: Dimensions, geometry, I, ¯ mass of blocks, and initial conditions.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

*

Force balance: F mass = ma*mass (1)

Moment balance about G for * *

MG = I¯θ̈ k (2)

the three-arm body:

Acceleration of each block a*mass = r̈ − rθ̇2 e*r + 2ṙθ̇ + rθ̈ e*θ (3)

SOLVE:

(1), (3) ⇒ F e*θ = m r̈ − rθ̇2 e*r + 2ṙθ̇ + rθ̈ e*θ (4)

(4) · e*r ⇒ 0 = m r̈ − rθ̇2 ⇒ r̈ = rθ̇2 (5)

(4) · e*θ ⇒ F = m 2ṙθ̇ + rθ̈ (6)

*

(2) · k ⇒ −3F r = I¯θ̈ (7)

6mrṙθ̇

(6), (7) ⇒ θ̈ = − (8)

I + 3mr2

Numerical integration of (8)

with the given initial condi-

tions (integration time of t = ṙ = 6.50 m/s, θ̇ = 3.91 rad/s

0.1554 s) brings r to 1.2 m and:

281

7.3.39

GOAL: Find the critical value of θ above which the cylinder slips rather than rolls without slipping.

GIVEN: Radius of cylinder and coefficient of friction.

DRAW:

* *

ı

*

b1 cos θ sin θ

*

b2 − sin θ cos θ

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

* * *

Force balance: S b 1 + N b 2 − mg *

= ma b 1

*

b 2: N − mg cos θ = 0 ⇒ S = µN = µmg cos θ

*

b 1: S − mg sin θ = ma ⇒ a = g(µ cos θ − sin θ) (1)

* * *

*

Moment balance: ΣMG = −r b 2 × S b 1 = IG α

* 1 *

⇒ αk = µrmg cos θ k (2)

IG

Rolling without slipping requires that

* *

a* = α

*

× r b 2 = −αr b 1 (3)

1 2

(1), (2) → (3) ⇒ g(µ cos θ − sin θ) = − µr mg cos θ

IG

µmr2

sin θ − µ cos θ = cos θ

IG

!

mr2

sin θ = µ cos θ 1 +

IG

" !#

−1 mr2

θ = tan µ 1+

IG

The moment of inertia for a cylinder about its center of mass is IG = 21 mr2 , therefore

" !#

−1 mr2

θ = tan µ 1+ 1 2 = tan−1 (3µ)

2 mr

SOLVE: Plugging in the value of µ yields θ = tan−1 [3(0.4)] = tan−1 (1.2) ⇒ θ = 50.2◦

282

7.3.40

GOAL: Find the amount of time it will take for the spool to complete a full rotation.

GIVEN: m1 = 2 kg, m2 = 4 kg, r1 = 0.1 m, r2 = 0.15 m, I1 = 0.02kg·m2

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

If the reel rolls without slippage we have

−ẍ = r2 θ̈ (1)

The massless rope connecting the mass and reel gives us

−ÿ = (r2 − r1 )θ̈ (2)

First consider the reel. We can apply a moment balance about C:

* *

MC = I θ̈ k + r*G/ ×m1 a*G

A

* * *

where a*G = ẍ b 1 = −r2 θ̈ b 1 and r*G/ = r2 b 2 .

C

* * *

Force balance: (T + S − m1 g sin θ) b 1 + (N − m1 g cos θ) b 2 = m1 ẍ b 1

*

b1 : T + S − m1 g sin θ = m1 ẍ (4)

*

b2 : N = m1 g cos θ (5)

Now examine the hanging mass m2 :

Force balance: (m2 g − T ) *

= m2 ÿ *

*

: m2 g − T = m2 ÿ (6)

(1), (2), (3), (4), (6) are five equations with five unknowns θ̈, ẍ, ÿ, T , S. Thus, the system is

solvable.

SOLVE:

(1)→(4)⇒ T + S − m1 g sin θ = −m1 r2 θ̈ (7)

283

(2)→(6)⇒ m2 g − T = −m2 (r2 − r1 )θ̈ (8)

m1 gr2 sin θ − (r2 − r1 )m2 g = I + m1 r22 + (r2 − r1 )2 m2 θ̈

θ̈ =

I + m1 r22 + m2 (r2 − r1 )2

θ̈ = = −6.54 rad/s2

0.02 kg·m2 + 2 kg(0.15 m)2 + 4 kg(0.05 m)2

1

θ = θ̈t2

2

Thus, in order to find the time needed for a single rotation, starting from rest, we need to evaluate

1

−2π = (−6.54 rad/s2 )t2

2

t = 1.39 s

284

7.3.41

GOAL: Find the acceleration of the reel’s center.

GIVEN: m = 20 kg, r1 = 0.5 m, r2 = 0.7 m, IG = 6.8 kg· m2 .

DRAW:

* *

ı

*

b1 cos θ sin θ

*

b2 − sin θ cos θ

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: If motion is possible we’ll apply a moment balance about G and

a force balance at G in order to determine the system’s dynamic behavior.

We need to apply kinematics to the reel/rope in order to determine if the cylinder can move

downslope using our rigid body velocity relationship

v*B = v*A + ω× r*B/

A

SOLVE:

For roll without slip we know that v*C = 0. Hence at G we have

* *

v*G = θ̇ k ×(r2 ) b 2

*

= −r2 θ̇ b 1

For the reel to move downslope at −r2 θ̇ we need rope to be unreeled from it at that same rate.

The rate of unreeling is given by the velocity of the point A with respect to G:

* *

v*A/ = θ̇ k ×(−r1 b 2 )

G

*

= r1 θ̇ b 1

r1 < r2 and therefore this would imply that the reel unrolls rope slower than the reel is moving

downslope. Such a situation could only occur if the rope could stretch and thus make up the

difference between the displacement of the reel and the amount of rope that has come off the reel.

For our case the rope is not extensible and the only solution that’s viable is that the entire reel is,

in fact, stationary. Thus we have the result

a*G = 0

285

7.3.42

*

GOAL:Determine α of a cylinder, part of a three mass system.

GIVEN: I 1 = 0.015 kg·m2 , I 2 = 0.018 kg·m2 , m1 = 4 kg, m2 = 20 kg, m3 = 5 kg, r1 = 7 cm,

r2 = 10 cm and r3 = 3 cm.

DRAW:

* *

ı *

ı *

*

b1 cos 20◦ sin 20◦ , *

c1 cos 20 − sin 20◦

◦

*

b2 − sin 20 cos 20◦

◦ *

c2 sin 20◦ cos 20◦

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

The reaction force and gravity force for the pivoted cylinder are ignored as irrelevant to the problem

as they don’t affect a moment balance about its center - the only equation which we’ll be using

with respect to this body.

* * *

Force balance, reel: (T2 − T3 ) b 1 + N2 b 2 − m1 g *

= m1 ẍ b 1

*

b1 : T2 − T3 − m1 g sin 20◦ = m1 ẍ (1)

*

b2 : N2 − m1 g cos 20◦ = 0 (2)

c 1 + (N1 − m3 g cos 20◦ ) *

c 2 = m3 ÿ *

c1

*

c1 : m3 g sin 20◦ − T1 = m3 ÿ (5)

We also have constraints to account for. The first is a no-slip constaint for the reel:

ẍ = −r2 θ̈ (6)

Next, we have the constraint that the massless rope joining the reel to the cylinder has to have the

same speed at bodies and hence we have

286

(r2 − r1 )θ̈ = r3 β̈

For this problem r2 − r1 = r3 and thus we have

θ̈ = β̈ (7)

Finally, the block A is connected to the cylinder and thus the cylinder’s angular acceleration is

related to A’s linear acceleration by

ÿ = −r3 β̈ (8)

SOLVE:

It is easiest to solve (1), (3), (4), (5) simultaneously as AX = B:

m1 g sin 20◦

0 1 −1 −m1 T1

0 r1 −r2 I 1 /r2 T2 0

= (9)

−r3 r3 0 I 2 /r2 T3 0

1 0 0 (m3 r3 )/r2 ẍ m3 g sin 20◦

Using the function inv in MATLAB and vector multiplication (with the given parameter values)

yields:

h i h i−1 h i

X = A B (10)

18.40

h i 24.89

X = (11)

15.80

−1.08

T1 18.40

T2 24.89

= (12)

T3 15.80

ẍ −1.08

1.08 m/s2

β̈ = = 10.82 rad/s2

0.1 m

*

ωC = 10.82k rad/s2

287

7.3.43

GOAL: Determine which components of the given set are correct.

GIVEN: System configuration.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

a*G = a*A + a*G/

A

* *

× (ω × r*G/ ) + α

*

× r*G/

A A

= (r̈ − rθ̇2 ) e*r + (rθ̈ + 2ṙθ̇) e*θ + dθ̇2 e*θ + dθ̈ e*r

Equations of motion for Body B:

mB (r̈ − rθ̇2 + dθ̈) e*r + (rθ̈ + 2ṙθ̇ + dθ̇2 ) e*θ = −mB g *

− N e*θ

*

k : I B θ̈ = C (3)

Equations of motion for the bar:

X

*

k : I O θ̈ = MO

1 m gL

mL L2 θ̈ = −C + L cos θ + N r (4)

3 2

For the first equation, the choices are (from (2)):

0, cos θ, −1, mB , θ̈, dθ̇2

288

For the second equation, the choices are (from (3)):

C, I B , 0

mL g L2 cos θ, −1, N r, 13 mL L2

0, sin θ, −rθ̇2 , dθ̈

289

7.3.44

GOAL: A two link mechanism is acted on by gravity and an external force F . Determine the

value of µ that allows no-slip and then, for a given µ, the minimum F that causes the normal force

between the legs and ground to go to zero.

GIVEN: System configuration and parameter values.

Part (a):

DRAW:

(a) The problem is symmetric so only a single link will be examined (the other being a mirror

image)

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Force balance: (T1 − N2 ) *

ı + (N1 − mg) *

= m(a1 *

ı + a2 *

) (1)

*

ı: T1 − N2 = ma1 (2)

*

: N1 − mg = ma2 (3)

L L L

Moment balance about G: T1 sin θ − N1 cos θ + N2 sin θ = IG θ̈ (4)

2 2 2

ASSUME:

No-slip implies a1 = a2 = θ̈ = 0. Also, θ = 45◦ .

SOLVE:

(2)⇒ T1 = N2 (5)

(3)⇒ N1 = mg (6)

(5),(6)→(4)⇒ N2 − mg + N2 = 0

mg

N2 =

2

mg

T1 =

2

The minimum allowable value of T1 is µN1 . Thus

mg

= µmg ⇒ µ = 0.5

2

**********************

290

Part (b):

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

L

Moment balance about G: (T sin θ − N1 cos θ + F cos θ + N2 sin θ) = IG θ̈ (7)

2 1

ı + (N1 − mg + F ) *

= m(a1 *

ı + a2 *

)

*

ı: T1 − N2 = ma1 (8)

*

: N1 − mg + F = ma2 (9)

ASSUME:

We’ll assume that the system isn’t slipping and solve for the maximal F that supports this condition.

If slip isn’t occuring then a1 = a2 = θ̈ = 0. θ = 45◦ .

SOLVE:

(8)⇒ T1 = N 2 (10)

(9)⇒ N1 = mg − F (11)

(10),(11)→(7)⇒ N2 − (mg + F ) + F + N2 = 0

mg

N2 = (12)

2

Since T1 = µN1 we have from (10), (11), and (12)

max

mg

= µ(mg − F ) (13)

2

1

µF = mg(µ − )

2

1

mg(µ − )

F = 2

µ

291

7.3.45

GOAL: Derive the equations of motion for the system and also derive the equations that must be

satisfied to the person to ride uphill at a velocity and with body at a constant angle with respect

to the ground.

GIVEN: Configuration of the wheel/person system.

ASSUME: M , the moment applied to the wheel by the rider, is sufficient to to cause the system

to move upslope. Assume a no-slip condition holds. Because the rider’s orientation is constant we

know β̇ = β̈ = 0.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Wheel:

Moment balance: m2 r2 θ̈ = F r − M (1)

*

*

Force balance: −N3 + F − m2 g sin θ b 1 + −N2 + N1 − m2 g cos θ b 2 = m2 a*G =

* *

*

m2 a1 b 1 + a2 b 2 = m2 a1 b 1

Equating coefficients:

*

b1 : −N3 + F − m2 g sin θ = m2 a1 = m2 ẍ (2)

*

b2 : −N2 + N1 − m2 g cos θ = 0 (3)

rider: X

Moment balance: MO = −IC β̈ = −IC (0) = 0

L L

M − N2 sin (β + θ) + N3 sin (90 − β − θ) = 0 (4)

2 2

292

*

*

* *

Force balance: N3 − m1 g sin θ b 1 + N2 − m1 g cos θ b 2 = m1 a1 b 1 + a2 b 2 =

*

m1 a1 b 1 = m1 ẍ

Equating coefficients:

*

b1 : N3 − m1 g sin θ = m1 a1 = m1 ẍ (5)

*

b2 : N2 − m1 g cos θ = 0 (6)

No-slip conditions imply

ẍ = −θ̈r (7)

SOLVE:

M

(1) ⇒ F = m2 rθ̈ + (8)

r

M

(8), (9) → (2) ⇒ m2 ẍ = −m1 ẍ − m1 g sin θ + m2 rθ̈ + − m2 g sin θ

r

Using ẍ = −θ̈r yields

M

−g sin θ m1 + m2 +

(a) ẍ = r (10)

m1 + 2m2

(b):

(5) ⇒ N3 = m1 ẍ + m1 g sin θ (11)

L L

(11), (12) → (4) ⇒ M − m1 g cos θ sin (β + θ) + m1 ẍ + m1 g sin θ sin (90◦ − β − θ) = 0

2 2

Using sin (90◦ − β − θ) = cos (θ + β)

L L

M + m1 g (− cos θ sin (β + θ) + sin θ cos (β + θ)) + m1 cos (β + θ) ẍ = 0

2 2

Finally, using − cos θ sin (β + θ) + sin θ cos (β + θ) = − sin β yields

M − mg L2 sin β + m1 L2 cos (β + θ) ẍ = 0

293

7.3.46

GOAL:Determine the angular acceleration of a rolling cylinder.

GIVEN: System geometry.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

WHEEL:

*

ı : F1 − F2 = m1 ẍ (1)

*

: N 2 = m1 g + N 1 (2)

*

k : I 1 θ̈ = −M + rF1 (3)

BAR:

*

ı : F2 = m2 ẍ (4)

*

: N1 = m2 g (5)

L

*

k : 0 = M − N1 (6)

2

ROLL WITHOUT SLIP:

ẍ = −rθ̈ (7)

SOLVE:

(3),(1)⇒ I 1 θ̈ = −M + r(m1 ẍ + F2 )

I 1 θ̈ = −M + rm1 ẍ + rm2 ẍ

I 1 θ̈ = −M + (m1 + m2 )r(−rθ̈)

θ̈ I 1 + (m1 + m2 )r2 = −M (8)

L L

(5),(6)⇒ M= N 1 = m2 g

2 2

294

Lm g

M= 2 (9)

2

m1 r 2 Lm2 g

(8),(9)⇒ θ̈(I 1 + (m1 + m2 )r2 ) = θ̈( + (m1 + m2 )r2 ) = −

2 2

−Lm g

θ̈ = 2

(3m +2m )r2

1 2

295

7.3.47

GOAL: Determine the vehicle’s acceleration.

GIVEN:

r = 0.3 m, L = 1.4 m, mb = 10 kg, mw = 14 kg, µ = 0.7, and M = 50 N·m. No friction exists

between the drag and the road surface.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Body:

L L m L2

Moment balance: M 1 + F2 − N2 = b θ̈1 (1)

2 2 12

X*

F = ma*G

−F1 *

ı + F2 + N2 − mb g *

= ma*G = m a1 *

ı + a2 *

1

Equating coefficients:

*

ı : −F1 = ma1 (2)

*

: F2 + N2 − mb g = ma2 (3)

Wheel: X * *

MG = I w θ̈2 k

2

mw r 2

−M1 − F3 r = θ̈2 (4)

2

X*

F = ma*G

F 1 − F3 *

ı + N1 − F2 − mw g = ma*G = m a01 *

*

ı + a02 *

2

Equating coefficients:

296

*

ı : F1 − F3 = ma01 (5)

*

: N1 − F2 − mw g = ma01 (6)

ASSUME:

Assume that the car moves to the right because of the applied moment. From physical consid-

erations we see that the angular velocity and acceleration of the body is zero since the reaction

moment simply serves to push the drag more firmly into the ground. Therefore a2 = 0. The wheel

doesn’t leave the ground and so a02 = 0. The two pieces translate at the same rate and thus a01 = a1 .

Aassume roll without slip. This means a1 = a01 = −rθ̈2

Rewriting the equations to reflect these assumptions yields

L L

(1) ⇒ M 1 + F2 − N 2 = 0 (7)

2 2

(3) ⇒ F2 + N2 = mb g (9)

mw r2

(4) ⇒ −M1 − F3 r = θ̈2 (10)

2

(6) ⇒ N1 − F2 = mw g (12)

6 equation’s in 6 unknowns: θ̈2 , N1 , N2 , F1 , F2 , F3

(8),(10) and (11) will be all we’ll need to consider to find the car’s acceleration.

(8) ⇒ F1 = mb rθ̈2 (13)

mw r 2

(14) → (10) ⇒ −M1 − r F1 + mw rθ̈2 = θ̈2 (15)

2

mw r 2

(13) → (15) ⇒ −M1 − r mb rθ̈2 + mw rθ̈2 = θ̈2

2

M1

θ̈2 = − (16)

3r2 mw

r2 mb +

2

Since a1 = −rθ̈2 we have

rM1

a1 = (17)

3r2 mw

r2 mb +

2

If we write this as f = ma we have

3 M

mb + mw a1 = 1

2 r

M

which makes sense. The moment induces a horizontal force proportional to r 1 and the mass

r

297

3

consists of the body’s translational mass (mb ) and the equivalent mass of the rolling wheel 2 mw .

Verification of no-slip assumption:

m g M

(7), (9) ⇒ F2 = b − 1 (18)

2 L

mb g M1 mb M

(12), (18) ⇒ N1 = − + mw g = g mw + − 1

2 L 2 L

(11), (13) ⇒ F3 = mw rθ̈2 + mb rθ̈2 = rθ̈2 mw + mb

Using (16)

M1 mw + mb

F3 = −

3mw

r m +

b 2

If F3 > µ N1 then no-slip can’t be supported for our parameter values.

N1 = 151 N, F3 = −129 N

µ N1 = 0.7(151 N) = 105.7 N

Since the required traction force of 129 N is more than 106 N we have slip and our initial non-slip

assumption was incorrect.

Solving with a Slip Assumption:

Body:

*

ı : F1 = mb ẍ (19)

*

: N2 + F2 − mb g = 0 (20)

L

*

k : F2 − N 2 + M1 = 0 (21)

2

Wheel:

*

ı : µN1 − F1 = mw ẍ (22)

*

: N1 − F2 − mw g = 0 (23)

*

k : −µrN1 − M1 = IG2 θ̈2 (24)

µN1 = mb + mw ẍ (25)

mb g M 1

(20), (21) ⇒ F2 =− (26)

2 L

m M

(26) → (23) ⇒ N1 = mw g + b g − 1 (27)

2 L

m M

(27) → (25) ⇒ µg mw + b − µ 1 = mb + mw ẍ

2 L

298

mb M

µg mw + −µ 1

ẍ = 2 L = 4.39 m/s2

mb + mw

299

7.3.48

GOAL: Find the linear acceleration ẍ of the vehicle and angular acceleration θ̈ of the wheel.

GIVEN: System configuration, mW = 10 kg, mB = 40 kg, L = 1 m, r = 0.5 m, M = 2 N·m.

DRAW:

* *

ı

*

b1 cos 30 − sin 30◦

◦

*

b2 sin 30◦ cos 30◦

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Body W :

* *

Force Balance: −mW g *

− Qb2 − Rb1 + N *

+ S*

ı = mw a*W

Moment Balance about GW : Sr + M = I¯ θ̈ W

Body B:

* *

Force Balance: Q b 2 + R b 1 + (T − mB g) * = mB a*B

Moment Balance about GB : T L2 cos θ − Q L2 − M = I¯B β̈

ASSUME: If the system rolls without slip and both W and B contact the ground then

rθ̈ = −ẍ

a*W = ẍ *

ı + 0*

aB = ẍ ı + 0 *

* *

β̈ = 0

SOLVE:

Applying the constraints to the system equations of motion yields

Body W :

*

ı: −mW ẍ − (cos 30◦ )R − (sin 30◦ )Q + S = 0 (1)

*

: −(cos 30◦ )Q + (sin 30◦ )R + N = mW g (2)

300

*

k: −I¯W θ̈ + rS = −M (3)

Body B:

*

ı: −mB ẍ + (cos θ)R + (sin θ)Q = 0 (4)

*

: (cos 30◦ )Q − (sin 30◦ )R + T = mB g (5)

L L

*

k: (cos 30◦ )T − Q = M (6)

2 2

If we include our rolling without slip condition as a final equation:

rθ̈ + ẍ = 0 (7)

we can then express (1)-(7) in matrix form

−mW 0 0 0

ẍ

0

0 −(cos 30◦ ) (sin 30◦ )

0 0 1 0

θ̈

mW g

0 −IW r 0 0 0 0 −M

S

−mB sin 30◦ cos 30◦

0 0 0 0

Q = 0 (8)

0 0 0 cos 30◦ −(sin 30◦ ) 0 1√

R

mB g

L 3

− L2 N M

0 0 0 0 0 2 2

T 0

1 r 0 0 0 0 0

m r 2

where I¯W = W2 .

Using the given parameter values

ẍ

−0.0727 m/s2

0.1455 rad/s2

θ̈

−3.6364 N

S

Q = 167.2 N

−100

R

N

N 292.8 N

T

197.7 N

301

7.3.49

GOAL: Find the linear acceleration ẍ of the vehicle and angular acceleration θ̈ of the wheel.

GIVEN: System configuration, mW = 10 kg, mB = 40 kg, L = 1 m, r = 0.5 m, M = 2 N·m.

DRAW:

* *

ı

*

b1 cos 30 − sin 30◦

◦

*

b2 sin 30◦ cos 30◦

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Body W :

* *

Force Balance: −mW g *

− Qb2 − Rb1 + N *

+ S*

ı = mw a*W

Moment Balance about GW : Sr + M = I¯ θ̈ W

Body B:

* *

Force Balance: Q b 2 + R b 1 + (T − mB g) * = mB a*B

Moment Balance about GB : T L2 cos θ − Q L2 − M = I¯B β̈

ASSUME: If the system rolls without slip and both W and B contact the ground then

rθ̈ = −ẍ

a*W = ẍ *

ı + 0*

aB = ẍ ı + 0 *

* *

β̈ = 0

SOLVE:

Applying the constraints to the system equations of motion yields

Body W :

*

ı: −mW ẍ − (cos 30◦ )R − (sin 30◦ )Q + S = 0 (1)

*

: −(cos 30◦ )Q + (sin 30◦ )R + N = mW g (2)

302

*

k: −I¯W θ̈ + rS = −M (3)

Body B:

*

ı: −mB ẍ + (cos θ)R + (sin θ)Q = 0 (4)

*

: (cos 30◦ )Q − (sin 30◦ )R + T = mB g (5)

L L

*

k: (cos 30◦ )T − Q = M (6)

2 2

If we include our rolling without slip condition as a final equation:

rθ̈ + ẍ = 0 (7)

we can then express (1)-(7) in matrix form

−mW 0 0 0

ẍ

0

0 −(cos 30◦ ) (sin 30◦ )

0 0 1 0

θ̈

mW g

0 −IW r 0 0 0 0 −M

S

−mB sin 30◦ cos 30◦

0 0 0 0

Q = 0 (8)

0 0 0 cos 30◦ −(sin 30◦ ) 0 1√

R

mB g

L 3

− L2 N M

0 0 0 0 0 2 2

T 0

1 r 0 0 0 0 0

m r2

where I¯W = W2 .

An input of M = 2 N· m produces an acceleration and forces of

ẍ

−0.0727 m/s2

0.1455 rad/s2

θ̈

−3.6364 N

S

Q = 167.2 N

−100

R

N

N 292.8 N

T

197.7 N

ẍ

−7.27 m/s2

14.55 rad/s2

θ̈

−363.64 N

S

Q = −102.8 N

−276.6 N

R

N 143.3 N

T

343.2 N

ẍ and θ̈ increased by a factor of 100 when M was increased by the same factor. This makes sense.

If we have roll without slip then we should expect an increase in acceleration proportional to the

applied moment. S also increased by a factor of 100. This follows from ẍ. S is directly proportional

to ẍ as seen from the force balance. Q decreased and, in fact, became negative. This makes sense

as well. The greater reaction moment being applied to Body B is trying to rotate the body in a

clockwise fashion. If we visualize it as trying to rotate about the right end in a clockwise directions

we see that the left end of the bar, which was essentially resting on the pivot between the two

bodies when M was 2 N· m is now pressing upward against the pivot as it tries to rotate. Thus the

303

sign of Q will change. R increased as well, which reflects the fact that if the system is accelerating

more strongly to the left, a greater force will be required to pull Body B along.

* * *

We can see that the increase is correct by calculating

√ Q b 2 + Rb 1 and taking the ı component. For

3 1

M = 2 N· m this gives a resultant force of −99.9 2 N + 167 2 N = −2.91 N. For M = 200 N· m

√

this gives a resultant force of −277 23 N − 103 21 N = −291 N. The overall force has increased

by a factor of 100, as expected.

N went down from 293 N to 147 N. This is sensible because we’ve already seen that Q is pulling

up strongly, which will reduce the force with which S contacts the floor. Finally, T increased from

198 N to 343 N. This is completely in line with the fact that the clockwise moment has increased,

thus pressing the right end more firmly into the ground.

304

7.3.50

GOAL: Find if a sufficient moment M can be applied to the hinged bar B to the wheel W such

that the system can experience wheel lift-off.

GIVEN: System configuration.

DRAW:

* *

ı

* √

b1 3/2 −1/2

* √

b2 1/2 3/2

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Wheel:

* *

Force balance: −mw g *

− Qb2 − Rb1 + N *

+ S*

ı = mw a*O

√

3 1

*

ı : −mw ẍ − R− Q+S =0 (1)

2 2

√

3 1

*

: − Q + R + N = mw g (2)

2 2

Moment balance: Sr + M = I w θ̈

−I w θ̈ + rS = −M (3)

Link:

* *

Force balance: Q b 2 + R b 1 + (T − mB g) *

= mB a*G

√

3 1

*

ı : −mB ẍ + R+ Q=0 (4)

2 2

305

√

3 1

*

: Q − R + T = mB g (5)

2 2

√

L 3 L

Moment balance: T − Q − M = I B β̈

2 2 2

√

3 L

TL − Q=M (6)

4 2

Assume rolling without slip: rθ̈ = −ẍ

rθ̈ + ẍ = 0 (7)

We are given β̈ = 0.

SOLVE:

Putting (1)-(7) into matrix/vector form gives:

√

1

1 −√2

3 0

−mw 0 − 2 0 ẍ 0

0 0 0 − 23 1

1 0 θ̈ mw g

2

0 −I w r 0 0 0 0 −M

√

S

0 √21

−mB 0 3 0 0 Q = 0 (8)

2

0 0 0 3

− 12 0 1

√

R mB g

2

0 0 0 −L 0 L 3

N

M

2 0 4

1 r 0 0 0 0 0 T 0

m r2

where I w = w2 .

We want the contact force between the wheel and the ground to equal zero. By typing a few values of

M and evaluating the resultant accelerations/parameters, you can quickly find that M = 400.5 N·m

leads to a solution of :

Q = −376.3 N R = −455.5 N, N = 0.0, T = 490.5 N

Thus it seems that M = 400.5 N·m would cause a loss of contact (N going to zero), the prerequisite

for lift-off. Can this actually occur? No. The tractive force exists because of the tire/road frictional

interface. If N goes to zero then the tire won’t be able to generate any tractive force at all. In

fact, the maximum tractive force that can be sustained (in pure rolling) is µN . Clearly, as N is

reduced, µN reduces in kind.

306

7.3.51

GOAL: Find the system’s equation of motion and integrate to find x(t), the horizontal displacement

of the cylinder.

GIVEN: System configuration.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Force balance, mass 1: −N3 *

ı + (N4 − m1 g) *

= m1 ẍ *

ı

*

ı : −N3 = mẍ (1)

*

: N4 − m1 g = 0 (2)

ı + (N1 − N4 − m2 g) *

= m2 ẍ *

ı

*

ı : N3 − N2 = m2 ẍ (3)

*

: N1 − N4 − m2 g = 0 (4)

Moment balance about ID θ̈ = −kθ θ − N2 r

D:

Applying no-slip:

kθ x I ẍ

− N2 r = − D (5)

r r

SOLVE:

kθ x I ẍ

(3),(5)⇒ − r(N3 − m2 ẍ) = − D (6)

r r

kθ x I ẍ

(1),(6)⇒ − r(−m1 ẍ − m2 ẍ) = − D

r r

I k x

ẍ D + r(m1 + m2 ) = − θ

r r

307

k

ẍ = − θ x

I +r 2 (m +m )

D 1 2

This equation is actually in the form of a linear oscillator and has a closed form solution. If we

define the system’s natural frequency ωn as

v

k

u

θ

u

ωn ≡ t

(ID + r2 (m1 + m2 ))

ẍ + ωn2 x = 0

v0

x(t) = sin(ωn t)

ω0

The solution is in the form of a sine wave - the toy starts at zero, rolls away, stops, and then rolls

back.

308

7.3.52

GOAL: Find the long term behavior of a simple toy.

GIVEN: System configuration and parameters.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Cylinder:

*

k : m2 r2 θ̈ = M + rF1 (1)

*

ı : −rθ̈m2 = −N2 + F1 (2)

*

: 0 = N1 − N3 − m2 g (3)

Pendulum:

*

: N3 − m1 g = m1 [e(β̇ + θ̇)2 cos(θ + β) + e(θ̈ + β̈) sin(θ + β)] (4)

*

ı : N2 = m1 [−e(β̇ + θ̇)2 sin(θ + β) + e(θ̈ + β̈) cos(θ + β) − rθ̈)] (5)

*

k : −M = N2 e cos(θ + β) + N3 e sin(θ + β) (6)

(1), (2), (5) ⇒ 2m2 r2 θ̈ + rem1 (θ̇ + β̇)2 sin(θ + β) − rem1 (θ̈ + β̈) cos(θ + β) + r2 m1 θ̈ − kβ = 0

(7)

(4), (5), (6) ⇒ e2 m1 (θ̈ + β̈) + em1 g sin(θ + β) − erm1 θ̈ cos(θ + β) + kβ = 0 (8)

SOLVE:

(7) and (8) can be written as [A]X = [B] where

309

" #

r2 (2m2 + m1 ) − rem1 cos(θ + β) −rem1 cos(θ + β)

[A] =

m1 e2 − rem1 cos(θ + β) m1 e2

" #

θ̈

X=

β̈

" #

−r(θ̇ + β̇)2 em1 sin(θ + β) + kβ

[B] =

−m1 ge sin(θ + β) − kβ

Solving the 2 equations is accomplished by premultiplying by [A]−1 :

" #

θ̈

= [A]−1 [B]

β̈

Integrating the equations of motion will produce the illustrated θ,β vs t plot. Both the absolute

rotation of the cylinder (θ) and the absolute rotation of the pendulum (θ + β) are plotted. The

cylinder rolls forward for a bit over two revolutions and then returns and, in fact, then overshoots

the starting point. The long term behavior is a continuous oscillation back and forth. Note that the

pendulum does not stay oriented vertically downward but rather oscillates about this orientation.

310

7.3.53

GOAL: Find the acceleration of block A with and without pulley mass.

GIVEN: Pulley geometry and system parameters.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

We will have four force balance and three moment balance equations.

Moment balance, 1: r1 (T3 − T2 ) = I1 θ¨1 (1)

The relative velocity relations for the pulley pieces are given in the problem statement. and the

same ratios have to hold for acceleration as well. Thus :

7 1

α1 = α α2 = α α3 = α

5 2

5.25 0.175

α4 = α ÿ = α m

5 5

(Note that all I’m doing here is normalizing block A’s acceleration by the inner pulley 1. All the

accelerations scale linearly, one to another, and since we know the ratio of block A’s speed to the

311

pulley’s rotational speed we can divide the magnitude of the block’s linear speed (0.175 m/s) by

the magnitude of the pulley’s known rotational speed (5 rad/s) and then multiply by the, as yet

unknown, angular acceleration α.)

SOLVE:

0 −r1 r1 0 0 0 −I1 T1 0

r2 0 0 0 0 0 −I2 ( 57 )

T2

50 Nr2

0 0 −r3 r3 0 0 −I3 ( 12 ) T3 0

−I4 ( 5.25

−r4 r4 0 0 0 0 5 )

T4 =

0 (8)

−1 −1 0 0 1 −1 −m4 ( 0.175

5 )

T5

0

0.175

0 0 −1 −1 0 1 −m3 ( 5 ) T6 0

0 0 0 0 −1 0 −mA ( 0.1755 ) α −mA g

The solution for the nominal case and for the case of essentially massless pulleys are shown below,

both of which match expectations. If the masses are close to zero, each rope carries the full driving

force of 50 N. The angular acceleration α = −290.06 rad/s2 corresponds closely to the expected

2

acceleration of mA with massless pulleys : (290)( 0.175

5 ) = 10.15 m/s . With the addition of mass to

the pulley disks, the acceleration of mA is reduced. This is in line with expectations. More mass

and rotational inertia implies less acceleration.

312

7.3.54

GOAL: Find the car’s equation of motion.

GIVEN: mc = 1100 kg, me = 100 kg, ms = 10 kg, mt = 20 kg, mw = 14 kg, rs = 0.05 m,

rt = 0.2 m, rw = 0.3 m.

DRAW:

ASSUME: We have two velocity conditions to apply. First there’s the rolling contact of gears

that occurs between the engine’s output shaft and the transmission gear:

r

−rs θ̈ = rt β̈ ⇒ θ̈ = − t β̈ (1)

rs

and second there’s the roll without slip assumption for the wheels

ẍ

ẍ = −rw β̈ ⇒ β̈ = − (2)

rw

r

(1), (2) ⇒ θ̈ = t ẍ (3)

r s rw

All wheels have the same mass of 14 kg. Each of the three undriven wheels experience the same

forces. We assume motion in a straight line and thus the moments needed to keep the bodies oriented

as shown are not going to affect our final equation of motion and are omitted for simplicity. The

forces T1 and T3 arise from an interaction between the vehicle body and the wheels’ individual

axles (they’re the forces that constrain each wheel to move with the body).

313

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: Balance of forces for the car:

P + N = ms ẍ (5)

−M + rs N = I s θ̈ (6)

Balance of forces and moments for the transmission/driven wheel:

rt N − rw Q = (I t + I w )β̈ (8)

Balance of forces and moments for each undriven wheel:

−T1 + T2 = mw ẍ (9)

rw T2 = I w β̈ (10)

SOLVE:

(4), (5) ⇒ (mc + me )ẍ = N − ms ẍ + 3T1 − T3 (11)

M + I s θ̈

(6), (11) ⇒ (mc + me )ẍ = −ms ẍ + 3T1 − T3 + (12)

rs

Iw

(9), (10) ⇒ T1 = T2 − mw ẍ = β̈ − mw ẍ (13)

rw

T3 = (mt + mw )ẍ + N + Q = (mt + mw )ẍ + N + rt − t r w

w w (14)

rt + rw (I t + I w )β̈

= (mt + mw )ẍ + r N− r

w w

rt I s 4I w It r + rw 1

[mt + mc + me + ms + 4mw ]ẍ = − θ̈ + β̈ + β̈ − t M+ M (15)

rs rw rw rw rw rs rs

Let the total mass of the vehicle be denoted by mv :

mv ≡ mt + mc + me + ms + 4mw (16)

2

rt 4I w It rt

(2), (3), (15), (16) ⇒ mv ẍ = − I s ẍ − 2 ẍ − 2 ẍ − r r M

rs rw rw rw w s

" #

r 2 r

t

mv + r r I s + 4I2w + I2t ẍ = − r tr M

s w rw rw w s

Note how the rotational inertias affect the overall effective translational mass of the system. Treat-

ing all the gears and wheels as uniform cylinders and using the given parameter values, we have

rt 2 4I w It

I s = 2.2 kg, 2 = 28 kg, 2 = 4.4 kg

rs rw rw rw

314

The actual mass of the vehicle is 1286 kg, and thus we see that the rotational inertia of the gears

and wheels has increased the effective mass of the car by 2.7 percent.

(1321 kg) ẍ = (13.3 m−1 )M

315

7.3.55

GOAL: Find the clamping force needed in four brakes to decelerate a car from 60 mph to zero in

2 seconds.

GIVEN: Locations of disk brakes and size of car’s wheels.

ASSUME: All brakes experience identical forces and the car moves in a straight line, without

rotation.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

The F1 s are the interaction forces between the car body and the brake/wheel assembly, the F3 s are

the forces from the brakes and the F2 s are the ground/wheel interaction forces. Twisting of the

brake/wheel assembly (which would need to be countered by opposing moments) are neglected.

Force Balance, Body: 4F3 − 4F1 = mb ẍ (1)

Force Balance,

F1 − F2 − F3 = mT ẍ (2)

Brake/Tire:

Moment Balance, ẍ

−F2 r2 + F3 r1 = I T θ̈ = −IT (3)

Brake/Tire: r2

SOLVE:

m

(1), (2) ⇒ −F2 = mT + b ẍ (4)

4

m ẍ

(4) → (3) ⇒ r2 mT + b ẍ + r1 F3 = −I T

4 r2

!

m I

r2 mT + b + T ẍ = −r1 F3 (5)

4 r2

5280 ft/mi

0 − 60 mph

3600 s/h

ẍ = = −44 ft/s2 (6)

2

316

!

2900 lb

(1 ft) (44 ft/s2 )

(4)(32.2 ft/s2 )

(5), (6) ⇒ F3 = = 2380 lb (7)

5 in

12 in/ft

Each F3 is the sum of two piston contributions. The force for each contacting surface will be equal

to the normal force Fp times the coefficient of friction µ:

2µFp = 2380 lb

1190 lb

Fp = µ lb

317

7.3.56

GOAL: Find the maximum velocity v of the sports sedan.

GIVEN: Relevant equations, ρ = 1.2 kg/m3 , A = 2 m2 , m = 1450 kg, M = 300 N· m, r = 0.3 m,

n = 2.74, cr = 0.02, 15% loss in force from the engine.

DRAW:

ASSUME: I¯W = mE = I¯E = mF = 0. The vehicle rolls without slip and thus rθ̈ = −ẍ where r is

*

the wheel’s radius, θ̈ is the wheel’s angular acceleration in the k direction and ẍ is the acceleration

*

in the ı direction. The inner disk on the wheel represents a gear attached to the wheel which has

a radius that’s 2.74 times larger than the rotating gear labeled E (for engine).

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: We’ll use a force and moment balance applied to the illustrated

model, a massless framework that connects the engine to the driven wheel. All the mass of the

vehicle will be viewed as being contained in the hub of the wheel. We don’t need to know the masses

of the individual wheels because we’re looking for the car’s top speed - implying zero acceleration.

If we’d wanted to know, for instance, how large an acceleration were possible then we’d need to go

into more detail with regard to the particular masses making up the car.

Wheel (W ):

*

ı : mẍ = S1 − F1 (1)

*

k : T 1 r W − F1 r = 0 (2)

Engine (E):

*

ı : R1 = 0 (3)

318

*

k : −M + T1 rE = 0 (4)

Framework (F ):

*

ı : −S1 − R1 = 0 (5)

SOLVE:

(3), (5) ⇒ S1 = 0 (6)

M rW

(2), (4) ⇒ F1 = (7)

r rE

M rW

(1), (6), (7) ⇒ mẍ = − (8)

r rE

Thus we see that the force acting on the car depends on the applied moment M divided by the

wheel’s radius r and multiplied by the gear ratio.

Adding the wind drag gives us

nM

mẍ = − − Fdrag

r

where n is the overall gear ratio and Fdrag is the total drag force acting on the car.

Because ẍ = 0 at the car’s maximum speed we have (including the drivetrain loss)

0.85nM 1

0= − ρca Av 2 − cr mg

r 2

0.85(2.74)300 N· m 1

0= − (1.2 kg/m3 )(0.35)(2 m2 )v 2 − 0.02(1450 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )

0.3 m 2

319

7.3.57

GOAL: Determine the angular acceleration of disk A.

GIVEN: r = 1.0 m, mA = mB = 50 kg, mC = 0, M = 60 kg· m.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Force balance on disk A:

*

ı: SA + FA sin θ + PA cos θ = mA ẍA (1)

Moment balance on disk A:

*

k: −M + rSA − r2 FA = I¯A θ̈ (2)

Force balance on disk B:

*

ı: SB + FB sin θ + PB cos θ = mB ẍB (4)

Moment balance on disk B:

*

k: rSB − r2 FB = I¯B θ̈ (5)

Force balance on body C:

*

ı (mC = 0): −FA sin θ − PA cos θ − FB sin θ − PB cos θ = 0 (7)

*

(mC = 0): FA cos θ − PA sin θ + FB cos θ − PB sin θ = 0 (8)

Moment balance on body C:

* L

k (mC = 0): −FA cos θ + PA sin θ + FB cos θ − PB sin θ = 0 (9)

2

320

SOLVE: (1) – (9) constitute a set of 9 equations in 9 unknowns.

(1), (2), (3) ⇒ M + FA (r2 + r sin θ) + rPA cos θ = − I¯A + mA r2 θ̈ (13)

(4), (5), (6) ⇒ FB (r2 + r sin θ) + rPB cos θ = − I¯B + mB r2 θ̈ (14)

M

(12), (13), (14) ⇒ θ̈ = − ¯ ¯ (15)

IA + IB + mA r2 + mB r2

mA = mB = 50 kg, I¯A = I¯B = 12 (50 kg)(1 m)2 , M = 60 N· m

321

7.4 Linear/Angular Momentum of 2-D Rigid Bodies

322

7.4.1

GOAL:

Determine the minimum length (L) of the platform such that the man can reach the absolute

position x = 2 m without leaving the platform.

GIVEN:

An 80 kg man is standing centered (x = 0 m) on a 20 kg platform which rests on an frictionless

surface and at t = 0 the man begins to walk to the right.

DRAW:

SOLVE:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Momentum is conserved for the system (all the interaction forces are internal to the system).

Therefore the system’s center of mass won’t change position.

SOLVE:

Initially the man M is located at the center of mass GP of the platform. In his final state he’s 2 m

to the right, as illustrated. We know that the mass center of the system can’t change and so have

L

− 2 m (20 kg) = (2 m)(80 kg)

2

L

= 10 m

2

L = 20 m

323

7.4.2

GOAL: Find (a) the velocity and (b) the position of the two mass system after relative motion as

well as (c) the internal forces between elements.

GIVEN: System configuration and initial conditions.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: By applying our linear impulse and momentum formulas we’ll

be able to determine the speeds of the two bodies. The accelerations can then be found by using

the formulas for change in speed due to a constant acceleration.

SOLVE:

(a) All forces are internal and thus the system momentum (initially zero) remains zero. m1 ac-

celerates at a constant rate rα0 in the negative *ı direction and then decelerates an equal amount

(rα0 in positive *

ı direction). Thus its velocity relative to m2 is zero when it reaches point A.

.

System Momentum= 0 = m1 (v*m + v*m1 /m2) + m2 v*m

2 2

2 2

(b) Because there are no external forces, the system’s center of gravity doesn’t move. Initially the

CG is at

(3 m)m2 + (4 m)m1

(m1 + m2 )xCG = (3 m)m2 + (4 m)m1 ⇒ xCG =

m1 + m2

x is the distance of point A from 0.

xm1 + (x + 2 m)m2 = (3 m)m2 + (4 m)m1 ⇒ x = m1 + m2 = 1 m + m + m1

1 2

(3 m)m (3 m)m

(c) Initially point A is at x = 1 m and at t = 4 is at 1 m + m + m1 . Thus ∆x = m + m1 . At

1 2 1 2

1.5 mm1

t = 2 s it has traveled half the distance: m + m . Let the constant acceleration be given by a.

1 2

∆x (∆t)2 (2 s)2 (0.75 m/s2 )m1

=a =a = 2a s2 ⇒ a =

2 2 2 m1 + m2

Thus F = m1 + m2 . F acts from 0 ≤ t ≤ 2 and −F from 2 ≤ t ≤ 4.

324

7.4.3

GOAL: Find angular velocity of disk.

GIVEN: Velocity of disk’s mass center and initial linear momentum.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

The system’s mass center is stationary and thus we have:

LI(0) = 0 (1)

Motion is constrained to the horizontal direction and because there are no external horizontal forces

we have conservation of linear momentum:

LI(t) = LI(0) (2)

Because we have roll without slip we have

ẋ = ẏ − rθ̇ (3)

SOLVE:

(1), (2) ⇒ mA ẋ + mB ẏ = 0 (4)

−(mA + mB )ẋ −(10 kg + 5 kg)(5 m/s)

(3), (4) ⇒ θ̇ = = = −75 rad/s

mB r (5 kg)(0.2 m)

325

7.4.4

GOAL: Determine rotation rate of a uniform cylinder after linear impulse applied to supporting

block.

GIVEN: masses, dimensions, applied force, final speed of block.

DRAW:

ẋ = ẏ − rθ̇

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

The linear momentum of the system is increased from zero due to the applied linear impulse.

* * *

L(t2 ) = L(t1 ) + LI1−2

SOLVE:

*

LI1−2 = (10 *

ı N)(5 s) = 50 *

ı N·s (1)

*

L = mB vB *

ı + mA vA *

ı

= mB ẏ *

ı + mA (ẏ − rθ̇) *

ı (2)

ı m/s) + 16 kg(3.75 *

ı m/s − (0.5 m)θ̇ *

ı ) = 50 *

ı N·s

30 *

ı kg·m/s + 60 *

ı kg·m/s − 8θ̇ *

ı kg·m = 50 *

ı N·s

θ̇ = 5 rad/s

326

7.4.5

GOAL: Find v*A and v*B the speed of the racks after 0.5 s when a moment is applied to the center

gear which starts at rest.

GIVEN: mA = 10 kg, mB = 20 kg, mC = 6 kg, mD = 12 kg, mE = 6 kg, rC = 0.2 m, rD = 0.4 m,

rE = 0.2 m, M = 200 N m, ∆t = 0.5 s

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

On a system level only a single external moment is applied. We will calculate the equivalent total

system momentum Isys and use it to determine the final speeds.

Considering the angular momentum

of the system we have

Isys θ̇D − Isys θ̇D = M ∆t ⇒ Isys θ̇D = M ∆t (1)

t t

2 1

The relative speeds of the gears can be easily found. The points of interaction between the various

pieces are labeled as 1,2,3 and 4. Assume that the left rack (and hence point 1) is moving with

velocity v1 *

. This means that the leftmost point of Gear C moves at the same speed and the

rightmost point moves with the same magnitude but directed down, giving us v*2 = −v1 * . The

leftmost point of Gear C moves at the same velocity and thus point 3 moves up at v1 * . This

caused point 4 to move with velocity −v1 * and hence Rack B moves with a velocity −v1 * as well.

Thus we’ve seen that the racks move with the same speed but in opposite directions.

SOLVE: We could analyze the system as separate bodies but it’s more convenient to realize that

all the bodies move by a known amount (through kinematics) when Gear C rotates. Thus what

we’ll do is determine what the equivalent rotational inertia is of a gear that’s connected to the

driven gear and then generalize this to the entire system. Further simplifying the analysis is the

realization that the racks move with precisely the same velocity as the tangential velocity of the

gear with which they mesh. Thus we can view them not as separate bodies but as point masses

attached the the outer edge of the relevant gear. They will thus contribute a rotational inertia

equal to mr2 where m is the rack’s mass and r is the gear’s radius.

Carrying through with this analysis gives us

2

mC r C 2 (6 kg)(0.2 m)2

IC = + mA rC = + (10 kg)(0.2 m)2 = 0.52 kg m2

2 2

2

mD r D (12 kg)(0.4 m)2

ID = = = 0.96 kg m2

2 2

2

mE r E 2 (6 kg)(0.2 m)2

IE = + mB r E = + (20 kg)(0.2 m)2 = 0.92 kg m2

2 2

Now we need to determine how to combine these mass moments of inertias into a system-wide mass

moment of inertia. Consider a simpler system of 2 gears, where a moment is applied to Gear 1 and

327

an interaction force exists between the gears.

Sum Moments for Gear 1: M − F r1 = I1 θ̈1 (2)

From kinematics we have

−r1

θ̈2 = θ̈ (4)

r2 1

!

−r1 r1

(4) → (3) −F r2 = I2 θ̈ ⇒ F = I2 θ̈ (5)

r2 1 (r2 )2 1

! !2

r r1

(5) → (2) M − I2 1 2 θ̈1 r1 = I1 θ̈1 ⇒ M = I1 + I2 θ̈1

(r2 ) r2

2

r

And thus the effective mass moment of inertia of the 2 gear system is I1 + 1 I2 . The relationship

r

2

derived here can be applied to the current problem.

!2 !2

rD rD

Isys = ID + IC + IE

rC rE

2 2

0.4 m 0.4 m

Isys = 0.96 kg m2 + 0.52 kg m2 + 0.92 kg m2 = 6.72 kg m2

0.2 m 0.2 m

M ∆t (200 N m)(0.5 s)

(1) ⇒ θ̇D = = = 14.88 rad/s

Isys 6.72 kg m2

!

r

vA = −rC − D θ̇D = rD θ̇D = (0.4 m)(14.88 rad/s) = 5.95 m/s

rC

vA = 5.95 *

m/s vB = −5.95 *

m/s

328

7.4.6

GOAL: Find the velocity of the rack at t = 0.3 s.

ı m/s, mR = 10 kg, M = 90 N·m, IM = 0.05 kg· m2 , r = 0.1 m.

GIVEN: v*R (0) = −5 *

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: The balance of angular momentum for the gear about the shaft

of the motor is

IO θ̇(t2 ) − IO θ̇(t1 ) = AI 1−2

For the rack, we can formulate a balance of linear momentum:

mR (t2 )vR (t2 ) − mR (t1 )vR (t1 ) = LI 1−2

From the free body diagrams of the gear and the rack, the angular and linear impulses are

Z t Z t

2 2

AI 1−2 = (M − rF )dt = M ∆t − r F dt

t t

1 1

Z t

2

LI 1−2 = F dt

t

1

Because the angular speed of the gear is related to the speed of the rack by vR = rθ̇, we can write

the two momentum balances as Z t

1 1 2

IO vR (t2 ) − IO vR (t1 ) = M ∆t − r F dt (1)

r r t

1

Z t

2

mR vR (t2 ) − mR vR (t1 ) = F dt (2)

t

1

SOLVE: We can eliminate the unknown force term and solve for the velocity of the rack at time

t2 :

1 1

r M ∆t + m+ I

r2 O

vR (t1 )

(1) → (2) ⇒ vR (t2 ) = 1

m+ I

r2 O

(90 N·m)(0.3 s) 0.05 kg·m2

0.1 m + 10 kg + (0.1 m)2

(−5 m/s)

vR = = 13 m/s

0.05 kg·m2

10 kg + (0.1 m)2

v*R = 13 *

ı m/s

329

7.4.7

GOAL:

Determine the absolute angular velocity of the disk at t = 3 s and the angular velocity of the disk,

relative to the bar AG, at t = 3 s.

GIVEN:

r1 = 0.1 m, L = 0.5 m, md = 1 kg, mb = 1.2 kg, M = 3 N·m

DRAW:

Since the disk doesn’t rotate, its only contribution to the overall rotational inertia is in its mass.

The system is equivalent to a bar with a tip mass:

* * *

H = H + AI0−3

3 0

*

I A θ˙b = 0 + M (3 s)

3

!

mb L2

md L2 + θ˙b = (3 N· m)(3 s)

3 3

!

(1.2 kg)(0.5 m)2

2

(1 kg)(0.5 m) + θ˙b = 9 kg m2 / s

3 3

θ˙b = 25.7 rad/s

3

A reference frame attached to the bar will rotate with angular velocity 25.7 rad/s and one attached

to the disk would rotate at 0 rad/s. Therefore the angular velocity of the disk with respect to the

bar is

−25.7 rad/s

330

7.4.8

GOAL: Determine how long it will take a rotating wheel to come to rest.

GIVEN: Initial angular speed is ω0 and coefficient of friction is µ.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Force balance: (N1 − µN2 ) *

ı + (N2 + µN1 − mg) *

=0

*

ı : N1 − µN2 = 0 (1)

*

: N2 + µN1 = 0 (2)

X

Moment sum about G MG = −µN2 r − µN1 r (3)

SOLVE:

X µmgr(1 + µ)

(1), (2), (3) ⇒ MG = −

1 + µ2

Our initial angular momentum is

mr2 ω0

IG ω0 =

2

and we want to apply enough angular impulse to bring the angular momentum to zero:

mr2 ω0 µmgr(1 + µ) ∗ ∗ rω0 (1 + µ2 )

− t = 0 ⇒ t =

2 1 + µ2 2µg(1 + µ)

rω0 (1 + µ2 )

t∗ =

2µg(1 + µ)

331

7.4.9

GOAL: Find the time need for a rotating disk to come to rest.

GIVEN: The coefficient of friction between the disk and the ground is µ and the disk’s initial

angular speed is ω0 .

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Consider an differential ring with thickness dr and at radius r from the center of the disk. Let the

mass density/unit area of the disk be ρ.

Friction force acting on the element: dF = µ(ρ2πrdr)g

SOLVE:

The total moment acting over the entire disk is given by

ZR

2µρπgR3

(1)⇒ T = 2µρπg r2 dr = (2)

3

0

mR2 ω0

The disk has an initial angular momentum of Iω0 = 2

The moment acting to slow the disk is constant in magnitude and thus we have

mr2 ω0 2µρπgR3 ∗

− t =0

2 3

3mω0 3Rω0

t∗ = =

4µρπgR 4µg

3Rω

t∗ = 4µg0

332

7.4.10

GOAL:

Determine the absolute rotational velocity of the disk at the instant the moment goes to zero.

Determine the behaviour of the system after t2 .

GIVEN:

At θ = 0, θ̇ = 5 rad/s and t = 0. When θ = 90 degrees (t = t1 ) the clamp unlatches and a negative

moment is applied to AG at A to slow the rotation to zero. Once the bar becomes stationary the

*

moment goes to zero (t = t2 ) and r = 0.3 m, L = 1.5 m, md = 10 kg, mb = 20 kg and M = −100 k

N·m.

DRAW:

SOLVE:

At t = 0 the two bodies are joined together and thus constitute a single rigid body. Thus

θ˙d = θ˙b = 5 rad/s

t=0 t=0

At t = t1 the rotational velocity of AG will alter, but since there’s no way to apply a moment to

the disc, its angular velocity remains at 5 rad/s.

(a):

When the bar stops rotating the disk is rotating at

5 rad/s

(b):

After t2 the disk is still rotating at 5 rad/s since there’s still no applied moment to alter it.

333

7.4.11

GOAL: Determine his rotation rate if he starts at 5 rad/s (arms and legs extended) and ends with

his arms and legs brought in?

GIVEN: The chair plus his thighs and torso have a rotational inertia of IC/T /LL = 4 slug·ft2 , B is

16 in from the chair’s center of rotation, AB = 26 in, D is 9 in from the chair’s center of rotation,

CD = 26 in. Each of his arms (CD) weighs 11 pounds, each lower leg (AB) weighs 15 pounds, and

each Starfleet manual weighs 5 pounds.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: There are no external torques acting and so we can apply the

conservation of angular momentum. We’ll need the mass moment of inertia of a rod about its

center, mL2 /12 and the parallel axis theorem

IO = I¯ + md2

SOLVE:

Out:

Lower Legs (LL) about their mass center:

2

30 26

mL2 32.2 slg 12 ft

I¯LL = = = 0.364 slg· ft2

12 12

2

30 29

2 2 2

IO = 0.364 slg· ft + md = 0.364 slg· ft + slg ft = 5.81 slg· ft2

LL 32.2 12

Arms about their mass center:

2

22 26

mL2 32.2 slg 12 ft

I¯Arms = = = 0.267 slg· ft2

12 12

2

22 22

2 2 2

IO = 0.267 slg· ft + md = 0.267 slg· ft + ft = 2.56 slg· ft2

Arms 32.2 slg 12

Manuals about O:

2

5 35

IO = 2md2 = 2 slg = 2.64 slg· ft2

manuals 32.2 12

In:

334

Lower Legs about O:

2

30 16

IO = slg ft = 1.66 slg· ft2

LL 32.2 12

Arms about O:

2

22 9

IO = slg ft = 0.384 slg· ft2

Arms 32.2 12

Manuals about O:

2

5 9

2

IO = 2md = 2 slg = 0.175 slg· ft2

manuals 32.2 12

The total angular momentum is conserved and thus

ω2 = 12.1 rad/s

The rotation rate has more than doubled as a result of the mass rearrangement.

335

7.4.12

GOAL: Determine the rotational velocity of two discs after they’ve been joined.

GIVEN: Prior to joining ω1 = −50 rad/s and ω2 = 100 rad/s. Their physical parameters are

r1 = 5 cm, r2 = 8 cm, m1 = 1.1 kg and m2 = 3 kg.

DRAW:

SOLVE:

Moments of inertia:

1 1

I¯G1 = m1 r12 = (1.1 kg)(0.05 cm)2 = 1.375 × 10−3 kg· cm2

2 2

1 1

I¯G2 = m2 r22 = (3 kg)(0.08 cm)2 = 9.6 × 10−3 kg· cm2

2 2

Before Join:

Hsystem = (1.375 × 10−3 kg· cm2 )(−50 rad/s) + (9.6 × 10−3 kg· cm2 )(100 rad/s) = 0.891 kg· cm2 / s

After Join:

Hsystem = 1.375 × 10−3 kg· cm2 + 9.6 × 10−3 kg· cm2 ω

Hsystem = 1.10 × 10−2 kg· cm2 ω

Equating the two angular momenta yields

0.891 kg· cm2 / s = 1.10 × 10−2 kg· cm2 ω

ω = 81.2 rad/s

336

7.4.13

GOAL: Calculate how far a ball travels before it transitions to pure rolling.

*

GIVEN: µ = 0.65, d = 7 cm, m = 0.11 kg. Initially we have v*G = 5 * *

ı m/s and ω = 20k rad/s.

DRAW:

ASSUME: *

The ball is initially moving to the right at a velocity v1 *

ı and with an angular velocity ω1 k . Pure

rolling implies v*G = −θ̇r *

ı

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Currently v*G = 5 m/s and θ̇ = −20 rad/s.

We’ll use momentum to first find the impulse needed, use this to find the time required and from

the time deduce the displacement. v1 , ω1 and v2 , ω2 refer to the speed of the sphere’s mass center

and it’s angular speed, respectively, 1 indicating the initial state and 2 the final state at which pure

rolling initiates.

Linear momentum:

* * *

L2 = L1 + LI1−2

Z ∆t

mv2 = mv1 + −F1 dt = mv1 − F1 ∆t (1)

0

Angular momentum:

* * *

H2 = H1 + AI1−2

Z ∆t

IG ω2 = IG ω1 + −F1 r dt = IG ω1 − F1 r∆t (2)

0

2mr2

Using IG = 5 gives us

2mr2 2mr2

ω2 = ω1 − F1 r∆t (3)

5 5

SOLVE: For the ball to undergo roll without slip at State 2 we’ll need

v2 = −rω2 (4)

Because the sphere is initially slipping we have |F1 | = µmg which, when used with (3), gives us

5

rω2 = rω1 − µg∆t (5)

2

The slip assumption used with (1) gives us

v2 = v1 − µg∆t (6)

337

5

(4), (5), (6) ⇒ v1 − µg∆t = −rω1 + µg∆t

2

7

µg∆t = v1 + rω1

2

2(v1 + rω1 )

∆t =

7µg

2[5 m/s + (3.5×10−2 m)(20 rad/s)]

∆t = = 0.255 s

7(0.65)(9.81 m/s2 )

*

Force balance: N1 − mg − F1 *

ı = ma*G = mẍ *

ı

*

ı : −F1 = mẍ ⇒ ẍ = −µg = −0.65(9.81 m/s2 ) = −6.38 m/s2

∆x = (5 m/s)(∆t) − = 1.07 m

2

∆x = 1.07 m

338

7.4.14

GOAL: Find the post collision velocity of mass particle.

GIVEN: System configuration and impact position.

DRAW:

gular momentum about O:

vB − v 0

e= =1 (1)

v

0.2mLv = 0.2mLv 0 + IO ω (2)

ASSUME: Because the bar is a rigid body, v 0 isn’t independent of ω:

vB = 0.2ωL (3)

SOLVE: Parallel axis theorem:

IO = I + m(0.3L)2 = 0.173mL2 (4)

1.875v

(6) ⇒ ω= rad/s (7)

L

*

(7) → (5) ⇒ v*0 = −0.625v b 1

339

7.4.15

GOAL: Find the forces acting during the particle/bar collision.

GIVEN: System configuration and impact position.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

vB − v 0

e= = 1 ⇒ v = vB − v 0 (1)

v

Call the total linear impulse between the mass and bar LI F and the linear impulse at the hinge

LI R .

linear momentum, mass: mv − LI F = mv 0 (2)

1.875v

(6), (7) → (4) ⇒ ω= (8)

L

1.625mv

F = ∆

To find R we can examine the angular momentum of the bar about its mass center, equating the

applied angular impulse with the final angular momentum.

0 + (0.5L)LI F − (0.3L)LI R = IG ω

mL2 1.875v

(0.5L)(1.625mv) − (0.3L)LI R = ( )( ) = 0.156mvL

12 L

LI R = 2.19mv

R = 2.19mv

∆

340

7.4.16

GOAL: Find the velocity of a mass particle immediately after impacting a hinged bar.

GIVEN: System configuration and impact position.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

vB − v 0 ωL v

e= = 0.5 ⇒ v 0 = − (1)

v 4 2

Angular momentum balance, 7

0.25mLv = 0.25mLv 0 + IO ω = 0.25mlv 0 + mL2 ω (2)

system: 48

ωL v 7

(1) → (2) ⇒ 0.25mLv = 0.25mL − + mL2 ω

4 2 48

18v

simplfying: ω= (3)

17L

(3) → (1) ⇒ v 0 = ( 17L

18v L

)( 4 ) − v

2 = −0.235v

341

7.4.17

GOAL: Find v*m after collision with bar.

2

GIVEN: System configuration and impact position. L = 1 m, m1 = 3.5 kg, m2 = 0.1 kg, e = 0.75,

v = 40 m/s, ω1 = 25 rad/s.

DRAW:

ω1 is the rotational speed of bar before collision, ω2 is the rotational speed of bar after collision, v

is the velocity of ball before collision, and v 0 is the velocity of ball after collision.

Before: HO = IO ω1 − m2 v(0.75L) (1)

−0.75Lω2 − v 0

Impact: e= (4)

v + 0.75ω1 L

(5)→(3)⇒ IO ω1 − 0.75Lm2 v = IO ω2 − 0.75m2 L −0.75Lω2 − e(v + 0.75Lω1 )

ω1 IO − (0.75L)2 em2 − v(1 + e)(0.75Lm2 )

ω2 = (6)

IO + (0.75L)2 m2

SOLVE:

(6)→(5)⇒ v 0 = −e(v + 0.75Lω1 ) − 0.75Lω2

ω1 IO − (0.75L)2 em2 − v(1 + e)(0.75Lm2 )

v 0 = −e(v + 0.75Lω1 ) − 0.75L

IO + (0.75L)2 m2

m2 (0.75L)2 v − IO ev + 0.75Lω1 (1 + e)

v0 = (7)

IO + (0.75L)2 m2

m1 L2

IO = + m1 (0.35L)2 = 0.7204 kg· m2 (8)

12

*

(7)→(8)⇒ v*0 = −55.4 b 1 m/s

342

7.4.18

GOAL: Find a general expression for the rotational speed of a hinged bar after being impacted by

a mass particle as a function of e.

GIVEN: System configuration and impact position.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

vB − v 0 ωL

e= ⇒ v0 = − ev (1)

v 4

ωL

using vB = 4 .

m2 Lv m Lv 0 m Lv 0 7

Angular momentum balance, system: = 2 + IO ω = 2 + m1 L2 ω (2)

4 4 4 48

SOLVE:

m2 Lv m L ωL 7

(1) → (2) ⇒ = 2 − ev + m1 L2 ω

4 4 4 48

ω= m2 v(1 + e)

Simplifying: m2 7m1

L +

4 12

343

7.4.19

GOAL: Find how large a circle, centered at the origin must be drawn such that the entire mech-

anism stays within the circle for all time.

GIVEN: L = 0.3 m, mA = 20 kg, mB = 60 kg, M = 10 N m

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Because only an internal moment is applied to the 2-link system, the system’s mass center will

remain fixed in space and the links will move about that point. The largest these links can span

is when they are 180◦ apart from each other. This configuration is what defines the largest circle

that needs to be drawn so the mechanism stays inside for all time. Find the center of mass of

the system, treating the 2 links as mass particles at their respective center of masses, and consider

using x0 and y 0 axes which are centered at the hinge.

center of mass mr̄ = Σmi ri

SOLVE:

mr̄ *

= mB −mA * ⇒ r̄ = = = 0.075 m

2 2 2(mA + mB ) 2(20 kg + 60 kg)

Thus the distance from the center of mass of the system to the hinge is 0.075 m in this configuration.

The center of mass of the system always stays at the origin, therefore it is the hinge that has altered

its position. Here, the hinge would be located at y = −0.075 m. The distance from the center of

mass of the system to the end of link A would be L + r̄ = 0.375 m . The distance from the center

of mass of the system to the end of link B would be L − r̄ = 0.225 m. To enclose this configuration

in a circle centered at the origin, you would need a circle of radius 0.375 m

5L

circle of radius 0.375 m = 4

344

7.4.20

GOAL: Find the angular velocity of the body.

*

GIVEN: LI = 100 *

ı N· s, m = 50kg, a = 1 m, b = 0.5 m, c = 2 m

DRAW:

ASSUME: Let us assume that the body is initially at rest, and that it has a uniform linear density

ρ.

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: The balance of angular momentum is

*

*

*

1 *

IG ω = AIG ⇒ ω = AIG (1)

IG

The angular impulse is related to the linear impulse by

* *

AIG = r*O/ × LI (2)

G

to the center of mass is

1 1 ρc 1 *

r*O/ = ρc2 *

+ 2ρac *

+ 4ρbc *

= c + 2a *

+ 4b *

G m 2 m 2

The mass of the body expressed in terms of its density is m = ρ(c + 2a + 4b). Thus,

50 kg = ρ[2 + 2(1) + 4(0.5)] m ⇒ ρ = 8.3 kg/m

(8.3 kg/m)(2 m) 1

*

Therefore, rO/ = (2 m) + 2(1 m) + 4(0.5 m) = 1.6 *

m

G 50 kg 2

1 2

The moment of inertia of a bar about point O is IO = 12 mL + mrG2 . The distances from the

/O

individual mass centers of each bar to the mass center of the entire body are

k r*A/ k = c − rO/ = (2 − 1.6) m = 0.3 m

G G

q

2

q

k r*B/ k = a2 + k r*A/ k2 = 1 + 0.3 m = 1.054 m

G G

1 1

*

krC/ k = rO/ − c = 1.6 − (2) m = 0.6 m

G G 2 2

Thus, the moments of inertia of each individual bar about point the center of mass of the body are

1 1 2 1

Ia = (2ρa)(2a)2 +2ρarA2 = 2ρa a + rA2 = 2(8.3 kg/m)(1 m) (1 m)2 + (0.3 m)2 = 7.7407 kg· m2

12 /G 3 /G 3

345

1 1 2 1

Ib = (2ρb)(2b)2 +2ρbrB2 = 2ρb b + rB2 = 2(8.3 kg/m)(0.5 m) (0.5 m)2 + (1.054 m)2 = 9.9521 kg· m2

12 /G 3 /G 3

1 1 2 1

Ic = (ρc)(c)2 +ρcrC2 = ρc c + rC2 = (8.3 kg/m)(2 m) (2 m)2 + (0.6 m)2 = 12.9628 kg· m2

12 /G 12 /G 12

Thus, the total moment of inertia about the center of mass is

*

1 *

(2) → (1) ⇒ ω = 2

1.6 *

m × 100 *

ı N · s = −5.44k rad/s

30.6556 kg · m

* *

ω = −5.44k rad/s

346

7.4.21 *

GOAL: Find time required for wheel to have angular velocity of -10 k rad/s.

GIVEN: Geometry, coefficient of friction, and initial conditions.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

1

Moment of inertia of uniform disk: Idisk = mdisk r2 (1)

2 disk

1

Moment of inertia of right triangle: Irgt∆ = mrgt∆ a2 + b2 (2)

18

* *

Z t *

Linear momentum: L(t) − L(0) = F ext dt (4)

0

Z t

* * *

Angular momentum: H(t) − H(0) = r*×F ext dt (5)

0

SOLVE: √

Find outer ra- 2 3L

rinner = = 0.5774 ft ⇒ router = rinner + 0.4L = 0.9774 ft (6)

dius: 3 2

We can solve for the object’s areal density:

30 lb

2

mtotal 32.2 ft/s

ρ= = √

Areatotal 2 1 1 ft 3(1 ft + π ((0.9774 ft)2 − (0.5774 ft)2 )

2 2 2

and then find I for an the annular disk using (1):

I¯disk = ρπ 4 4

2 router − rinner

(0.3904 slug/ft2 )π

(0.9774 ft)4 − (0.5774 ft)4

= 2

We can most easily determine the rotational inertia of the inner equilateral triangle by breaking it

into two right-triangles. We’ll first find the mass moment of inertia of a single right-triangle using

(2) and (3).

347

2 √ !2

1 1 3 1 L

I¯∆ = 2 I¯rgt∆ + mrgt∆ d2 = 2mrgt∆ L + L + (9)

18 2 2 32

√ ! !

1 1 3 1 (1 ft)

(9) ⇒ I¯∆ = 2mrgt∆ 2

( (1 ft)) + ( 2

(1 ft)) + = 0.0141 slug · ft2 (10)

18 2 2 3 2

ing, (5): H(t) = I¯total θ̇ = −router µmtotal gt ⇒ t = (12)

router µmtotal g

(12) ⇒ t= = 0.287 s

(0.6)(30 lb)(0.9774 ft)

We can verify the sliding assumption using (4):

Z t

L(t) = L(0) + −µmtotal g ⇒ v(t) = 30 ft/s − (0.6)(32.232.2 ft/s2 )(0.287 s) = 24.5 ft/s (13)

0

v(t) + router θ̇ = 24.4552 ft/s − (0.9774 ft)(10 rad/s) 6= 0

(13):

Thus the slipping assumption was valid.

348

7.4.22

GOAL: Find body’s rotational velocity after application of a linear impulse.

GIVEN: Size, mass of body and orientation, magnitude of linear impulse

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

* * *

I ω(t 2

) = I ω(t 1

) + r*A/ × L I

G

m 2

(a + b2 )

I=

18

where a, b correspond to the base, height of a right triangle. Break up our equilateral triangle into

two right triangles. For our left triangle we have

√

2

3L mL2

2

m L

I= + =

18 2 2 18

6 from A :

mL2 3mL2

2

L

IG = +m =

18 6 36

Left

√ √

3L2 ρ and thus I 3ρL4

m= 8 G

= 96

Le √ 4

We have two pieces (Left and Right) and thus 3ρL 48

The areal density for our system is found from

√ ! !

L 3L 20 lb 1.43 (slug·ft2 )

ρ = ⇒ ρ =

2 2 32 ft/s2 L2

√ √ !

3(1.43 slug·ft2 )L2 * 3L *

ω(t2 ) = 0 + (40 lb·s)k

48 6

) = 223

* *

ω(t 2 L k rad/s

349

7.4.23

GOAL: Find ω2 , The angular velocity of the wheel after striking a 45◦ slope.

GIVEN: v = v *

ı , m = 10 kg, r = 0.25 m

DRAW:

ASSUME: Assume zero rebound and the wheel rolls without slip.

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

When the wheel hits the incline, a normal force will exist which is directed through both G and C.

This normal force doesn’t create a moment therefore we have conservation of angular momentum

about C. Letting t1 , t2 denote the time just before and just after impact we have

* *

HC t = HC t

2 1

where each momentum term includes both angular momentum due to rigid body translation and

angular momentum due to rigid body rotation.

* * *

H = I ω k, H = Iω¯ k* + r* ×mv*

C t C C C t 1 G/ 1

2 1 C

v2 = v1 = −rω1

SOLVE:

The final angular momentum is given by !

* * 3mr2 *

HC t = IC ω2 k = ω2 k (1)

2 2

The angular momentum just before impact is given

√

by √

* *

¯

HC t = Iω1 k + − 2 r ı + 2 * 2 *

×mv1 *

2 r ı

1 h √ i*

2

= mr

2 ω 1

− rmv1 22 k

h −v √ i* (2)

mr2 1 − rmv 2

= 2 k

r√ * 1 2

1+ 2

= −mrv1 2 k

! √ ! √

3mr2 1+ 2 v(1 + 2)

(1) = (2) ⇒ ω2 = −mrv1 ⇒ ω2 = −

2 2 3r

√

ω2 = − v(1+

3r

2)

350

7.5 Work/Energy of Two-Dimensional Rigid Bodies

351

7.5.1

GOAL: Determine the angle at which a slowly rolling cylinder begins to slip.

GIVEN: Coefficient of friction.

DRAW:

* *

ı

e*r sin θ cos θ

e*θ cos θ − sin θ

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Force balance: + T e*r − S e*θ = m(rθ̈ e*θ − rθ̇2 e*r )

−mg *

SOLVE:

(2), (3) ⇒ mr2 θ̈ = r(mg sin θ − mrθ̈)

g sin θ

θ̈ = (4)

2r

g sin θ

Use θ̈dθ = 2r dθ = θ̇dθ̇ and integrate:

g

θ̇2 = (1 − cos θ) (5)

r

(5) → (1) ⇒ T = mg(2 cos θ − 1) (6)

g mg sin θ

(4) → (2) ⇒ S = mg sin θ − mr sin θ = (7)

2r 2

Smax = µT and, using (6) and (7) we have

mg sin θ

= µmg(2 cos θ − 1)

2

352

sin θ = 2µ(2 cos θ − 1)

Solving this gives us an answer of

θ = 0.522 rad

353

7.5.2

GOAL: Determine θ when the cylinder loses contact with the path.

GIVEN:

The slope is constant at -8◦ . The distance from A to B is 0.8 m r1 = 0.15 m, r2 = 1.5 m, m = 4kg

The cylinder rolls without slip.

DRAW:

We’ll break the problem into 2 phases: “A to B” and “after B”. We’ll use energy to find the

angular rotation of the cylinder at B.

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Going from A to B we have energy conservation. Denote the rotation rate of the cylinder at B as

β̇B .

KE + PE = KE + PE

A A B B

2

!

1 3mr1 2

0 + mgh = β̇B

2 2

SOLVE: !

◦ 2 1 (3)(4 kg)(0.15 m)2 2

sin 8 (4 kg)(9.81 m/s )(0.8 m) = β̇B

2 2

2

β̇B = 64.7 s−2

Note that we know it’s negative (clock-wise rotation) because the cylinder is rolling downhill to the

right.

Now consider the case after the cylinder passes the point B. We need to determine when the normal

force goes to zero. The fact that the cylinder is rolling on a circular path will induce centrifugal

forces that will affect the normal force. When the cylinder rolls with angular velocity β̇ the velocity

of its center of mass is equal to r1 β̇. The center of mass follows a circular path with radius r2 + r1 .

This implies an acceleration component in the e*n direction.

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

" 2

vG

! #

* * * *

Force balance: − N1 − mg sin θ e n + −S1 + mg cos θ e t = m e n − r1 β̈ e t

r 1 + r2

Equating coefficients:

354

2

vG mr12 β̇ 2

*

en : mg sin θ − N1 = m = (1)

r 1 + r2 r 1 + r2

mr12

Moment balance: −S1 r1 = β̈ (3)

2

mr12 β̇ 2

(1) ⇒ N1 = mg sin θ − (4)

r1 + r2

Now we’ll use conservation of energy to find β̇. We know that θ = 82◦ at the point at which the

cylinder leaves the flat surface (from geometry). Hence we have:

KE + PE = KE + PE

B B N =0 N =0

3mr12 3mr12

! !

1 2

◦ 1 2

β̇B + mg r1 + r2 sin(82 ) = β̇N =0

+ mg r1 + r2 sin θ (5)

2 2 2 2

SOLVE:

Evaluating (5) with our known parameter!

values yields

1 (3)(4 kg)(0.15 m)2

(64.7 s−2 ) + (4)(9.81 m/s2 )(1.65 m) (0.990) =

2 2

!

1 (3)(4 kg)(0.15 m)2 2

β̇N =0

+ (4 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )(1.65 m) sin θ

2 2

2

=0

+ 64.7 sin θ s−2

2

β̇N =0

= (1015 − 959 sin θ) s−2 (6)

Lift off occurs when N1 = 0 and so we have

91.6 sin θ = 55.3

sin θ = 0.604

θ = 37.2◦

355

7.5.3

GOAL: Find the maximum v0 to let the cylinder roll without a jump.

GIVEN: Cylinder has a radius R and the slope is inclined at an angle α. The cylinder rolls without

slip.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

We need to consider the cylinder when it has reached the position indicated by State 2 - it’s at the

end of its rotation about A and is just about to roll down the slope.

At State 1 the cylinder has a kinetic energy equal to 21 mv02 + 21 IG θ̇2 . The relationship between

the angular speed and the cylinder’s translational speed is v0 = −Rθ̇. Hence the kinetic energy at

State 1 is given by !

1 1 mR2 −v0 2 3

2

KE = mv0 + = mv02

1 2 2 2 R 4

At State 2 the center of mass of the cylinder is moving at v and has moved vertically down by a

distance d = R(1 − cos α). Thus an energy balance between States 1 and 2 gives us

3 3

mv 2 = −mgR(1 − cos α) + mv 2 (1)

4 0 4

Now, looking at our FBD=IRD we see that a force balance in the e*n direction gives us

mv 2

= mg cos α − N

R

We’re interested in the case N = 0 (which is associated with the highest speed for which contact is

maintained between the cylinder and the surface). Setting N = 0 gives us

mv 2

= mg cos α (2)

R

3 7

(1), (2) ⇒ mv02 = mgR cos α − mgR

4 4

r

gR(7 cos α − 4)

v0 = 3

356

7.5.4

GOAL: Find angular velocity and reaction at O when rod is vertical.

GIVEN: k = 2×105 N/m and is initially compressed by 0.1 m. m1 = 10 kg, m2 = 5 kg, L = 2.8 m

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Apply conservation of energy from State 1 to State 2 followed by a force and moment balance at

the vertical position:

1

KE = 0, PE = (2 × 105 N/m)(0.1 m)2 = 1000 N· m (1)

1 1 2

1 L

KE = I 0 θ̇2 , PE = m2 gL + m1 g = (9.81 m/s2 )(10 kg)(2.8 m) = 275 N· m (2)

2 2 2 2

Force Balance: R2 *

ı − (mg + R1 ) * ı − θ̇2 rG *

= θ̈rG * m

*

ı:

R2 = mrG θ̈ (3)

*

:

mg + R1 = mrG θ̇2 (4)

Balance of Angular Momentum about O:

I 0 θ̈ = 0 (5)

L 2.8 m

(15 kg)rG = m1 + m2 L = (10 kg) + (5 kg)(2.8 m) = 28 kg· m

2 2

rG = 1.86 m (6)

SOLVE:

1

(1), (2) ⇒ 1000 N· m = I 0 θ̇2 + 275 N· m

2

!

1 m1 L2

1000 N· m = + m2 L2 θ̇2 + 275 N· m

2 3

357

θ̇ = 4.71 rad/s (clockwise)

(7)

(3), (5) ⇒ R2 = 0

R1 = 474 N

358

7.5.5

GOAL: Find ω of a constrained rod at the bottom of a circular guide.

GIVEN: Initial position and orientation of rod within guide.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Apply conservation of energy :

KE + PE = KE + PE

1 1 2 2

SOLVE:

State 1: Center of AB defined as zero elevation

PE = 0 KE = 0

1 1

tan(36 )

PE = −mgh

2

!

2mL2 (0.9 m)2

IG = I + mh = + mh2 = m + (0.6194 m)2 = (0.4511 m2 )m

12 12

1

KE = IG θ̇2

2 2

Apply conservation of energy:

KE + PE = KE + PE

1 1 2 2

1

0 = [(0.4511 m2 )m]θ̇2 − m(9.81 m/s2 )(0.6194 m)

2

θ̇ = 5.19 rad/s

359

7.5.6

GOAL: Calculate the speed at which the end of a rod strikes the ground and the terminal rotation

rate for two different cases.

GIVEN: System dimensions and mass.

DRAW:

CASE (a):

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

State 0 corresponds to the upright rod and State 1 to the rod in a horizontal

position.

KE + PE = KE + PE

0 0 1 1

!

1 mL2

KE = θ̇2 , PE = 0

1 2 3 2

KE + PE = KE + PE

0 0 1 1

SOLVE:

mgL mL2 2 q

= θ̇ ⇒ θ̇ = 3g

L

2 6

q

3g

θ̇ = L

√

vA = θ̇L = 3gL

CASE (b):

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

mgL

KE = 0 PE =

0 0 2

* * *

v*A = ẋ *

ı + θ̇ k ×L b 2 = ẋ *

ı − θ̇L b 1

360

* L* θ̇L *

v*G = ẋ *

ı + θ̇ k × b 2 = ẋ *

ı − b

2 2 1

π

When θ = 2 rad we have

θ̇L *

v*G = ẋ *

ı −

2

Because there are no horizontal forces, there can be no horizontal velocity of the mass center. Thus

ẋ = 0.

SOLVE:

KE + PE = KE + PE

0 0 1 1

!

mgL 1 mL2 q

3g

= θ̇2 ⇒ θ̇ = L

2 2 3

√

vA = θ̇L = 3gL

361

7.5.7

GOAL: Determine the velocity with which corner A of a square body strikes the ground and the

body’s angular velocity just before the strike.

GIVEN: System orientation at release and strike. For case (a) the body is hinged whereas in (b)

it slides on a friction-free surface.

DRAW:

CASE (a):

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

State 1 corresponds to the square body balanced on a corner and State 2 corresponds to having

rotated to the right by 45◦ .

For a uniform square body we have

mL2

IG =

6

and thus the mass moment of inertia about the corner O is given by

L 2 2

IO = IG + m √ = mL2

2 3

L

PE = mg √ , KE = 0

1 2 1

L 1

PE = mg , KE = IO ω 2

2 2 2 2

SOLVE:

Applying

KE + PE = KE + PE

1 1 2 2

gives us

L L 1

mg √ = mg + mL2 ω 2

2 2 3

√

g 1 1 3g( 2 − 1)

2

ω =3 √ − =

L 2 2 2L

* *

ω = ω k where

r √

3g( 2 − 1)

ω=− 2L

*

v*A = ω k ×L *

ı

362

r √

* 3gL( 2 − 1) *

vA = − 2

CASE (b):

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: In this case we know from conservation of linear momentum in

the *

ı direction that the center of mass has to drop vertically down. At impact we have

v*G = −vG *

We’ll use this relationship and conservation of energy to solve the problem.

SOLVE:

L * * ωL * ωL *

* * * * *

v O = v G + v O/ = −vG + ω k × (− ı − ) = ı + −vG −

G 2 2 2

v*O has no component in the * direction if contact isn’t lost between the block and the ground.

Thus we have

ωL * ωL *

* *

v O = vO ı = ı + −vG −

2 2

ωL 2v

vG + =0 ⇒ ω=− G

2 L

Applying conservation of energy we have

PE + KE = PE + KE

1 1 2 2

L L 1 2 1

mg √ = mg + mvG + IG ω 2

2 2 2 2

! 2

1 1 1 1 mL2 4vG

2

mgL √ − = mvG +

2 2 2 2 6 L2

√

2 3( 2 − 1)gL

vG =

5

s √

3( 2 − 1)gL

vG =

5

r √

2v 3( 2 − 1)g

ω = − LG = −2 5L

Now we can find v*A .

+ ωk × L

*

v*A = v*G + ω×

*

r*A/ = vG * * *

2 (ı − )

G

= −vG * + ωL ( *ı +*)

r √ 2 r √

3( 2 − 1)gL * 3( 2 − 1)gL * *

=− 5 − 5 (ı + )

r √

* 3( 2 − 1)gL *

vA = 5 (− ı − 2 *

)

363

7.5.8

GOAL: Find Sam’s speed after falling 5 m while holding onto an unwinding chain.

GIVEN: Unwinding resisted by a force of 500 N. Mass moment of inertia of the gear/cylinder is

240 kg· m2 , r = 1.1 m, m = 72 kg.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Initial state: KE = 0, PE = mgh.

1 1

Work done: −(500 N)h.

2

Final state: KE = 12 I θ̇2 + 12 m rθ̇ , PE = 0.

2 2

SOLVE: Letting the final energy equal the initial plus the work done yields:

1 1

(72 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )(5 m) − (500 N)(5 m) = (240 kg· m2 ) + (72 kg)(1.1 m)2 θ̇2

2 2

θ̇ = 2.51 rad/s

364

7.5.9

GOAL: Determine response of a board as it slides down a wall.

GIVEN: System configuration and parameter values. L = 2 m, m = 10 kg.

DRAW:

the θ = 45◦ position then initially we have

L

KE = 0, PE = mg (cos 15◦ − cos 45◦ )

1 1 2

◦

At State 2 (θ = 45 ) we have

1 1

KE = I θ̇2 + mvG2

, PE = 0

2 2 2 2

θ̇ and vG are related through the system constraints. Because of the constraining wall and floor we

have v*A = vA * and v*B = vB *

ı . Using

v*A = v*B + ω

*

× r*A/

B

gives us

*

v*A = vB *

ı − θ̇L b 1 = (vB − Lθ̇ cos θ) *

ı − Lθ̇ sin θ *

In the *

ı direction,

vB = Lθ̇ cos θ

*

In the direction,

vA = −Lθ̇ sin θ

The velocity of the center of mass is

L L

v*G = v*B + v*G/ = θ̇ cos θ *

ı − θ̇ sin θ *

B 2 2

Thus we have

mL2 2

2

1 2 1 L

mvG = m θ̇2 = θ̇

2 2 2 8

2

I for a uniform bar is mL

12 .

(a) Equating the energies at State 1 and 2 gives us

mgL 1 1

(cos 15◦ − cos 45◦ ) = mvG

2

+ I θ̇2

2 2 2

!

mgL mL2 mL2

(cos 15◦ − cos 45◦ ) = + θ̇2

2 8 24

365

s s

3g(cos 15◦ − cos 45◦ ) 3(9.81 m/s2 )(cos 15◦ − cos 45◦ )

θ̇ = =

L 2m

θ̇ = 1.95 rad/s

(b) To solve with numerical integration we’ll need to find the system equations of motion.

ı and *

directions yields

L

N1 = m (θ̈ cos θ − θ̇2 sin θ) (1)

2

and

L

N3 − mg = m (θ̈ sin θ − θ̇2 cos θ) (2)

2

A moment balance about G gives

L

(N3 sin θ − N1 cos θ) = I θ̈ (3)

2

3g sin θ

θ̈ =

2L

Integrating from an initial condition of θ = 15 until θ reaches 45◦ produces a corresponding value

◦

(c) From the time integration of (b) we find that θ reaches 45◦ at

t = 0.657 s

366

7.5.10

GOAL: Find the total kinetic energy of the three moving links.

GIVEN: System configuration, dimensions and masses.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

v*A = 2ωL *

ı (1)

v*B = 2ωL *

ı + 3φ̇L *

(2)

*

v*B = η̇ k ×L(− *

) = η̇L *

ı (3)

For a rigid body the kinetic energy is given by

1 2 1

KE = mvG + IG ω 2

2 2

SOLVE:

(2), (3) ⇒ φ̇ = 0 and η̇ = 2ω (4)

1 1 1

KE = I ω 2 + m |vG |2 + I η̇ 2 (5)

2 OA 2 AB 2 BC

* *

v + vB

(1), (3) ⇒ v*G = A = 2ωL *

ı (6)

2

! !

1 2m(2L)2 1 1 mL2

(4), (6) → (5) ⇒ KE = ω + (3m)(2ωL)2 +

2

(2ω)2

2 3 2 2 3

T = 8mω 2 L2

367

7.5.11

GOAL: Find the total kinetic energy of two link/single mass system.

GIVEN: System configuration, dimensions and masses. Each link has length L and mass mL and

the translational body has mass mC .

DRAW:

* * * *

ı ı

* *

b1 cos β sin β d1 cos β − sin β

* *

b2 − sin β cos β d2 sin β cos β

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

v*B = v*A + ω×

*

r*B/

A

1 2 1

KE = mvG + IG ω 2

2 2

SOLVE:

G1 and G2 are the mass centers of AB and BC, respectively.

*

v*B = β̇L b 2 (1)

* *

v*C = v*B + v*C/ = β̇L b 2 − β̇Ld2

B

ı ) and thus we have

* *

vC *

ı = β̇L b 2 − β̇Ld2 = −2β̇L sin β *

ı

β̇L *

v*G = b

1 2 2

* L*

v*G = v*B + v*G = β̇L b 2 − β̇ d2

2 2/B 2

368

3 1

v*G = − β̇L sin β *

ı + β̇L cos β *

2 2 2

1 1 1 1 1

KE = I β̇ 2 + I β̇ 2 + mL vG

2 2

+ mL vG 2

+ mC vC

2 AB 2 BC 2 1 2 2 2

1 1

1 2 2 1 2 2

KE = 2 12" mLL β̇ + 2 12 mL L β̇

2

#

+ 21 mL β̇L + 94 (β̇L)2 sin2 β + 41 (β̇L)2 cos2 β

2

+ 21 mC (−2β̇L sin β)2

1

h i

2 2

KE = β̇ 2 L2 3 + sin β mL + 2mC sin β

369

7.5.12

GOAL: Find the speed of a block when a roller just reaches the block’s edge.

GIVEN: Masses and dimensions of the block and rollers.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

* * * *

v*D = v*C + ω b 3 × r*D/ = ω b 3 ×d b 2 = −ωd b 1

C

* d* ωd

v*O = v*C + ω b 3 × b 2 = −

2 2

We can conclude that the block moves downslope twice as rapidly as the roller’s centerpoint. The

relative speed of the block with respect to the roller is ωd

2 . Initially Roller 2 is positioned at the

middle of the block, as shown. When it reaches the position that Roller 1 initially occupied (see

State 1 in the figure), the end B of the block will also have reached that point. Thus the block

rolls a distance L.

The change in height of the block is L sin θ and the change in height of the roller is L2 sin θ.

L

KE = 0, PE = mblock gL sin θ + 2mroller g sin θ

1 1 2

2 !

1 ωd 1¯ 1

KE = 2 m +2 Iroller ω 2 + mblock ω 2 d2 , PE = 0

2 2 roller 2 2 2 2

(mroller )d2

I¯roller =

8

KE + PE = KE + PE

Energy conservation: 1 1 2 2

SOLVE:

mroller m m

2

gL sin θ(mblock + mroller ) = (ωd) + roller + block

4 8 2

3

2 ◦ 2 2

(9.81 m/s )(2 m)(sin 12 )(730 kg) = ω (0.2 m) (30 kg + 350 kg)

8

ω = 14.4 rad/s

370

* * *

v*D = −ωd b 1 = −(14.4 rad/s)(0.2 m) b 1 = −2.87 b 1 m/s

371

7.5.13

GOAL: Determine the minimum h so that a cylinder remains in contact with a track under roll

without slip conditions and friction-free slip conditions.

GIVEN: r1 = 0.9 m, r2 = 0.04 m.

DRAW:

* *

ı

e*r cos θ sin θ

e*θ − sin θ cos θ

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

We’ll use a force balance to determine the necessary θ̇ to preclude a loss of contact and then apply

energy conservation:

KE + PE = KE + PE

1 1 2 2

to determine h.

SOLVE:

(a) At State 1 the cylinder is at rest with its center of mass a distance h above the floor and at

State 2 the cylinder is just barely touching the top, inner surface of the loop. The center of mass

of the cylinder is r2 from the contact point.

Force balance: m[(r̈ − rθ̇2 ) e*r + (rθ̈ + 2ṙθ̇) e*r ] = −N e*r − S e*θ − mg *

*

: −m(r1 − r2 )θ̇2 = −N − mg

The minimum speed is found by setting N = 0, giving us

(r1 − r2 )θ̇2 = g

g

θ̇2 = (1)

r 1 − r2

At the top of the loop the cylinder’s center is moving to the left at (r1 − r2 )θ̇ and the contact point

between the cylinder and the loop has zero velocity. Hence the cylinder is rotating with an angular

speed of

372

−(r1 − r2 )θ̇

ω= (2)

r2

When we apply energy conservation we’ll have to account for both the translational as well as the

rotational kinetic energy of the cylinder.

KE + PE = KE + PE

1 1 2 2

1 2 1

mgh = mg(2r1 − r2 ) + mvG + IG ω 2

2 2

2 = (r − r )2 θ̇ 2 and I =

mr22

Using vG 2 1 G 2 gives us

mr22

!

1 1

mgh = mg(2r1 − r2 ) + m(r2 − r1 )2 θ̇2 + ω2 (3)

2 2 2

mr22

!

1 1 g(r1 − r2 )

mgh = mg(2r1 − r2 ) + m(r1 − r2 )g +

2 2 2 r22

1 1

h = 2r1 − r2 + (r1 − r2 ) + (r1 − r2 )

2 4

11 7

h = r1 − r2

4 4

h = 2.405 m

(b) Now we’ll consider the case of friction-free sliding.

KE + PE = KE + PE

1 1 2 2

1

mgh = mg(2r1 − r2 ) + m(r1 − r2 )2 θ̇2

2

1

gh = g(2r1 − r2 ) + g(r1 − r2 )

2

5 3 5 3

h = r1 − r2 = (0.9 m − (0.04 m)

2 2 2 2

h = 2.19 m

Note that the height is greater in the case of rolling over the friction-free case. This greater height

provides the extra potential energy needed to allow the cylinder to rotate as well as translate.

373

7.5.14

GOAL: Plot the total energy of the system as a function of the disk’s rotation angle.

GIVEN: Angular velocity of the disk and dimensions of the system.

DRAW:

of the system is given by

E = KE + KE + KE + PE + KE (1)

disk link block link block

Using the expressions for kinetic and potential energy, each of these terms are

1

KE = Idisk ω 2 (2)

disk 2

1

KE + KE = Ilink + Iblock ω 2 (3)

link block 2 link

PE = m2 gylink (4)

link

KE = m3 gyblock (5)

block

SOLVE: The moments of inertia of the disk, link, and block about the pivot are

1 1

Idisk = m1 r2 = (2 kg)(0.2 m)2 = 0.04 kg· m2

2 2

1 1 1 1

Ilink = m2 L2 + m2 ( L)2 = m2 L2 = (0.5 kg)(0.5 m)2 = 0.0416 kg· m2

12 2 3 3

1 1

Iblock = m (a2 + b2 ) + m3 ( a + L)2

12 3 2

2

1 1

h i

Iblock = (0.2 kg) (0.03 m)2 + (0.15 m)2 + (0.2 kg) (0.03 m) + 0.5 m

12 2

In order to find the angular velocity of the link, we can write out the velocity of point P relative

to both point G and the pivot, point O. To do so, we use the unit vectors e*r , e*θ attached to the

* *

disc, and b 1 , b 2 attached to the link.

* * * *

*

ı *

ı b1 b2

* *

e*r cos θ sin θ b1 cos φ − sin φ ⇒ b 1 cos(θ + φ) sin(θ + φ)

* *

e*θ − sin θ cos θ b2 sin φ cos φ b 2 − sin(θ + φ) cos(θ + φ)

374

* * *

Relative to G: v*P = ω k × rP/ e*r = ωrP/ e*θ = −ωrP/ sin(θ + φ) b 1 + ωrP/ cos(θ + φ) b 2

G G G G

* * * * *

Relative to O: v*P = ωlink k × −rP/ b 1 + vrel b 1 = −ωlink rP/ b 2 + vrel b 1

O O

rP/

G

* ωlink = − ω cos(θ + φ)

Equate b 2 components: rP/

O

r*P/ = rP/ e*r − rG/ *

ı = (rP/ cos θ − rG/ ) *

ı + rP/ sin θ *

O G O G O G

r

⇒ rP/ = k r*P/ k = rP2 + rG2 − 2rP/ rG/ cos θ

O O /G /O G O

rP/ ω cos(θ + φ)

G

ωlink = − q 2

rP + rG2 − 2rP/ rG/ cos θ

/G /O G O

The height of the centers of mass of the link and the block are

1

ylink = L sin φ

2

1

yblock = (L + a) sin φ

2

Plugging quantities in yields

1

(2) ⇒ KE = (0.04 kg· m2 )(10 rad/s)2 = 2 J

disk 2

(3) ⇒

KE + KE = (0.0416 + 0.0534) kg· m2

link block 2 (0.15 m)2 + (0.35 m)2 − 2(0.15 m)(0.35 m) cos θ

0.1067 cos2 (θ + φ)

KE + KE = J

link block 0.145 − 0.105 cos θ

1

(4) ⇒ PE = (0.5 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )(0.5 m) sin φ = 1.2263 sin φ J

link 2

0.03 m

2

(5) ⇒ PE

= (0.2 kg)(9.81 m/s ) 0.5 m + sin φ = 1.0104 sin φ J

block 2

0.1067 cos2 (θ + φ)

E= 2+ + 2.2367 sin φ J (6)

0.145 − 0.105 cos θ

The relation between φ and θ is

rP/ sin θ (0.15 m) sin θ

G

tan φ = =

rG/ − rP/ cos θ 0.35 m − (0.15 m) cos θ

O G

375

0.15 sin θ

⇒ φ = tan−1 (7)

0.35 − 0.15 cos θ

Evaluating (6) and (7) in MATLAB for θ = 0 to 2π and plotting the results yields

376

7.5.15

GOAL: Plot the kinetic, potential and total energy of a cylinder/link system.

GIVEN: mA = 20 kg, mB = 1 kg, r = 0.25 m, L = 0.22 m. Initial rotational velocity of the link is

*

12k rad/s.

DRAW:

* *

ı

*

b1 cos θ sin θ

*

b2 − sin θ cos θ

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Cylinder:

* *

Force balance: (F1 *

− mA g * ı − F4 b 1 − F3 b 3 = mA ẍ *

+ F2 * ı)

Using the roll without slip condition rβ̈ = −ẍ and decomposing onto the *

ı ,*

directions gives us

*

ı : F2 − F4 cos θ + F3 sin θ + rmA β̈ = 0 (1)

*

: F1 − mA g − F4 sin θ − F3 cos θ = 0 (2)

Bar:

We’ll apply a moment balance about O, the hinge point, and use

X *

MO = IO θ̈ k + mB r*G/ × a*O

O

a*O = −rβ̈ *

ı

and the acceleration of the bar’s mass center is given by

L * L *

a*G = a*O + a*G/ = −rβ̈ *ı + θ̈ b 1 + θ̇2 b 2

O 2 2

Using these relationships gives us

* *

Force balance: −mB g *

+ F4 b 1 + F3 b 2 = mA a*G )

L L

*

ı : F4 cos θ − F3 sin θ − mB rβ̈ − θ̈ cos θ + θ̇2 sin θ = 0 (4)

2 2

L L

*

: −mB g + F4 sin θ + F3 cos θ − mB θ̈ sin θ + θ̇2 cos θ = 0 (5)

2 2

377

L mL2 L

Moment balance about O: −mB g sin θ = θ̈ − r cos θmB β̈ (6)

2 3 2

m r2

The cylinder has a mass moment of inertia about its center of A2 .

SOLVE:

(1), (2) ⇒ 1.5rmA β̈ − F4 cos θ + F3 sin θ = 0 (7)

Putting (4)-(7) into matrix/vector form gives:

0

0

1.5rmA

L m cos θ sin θ − cos θ β̈

L m θ̇2 sin θ

−rmB

2 B sin θ − cos θ

θ̈

2 B

L m sin θ = (8)

− L m θ̇ 2 cos θ − m g

0 2 B 2 − cos θ − sin θ

F3

2 B

B

L mB L

− 2 r cos θmB 0 0 F4 −mB g L

2 sin θ

3

This can easily be solved with a MATLAB M-file for the relevant derivatives β̈ and θ̈ which can

then be used for a numerical integration. A simple M-file is attached to the end of the solution

which accomplishes this task. Once we’ve integrated the system equations of motion and gotten θ,

θ̇, β and β̇ we can form the system energies.

The kinetic energy is found from

1 2 1 1 1

KE = mA vO 2

+ I A β̇ 2 + I B θ̇2 + mB vG

2 2 2 2

ı +L

*

Using v*G = −rβ̇ * 2 θ̇ b 1 we can find

1 m L2 m rLβ̇ θ̇ cos θ

KE = 1.5mA r2 + mB r2 β̇ 2 + B θ̇2 − B

2 6 2

The potential energy is due to the bar’s center of mass being raised up:

L

PE = mB (1 − cos θ)

2

And M-file can also be used to calculate these quantities which can then be plotted as shown below.

378

379

7.5.16

GOAL: Determine the rotation rate of the crank when the chain has moved down 6 in.

GIVEN: Mass moment of inertia of the crank assembly is 0.0112 slg· ft2 , the chain weighs 0.73 lb,

its length is 56 in and r1 = 4 in.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

We’ll apply conservation of energy: KE + PE = KE + PE .

1 1 2 2

SOLVE:

Assume that initially a length x of chain is hanging off the left end of the chainring. This means

that a length x − 2 is hanging off the right side. At State 2 the length of chain hanging off the left

side has increased to x + 6 in and the length on the right has decreased to x − 8 in.

The total length of the chain is 56 in and the radius of the chainring is 4 in. Hence we can solve

for x. For computational ease we’ll convert from inches to feet. Considering the configuration at

State 1:

x + x − 2 in + πr1 = 4.6 ft

Zx Z ft

x−0.16

PE = − ρgz dz − ρgz dz

1

0 0

Z ft

1.893 Z ft

1.726

PE = − ρgz dz − ρgz dz

1

0 0

ρg h i

PE = − (1.893 ft)2 + (1.726 ft)2 = −105.7 ft2 ρ

1 2

We can easily calculate ρ:

mchain 0.73 lb/(32.2 ft/s2 )

ρ= = = 4.86×10−3 slg/ft

4.6 ft 4.6 ft

Thus we have

PE = −0.513 lb· ft

1

Doing the same calculation for the system at State 2 (with a left length of x + 0.5 ft and a right

length of x − 0.6 ft) gives us

PE = −0.566 lb· ft

2

Now that we have the change in potential energy we need to consider the kinetic energy at State 2.

If the crank rotates at ω, the hanging chain and that portion in contact with the chainring all have

380

a speed equal to ωr1 . The kinetic energy of the chain that’s in contact over the top half of the

chainring is 21 mchain r12 ω 2 .

The kinetic energy of the chain is thus given by !

1 0.73 lb

KE chain = (0.3 ft)2 ω 2

2 32.2 ft/s2

The energy of the chainring assembly due to its rotation is

1

KE CR = (0.0112 slg· ft2 )ω 2

2

Equating the total energies at States 1 and 2 gives us

0.0521 lb· ft = [0.00686 slg· ft2 ]ω 2

381

7.5.17

GOAL: Find speed of impact of two cylinders.

GIVEN: m2 = 200 kg, L = 3 m.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

We’ll apply conservation of energy: KE + PE = KE + PE .

1 1 2 2

At State 1 the beam is horizontal and m1 is in its fully raised position. At State 2 the beam is

vertical and m1 is in its fully lowered position.

State 1:

KE = 0

1

PE = 0

1

State 2:

1

KE = I ω2

2 2 O

L √

PE = m2 g − m1 g 2L

2 2

SOLVE:

L √ 1

0 = m2 g − 2m1 gL + IO ω 2

2 2

1 √ L

IO ω 2 = 2m1 gL − m2 g

2 2

The minimum m1 will get the beam upright with no angular velocity:

√ L

0 = 2m1 gL − m2 g

2

m 200 kg

m1 = √2 = √ = 70.7 kg

2 2 2 2

m1 = 70.7 kg

382

7.5.18

GOAL: Determine the acceleration of m1 as the bar passes through the vertical position.

GIVEN: m1 = 70 kg, m2 = 100 kg, L = 2 m.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

We’ll apply conservation of energy: KE + PE = KE + PE .

1 1 2 2

At State 1 the beam is horizontal and m1 is in its fully raised position. At State 2 the beam is

vertical and m1 is in its fully lowered position.

State 1:

KE = 0

1

PE = 0

1

State 2:

1

KE = I ω2

2 2 O

L

PE = m2 g − m1 g∆y

2 2

SOLVE: From geometry we have

p

∆y = L 1.32 + 1 − 0.3L = 1.34L

The uniform bar rotation about its end has a mass moment of inertia of

m2 L2

IO =

3

Applying conservation of energy gives us

L 1 m2 L2 2

0 = m2 g − m1 g(1.34L) + θ̇

2 2 3

!

2 6g 1.34m1 1

θ̇ = − (1)

L m2 2

Now we have to examine the relationship between ẍ (the acceleration of m1 and θ̇, θ̈. The bar is

pictures at an inclination θ, along

q with the relevant dimensions.

√

AB = L (1.3 − sin θ)2 + (cos θ)2 = L 2.69 − 2.6 sin θ

383

The distance m1 falls (x oriented down) is

√

x = 1.34L − L 2.69 − 2.6 sin θ

Differentiating with respect to time gives us

1

ẋ = 1.3Lθ̇ cos θ(2.69 − 2.6 sin θ)− 2

and differentiating again yields

1 3

ẍ = 1.3L(2.69 − 2.6 sin θ)− 2 (−θ̇2 sin θ + θ̈ cos θ) + 1.69L(cos θ)2 θ̇2 (2.69 − 2.6 sin θ)− 2

At θ = π

2 we have

1

ẍ = 1.3L(2.69 − 2.6)− 2 −θ̇2 = −4.3 θ̇2 L (2)

!

1.34m1 1

(1),(2)⇒ ẍ = −26g −

m2 2

384

7.5.19

GOAL: Find v with which the drawbridge reaches the open position.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Apply conservation of energy: KE + PE = KE + PE

1 1 2 2

SOLVE:

1 1

mgh = IO θ̇2 + kx2

2 2

2

1 1

q

(450 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )(6 m) = (21, 600 kg·m2 )θ̇2 + (690 N/m) (12 m)2 + (6 m)2 − 6 m

2 2

θ̇ = 0.834 rad/s

385

7.5.20

GOAL: Determine the speed of a falling cylinder after traveling 1.0 ft.

GIVEN: k = 3 lb/ft, unstretched length is 0.5 ft, r = 0.25 ft. The cylinder as a weight of 3 lb. The

cylinder is released from 0.5 ft below the ceiling (i.e. the spring is unstretched).

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Apply conservation of energy: KE + PE = KE + PE .

1 1 2 2

SOLVE: The cylinder has a mass of m = 3 lb = 9.32×10−2 slg.

32.2 ft/s2

KE = 0

1

1

PE = (y − L)2

1 2 0

1 1

KE = mẏ 2 + I θ̇2

2 2 2

1

PE = −mg(y − y0 ) + k(y − L)2

2 2

1 1 1 1

k(y0 − L)2 = mẏ 2 + I θ̇2 − mg(y − y0 ) + k(y − L)2 (1)

2 2 2 2

Motion constraint:

ẏ = −rθ̇ (2)

!

1 I 1 h i

(1), (2) ⇒ m+ 2 ẏ 2 = k (y0 − L)2 − (y − L)2 + mg(y − y0 )

2 r 2

h i 12

k (y0 − L)2 − (y − L)2 + 2mg(y − y0 )

ẏ =

m + I/r2

2

Using I = mr

2 gives us a final result of

h i 1

(3 lb/ft) 02 − (1.5 ft − 0.5 ft)2 + 2(3 lb)(1.0 ft) 2

ẏ = = 4.63 ft/s

1.5(9.32×10−2 slg)

386

7.5.21

GOAL: Find k such that angular speed of a drawbridge is 0.5rads as it strikes the ground. Verify

the correctness of the solution approach.

GIVEN: System geometry and parameters. Drawbridge has a length of 6 m, mass of 450 kg and

mass moment of inertia about O of IO = 5400 kg· m2 .

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Apply conservation of energy: KE + PE = KE + PE .

1 1 2 2

SOLVE:

1 2 1

mgh = Io θ̇ + k(∆x)2

2 2

2

1 1

q

(450 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )(3 m) = 2 2

(5400 kg· m )(0.5 rad/s) + k 2 2

(12 m) + (6 m) − 6 m

2 2

(b) Let the drawbridge move very slightly and check the moments at O. If it rotates a small angle

∆ from the vertical then the moment due to gravity is:

L

mg sin(∆) ≈ (450 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )(3 m)∆ = (1.32 × 104 N· m)∆

2

The moment due to the spring is:

Thus there is a negative moment which means that once the drawbridge is perturbed from the

vertical, it will return to the vertical position rather than striking the ground as desired.

387

7.5.22

GOAL: Find speed of impact of two cylinders.

GIVEN: Initial and final state of the system elements. Spring has an unstretched length of r.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Apply conservation of energy: KE + PE = KE + PE .

1 1 2 2

KE = 0

1

1

PE = k(4r − r)2

1 2

1

PE = k(2r − r)2

2 2

For KE we apply symmetry to realize that A and B will approach at identical speeds. Rolling

2

without slip gives us |v| = r|θ̇| (v: speed of center).

" #

1 2 1 I

KE = 2 I θ̇ + mv 2 = m + 2 v 2

2 2 2 r

SOLVE: !

1 1 I

k(3r)2 = kr2 + m + 2 v2

2 2 r

4kr2

= v2

I

m+ r2

2

Using I = mr

2 gives us

q

v=r 8k

3m

388

7.5.23

GOAL: Find the speed of block A after it has fallen 2m.

GIVEN: System geometry and masses.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

Apply conservation of energy: KE + PE = KE + PE .

1 1 2 2

KE = 0

1

1

PE = k(0.02 m)2

1 2

1 1 1 1

KE = I 1 θ̇2 + m1 ẋ2 + I 2 θ̇2 + mA ẋ2

2 2 2 2 2

1 2

PE = kx − mA gx

2 2

SOLVE:

1 1 1 1

k(0.02 m)2 = (I 1 + I 2 )θ̇2 + (m1 + mA )ẋ2 + kx2 − mA gx

2 2 2 ! 2

1 1 I1 + I2 1

k(0.02 m)2 = + m1 + mA ẋ2 + kx2 − mA gx

2 2 r2 2

v

u −kx2 + 2mA gx + k(0.02 m)2

u

ẋ = t

I 1 +I 2

r2

+ m1 + mA

v

2

u −(10 N/m)(2 m)2 + 2(10 kg)(9.81 m/s )(2 m) + (10 N/s)(0.02 m)2 )

u

ẋ = u

t 1.8 kg· m2 + 15 kg

(0.6 m)2

ẋ = 4.20 m/s

389

7.5.24

GOAL: Find v*B of a multi-mass pulley system once Block A moves 1.5m.

GIVEN: Mass and size of pulley components, slope of surface and distance traveled by Block A.

DRAW:

* *

ı

*

b1 cos θ sin θ

*

b2 − sin θ cos θ

Apply conservation of energy :

KE + PE = KE + PE

1 1 2 2

ASSUME: We have the well-known pulley relationships

∆x = −2∆y

ẋ = −2ẏ (1)

ẍ = −2ÿ (2)

Determine whether Block A moves up or down. We can ignore the pulley’s mass (they will just

add inertia but don’t change the direction of the motion). From the FBD, we have:

* * *

Force balance, A: (T1 − mA g sin θ) b 1 + (N1 − mA g cos θ) b 2 = −mA ÿ b 1

*

b1 : T1 − mA g sin θ = −mA ÿ (3)

T1

* * *

Force balance, B: − mB g sin θ b 1 + (N2 − mB g cos θ) b 2 = −mB ẍ b 1

2

*

T1

b1 : − mB g sin θ = −mB ẍ (4)

2

SOLVE:

1

(2),(3),(4)⇒ (m g sin θ − mA ÿ) − mB g sin θ = 2mB ÿ

2 A

390

1 1

ÿ(2mB + mA ) = g sin θ( mA − mB )

2 2

g sin θ( 12 mA − mB )

ÿ = 1 = −0.48 m/s2

2mB + 2 mA

Thus

Block A moves upslope.

KE = 0, PE = 0, KE = 12 mA ẏ 2 + 21 mB ẋ2 , PE = mA g sin θ(1.5 m) − mB g sin θ(2(1.5 m))

1 1 2 2

Now apply conservation of energy:

!

1 ẋ2 1

0 = mA + mB ẋ2 + (1.5 m)mA g sin θ − (3 m)mB g sin θ

2 4 2

ẋ = 2.40 m/s

*

v*B = 2.40 b 1 m/s

Now find the motion of pulleys 1 and 2.

A indicates speed of rope. Rope comes off pulley 1 at same rate as it’s moving around pulley 2. C

has zero velocity and so the speed of the center of pulley 1 is A2 .

2 2

A A

ω1 = 2r , ω2 = r, KE = 0, PE = 0, KE = 21 mA ẏ 2 + 21 mB ẋ2 + 12 ( 32 mr2 )( ẋ2r ) + 12 (m r2 )( ẋr )2 ,

1 1 2

PE = mA g sin θ(1.5 m) − mB g sin θ(3 m) + mg sin θ(1.5 m)

2

Apply conservation of energy:

2 2

1 ẋ2 1 3 ẋ 1 (0.05 m)2 ẋ

0 = (10 kg) + (8 kg)ẋ2 + (4 kg)(0.05 m)2 + (4 kg)

2 4 2 4 2(0.05 m) 2 2 0.05 m

+(10 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )(sin 20◦ )(1.5 m) − (8 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )(sin 20◦ )(3 m)

+(4 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )(sin 20◦ )(1.5 m)

0 = (7 kg)ẋ2 − 10.07 N· m

ẋ = 1.20 m/s

*

v*B = 1.20 b 1 m/s

The mass made a very large difference, halving the velocity.

391

7.5.25

GOAL: Determine the velocity with which B contacts the horizontal guide.

GIVEN: The bar is 2 m long, and has a mass of 20 kg. B has a speed of 2 m/s downwards. The

vertical guide resists motion of B within it with a force of 100 N. k = 100 N/m.

DRAW:

* *

ı

* √ √

b1 1/ 2 1/ 2

* √ √

b2 −1/ 2 1/ 2

The problem is well suited to an energy approach.

First find the initial ω (ω1 )

v*B = v*A + ω

*

× r*B/

A

*3*

m/s = v*A *

−2 * ı + θ̇ k × b m

2 1

3 1 * 1 *

*

* * *

−2 m/s = v A ı + θ̇ k × √ ı + √ m

2 2 2

!

3θ̇ 3θ̇

−2 *

m/s = v*A − √ m ı + √ *

*

m

2 2 2 2

Equating coefficients

3θ̇

*

ı : v*A = √ m (1)

2 2

√

4 2

*

: θ̇ = − rad/s (2)

3

(1), (2) ⇒ v*A = −2 *

ı m/s (3)

*

Now that we have the rotation rate of the bar, we can find the velocity of its mass center, v G :

√

4 2* 4 4

* * * * * * *

v G = v A +θ̇ b 3 ×(1 m b 1 ) = −2 ı m/s− b 2 m/s = ı −2 + m/s+ − m/s

3 3 3

2* 4

v* = − ı m/s − * m/s (4)

3 3

We can now form the initial energies:

392

1 1

KE = m||v*G ||2 + IG ω 2

1 2 2

" 2 2 # " #" √ #2

1 2 4 1 (20 kg)(2 m)2 4 2

KE = (20 kg) m/s + m/s + − rad/s

1 2 3 3 2 12 3

KE = 34.07 N· m

1

1

PE = mgh = (20 kg)(9.81 m/s2 ) √ m = 138.7 N· m

1 2

Initial Energy: 34.07 N· m + 138.7N· m = 172.8

N· m

3 1

Work done by friction: (−100 N) 2 m √2 = −106.1 N· m

As the bar becomes horizontal the velocity of its left end A goes to zero. Hence we can determine

the kinetic energy simply from 21 IA θ̇2 :

2 ! !

1 1 v 1 (20 kg)(2 m)2 v2

2

KE = IA ω2 = IA = = (5.926 kg)v 2

2 2 2 1.5 m 2 3 2.25 m2

2

1 1.5

PE = PE spring = (100 N/m) 1.5 m − √ m = 9.651 N· m

2 2 2

Equating the energies

(172.8 − 106.1) N· m = 9.651 N· m + (5.926 kg)v 2

v = 3.10 m/s

From physical considerations (knowing that it’s moving down) we have

v* = −3.10 *

m/s

393

7.5.26

GOAL: To determine the velocity of the bowl with respect to the ground.

GIVEN: System configuration at State 1 (m1 at A) and at State 2 (m1 at B).

DRAW:

* *

ı

e*t sin θ − cos θ

*

en cos θ sin θ

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

We’ll apply conservation of energy (kinetic and gravitational potential) and conservation of linear

momentum in the * ı direction. The initial height of m1 is h1 and the final height is h2

The absolute velocity of m2 is given by

v*m2 = ẋ *

ı (1)

and the absolute velocity of m1 is given by

v*m1 = ẋ *

ı + ṡ e*t (2)

Conservation of linear momentum in *

ı direction:

m1 (ẋ + ṡ sin θ) + m2 ẋ = 0 (3)

Conservation of energy:

1 1

m1 gh1 = m1 gh2 + m2 ẋ2 + m1 (ẋ2 + ṡ2 + 2ẋṡ sin θ) (4)

2 2

SOLVE:

(m1 + m2 )ẋ

(3) ⇒ ṡ = − (5)

m1 sin θ

(m1 + m2 )ẋ

(5) → (4) ⇒ ṡ = −

m1 sin θ

" #

1 1 (m1 + m2 )2 ẋ2 2ẋ2 (m1 + m2 )

m1 gh1 = m1 gh2 + m2 ẋ2 + m1 ẋ2 + −

2 2 m21 sin2 θ m1

" #

2 (m1 + m2 )

2m1 gR sin θ = (m1 + m2 )ẋ −1 +

m1 sin2 θ

394

v

2m21 gR sin3 θ

u

u

ẋ = t

(m1 + m2 )(m2 + m1 cos2 θ)

From physical considerations we know that the bowl is moving left as the mass slides down and

thus we have

s

2m2 gR sin3 θ

ẋ = − 1 *

ı

(m +m )(m +m cos2 θ)

1 2 2 1

395

7.5.27

GOAL: Determine the percentage of a car’s kinetic energy that’s stored in its wheels.

GIVEN: Car weighs 2500 lb, each wheel weighs 50 lb, the radius of gyration of each wheel is

k = 10 in, the wheel’s radius is r = 12 in. and the car is traveling at 60 mph (rolling without slip).

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS

We’ll use the formulas for kinetic energy due to translation

1

KE = mv 2

2

and due to rotation

1

KE = I θ̇2

2

SOLVE:

The car is traveling at 60 mph = 88 ft/s.

The translational kinetic energy of the car minus the wheels is!given by

1 2500 lb − 4(50 lb)

KE = (88 ft/s)2 = 2.77×105 lb· ft (1)

c−w 2 32.2 ft/s2

Each wheel’s rotation rate is found from

v 88 ft/s

v = −rθ̇ ⇒ θ̇ = − =− = −88 rad/s (2)

r 1 ft

50 lb

Each wheel has a mass of mw = 2 = 1.55 slg. and the mass moment of inertia about its

32.2 ft/s

mass center for each wheel is found from 2

10 in.

I = mk 2 = (1.55 slg) = 1.08 slg· ft2 (3)

12 in./ft

The total kinetic energy of the wheels (KE ) is given by

w

1 2 1 1 1

2

KE = 4 I θ̇ + mv = 4 (1.08 slg· ft2 )(−88 rad/s)2 + (1.55 slg)(88 ft/s)2

w 2 2 2 2

KE = 4.08×104 lb· ft

w

Thus the percentage of kinetic energy

in the wheels is given by

KE

!

w 100(4.08×104 lb· ft)

= % = 12.8%

2.77×105 lb· ft + 4.08×104 lb· ft

KE + KE

c−w w

396

7.5.28

GOAL: Determine what’s the better scenario for a soapbox derby car with a maximum weight

constraint - light or heavy wheels.

GIVEN: Only variable parameters are the relative weights of the wheels versus the body/racer.

DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS

We’ll use the formulas for kinetic energy due to translation

1

KE = mv 2

2

and due to rotation

1

KE = I θ̇2

2

SOLVE:

Assume a total wheel mass of mw and body/racer mass of mb . Our constraint says that the total

mass mt must be constant:

mt = mw + mb ⇒ mb = mt − mw

Our energy will be equal to the potential energy at the start and the kinetic energy at the finish

(assuming a zero gravitational potential state at the finish):

mt gh = KE + KE (1)

w b

The wheels will have two components to their kinetic energy: rotational energy and translational.

Assuming roll without slip, a radius r for the wheels and a radius of gyration k we have a kinetic

energy of

2 2 !

1 2 v 1 2 1 k

KE = (mw k ) + mw v = mw 1 + v2 (2)

w 2 r 2 2 r

The kinetic energy of the car minus the wheels is given by

1

KE = (mt − mw )v 2 (3)

b 2

2 !

1 k 1

(1), (2), (3) ⇒ mt gh = mw 1+ v 2 + (mt − mw )v 2

2 r 2

2 !

1 k

mt gh = mw + mt v 2

2 r

2mt gh

v2 = 2 (4)

k

mw r + mt

397

minimized; kinetic energy is “wasted” in the wheel’s rotational energy. Hence making the wheels

lighter rather than heavier is the superior design choice.

398

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