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Chapter 7

Kinetics of Rigid Bodies Undergoing


Two-dimensional Motion

7.1 Curvilinear Translation

125
7.1.1
GOAL:
a) Assuming an engine that can deliver as much power/torque as demanded, calculate the maximum
attainable acceleration ẍ and the normal forces at each tire.
b) Which tires (front or back) feel the most normal force?
GIVEN: The weight of the car is 4100 lbs. The coefficient of friction between the tires and the
ground is 0.85.
ASSUME: The car doesn’t rotate - the motion remains rectilinear.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS
a)
 
Force balance: −mg *
 + F1 *
ı + N1 + N2 *
 = ma *
ı

*
ı: F1 = mẍ (1)
*
: N1 + N2 = mg (2)

Moment balance: F1 (18 in) + N2 (54 in) − N1 (54 in) = 0

F1 + 3N2 − 3N1 = 0 (3)

(2) ⇒ N1 = mg − N2 (4)
 
(4)→(3)⇒ F1 + 3N2 − 3 mg − N2 = 0

F1 + 6N2 − 3mg = 0

3mg − F1
N2 = (5)
6
3mg − F1 3mg + F1
(5) →(4)⇒ N1 = mg − = (6)
6 6
We know that the maximal tractive force is equal to µNT OT AL and since N1 + N2 = mg (from (2))
we have
 
F1 = µ N1 + N2 = µmg (7)

(7)→(1)⇒ ẍ = µg = 0.85(32.2 ft/s2 ) = 27.37 ft/s2

126
(3 − µ)mg (3 − 0.85)4100 lb
(7)→(5)⇒ N2 = = = 1469.2 lb
6 6
(3 + µ)mg (3 + 0.85)4100 lb
(7)→(6)⇒ N1 = = = 2630.8 lb
6 6
b)
The rear tires feel 79% more normal force than the front tires.

127
7.1.2
GOAL: Determine by what percentage the normal forces change of the vehicle accelerates forward
at 0.25 m/s2
GIVEN: Car’s mass, length, acceleration and position of mass center.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Force balance: S*
ı + (N1 + N2 − mg) *
 = mẍ *
ı

*
ı : S = mẍ (1)
*
 : N1 + N2 = mg (2)

BAM about G: LN2 − LN1 + hS = 0 (3)


SOLVE:
When ẍ = 0,
(1)⇒ S=0

(3)⇒ N1 = N2
Thus, from (2),

mg
N1 = N2 =
2
When ẍ = 0.25g, we have :
S = 0.25mg (4)

(4)→(3)⇒ L(N2 − N1 ) = −0.25hmg (5)


hmg
(2)→(5)⇒ N2 − (mg − N2 ) = −0.25
L
0.25h
2N2 = mg(1 − )
L

128
mg 0.25h
N2 = (1 − ) (6)
2 L
mg 0.25h
(6)→(2)⇒ N1 = (1 + ) (7)
2 L
% increase for N1 :
(0.7)
100(0.25 (1.35) ) = 13%

% decrease for N2 :
(0.7)
100(0.25 (1.35) ) = 13%

The normal force increases at the rear tires and decreases at the front.

129
7.1.3
GOAL: Find N1 and N2 that enforce zero rotation on the car.
GIVEN: Geometry, dimensions and mass of car.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: We’ll first look at the system when there’s no ground present
(and no gravity as well). In this situation there are no normal forces on the wheels.
0.2mgh
Moment balance: Sh = I θ̈ ⇒ θ̈ =
I
The response to S is a counter-clockwise rotational acceleration.
Now, add N1 and N2 , as shown.

Force balance: (N1 + N2 ) *


 + S*
ı = mẍ *
ı

*
ı : S = mẍ (1)
*
 : N1 + N2 = 0 (2)

Moment balance: Sh + N2 L2 − N1 L1 = 0 (3)


SOLVE:
−0.2mgh
(1),(2),(3) 0.2mgh + N2 L2 + N2 L1 = 0 ⇒ N2 = L +L (4)
1 2

0.2mgh
(4) → (2) ⇒ N1 = L +L
1 2

This shows that a positive force must be exerted at the rear wheel and a negative force at the
front to counter rotation. When a real car is accelerating, there’ll be additional normal forces to
counteract the car’s weight. The forces N1 and N2 just found are the additional forces that act in
consequence of the car’s acceleration.

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If the normal forces due to gravity (with no acceleration) are given by N1g and N2g , the result of
0.2mgh 0.2mgh
accelerating will be to change them to N1g + L +L and N2g − L +L
1 2 1 2

131
7.1.4
GOAL:Find the necessary acceleration so that the car could pull a wheelie
GIVEN: Length of car and position of mass center.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Force balance: S*
ı + (N1 + N2 − mg) *
 = m(ẍ *
ı + ÿ *
)

*
ı : S = mẍ (1)
*
 : N1 + N2 = mg (2)
Moment balance about L2 N2 − L1 N1 + hS = I θ̈ (3)
G:
ASSUME:
ÿ = θ̈ = 0 and N2 = 0 (4)
SOLVE:
(1),(4)→(3)⇒ hmẍ − L1 N1 = 0 (5)

(2),(4)→(5)⇒ hmẍ − mgL1 = 0

gL 50
ẍ = 1 =
h 24 g = 2.1g

Not too likely.

132
7.1.5
GOAL: Find maximum θ for which a car can climb a hill.
GIVEN: Car is moving at a constant speed.
DRAW:

* *
ı 
*
b1 cos θ sin θ
*
b2 − sin θ cos θ
FORMULATE EQUATIONS: Applying a force balance gives us
* *
S b 1 + (N1 + N2 ) b 2 − mg *
 =0 (1)

We assume that tipping isn’t occurring and therefore θ̈ = 0. Thus we can do a static moment
balance:

Sh + N2 L2 − N1 L1 = 0 (2)
* *
SOLVE: Resolving (1) in the ( b 1 , b 2 ) directions gives us
*
b1 S − mg sin θ = 0 ⇒ S = mg sin θ (3)
*
b2 N1 + N2 − mg cos θ = 0 (4)
Tipping occurs when N2 = 0. Substitute in (4) to get

N1 = mg cos θ (5)

Substituting for S, N1 and N2 = 0 in (2) yields

L1 50
 
−1
mgh sin θ = L1 mg cos θ ⇒ tan θ = ⇒ θ = tan = 1.123 rad (6)
h 24

Therefore, θmax = 1.123 rad = 64.4o and S = mg sin θmax = 2705 lb. The power on a level road
is given by
F ·v = (2705 lb)(88 ft/s) = 2.38 × 105 lb· ft/s = 433 hp

133
7.1.6
GOAL: Compare time to distance performance for wheelie vs no wheelie.
GIVEN: Two configurations of the vehicle - all wheels on the ground versus only the back wheels
on the ground, with associated normal force distribution.
DRAW:

CASE A: Wheelie
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
(N − mg) *
 + S*
ı = mẍA *
ı
SOLVE: At the no-slip limit, S = µs N . Thus,

mẍA = µs N = µs mg ⇒ ẍA = 26.4 ft/s2

Using ẋdẋ = ẍdx gives


1 2
ẋ = ẍ∆x = (26.4 ft/s2 )(200 ft) ⇒ ẋA = 102.8 ft/s
2 A
Time to travel this distance is

(26.4 ft/s2 )tA = 102.8 ft/s ⇒ tA = 3.9 s

CASE B: No wheelie
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
(N − mg) *
 + S*
ı = mẍB *
ı
SOLVE: At the no-slip limit, S = µs (0.85N ). Thus,

mẍB = µs (0.85N ) = µs mg ⇒ ẍB = 22.4 ft/s2

Using ẋdẋ = ẍdx we have


1 2
ẋB = ẍ∆x = (22.4 ft/s2 )(200 ft) ⇒ ẋA = 94.7 ft/s
2
Time to travel this distance is

(22.4 ft/s2 )tA = 94.7 ft/s ⇒ tA = 4.2 s

So we’d conclude that wheelies are worth doing. The run without a wheelie took 8% longer.

134
7.1.7
GOAL: Determine if the Batmobile has the same kind of normal force reaction at the tires as a
normal car.
GIVEN: Batmobile dimensions, position of mass center and acceleration.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Moment balance about h
N2 L2 − N1 L1 − T =0 (1)
G: 2
* * *
Force balance: Tn1 + (N1 + N2 − mg)n2 = mẍn1

*
ı : T = mẍ (2)
*
 : N1 + N2 − mg = 0 (3)
SOLVE:
h
(3)→(1)⇒ N2 L2 − L1 (mg − N2 ) − T =0
2
hT
N2 (L1 + L2 ) = mgL1 + (4)
2
If T = 0 then we have (from (3) and (4)):
mgL1
N2 = (5)
L1 + L2
mgL2
N1 = (6)
L1 + L2
These are the normal force values for no acceleration.
Now let ẍ = 0.9g:
(2)⇒ 0.9mg = T (7)
h 0.9h
 
(7)→(4)⇒: (L1 + L2 )N2 = mgL1 + m(0.9g) = mg L1 +
2 2
!
mgL1 h
N2 = 1 + 0.45 (8)
L1 + L2 L1
!
mgL2 h
N1 = 1 − 0.45 (9)
L1 + L2 L2
You can see by comparing (8) to (5) and (9) to (6) that the formal force at the rear tires has gone

135
down and the front has increased. This is exactly opposite to the result from a normal car.

136
7.1.8
GOAL:
Determine what level of deceleration would be just sufficient to cause the rear tire’s contact force
to go to zero.
GIVEN: The rider is moving at constant velocity. The result of squeezing the brakes is to produce
*
a force that acts in the b 1 direction and goes through both tire/road contact passages.
ASSUME: Motion remains rectilinear - the bicycle doesn’t rotate.
DRAW:

* *
ı 
*
b1 cos θ sin θ
*
b2 − sin θ cos θ

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
* * *
Moment balance: −mg *  + (N1 + N2 ) b 2 + FB b 1 = ms̈ b 1 (1)
where s measures distance along the sloped surface, positive upward.
SOLVE:
 * *
 * * *
−mg sin θ b 1 + cos θ b 2 + (N1 + N2 ) b 2 + FB b 1 = ma b 1

*
b1 : −mg sin θ + FB = ma (2)
*
b2 : −mg cos θ + N1 + N2 = 0 (3)
If N2 = 0 then (2) and (3) become
FB − mg sin θ
s̈ = (4)
m
N1 = mg cos θ (5)
To get our answer we need to go beyond a force balance and look at moments:
Moment balance: FB (30 in) + N2 (13 in) − N1 (23 in) = 0
Letting N2 = 0 yields
N1 (23 in)
FB = (6)
30 in
23
(5), (6) ⇒ FB = mg cos θ (7)
30

137
23
30 mg cos θ− mg sin θ
(7), (4) ⇒ s̈ =
m
s̈ = 22.4 ft/s2 = 0.7 g
Thus we see that a pretty strong deceleration is needed to send the rear tires normal force to zero.

138
7.1.9
GOAL:
Determine where Captain Insanity should grip the car in order to exert the minimum force. De-
termine as well the position that leads to a maximum force.
GIVEN: The rear tire (of a rear wheel drive car) is spinning at 88 rad/s and the coefficient of
friction is 0.8. The mass of the car is 1500 kg. Captain Insanity can grip the car within the interval
indicated (20 to 30 inches from the ground).
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Since the car is stationary the acceleration of the mass center is zero:
Force balance: (−F1 + F2 ) *
ı + (N1 + N2 − mg) *
 =0
*
ı : F1 = F2 (1)
*
 : N1 + N2 = mg (2)

Moment balance: (54 in)N2 − (54 in)N1 + (36 in)F2 − (36 in − y)F1 = 0 (3)
ASSUME: The rear tire slips. Because of this we have
F2 = µN1 = 0.8N1 (4)
SOLVE:
(1), (4) → (3) ⇒ (54 in)N1 − (54 in)N2 + y(0.8)N1 = 0

(54 in)N2 = (54 in − 0.8y)N1


54 in − 0.8y
N2 = N1 (5)
54 in
54 in − 0.8y
(5) → (2) ⇒ N1 = mg − N1
54 in
54 in + 54 in − 0.8y
 
N1 = mg
54 in
(54 in)mg
N1 = (6)
108 in − 0.8y
0.8(54 in)mg 635, 688 N·in
(4), (6) → (1) ⇒ F1 = =
108 in − 0.8y 108 in − 0.8y

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F1 is minimized if y is minimized (and vice versa)

F1min = 635, 688 N·in = 6910 N


108 in − 0.8(20 in)

F1max = 635, 688 N·in = 7568 N


108 in − 0.8(30 in)
The moment induced by Captain Insanity pulling on the car acts to reduce the normal force at
the rear. If the normal force is reduced then the slip force is reduced in proportion. Thus a
larger moment arm (gripping lower) will enhance the applied moment and reduce the level of force
required.

140
7.1.10
GOAL: Find the configuration when ẍ = g/2
GIVEN: Masses and lengths of links as well as the fact that their accelerations are oriented
horizontally.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
We are given θ̇1 = θ̇2 = θ¨1 = θ¨2 = 0 and a*G = ẍ *
ı , a*G = ẍ *
ı
1 2
Link AB:
Force balance: (V − S) *
ı + (U − T − mg) *
 = mẍ *
ı
*
ı : V − S = mẍ

V = S + mẍ (1)
*
 : U − T − mg = 0

U = T + mg (2)

Moment bal- L L L L
U sin θ1 − V cos θ1 − S cos θ1 + T sin θ1 = 0 (3)
ance: 2 2 2 2
Link BC :
Force balance: S*
ı + (T − mg) *
 = mẍ *
ı
*
ı : S = mẍ (4)
*
 : T − mg = 0 (5)

Moment bal- L L
T sin θ2 − S cos θ2 = 0 (6)
ance: 2 2
SOLVE:
S
(6) ⇒ tan θ2 = (7)
T

141
g
mẍ ẍ 1
(4), (5) → (7) ⇒ tan θ2 = = = 2 =
mg g g 2

θ2 = tan−1 ( 21 ) = 26.6◦

(1),(2)→(3) ⇒ (T + mg) sin θ1 − (S + mẍ) cos θ1 − S cos θ1 + T sin θ1 = 0

(2T + mg) sin θ1 − (2S + mẍ) cos θ1 = 0


2S + mẍ
tan θ1 = (8)
2T + mg
g
3mẍ ẍ 1
(4),(5)→(8)⇒ tan θ1 = = = 2 =
3mg g g 2

θ1 = tan−1 ( 21 ) = 26.6◦

142
7.1.11
GOAL: Determine if the switch is triggered or not.
GIVEN: System geometry, masses and coefficients of friction.
DRAW:

* *
ı 
*
b1 cos θ sin θ
*
b2 − sin θ cos θ
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
We’ll first look at the alarm without m1 . A static force balance yields :
* *
N b 2 + (Fk − FA ) b 1 − m2 g *
 =0
*
b1 : Fk − FA − m2 g sin θ = 0

FA = Fk − m2 g sin θ
For the given parameter values :

FA = 10 N − 0.9(9.81 m/s2 )(0.4695) = 5.855 N


ASSUME:
Because FA > 0 we initially have a positive contact. Now, look at what happens with m1 placed
on m2 . Assume static conditions hold.

A static force balance yields :


Mass m1 :
* *
−m1 g *
 + T b2 + S b1 = 0
*
b1 : S − m1 g sin θ = 0 (1)
*
b2 : T − m1 g cos θ = 0 (2)
Mass m2 :

143
* *
(Fk − FA − S) b 1 + (N − T ) b 2 − m2 g *
 =0
*
b1 : FA = Fk − S − m2 g sin θ (3)
*
b2 : N − T − m2 g cos θ = 0 (4)
SOLVE:
(1) ⇒ S = m1 g sin θ (5)

(5)→(3)⇒ FA = Fk − m1 g sin θ − m2 g sin θ

FA = Fk − g sin θ(m1 + m2 )

FA = 10 N − (9.81 m/s2 )(0.4695)(1.5 kg + 0.9 kg) = −1.054 N

FA < 0 implies a loss of contact and subsequent triggering of the switch. To be sure of this result,
however, we need to verify that our initial assumptions haven’t been violated.
From (5),
S = (1.5 kg)(9.81 m/s)(0.4695) = 6.909 N
From (2),
T = m1 g cos θ = (1.5 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )(0.8829) = 12.99 N

Smax = µT = 0.3(12.99 N) = 3.898 N (6)


Since Smax < S we see that the static assumption is invalid and m1 slips along m2 . Thus we have
to move from a static analysis to a dynamic one. Our new set of FBD=IRDs are shown below.
We’ll assume that m1 slides along m2 and thus we know that the interfacial force is therefore given
by µ1 T .

(3),(6)⇒ FA = Fk − µ1 T − m2 g sin θ

FA = Fk − 0.3m1 g cos θ − m2 g sin θ

FA = 10 N − [0.3(1.5 kg)(0.8829) + (0.9 kg)(0.4695)] 9.81 m/s2

FA = 10 N − 8.043 N = 1.957 N

FA > 0 tells us that contact isn’t lost and the switch isn’t triggered.

144
7.1.12
GOAL: Determine the acceleration ẍ for which the switch contact will open.
GIVEN: System configuration and prestress due to spring.
DRAW:

ASSUME: Because the contact hasn’t opened, θ̈ = 0.


FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

m = m1 + ρ(L1 + L2 + L3 )
= 1.1 × 10−2 kg + (2.5 × 10−2 m)(0.1 kg/m) = 1.35 × 10−2 kg

Force balance:
(T1 − T2 − Fk ) *
ı + T3 *
 = mẍ *
ı

*
ı : T1 − T2 − Fk = mẍ (1)

*
 : T3 = 0 (2)
Moment balance: X *
MG = 0 (3)
SOLVE: Calculate r*G/
O

L3 * L L L
m r*G/ = −ρL3 ( )  + ρL2 ( 2 ) *
 + ρL2 ( 2 *
 − 1*ı ) + m1 (L2 *
 − L1 *
ı)
O 2 2 2 2

r*G/ = −4.16 × 10−3 *


ı + 8.519 × 10−3 *

O

Now we can do the moment balance about G. Using the result that T3 = 0 this gives us
(8.52 × 10−3 m)T1 − (0.25 N)(1.85 × 10−2 m) = 0 (4)
At the point at which contact is lost, T2 goes to zero. Using this in (1) gives us
T1 − 0.25 N = (1.35 × 10−2 kg)ẍ (5)

(4), (5) ⇒ T1 = 0.543 N, ẍ = 21.7 m/s2

145
7.1.13
GOAL: Find a cyclist’s speed during steady-state cornering.
GIVEN: The turn’s radius and the cyclist’s lean angle.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
We’ll use a force balance and a moment balance.
ASSUME:
Since the cyclist is at a constant lean angle and speed we have

θ̇ = θ̈ = 0 (1)
where θ is the cyclist’s inclination angle.

v2 v2 v2
aG = = = (2)
r 40 ft − (3 ft) sin(20◦ ) 38.97 ft
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Force balance: (N1 − mg) *
 + F1 *
ı = ma*G (3)

Moment balance: (3 ft)F1 cos(20◦ ) − (3 ft)N1 sin(20◦ ) = I¯θ̈ (4)


SOLVE: !
v2 *
(2) → (3) ⇒ (N − mg) *
 + F1 *
ı =m ı
38.97 ft
Equating Coefficients:
v2
*
ı: F1 = (5)
38.97 ft
*
: N1 = mg (6)

(1) → (4) ⇒ F1 = N1 tan(20◦ ) = 0.3640N1 (7)

38.97 ft 38.97 ft
(5), (6), (7) ⇒ v2 = F1 = (0.3640)N1 = (38.97 ft)(0.3640)(32.2 ft/s)
m m

v 2 = 456.8 (ft/s)2

v = 21.37 ft/s = 14.57 mph

146
7.1.14
GOAL:
(a) What are the forces being applied by the supports to the stand’s floor?
(b) What is θ̈ equal to?
(c) How do the results compare to the case of an inverted pendulum problem that’s tipped over
from the upright (unstable) equilibrium?
GIVEN: θ = 60 degrees, θ̇ = −0.936 rad/s, m = 15 kg
DRAW:

* *
ı 
*
b1 sin θ − cos θ
*
b2 cos θ sin θ
ASSUME: The top of the stand doesn’t rotate but rather remains horizontal as it tips over.
FORMULATE EQUATIONS: √ ! √ !
3* 1* 3* 1*
Force balance: F1  + ı + F2  + ı − mg *  = m (a1 * ı + a2 *
)
2 2 2 2
1 1
*
ı: F1 + F2 = ma1 (1)
2 2
√ √
3 3
*
: F1 + F2 − mg = ma2 (2)
2 2
√  √ 
3 1 3 1
 
Moment balance: −F1 m + F2 m = 0 ⇒ F1 = F2 (3)
2 2 2 2
SOLVE:
Since the motion of the floor involves no rotation, the mass center’s acceleration is the same as
point B:

√ ! √ !
* *
 *

2
 *
 3* 1* 2 1* 3*
a = aB = (3 m)θ̈ − b 1 + (3 m)θ̇ −b2 = (3 m)θ̈ − ı +  + (3 m)θ̇ − ı − 
2 2 2 2

√  ! √  !
3  1 1 3 
a*B = *
ı − (3 m)θ̈ − (3 m)θ̇2 + *
 (3 m)θ̈ − (3 m)θ̇2
2 2 2 2

147
   
ı −(2.598 m)θ̈ − 1.314 m/s2 + *
a*B = *  (1.5 m)θ̈ − 2.276 m/s2
ı + a2 *
Since a* = a1 *  this gives us

a1 = −(2.598 m)θ̈ − 1.314 m/s2 (4)

a2 = (1.5 m)θ̈ − 2.276 m/s2 (5)


 
(3), (4), (5) → (1), (2) ⇒ F1 = m −(2.598 m)θ̈ − 1.314 m/s2 (6)
√  
3F1 = mg + m (1.5 m)θ̈ − 2.276 m/s2 (7)
√  
(6), (7) ⇒ 3 −(2.598 m)θ̈ − 1.314 m/s2 = g + 1.5θ̈ − 2.276 m/s2

−6θ̈ = 9.81 m/s2

θ̈ = −1.635 rad/s2 (8)


 
(8) → (6) ⇒ F1 = 15 kg −(2.598 m)(−1.635 m/s2 ) − 1.314 m/s2 = 44 N

F2 = F1 = 44 N
Now let’s consider a pendulum with a tip mass m. If we sum moments about the attachment point

O we’ll obtain
X *
*
MO = I α

mgL sin θ = mL2 θ̈

g
θ̈ = sin θ
L
For θ = 30 degrees we have

9.81 m/s2
θ̈ = (0.5) = 1.635 rad/s2
3m
Use energy to find θ̇:

148
1
mL2 θ̇2 + mgL cos θ = mgL
2
1
mL2 θ̇2 = mgL(1 − cos θ)
2
2 √ !
2g 2(9.81 m/s ) 3
θ̇2 = (1 − cos θ) = 1− = 0.8762 (rad/s)2
L 3m 2

θ̇ = 0.936 rad/s
These results match those found in the rigid body problem. The conclusion is that the non-rotating
body with massless supporting links behaves like a point mass would.

149
7.1.15
GOAL:
Find the tension in each of the cords supporting a rectangular body.
GIVEN: At the instant shown θ̇ = 0 and θ = π3 rad. L = 1.1 m and m = 20 kg AB = CD = 2 m

DRAW:

ASSUME:
From geometry
√ !
3* 1*
a* = a ı − 
2 2

3
a1 = a
2
a
a2 = −
2
This is only valid for the release instant. Once the block begins to move it will have an additional
acceleration component due to centripetal acceleration. The block itself doesn’t rotate as a rigid
body.
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
√ ! √ !
1* 3* 1* 3*
Force balance: T1 ı +  + T2 ı +  − mg *
 = m (a1 *
ı + a2 *
)
2 2 2 2

1 1
*
ı : T1 + T2 = ma1 (1)
2 2
√ √
3 3
*
 : T1 + T2 − mg = ma2 (2)
2 2

3 * L* ¯ L
Moment balance about A: T2 L k − mg k = I(0) + m (* ı −*  ) × (a1 *
ı + a2 *
)
2 2 2

3 * L* L
T2 L k − mg k = m (a1 + a2 )
2 2 2

3T2 − mg = m (a1 + a2 ) (3)
SOLVE:
Using the known orientation of the center of mass’s acceleration (shown in the ASSUME step),
gives us

150

1 1 3
T1 + T2 = ma (4)
2 2 2
√ √
3 3 1
T1 + T2 − mg = − ma (5)
2 2 2


!
3 1
3T2 − mg = ma − (6)
2 2
This leaves us with 3 equations and 3 unknowns. √ √

!
1 1 3 3
(4), (5) ⇒ T1 + T2 = − 3 T1 + T2 − mg
2 2 2 2

2T1 + 2T2 = 3mg (7)
√ √
(7), (4) ⇒ 2 3ma = 3mg ⇒ a = g2 (8)


!
mg 3 1
(8), (6) ⇒ 3T2 − mg = −
2 2 2

T2 = mg(0.683) (9)

(9) → (7) ⇒ T1 = mg(0.183)


Thus

T1 = (20 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )(0.183) = 35.9 N

T2 = (20 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )(0.683) = 134 N

151
7.1.16
GOAL: Determine the plate’s acceleration and the forces in the links immediately after the sup-
porting wire is cut.
GIVEN: System dimensions and mass. φ = 30◦ .
DRAW:

* *
ı 
*
b1 sin φ cos φ
*
b2 − cos φ sin φ
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
The massless links are pinned and therefore can’t support apply any moments to the plate. They
have no mass and therefore the forces acting at each end must be equal and opposite. If the forces
weren’t equal and opposite then the links would experience an infinite acceleration due to their zero
mass - something that’s physically not acceptable.
Because of the system geometry the plate can only translate - no rotation is possible. Thus the
moment sum about its mass center must be zero. Finally, because the system is released from rest
its initial velocities (both translational and rotational) are zero - hence the only acceleration will
*
be from acceleration of the plate’s mass center, which, by geometry, will be in the b 1 direction.
* *
Force balance: −ma b 1 = (T1 + T2 ) b 2 − mg *

*
ı : −ma = −mg cos φ (1)
*
 : T1 + T2 − mg sin φ = 0 (2)

Moment balance about G:


T1 cos φ(0.1 m) − T1 sin φ(0.25 m) − T2 cos φ(0.1 m) − T2 sin φ(0.25 m) = 0

T1 (0.1 m cos φ − 0.25 m sin φ) − T2 (0.1 cos φ + 0.25 sin φ) = 0 (3)


SOLVE:
(1) ⇒ a = g cos 30◦ = 8.5 m/s2

(2), (3) ⇒ T1 = 59.9 N, T2 = −10.9 N

152
7.2 Rotation About a Fixed Point

153
7.2.1
GOAL: Determine the areal density of a piece of a two-part structure
GIVEN: r*G = (4.739 *  ) cm; ρA = 1 kg/m2 and dimensions are specified.
ı + 3.544 *
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

m r*G = mA r*A + MB r*B (1)


SOLVE:

r*A = (3 *
ı + 3*
 ) cm (2)

r*B = (11 *
ı + 5.5 *
 ) cm (3)

(1), (2), (3) ⇒ [(36 cm2 )ρA + (10 cm2 )ρB ] r*G = (36 cm2 )ρA (3 *
ı + 3*
 ) cm+

(10 cm2 )ρB (11 *


ı + 5.5 *
 ) cm

*
ı: 170.6 kg/m2 + 47.4ρB = 108 kg/m2 + 110ρB ⇒ ρB = 1.00 kg/m2

*
: 127.6 kg/m2 + 35.4ρB = 108 kg/m2 + 55ρB ⇒ ρB = 1.00 kg/m2

ρB = 1.00 kg/m2

154
7.2.2
GOAL: Find the mass moment of inertia about the x-axis in terms of both ρ and m.
GIVEN: Dimensions of the thin rod and mass per unit length ρ.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: The mass moment of inertia about O is


Z
2
IO = rdm dm
/O
body

where the infinitesimal mass can be expressed in terms of the density as dm = ρdz. Thus, we can
use Z
2
IO = ρ rdm dz (1)
/O
body

SOLVE:
3  3
L 1 3 4 L 1 27 3 1 7
Z   
4
2
(1) ⇒ IO = ρ z dz = ρ z = ρ L + L3 = ρL3
− 41 L 3 − 14 L 3 64 64 48
Since we are given linear density, the mass of the rod is m = ρL. Therefore, IO in terms of density
or in terms of mass is
7 3 7 2
IO = 48 ρL = 48 mL

155
7.2.3
GOAL: Determine Iyy and Iy0y0 for the illustrated body. Express your answer in terms of both
the density ρ and total mass m.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
a) From Appendix B, we know that the moment of inertia of a sphere about a central axis of
rotation is:
2
I = mR2
5
4πR3
The volume of a sphere is 3 and so:

4ρπR3 (2)(4ρπR3 )(R2 ) 8ρπR5


m= and I = =
3 (5)(3) 15
Finding I yy is equivalent to finding I for half of a sphere.
5 5
Iyy = 21 ( 8ρπR 4ρπR
15 ) = ( 15 )
The mass of our half sphere is:

1 4ρπR3 2ρπR3
mh = ( )=
2 3 3
Thus:
2m R2
Iyy = h
5

This is the same formula as for a complete sphere. Note, however, that the mass for Iyy (mh ) is
one half the mass of the full sphere.
b) To find Iy0y0 , we can use the parallel axis theorem.
We know that
Iy0y0 = IG + (R − rG )2 mh (1)
2
Iyy = IG + rG mh (2)
If we find rG , we can then calculate Iy0y0 using our answer to a) and (1),(2).
ZR
*
mr G = z(ρπx2 dz) *
 (3)
0

156
x2 = R2 − z 2 (4)
ZR
(3)→(4)⇒
*
m r G = ρπ z(R2 − z 2 )dz *

0

ρπR4 *
m r*G =  (5)
4
The volume is:
1 4 3 2
 
V = πR = πR3 (half a sphere)
2 3 3
The mass is:
2
m = ρV = πR3 ρ (6)
3
2ρπR3 * ρπR4 *
(5),(6)⇒ rG = 
3 4
3R *
r*G = 8  (7)

Using a) and (2) and (7) gives:


2
Iyy = IG + rG mh

2mh R2 9mh R2
2
3R

= IG + mh = IG +
5 8 64
2 9
 
IG = − mh R2 (8)
5 64

(8)→(1)⇒ Iy0y0 = IG + (R − rG )2 mh
2
2 9 5R
  
Iy0y0 = − mh R2 + mh
5 64 8

Iy0y0 = ( 25 + 25
64 − 9
64 )mh R
2 = 13
20 mh R
2

2πρR3
Using mh = 3 gives:
13 5
Iy0y0 = 30 ρπR

157
7.2.4
GOAL: Find mass moment of inertia about the x axis.
GIVEN: Geometry of thin cylindrical shell.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: Z
Center of mass: m r*G/ = r*dm/ dm (1)
O O
Z  
Moment of inertia about O: IO = r*dm/ · r*dm/ dm (2)
O O
 
Parallel Axis Theorem: IO = IG + m r*O/ · r*O/ (3)
G G

SOLVE:

From diagram: dm = ρhrdθ, m = ρπrh, r*dm/ = x *


ı + y*
 = r cos θ *
ı + r sin θ *
 (4)
O

Z π
* 2
(1), (4) ⇒ ρπrh r G/O = ρhr (cos θ *
ı + sin θ *
 ) dθ (5)
0
r π 2r
(5) ⇒ r*G/ = (sin θ − cos θ) = (6)

O π 0 π
* *
First find Ix0 x0 using: m = πρrh, dm = ρrdzdθ, r*dm/ = y *
 + z k = r sin θ *
 + zk (7)
x0

(2), (7) ⇒

158
Rπ h/2
 
r2 sin2 θ + z 2 dz dθ
R * *
R 
Ix0 x0 = rdm/ ·rdm/ dm = ρr
x0 x0 0 −h/2
π/2
R h/2
r2 sin2 θ + z 2 dz dθ
R 
= (2)(2)ρr
0 0
 h/2

π/2
R  z3
= 4ρr r2 sin2 θz + dθ

3
0
0
 π/2

R π/2  hr2 sin2 θ h3
 
hr 3

θ

rh3
= 4ρr + dθ = 4ρr − sin 2θ + 24 θ

0 2 24 2 2

0
ρπhr 3 ρπh3 r mr2 mh2
= 2 + 12 = 2 + 12

Using this with (3) and (6) gives us


  mr2 mh2 4mr2
I¯xx = Ix0 x0 − m r*G/ · r*G/ = + −
O O 2 12 π2

 
mh2
I¯xx = mr2 1
2 − 4
π2
+ 12

159
7.2.5
GOAL: Find r, IO , and IC for a quarter-circle of thin rod
GIVEN: Rod’s shape
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Z
IO = |rdm/O |2 dm
Body

SOLVE:
Z π/2 h i
IO = rρ (r sin θ)2 + (r − r cos θ)2 dθ
0
Z π/2
= r3 ρ (2 − 2 cos θ) dθ = r3 ρ (2θ − 2 sin θ) |π/2
0
0

I0 = ρr3 (π − 2)

Z π/2 Z π/2
2 3
IC = (rdθρ) r = r ρ dθ
0 0

ρr 3 π
IC = 2

IG + mr̄2 = IC (1)

IG + mL21 = IO (2)
 
(1) → (2) ⇒ m r̄2 − L21 = IC − IO
" " 2 2 ##
ρπr 2 r̄ r̄ ρr3 π

r̄ − r− √ + √ = − ρr3 (π − 2)
2 2 2 2
Let r̄ = rd

ρπr3 h 2 √ i 
−π

d − d2 + 2d − 1 = ρr3 +2
2 2

2 2
d=
π

160

2 2
r̄ = rd = π r

161
7.2.6
GOAL: Find mass moment of inertia in terms of ρ and r2 .
GIVEN: Geometry of uniform disk with circular hole.
DRAW:
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: Z  
Moment of inertia about arbitrary IO = r*dm/ · r*dm/ dm (1)
point O: O O
 
Parallel Axis Theorem: IO = IG + m r*O/ · r*O/ (2)
G G

SOLVE:
ρπr4
Z r Z r
(1) ⇒ I¯ of arbitrary ¯
Idisk = * *
(τ e r · τ e r ) ρ(2πτ )dτ = 2ρπ τ 3 dτ = (3)
uniform circular disk∗ : 0 0 2
∗ note – τ is a dummy variable of integration that takes the place of r in the expression for dm.

ρπr14
(3), (2) ⇒ Ihole/ : Ihole/ = + mhole (2r1 )2 (4)
O O 2
!
ρπr2 4 ρπr14
Itotal/ = Isolid disk/ − Ihole/ ⇒ Itotal/ = − + ρπr1 2 (2r1 )2 (5)
O O O O 2 2

256ρπr2 4 9ρπr2 4 4
(4), r1 = r42 ⇒ Itotal = − = 247ρπr
512
2
512 512

162
7.2.7
GOAL:
Express the mass moments of inertia of the annular pipe in terms of ρ and m, the total mass of
the pipe.
GIVEN: Pipe’s dimensions.
DRAW:

SOLVE:
The easy way to solve the problem is to solve for the mass moment of inertia for a solid cylinder of
radius r2 and for a solid cylinder of radius r1 and then subtract Ir1 from Ir2 .

Ihoop = 2πrdrρh r2
| {z }
dm
r1 r1 πρhr14
Z Z
3
Ir1 = 2πρhr dr = 2πρh r3 dr =
0 0 2
πρhr24
Ir2 =
2
πρh
r24 − r14

IAA = Ir2 − Ir1 = 2

Mass of a cylinder with radius r1 : πr12 hρ


Mass of a cylinder with radius r2 : πr22 hρ
Mass of the annulus: πρh r22 − r12 = m

πρh (r22 +r12 )m


r22 − r12 r22 + r12 =
 
IAA = 2 2

For IBB we need only apply the parallel axis theorem:


IBB = IAA + mr22
or
(3r22 +r12 )m
IBB = 2

163
7.2.8
GOAL:
Express the mass moments of inertia of the annular pipe in terms of ρ and m, the total mass of
the pipe.
GIVEN: Figure’s dimensions.
DRAW:

SOLVE: 2
For a rigid rod, we know that I about its mass center is mL
12 and the parallel axis theorem lets us
find I about some other point. We’ll solve this problem by breaking the body into three rigid rods
and determining their mass moments of inertia about G.
m
z }| {
ρ(2L1 )(2L1 )2 2
I¯AC = = ρL31
12 3
ρ(2L1 )(2L1 )2 2
I¯BE = = ρL31
12 3
ρ(2L1 )(2L1 )2 2
I¯DF = = ρL31
12 3
2 8
IACabout G
= I¯AC + md2 = ρL31 + 2L1 ρL21 = ρL31
3 3
2 8
IDFabout G
= I¯DF + md2 = ρL31 + 2L1 ρL21 = ρL31
3 3
8 2
 
I¯ = IACabout G
+ IDFabout G
+ I¯BE = 2 ρL31 + ρL31
3 3

I¯ = 18 3
3 ρL1 = 6ρL31 = mL21

To find IA we need to again apply the parallel axis theorem:

IA = IG + m 2L21 = 3mL21


164
7.2.9
GOAL: Find IB for an irregular body.
GIVEN: Body’s dimensional mass and IA .
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

IA = IG + md2
SOLVE:

IA = IG + md21

140 kg·m2 = IG + (20 kg)( 2 m)2

IG = 100 kg·m2

IB = IG + md22 = 100 kg·m2 + 20 kg((2 m)2 + (1 m)2 )

IB = 200 kg·m2

165
7.2.10
GOAL: Find IO
GIVEN: Shape of body and linear density.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
We’ll treat the body as being composed of two pieces: the H-shaped piece at the bottom (piece 1)
and the vertical piece projecting from it (piece 2).

IO = IG + md2
SOLVE:

m(2b)2 mb2 2bρb2 2ρb3


IG = = = =
12 3 3 3

2ρb3 2ρb3
IO = + m(c2 + a2 ) = + 2bρ(c2 + a2 ) (1)

3 3
1

For the bar of length 2a we have



2ρa3
IO = + (2aρ)c2 (2)

3
2

For the bar of length c we have


1 1
IO = mc2 = ρc3 (3)
3 3
2ρb3 2ρa3 1
(1), (2), (3) ⇒ IO = 2[ + 2bρ(c2 + a2 )] + + 2aρc2 + ρc3
3 3 3
!
4(0.3)3 2(0.5)3 1
IO = (5 kg/m) + 4(0.3)(1.82 + 0.52 ) + + 2(0.5)(1.8)2 + (1.8)3 m3
3 3 3

IO = 47.5 kg·m2

166
7.2.11
GOAL: Find the center of mass and IA of the equilateral triangle
GIVEN: outer edge linear density ρed = 4 kg/m, inner areal density ρin = 25 kg/m2 , L = 0.8 m
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Parallel axis theorem IA = IG + mtotal (rG/ )2
A

and we’ll break the overall calculation into two pieces, that of the inner
 triangle
 and the outer edges

IG = IG + 3 IG

in ed

where in refers to the inside triangular area and ed refers to the surrounding edges.
SOLVE:
The center of mass will be the center of the equilateral triangle due to symmetry. Each of the
medians intersect at this point, which will be directly above O.√ √
1 ◦ 3 3
r̄ = rG/ = L tan 30 = L= (0.8 m) = 0.231 m
O 2 6 6

r̄ = 63 L = 0.231 m above O

From Appendix B we know that the mass moment of inertia of a right triangle is given by
m 2 2

a +b
18
where a and b are the two shortest sides of the triangle.
 √ !2 
3L  mL2
 2
m L
IG = + =
T 18 2 2 18

167
mL2
 2
L
IG = IG + m =
T 6 12
The mass of our triangular piece is given by √ !
1 L 3L
 
m= ρ
2 2 2
and thus our total mass moment of inertia about G (remembering to double our current value in
order to account for two triangular pieces) is
√ √
3ρL4 3(25 kg/ m2 )(0.8 m)4
IG = = = 0.370 kg· m2

in 48 48
Now consider the contribution from the edges. First consider the edge BC with midpoint O. From
a previous example the mass moment of inertia about a bar’s center was found to be 12 1 L3 ρ .
ed
Find IG using the parallel axis theorem. Keep in mind that the center of mass of the 1 edge is

ed
at point O and point G is the center of mass of the entire
body.
IG = IO + med (r̄)2

ed ed
√ !2
1 3 1
IG = L3 ρed + (Lρed ) L = L3 ρed

ed 12 6 6
1

= (0.8 m)3 (4 kg/m) = 0.341 kg· m2
IG

6 ed
Now combine the mass moment of inertia of the inside with the mass moment of inertia of 3 edges.
  
IG = IG + 3 IG = 0.370 kg· m2 + 3 0.341 kg· m2 = 1.394 kg· m2

in ed

Use the parallel axis theorem one last time to find IA


 
mtotal = min + 3 Lρed = 6.928 kg + 3 [(0.8 m)(4 kg/m)] = 16.528 kg
√ √ √ √
L 3 L 3 L 3 (0.8 m) 3
rG/ = h − r̄ = − = = = 0.462 m
A 2 6 3 3
IA = IG + mtotal (rG/ )2 = 1.394 kg· m2 + (16.528 kg)(0.462 m)2 = 4.920 kg· m2
A

IA = 4.920 kg· m2

168
7.2.12
GOAL: Find the in-plane rotational inertia, IA .
GIVEN: Dimensions, ρ = 12 kg/m2 , L = 1.6 m
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: Using the parallel axis theorem, we have


IA = IG + mrG2
/A

To find the rotational inertia about the center of mass, we can find the rotational inertias of the
triangle and the ring separately because their centers of mass are
at the same point. This gives us
IA = IG + IG + mrG2 (1)

tri ring /A

We can employ the parallel axis theorem again to help us find IG by choosing a point B, located

tri
on the midpoint of a leg of the triangle,
IG = IB − mtri rG2 (2)

tri tri /B

SOLVE: To find the rotational inertia of the triangle about B, we can use symmetry to integrate
just over half of the triangle. The integration limits for the x axis are simply 0 to L2 , but for the y
√ √
axis we must integrate between 0 and 23 L − 3x.
√ √ √ √
L 3 L 3
L− 3x L− 3x
1
Z Z Z  
2 2
2 2 2 2
IB =2 (x + y )ρdydx = 2ρ x y + y 3
2
dx

tri 0 0 0 3 0
√ √ !3 
L
3 2 √ 3 1 3 √
Z
2
= 2ρ  Lx − 3x + L − 3x  dx
0 2 3 2
√ √ √ !4  L2
3 3 3 4 1 3 √
= 2ρ  Lx − x − √ L− 3x 
6 4 12 3 2
0

3 4
ρL ⇒ IB =

tri 24
The distance from B to G can be found just from the geometry of the triangle, knowing that G
lies at the intersection of the medians. Thus, √
1 ◦ 3
rG/ = L tan 30 = L
B 2 6

The mass of the triangle is mtri = ρAtri , where the area is Atri = 21 L( 21 L tan 60◦ ) = 3 2
4 L . Therefore,

169

3 2
the mass is mtri = 4 ρL .
√ √ ! √ !2 √
3 4 3 2 3 3 4
(2) ⇒ IG = ρL − ρL L = ρL

tri 24 4 6 48
The rotational inertia of the ring about point G can be found using polar coordinates such that
dm

= ρdr(rdθ). The

inner radius of√the ring is equal to the difference between the
 √ height of triangle,
3 3 3 3
2 L, and rG/ = 6 L. Thus, ri
= 3 L. The outer radius is ro = ri
+ 0.4L = 3 + 0.4 L.
B √ 
3
Z 2π Z ro Z 2π Z
3
+0.4 L
IG = r2 ρdr(rdθ) = ρ r3 drdθ


ring 0 r 0 3
L
i 3

√   √ !4 √ !4  Z
2π  3 +0.4 L
1 4 3 1 4 3 3  2π
Z 
=ρ r √ dθ = ρL + 0.4 − dθ
0 4 3
L 3
4 3 3 0


⇒ IG = 1.259ρL4

ring

We still need the last term in (1): mrG2 , where m is the total mass and rG/ is the same as the
/A A

3
inner radius of the ring, ri = 3 L. The total mass m is
√  √ !2 √ !2  √
  3 2  3 3  3 2
m = mring +mtri = ρπ ro2 − ri2 + ρL = + 0.4 − 2
ρπL + ρL
4 3 3 4

⇒ m = 2.387ρL2
Therefore,
√ √ !2
3 4   3
(1) ⇒ IA = ρL +1.259ρL4 + 2.387ρL2 L = (2.090)(12 kg/m2 )(1.6 m)4 = 164.4 kg· m2
48 3

IA = 164.4 kg· m2

170
7.2.13
GOAL: Find IO of the illustrated body.
GIVEN: Body’s shape, constituent parts and densities.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
We’ll construct the mass moment of inertia through use of the parallel axis theorem and the known
(from Appendix B) formulas for the mass moments of inertia of a right triangle and a solid semi-
circle.
SOLVE:
First we’ll find the mass moment of inertia of the triangular piece.
m   m L2
IG = t L2 + L2 = t
18 9
"   2 #
L2
L mt L2
IO = IG + mt + = (1)
3 3 3

ρ1 L2 (0.5 m)2 (10 kg/ m2 )


mt = = = 1.25 kg (2)
2 2
(1.25 kg)(0.5 m)2
(1), (2) ⇒ IO = = 0.104 kg· m2
3
Now consider the solid semi-circle.
msc L2
IA =
4
√ !2
2 2L
IG + msc = IA

msc L2 8msc L2
IG = −
4 9π 2
m L2 9π 2 − 32

IG = sc
36π 2
√ !2
L 2 2L
IO = IG + msc √ + (3)
2 3π
2
√m

0.5
π 2
msc = (4 kg/ m2 ) = 0.785 kg (4)
2

(3), (4) ⇒ IO = 0.231 kg· m2

171
Both these components added together give us our total mass moment of inertia about O:
IO = 0.335 kg· m2

172
7.2.14
GOAL: Find I of the illustrated body about the z axis.
GIVEN: Body’s shape
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

IA = IG + m(rA/ )2 (1)
G

Z
|r|2 dm (2)
Body

SOLVE:
First we’ll find the mass moment of inertia of the bar about G:   !
1 r 2
I = m (4r)2 +
AB 12 AB 2
This problem is interesting because there are three bodies, not just one. However, it’s stated that
the two wheels are freely pivoted at their center. Thus they won’t rotate as the bar rotates about
G - they behave exactly like point masses at A and B. Hence their contribution to the moment of
inertia is simply md2 , where m is the individual mass and d is the distance to G:
 2 !
1 r
IG = m (4r)2 + + 4mA r2 + 4mB r2
12 AB 2
1 65
 
IG = (1.8 kg)(0.2 m)2 + 8(0.2 m)2 (0.8 kg)
12 4

IG = 0.3535 kg· m2

173
7.2.15
GOAL: Find I about the z axis of a paraboloid of revolution. For y = 0 we’re given that z = ax2 .
GIVEN: Body’s shape.
DRAW:

The figure shows a cross-section of the body at y = 0.


FORMULATE EQUATIONS: We’ll form the overall mass moment of inertia by using the
formula for the mass moment of inertia of a disk, mr2 /2 and stacking the disks one on top of
another to fill in the solid body.
SOLVE:
The volume of a disk with radius x and height dz is given by
dm x2 ρπx4 ρπz 2
dI = dz = dz = dz (1)
2 2 2a2
z
Z0
ρπz 2 ρπz03
I= dz = (2)
2a2 6a2
0

The body’s mass is found from


z z
Z0 Z0 ρπz02
ρπz
m= ρπx2 dz = dz =
a 2a
0 0

Factoring this from (2) let’s us construct


mz
I = 3a0

174
7.2.16
GOAL: Find I about the z axis of a paraboloid of revolution. For y = 0 we’re given that z = ax2 .
GIVEN: Body’s shape.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: We’ll use the general equation for a body’s mass moment of
inertia:

Z
|r|2 dm
Body

From the figure it can be seen that the actual mass in a band of height dz is greater than dz
multiplied by the band’s perimeter because of the slant of the shell’s surface.
z = ax2 ⇒ dz = 2ax dx
SOLVE:
The area of the band found by rotating the illustrated differential piece of the shell around the z
axis is given by
1
 
dA = 2πx dz (1)
sin θ
dz dz dz
sin θ = p = q = √ (2)
(dx)2
+ (dz)2 dz
dx 1 + ( dx )2 dx 1 + 4a2 x2
√ !
dx 1 + 4a2 x2 p
(1), (2) dA = 2πx dz = 2πx 1 + 4a2 x2 dx (3)
dz
p
(3) ⇒ dm = 2πρx 1 + 4a2 x2 dx (4)
Now that we have dm we can find I
x
Z0 p
(4) ⇒ I= 2πρx3 1 + 4a2 x2 dx
0
q
z
where x0 = a. This is a bit easier if we re-express it in terms of z, using z = ax2 and dz = 2ax dx:
z
Z0 √
ρπ
(4) ⇒ I= 2 z 1 + 4azdz
a
0

2 (1+4az)3/2
Integrating by parts, with u = z, dv = (1 + 4az)1/2 , du = dz and v = 3 4a gives us

175
z
 
z Z0
0 3/2
ρπ  z (1 + 4az)
I = 2  (1 + 4az)3/2 − dz 

a 6a 6a
0 0

Integrating once more and evaluating at z0 and 0 gives us


" #
ρπ z0 (1 + 4az0 )3/2 (1 + 4az0 )5/2
I= 2 −
a 6a 60a2

ρπ(1 + 4az0 )(6az0 − 1)


I=
60a4
Expressing the result in terms of the mass m means we need to find m (not surprisingly).
z z
R0 R0
m = 2πρ sinx θ dz = 2ρπ x(1 + 4a2 x2 )1/2 dx
0 x0
0
(1 + 4a2 x2 )3/2
= 2ρπ = ρπ2 (1 + 4az0 )3/2
12a2

6a
0

m(6az0 − 1)
I=
10a2

176
7.2.17
GOAL: Find Izz and Iyy of the washer.
GIVEN: areal density ρ
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
For Izz we need the distance from each differential mass element to the z-axis. This is represented
by r
Z Z 2π Z r Z 2π Z r
2 2 2 2
Izz = r dm = r ρ(dr)(rdθ) = ρ r3 drdθ
body 0 r 0 r
1 1

For Iyy we need the distance from each differential mass element to the y-axis. This is represented
by r cos θ
Z Z 2π Z r Z 2π Z r
2 2 2 2 2
Iyy = (r cos θ) dm = r (cos θ) ρ(dr)(rdθ) = ρ r3 (cos θ)2 drdθ
body 0 r 0 r
1 1

A = π(r22 − r12 ) , m = ρA = ρπ(r22 − r12 )


m
ρ= (1)
π(r22 − r12 )
SOLVE:
First find Izz " #r
2π r 2π r4 2
Z Z Z
2 3
Izz = ρ r drdθ = ρ dθ
0 r
1
0 4 r
1
 
ρh 4 i Z 2π 2πρ r24 − r14
Izz = r2 − r14 dθ = (2)
4 0 4

177
" #
m 
4 4

2π r − r  
π(r22 − r12 ) 2 1 2m r24 − r14
(1) → (2) ⇒ Izz = =  
4 4 r22 − r12
 
2m r24 − r14
Izz = 2πρ
 
4 4
4 r2 − r1 = 4 r 2 − r 2
 
2 1

Now find Iyy


" #r
2π r 2π r4 2
Z Z Z
2 3 2
Iyy = ρ r (cos θ) drdθ = ρ (cos θ)2 dθ
0 r
1
0 4 r
1
2π 2π
ρh iZ ρh i θ sin(2θ)
Iyy = r24 − r14 (cos θ)2 dθ = r24 − r14 +
4 0 4 2 4 0
πρ h i
Iyy = r24 − r14 (3)
4
" #
m 
4 4

π r − r  
π(r22 − r12 ) 2 1 m r24 − r14
(1) → (3) ⇒ Iyy = =  
4 4 r22 − r12
 
m r24 − r14
Iyy = πρ
 
4 4
4 r2 − r1 = 4 r 2 − r 2
 
2 1

Note that Izz and Iyy differ by a factor of 2. It is easier to rotate the washer about the y-axis than
the z-axis.

178
7.2.18
GOAL: Find Izz of the sold half-sphere.
GIVEN: density ρ, mass m, radius R. (For clarity, R will represent the radius of the half-sphere
and r will be used for the variable of radial integration.)
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Cylindrical coordinates will be used to find Izz . The distance from each differential mass element
to the z-axis is r. The z limits of integration
√ are simply z = 0 to z = R, however the r limits of
integration are r = 0 to the curve r = R − z 2
2

√ √
Z Z 2π Z RZ R2 −z 2 Z 2π Z RZ R2 −z 2
2 2
Izz = r dm = r ρ(dr)(dz)(rdθ) = ρ r3 drdzdθ
body 0 0 0 0 0 0

2 2
V = πR3 , m = ρV = ρ πR3
3 3
3m
ρ= (1)
2πR3
SOLVE:
√ " #√R2 −z 2
Z 2π Z RZ R2 −z 2 Z 2π Z R r4
Izz = ρ r3 drdzdθ = ρ dzdθ
0 0 0 0 0 4 0

ρ
Z 2π Z Rh i2 ρ
Z 2π Z Rh i
2 2
Izz = R −z dzdθ = R4 − 2R2 z 2 + z 4 dzdθ
4 0 0 4 0 0
" #R " #Z
ρ 2π 2R2 z 3 z 5 ρ 2R5 R5 2π
Z
4
Izz = zR − + dθ = R5 − + dθ
4 0 3 5 0
4 3 5 0

ρ 8 5 4
  
Izz = R [2π] = ρπR5 (2)
4 15 15
4 3m 2
 
(1) → (2) ⇒ Izz = 3
πR5 = mR2
15 2πR 5
4
Izz = 15 ρπR
5 = 25 mR2

179
7.2.19
GOAL: Find Ix0 x0 , the mass moment of inertia about the x0 axis of the half-spherical shell.
GIVEN: areal density ρ, mass m, radius R. (For clarity, R will represent the radius of the
half-sphere and r will be used to represent cylindrical coordinates)
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
First find the center of mass. Then find Ixx , the mass moment of inertia about the x axis. Use the
parallel axis theorem to find I¯xx , the mass moment of inertia through the center of mass, parallel
to the x axis. Use the parallel axis theorem again to find Ix0 x0 , the mass moment of inertia about
the x0 axis. Note that all of these lines are parallel.
Z Z 2π Z R Z 2π Z R
center of mass mr̄ = rdm = ρz(dz)(Rdθ) = ρ zR dzdθ
body 0 0 0 0

Z  2 Z 2π Z R 2
Ixx = rdm dm = rdm ρ(dz)(Rdθ)
/x−axis /x−axis
body 0 0

A = 2πR2 , m = ρA = ρ2πR2
m
ρ= (1)
2πR2
 2
parallel axis thm: Ixx = I¯xx + mr̄2 , Ix0 x0 = I¯xx + m rx0
/G

SOLVE:
Find the center of mass " #
2π R 2π z 2 R R2 2π
Z Z Z Z
mr̄ = ρ zR dzdθ = Rρ dθ = Rρ dθ = πρR3
0 0 0 2 0 2 0
h i R
mr̄ = πρR3 = ρ2πR2 r̄ ⇒ r̄ =
2
 
Determine rdm in order to find Ixx . Each differential element is a distance of z away from
/x−axis

the x, y plane. Let each differential element be a distance


 of h away from the x, z plane.
p
rdm = z 2 + h2 (2)
/x−axis

Now find h. Consider cylindrical coordinates (r, θ, z). The distance of a point described by cylin-
drical coordinates to the x, z plane is given by h = r sin θ. Consider describing the surface in
cylindrical coordinates.

180
2
h

2 2 2 2
z +r = R ⇒ z + = R2 ⇒ z 2 (sin θ)2 +h2 = R2 (sin θ)2
sin θ
  p
h2 = R2 − z 2 (sin θ)2 ⇒ h = sin θ R2 − z 2 (3)

  q q
(3) → (2) ⇒ rdm = z 2 + (sin θ)2 (R2 − z 2 ) = z 2 (1 − (sin θ)2 ) + R2 (sin θ)2
/x−axis

 
With rdm out of the way, find Ixx .
/x−axis

Z 2π Z R 2 Z 2π Z R  
Ixx = rdm ρ(dz)(Rdθ) = Rρ z 2 1 − (sin θ)2 + R2 (sin θ)2 dzdθ
/x−axis
0 0 0 0
" #
2π z3  R
Z 
Ixx = Rρ 1 − (sin θ)2 + zR2 (sin θ)2 dθ

0 3 0
" #
2π R3 
Z 
Ixx = Rρ 1 − (sin θ)2 + R3 (sin θ)2 dθ
0 3

R4 2π R4 2π
Z h i Z h i
Ixx = ρ 1 − (sin θ)2 + 3(sin θ)2 dθ = ρ 1 + 2(sin θ)2 dθ
3 0 3 0

R4 1 4π 4
  2π
Ixx = ρ 2θ − sin 2θ = ρR

3 2 0 3
Now use the parallel axis theorem to find I¯xx , the mass moment of inertia through the center of
mass.  2
¯ 2 4π 4 ¯ R
Ixx = Ixx + mr̄ ⇒ ρR = Ixx + m (4)
3 2

4π m 2
¯xx + mR 2 1 5
 
(1) → (4) ⇒ R 4
= I ⇒ I¯xx = mR2 − mR2 = mR2
3 2πR2 4 3 4 12

With I¯xx known, use the parallel axis theorem again to find Ix0 x0
2 2
5 R 5 1 2
 
Ix0 x0 = I¯xx + m rx0 = mR2 + m = mR2 + mR2 = mR2
/G 12 2 12 4 3
2 2h i 4π 4
Ix0 x0 = mR2 = ρ2πR2 R2 = ρR
3 3 3

Ix0 x0 = 3 ρR
4 = 23 mR2

Note that Ix0 x0 has the same value as Ixx . This means that it is equally as difficult to spin the shell
around the x axis as compared to the x0 axis.

181
7.2.20
GOAL: Find I xx of a sphere (mass moment of inertia about the x axis).
GIVEN: Body’s shape
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: We’ll use the general equation for a body’s mass moment of
inertia:
Z
|r|2 dm (1)
Body

and break the body into a stack of disks. The figure√shows a cross section of the body (x = 0) and
a representative disk, with thickness dy and radius R2 − x2 .
SOLVE:
From symmetry, we need only calculate the mass moment of inertia from x = 0 to x = R and then
double the result to obtain the complete answer.
R Rπρ(R2 − x2 )2
I xx = 2 2 dx
0
RR
R4 − 2R2 x2 + x4 dx

= πρ
0
8ρπR5
= 15

The volume of the sphere is found from


ZR   4πR3
V =2 π R2 − x2 dx =
3
0
4πρR3
and thus the mass is m = 3 .
Factoring this from our mass moment of inertia gives us
2mR2
I xx = 5

182
7.2.21
GOAL: Find I about the z axis.
GIVEN: Body’s shape
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: We’ll use the parallel axis theorem:

IA = IG + m(rA/ )2 (1)
G

and the general equation for a body’s mass moment of inertia:


Z
|r|2 dm (2)
Body

SOLVE:
Let the height of the pyramid by given by h. The figure shows a cross-section of the pyramid,
taken parallel to the xy plane, at a height z. I’ve also drawn in a complementary triangle to form
a square (dashed lines). The point O indicates the origin of the x,y,z axes.
dIA of the square is, from Appendix B,
2
dm 2 ft − z


12 2
2
ρ(2 ft − z)4 dz ρ(2 ft − z)4 dz
or, using dm = ρ 2 ft2− z

dz, 96 . One half of this is 192 . This gives us
dIA of the triangle.
Now use

dIG + dm|rA/ |2 = dIA


G

From geometry, |rA/ | = 2 ft2− z √1


 
G 3 2
Thus we have

ρ(2 ft − z)4 dz 1
2 2 
2 ft − z 2 ft − z 1
  
dIG = − ρ dz
192 2 2 2 18
ρ(2 ft − z)4
dIG = dz
288
Now find dIO :

dIO = dIG + dm|rO/ |2


G

ρ(2 ft − z)4
2 2  2
1 2 ft − z 2 ft − z 2
 
= dz + ρ dz √
288 2 2 2 3 2

183
ρ(2 ft − z)4
= dz
96
Z 2ft Z 2ft
ρ(2 ft − z)4 ρ
IO = dz = [16 ft4 − 32 ft3 z + 24 ft2 z 2 − 8 ftz 3 + z 4 ]dz
96 96
0 0

" # 2ft
ρ z5 ρ 5
= 16 ft4 z − 16 ft3 z 2 + 8 ft2 z 3 − 2 ftz 4 + = ft

96 5 15
0
ρ 5
IO = ft
15
The volume of the pyramid is given by
1 ft·1 ft·2 ft 1
Vol = = ft3
6 3
and thus the mass is m = ρ
3 ft
3

ρ
3( ft3 )
IO = 315 ft2 = m
5 ft
2

184
7.2.22
GOAL: Find IO
GIVEN: Body’s shape
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: From Appendix B:


m 2 
IA = h1 + h22
12
m 2 
IB = L + N2
18
SOLVE:

m = ρ (2ab)
 2
a
IO |R = IG + m
1 2
" #
b 2 a2
 2
m  a
= (2b)2 + a2 + m =m +
12 2 3 3
2ρab  2 
IO |R = b + a2
3
  2 
c 2 b

IO |T = IG + m 3 + 3
2 
m
(2b)2 + c2 + m 2 2

= 18 9 c +b
m ρbc
2b2 + c2 = 2 2
 
= 6 6 2b + c

     
2
IO = IO |R + IO |T = ρ 2ab b 2 + a2 + bc b2 + c

, m 2a b2 + a2  + c b2 + c2
IO = 6a
3 2 2

185
7.2.23
GOAL: Determine a body’s mass moment of inertia in terms of ρ and m.
GIVEN: Body’s dimensions.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
We’ll project our body into four pieces: 1, 2, 3 and 4, as shown, calculate their respective mass
moments of inertia about O and then sum the components.
From Appendix B we find that the mass moment of inertia of a rectangle (with sides of length a
and b) about its mass center is given by
m 2 
IG = a + b2
12
m
a2 + b2 .

and a right triangle’s mass moment of inertia about its mass center is given by 18
SOLVE:
The mass moment of inertia about O for right triangle
" 1  is given by # !
2  2
m1  2 2
 2b a b2 a2
IO1 = a + b + m1 + = m1 +
18 3 3 2 6
The mass moment of inertia about O for rectangle 2 is given by ! !
m   b2 c2 b2 c2
IO2 = 2 b2 + c2 + m2 + = m2 +
12 4 4 3 3
Adding these two components and expressing the individual masses in terms of the dimensions and
areal density gives us ! ! !
ρab b2 a2 b2 c2 ab2 a3 b2 c c3
IO1 + IO2 = + + ρbc + = ρb + + +
2 2 6 3 3 4 12 3 3
From symmetry we can simply double this to determine the overall mass moment of inertia:
 
2
IO = 2ρb ab a3 b2 c c3
4 + 12 + 3 + 3

To find the answer in terms of the overall mass we need to first calculate the mass:
m = ρ(ab + 2bc) = ρb(a + 2c)
Factoring this out from our IO gives us
 
IO = a 2m ab2 + a3 + b2 c + c3
+ 2c 4 12 3 3

186
7.2.24
GOAL: Determine a body’s mass moment of inertia in terms of ρ and m.
GIVEN: Body’s shape.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
We’ll decompose the body into 3 pieces, an inner rectangle and two outer half-discs.
The mass moment of inertia of a rectangle about its mass center and a half-disc about B are

m 2  mr2
IG = a + b2 , IB =
12 2
respectively.
4r
The distance from B to the half-disc’s mass center is given by h = 3π .
SOLVE:
The mass of the total system is found from !
2 πr2 ρ
m = 2(2r) ρ + 2 = ρr2 (8 + π)
2
The mass moment of inertia about O for the rectangle is given by
m h i 40r4 ρ
IO = rect (4r)2 + (2r)2 =
12 3
In order to find the mass moment of inertia of the half-disc about O we first need to determine
what it is about the half-disc’s mass center and then apply the parallel axis
! theorem.
9π 2 − 32
IB = IG + mh2 ⇒ IG = mr2
18π 2
To find the mass moment of inertia about O we take IG and add md2 where d is the distance from
the half-disc’s mass center to O:
(6π + 4)r 2
! !
2 2
2 9π − 32 2 81π + 96π
 
IO = mr +m = mr
18π 2 3π 18π 2
Adding together our mass moment of inertia for the rectangular piece and two half-discs (and using
the appropriate mass for each half-disc) gives us !
40r4 ρ 2
2 2 81π + 96π
IO = + (ρπr )r
3 18π 2
 
81π+336
IO = r4 ρ 18

Reexpressing in terms of the total mass of the body, m = ρr2 (8 + π) gives us


2
IO = 8mr
 
81π+336
+π 18

187
7.2.25
GOAL: Find I about x axis for a solid body.
GIVEN: Body’s geometry
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

IBody = IDisk − IHemi


SOLVE:
As shown above, we’ll solve by subtracting the mass moment of inertia of a hemisphere from that
of a disk to obtain the final result.
From Appendix B, the mass moment of inertia of the solid disk about the x axis is given by
!
(3r)2 (2r)2 43 2
IDisk =m + = mr
4 3 12
and the mass moment of inertia of a hemisphere about the x axis is
2
IHemi = mr2
5
The mass of the disk is π(3r)2 (2r)ρ = 18πr3 ρ
The mass of the hemisphere is 23 πr3 ρ
Thus IBody = 43 2 3 2 2 2 3
12 r (18)πr ρ − 5 r ( 3 )πr ρ

IBody = πr5 ρ 129 4


 
2 − 15
The mass of the body is given by
2 52
 
mBody = 18πr ρ − πr3 ρ = πr3 ρ
3
3 3

IBody = mBody r2 129 4 3


  
2 − 15 52

188
7.2.26
GOAL: Find I¯ for a chainring
GIVEN: Chainring’s geometry. a = 2.5 cm, ρ = 8.6×10−4 kg/ cm2
DRAW:

SOLVE: This problem can be broken into several pieces. The figure shows a quarter of the
chainring. The easiest part is the outer ring, for which we have
 
1 πρ h 4 4
i π 8.6×10−4 kg/cm2 h i
1
IO = (4a) − (3a) = (10 cm)4 − (7.5 cm)4
4 2 8

= 2.309 kg cm2
We then have a pie-shaped piece, OBC, for which we have

2 πρ (3a)4 (19.47)
IO = = 0.2312 kg cm2
2 (360)
Which used θ = 19.47◦ , found from

7.5 sin θ = 2.5


Triangle OAE:
1  
mOAE = (5 cm) (1.768 cm) 8.6×10−4 kg/cm2 = 0.0038 kg
2
0.0038 kg  
I OAE = (5 cm)2 + (1.768 cm)2 = 0.00594 kg cm2
18
 
3
IO = 0.00594 kg cm2 + (0.0038 kg) (3.3̄ cm)2 + (0.589 cm)2

= 0.0495 kg cm2

189
1  
mCDE = (2.071 cm) (2.5 cm − 1.768 cm) 8.6×10−4 kg/cm2 = 0.000652 kg
2
0.000652 kg  
I CDE = (2.071 cm)2 + (2.5 cm − 1.768 cm)2 = 0.000175 kg cm2
18
 
4
IO = 0.000175 kg cm2 + (0.000652 kg) (5.69 cm)2 + (2.26 cm)2

= 0.0246 kg cm2
h h ii
1 2 3 4
IO = 4 IO + 2 IO − IO + IO

= 4 [2.309 + 2 (0.231 − 0.0495 + 0.0246)] kg cm2

IO = 10.885 kg cm2

190
7.2.27
GOAL: Determine a body’s mass moment of inertia in terms of ρ and m.
GIVEN: Body’s shape.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
We’ll project our body onto two planes - the x, z plane and the x, y plane. We’ll need the formulas
for the mass moment of inertia of a rectangular body as well as that for a rod.

The mass moment of inertia of a rectangle (with sides of length a and b) about its mass center is
given by
m 2 
IG = a + b2
12
1
The mass moment of inertia of a rod of length L is 12 mL2 about its mass center and 13 mL2 either
of its ends.
SOLVE:
x, z plane:
Consider Figure (a). The mass of the body is found from the rectangular piece and the rod:
mrect = 2ρab, mrod = ρbc

m = ρb(2a + c)
The mass moment of inertia about O for the rectangle"pieces are given by
  2  2 # 2 2
!
2ρab 2
  a b a b
IOrect = a + b2 + 2ρab + = 2ρab +
12 2 2 3 3
The mass moment of inertia about O for the bar is given by
b2 ρb3 c
IO = ρbc =
bar 3 3
The total mass moment of inertia is the sum of these two components:

191
 
IO = 2ρb 3 2 b2 c
3 a + ab + 2

In terms of m = ρb(2a + c) this is


 
2
IO = 2m a3 + ab2 + b2c
3(2a + c)
x, y plane:
Consider Figure (b). The mass of the body is found from the rectangular piece and the two rods:
mrect = ρbc, mrod = ρab

m = 2ρab + ρbc = ρb(2a + c)


The mass moment of inertia about O for" the bars is given# by !
 2
b2 b 2 b2 2b2 2
IO = ρab + + c + ρab = ρab +c
bars 12 2 3 3
The mass moment of inertia about O for the rectangle
! "isgiven by
2 2 2  2 # " #
b c b c b2 c2
IOrect = ρbc + + ρbc + = ρbc +
12 12 2 2 3 3
The total mass moment of inertia is the sum of these two components:
 
2
IO = ρb 2ab 2 cb2 c3
3 +c + 3 + 3

In terms of m = ρb(2a + c) this is


 
IO = m 2ab2 + c2 + cb2 + c3
(2a + c) 3 3 3

192
7.2.28
GOAL: Find the mass moment of inertia of a body about the x axis.
GIVEN: Body’s shape and orientation.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
The figure shows the body projected onto the y, z axes. We’ll find the mass moment of inertia
about the mass center, O, using the formula for the mass moment of inertia of a rod along with
the parallel axis theorem.
SOLVE: "  2   2 # !
c2 c b c2 b2
I1 = ρac + + = ρac +
12 2 2 3 4
!
b2
I2 = ρab
12
!
c2 b2
I3 = ρac +
3 4
h i
2c3 cb2 b3
IO = I1 + I2 + I3 = aρ 3 + 2 + 12

193
7.2.29
GOAL: Determine the reaction forces at the hinge of a bar.
GIVEN: Bar is released from rest at an angle of θ = 55 degrees.
DRAW:

* *
ı 
e*r sin θ − cos θ
e*θ cos θ sin θ
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
mgL sin θ mL2
Moment balance about O: − = θ̈ (1)
2 3
L * L 2*
 
* * *
Force balance: −R1 e r + R2 e θ − mg  = m θ̈ e − θ̇ e r
2 θ 2
mL 2
e*r : −R1 + mg cos θ = − θ̇ (2)
2
mL
e*θ : R2 − mg sin θ = θ̈ (3)
2
SOLVE:
(1) ⇒ R1 = mg cos θ

R1 = 0.574mg

L
(2), (3) ⇒ R2 = mg sin θ − m θ̈ (4)
2
3
(1), (4) ⇒ R2 = mg sin θ − mg sin θ
4
R2 = 0.205mg

194
7.2.30
GOAL: Find a*A and moment, M .
GIVEN: Shape of body. Reaction force is (0.944 *
ı + 3.46 *
 ) N. r = 2.0 m, ρ = 0.5 kg/ m.
DRAW:

* *
ı 
*
b1 cos θ sin θ
*
b2 − sin θ cos θ
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:√
From Appendix B we have r = 2 π2r
r * r * 2 * 2 *
   
r*G/ = r − √ b2 + √ b1 = r b1 + r 1 − b2
O 2 2 π π
2 *˙ 2 *˙ 2 * 2
   
* *
vG = r b1 + r 1 − b 2 = rθ̇ b 2 − r 1 − θ̇ b 1
π π π π
2 2 2 2 2
       
* *
*
aG = b 1 −r 1 − θ̈ − rθ̇2 + b 2 rθ̈ − r 1 − θ̇
π π π π
* *
For our problem θ = 0 and thus *
ı, *
 aligns with b 1 , b 2

π 2 2 2 2 2 *
        
Force balance: * *
T1 ı + T2  = rρ −r 1 − θ̈ − rθ̇2 *
ı + rθ̈ − r 1 − θ̇ 
2 π π π π

π 2 2
   
*
ı: T1 = r 2 ρ − 1− θ̈ − θ̇2 (1)
2 π π
π 2 2 2
   
*
: T2 = r 2 ρ θ̈ − 1 − θ̇ (2)
2 π π
We now need IO
ρπ 3
IC = mr2 = r (3)
2
IG + mr2 = IC (4)
ρπr3 ρπr 8
 
(4) ⇒ IG = IC − mr2 = − r2
2 2 π2
 2 !
1 2
IG = r3 ρπ −
2 π

195
IO = IG + m|rG/ |2
O

 2 ! !
1 2 ρπr 4r2 4 4

3 2
= r ρπ − + 2 +r 1− + 2
2 π 2 π π π

IO = ρr3 (π − 2) (5)

Moment balance: M = ρr3 (π − 2)θ̈ (6)


SOLVE: We’re given the reaction forces on the pivot and know that the forces on the bar are equal
and opposite. Thus

T1 = −0.944 N (7)

T2 = −3.46 N (8)
Solving (1) and (2) for θ̈ and θ̇2 (using (7), (8)) gives us

θ̈ = −1.10 rad/s2 (9)

θ̇2 = 1.10 (rad/s)2 (10)


(9) → (6) ⇒ M = −5.03 N·m
* * *
a*A = θ̈ k × (2 *
ı + 2*
 ) m + θ̇ k × (θ̇ k × (2 *
ı + 2*
 ) m)

= (−2θ̇2 − 2θ̈) *
ı + (2θ̈ − 2θ̇2 ) *

 m/s2
a*A = −4.40 *

196
7.2.31
GOAL:
Find the reaction forces acting at O in terms of θ̇, M , m and L.
GIVEN: System configuration.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Force balance:
L
*
b1 : R = ma1 = −mθ̇2 (1)
2
*
L
b2 : T = ma2 = m θ̈ (2)
2
Moment balance:
* * L mL2
b3 : b3 : M −T = θ̈ (3)
2 12
SOLVE:
2
(1) ⇒ R = − mL
2
θ̇

L 12 L
  
(2) → (3) ⇒ T =m M −T
2 mL2 2
6M
T (1 + 3) =
L
3M
T = 2L

197
7.2.32
GOAL:
Determine the effect that a transmission has on the ultimate angular acceleration of a main gear.
GIVEN: System configurations.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
For Case (a) we have a single moment balance:

M = I¯2 θ̈2 (1)


For Case (b) we have two moment balances, one for each gear:
Fr
−F r2 = I¯2 θ̈2 ⇒ θ̈2 = − ¯ 2 (2)
I2
M − I¯1 θ̈1
M − F r1 = I¯1 θ̈1 ⇒ F = (3)
r1
ASSUME: The gears for Case (b) roll without slip on each other and thus we have
r2
θ̈1 = − θ̈ (4)
r1 2
SOLVE:
M
(1) ⇒ θ̈2 = I¯
(5)
2
!
r2
−M
r1
(2), (3), (4) ⇒ θ̈2 = (6)
I¯1
" ! !#
r2
I¯2 1 +
r1 I¯
2

Comparing (5) and (6) shows that applying the moment to a smaller gear (r1 < r2 ) will increase the
angular acceleration of the primary gear (Gear 2) by the ratio r2 /r1 . If I¯1 = 0 then (6) simplifies
to !
r2
M
r1
θ̈2 = −
I¯ 2
which shows the effect clearly.

198
7.2.33
GOAL: Determine Sam’s vertical acceleration after grabbing hold of the cable.
GIVEN:
2 m of cable was hanging free of the spool at the time Sam grabbed it. The spool has a mass of 80
kg and a radius of 1.1 m. The cable has a linear density of 0.5 kg/m. The axle/spool interface has
enough friction that 11 N·m of torque is needed to start the spool turning. Sam’s mass is 75 kg.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Moment balance about O, spool: −11N·m + T1 r = Isp θ̈ (1)

Force balance, cable: T1 − T2 − mc g = mc ÿ (2)

Force balance, Sam: msam ÿ = T2 − msam g (3)


ASSUME:
−rθ̈ = ÿ (4)
SOLVE:

msp r2 (80 kg)(1.1 m)2


Isp = + r2 mcable = + (1.1 m)2 (0.5 kg/ m)(50 m) = 78.65 kg· m2 (5)
2 2

mc = (0.5 kg/m)(2 m) = 1 kg (6)


−78.65 kg· m2
(1), (4), (5) ⇒ −11N·m + T1 (1.1 m) = ÿ = −(71.5 kg· m)ÿ (7)
1.1 m
(2) ⇒ T1 − T2 − (9.81 m/s2 )(1 kg) = (1 kg)ÿ (8)

(3) ⇒ (75 kg)ÿ = T2 − (75 kg)(9.81 m/s2 ) = T2 − 735.75 N (9)


71.5 kg· m
(7) ⇒ T1 = − ÿ + 10 N = −(65 kg)ÿ + 10 N (10)
1.1 m
(8), (10) ⇒ −(65 kg)ÿ + 10 N − T2 − 9.81 m/s2 = ÿ =⇒ (66 kg)ÿ = −T2 + 0.19 N (11)

(9), (11) ⇒ (66 kg)ÿ = −(75 kg)ÿ − 735.75 N + 0.19 N

(141 kg)ÿ = −735.56 N ⇒ ÿ = −5.22 m/s2

199
7.2.34
GOAL: Find the time for a reel of rope to unwind.
GIVEN: Reel geometry and mass distribution.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
X Fr
Moment balance about O: MO = IO α ⇒ F r = IO α ⇒ α = (1)
IO
SOLVE:
Part (a):
The mass moment of inertia about the pivot is given by

IO = 4me2
Integrating gives us
Fr
ω(t) = t + C1
IO
Fr 2
θ(t) = t + C1 t + C0
2IO
Applying the initial conditions: ω(0) = 0, θ(0) = 0 allows us to evaluate the constants of integration
C1 = 0, C0 = 0 and therefore we have
Fr 2
θ(t) = t
2IO
L
To fully unwind rope, rθ(tf ) = L ⇒ θ(tf ) = r

L Fr 2
= t
r 2IO f
r r
2IO L 8mLe2
tf = =
F r2 F r2
Part (b):
How does the unreel time change if r is doubled? Let r0 = 2r
s s s s
2IO L 8mLe2 8mLe2 1 8mLe2
t0f = = = =
F r02 F r02 4F r 2 2 F r2

t0f = 12 tf

Part(c):
The effect of doubling radius is significant. It halves the required time to fully unreel.

200
7.2.35
GOAL:
Find the “sweet spot” of a uniform rod.
GIVEN: System configuration.
DRAW:

ASSUME: To minimize the magnitude of the reaction force, we’ll look for a solution for which it
is equal to zero.
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
 2
L L
Force balance:
* *
−T e r + (S − F ) e θ = −m θ̇2 e*r + m θ̈ e*θ
2 2
 2  2
L L
*
er : T =m θ̇2 = m ω2 (1)
2 2
L
e*θ : S − F = m θ̈ (2)
2

Moment balance around O: I¨O θ̈ = −F r (3)


SOLVE: !
mLr
(2), (3) ⇒ S=F 1− (4)
2IO
Setting S to zero gives us
2IO
r= (5)
mL
mL2
For a uniform bar IO = 3 . Using this in (5) yields
2L
r= 3

201
7.2.36
GOAL: Compare tension in two configurations of suspended masses after support cut
GIVEN: System configurations.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: Balance of moments


X * * L
MG = I θ̈ k ⇒ T1 = I θ̈ (1)
2
Balance of forces X*
F = ma*G ⇒ (T1 − 2mg) *
 = m(a1 *
ı + a2 *
) (2)
SOLVE:
CASE A: Moment of inertia I = 0. From (1), we get

L
T1 =0 ⇒ T1 = 0 (3)
2
1
CASE B: Moment of inertia I = 2 mL2 . From (1), we get

L T2 L/2 T2
T2 = I θ̈ ⇒ θ̈ = 2
= (4)
2 mL /2 mL

Acceleration of the center of mass


* L* L
a*G = a*D + α
*
× r*G/ = 0 + θ̈ k × (− ı ) = − θ̈ *
 (5)
D 2 2

Thus, a1 = 0 and a2 = − L2 θ̈. In the *


 direction, (2) gives

L
T2 − 2mg = −m θ̈ (6)
2

Substitute for θ̈ from (4)


1 4mg
T2 − 2mg = − T2 ⇒ T2 = (7)
2 3
Hence, a center placement causes smaller tension.

202
7.2.37
GOAL: Show that IA 6= IB + m|rA/ |2
B
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

IA = IG + mrA2
/G

and

IB = IG + mrB2
/G

SOLVE:
Rewriting these yields

IG = IA − mrA2 (1)
/G

IG = IB − mrB2 (2)
/G

(1) = (2) ⇒ IA − mrA2 = IB − mrB2


/G /G

IA = IB + m(rA2 + rB2 ) (3)


/G /G

The only way (3) can be the same as IA = IB + mrA2 would be for
/B

rA2 = rA2 − rB2


/B /G /G

or

rA2 + rB2 = rA2 (4)


/B /G /G

The general situation is illustrated.


As one can see, (4) will not hold unless the angle θ is 90◦ . Being that this will not hold true in
general, we conclude that IA is not always (or even usually) equal to IB + mrA2 .
/B

203
7.2.38
*
GOAL: Find α for disk
GIVEN: Frictional moment, dimensions and masses
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
For the static case we have T1 = (12 kg)g, T2 = (7 kg)g
A static moment balance about O gives us

r1 T1 − r2 T2 = (0.2 m)(12 kg)(9.81 m/s2 ) − (0.3 m)(7 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )

= 2.94 N·m
2.94 N·m exceeds the static frictional moment of 2.0 N·m and thus the pulley disk will rotate.
Moment balance about O : IO θ̈ = T1 r1 − T2 r2 − 2 N·m (1)
For the 12 kg mass we have
Force balance: (12 kg)ẍ1 = (12 kg)g − T1 (2)
For the 7 kg mass we have
Force balance: (7 kg)ẍ2 = (7 kg)g − T2 (3)
ASSUME:
Our system constraints are

204
ẍ1 = r1 θ̈ = (0.2 m)θ̈ (4)

ẍ2 = −r2 θ̈ = −(0.3 m)θ̈ (5)


SOLVE:
(4) → (2) ⇒ T1 = (12 kg)(9.81 m/s2 ) − (12 kg)(0.2 m)θ̈

T1 = 118 N − (2.4 kg·m)θ̈ (6)

(5) → (3) ⇒ T2 = (7 kg)(9.81 m/s2 ) − (7 kg)(−0.3 m)θ̈

T2 = 68.7 N − (2.1 kg·m)θ̈ (7)

(6), (7) → (1) ⇒ (0.4 kg·m2 )θ̈ = (0.2 m)[118 N − (2.4 kg·m)θ̈]−

(0.3 m)[168.7 N + (2.1 kg·m)θ̈] − 2 N·m

θ̈ = 0.625 rad/s2

*
*
α = 0.625k rad/s2

205
7.2.39
GOAL: Find angular acceleration of a pivoted plate and reaction forces at the pivot.
GIVEN: Body’s dimensions and orientation. m = 0.12 kg.
DRAW:

* *
ı 
*
b1 sin θ − cos θ
*
b2 cos θ sin θ
 
where θ = tan−1 43
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Due to the pin at O and the fact that ω = 0 initially,
*
a*G = rG/ α b 2 (1)
O

Moment balance about O : −(0.04 m)mg = IO α (2)


*
Force balance: F*
 + S*
ı − mg *
 = mrG/ α b 2
O

*
ı: S = mrG/ α cos θ (3)
O

*
: F − mg = mrG/ α sin θ (4)
O

m
IG = ((0.06 m)2 + (0.08 m)2 ) = 1.00 × 10−4 kg·m2
12

IO = IG + m((0.03 m)2 + (0.04 m)2 ) = 4.00 × 10−4 kg·m2 (5)


SOLVE:
−(0.04 m)(0.12 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )
(2), (5) ⇒ α= = −118 rad/s2 (6)
4 × 10−4 kg·m2
*
*
α = −118k rad/s2

(3), (6) ⇒ S = (0.12 kg)(0.05 m)(−118 rad/s2 )(0.6) = −0.424 N

(4), (6) ⇒ F = (0.12 kg)(9.81 m/s2 ) + (0.12 kg)(0.05 m)(−118 rad/s2 )(0.8) = 0.612 N

206
7.2.40
GOAL: Find the tension in the rope.
GIVEN: Length and weight of log and configuration of rope.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
√ √
e= 2L 1 − sin θ (1)

ė = −vD (2)

Lθ̇ cos θ
(1),(2)⇒ vD = p
2(1 − sin θ)
p
v* 2(1 − sin θ)
θ̇ = D (3)
L cos θ
θ̇2
(3)⇒ θ̈ = θ̇2 tan θ − cos θ(1 − sin θ)−1 (4)
2
SOLVE:
At θ = 0, θ̇ = 0.3143 rad/s, θ̈ = −0.04938 rad/s2
−mgL T
Moment balance at A: IA θ̈ = +√ L
2 2

400 (9 ft)2 (400 lb)(9 ft) (9 ft)T


 
slg (−0.04938 rad/s2 ) = − + √
32.2 3 2 2

T = 280 lb

207
7.2.41
GOAL: Find maximum deceleration that allows box to remain on roof.
GIVEN: Dimensions of box and force produced by tape.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Force balance: −N2 *
ı + (N1 − mB g − 2df0 l) *
 = mB ẍ *
ı

*
ı : −N2 = mB ẍ (1)

*
 : N1 − mB g − 2df0 l = 0 (2)

Moment balance about G: −N2 h − N1 d = 0 (3)


SOLVE:
90 lb
mB = = 2.80 slg
32.2 ft/s2

(2) ⇒ N1 = 90 lb + 2(28 in)(50 in)(0.014 lb/in2 ) = 129 lb (4)


d 28
(3), (4) ⇒ N2 = −N1 = −(129 lb) = −95.2 lb (5)
h 38
N2 95.2 lb
(5) → (1) ⇒ ẍ = − = = 34.1 ft/s2
mB 2.80 slg

208
7.2.42
GOAL: Find the equilibrium speed ω for a flyball governor.
GIVEN: Dimensions and masses of the device.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
We’ll just analyze one half of the problem, using half of the spring force. Links 1 and 2 are massless
and so there can’t be any unbalanced forces or moments.

Moment balance, Link 1: −(N2 + Fsp ) sin θ + N1 cos θ = 0 ⇒ N1 = (N2 + Fsp ) tan θ (1)

Moment balance, Link 2: Fsp sin θ − N3 cos θ = 0 ⇒ N3 = Fsp tan θ (2)

Force balance, mass: −ω 2 (d + L sin θ)m *


ı = (N2 − mg) *
 − (N1 + N3 ) *
ı

(1), (2) ⇒ = (N2 − mg) *


 − (N2 + 2Fsp ) tan θ *
ı

*
ı : −ω 2 (d + L sin θ)m = −(N2 + 2Fsp ) tan θ (3)

*
 : N2 = mg (4)
The spring’s change in length is 2L(1 − cos θ) and we’re only using one half of the total force for
each half of the flyball governor. Thus we have
1
Fsp = [2kL(1 − cos θ)] (5)
2
SOLVE:

209
[mg + 2kL(1 − cos θ)] tan θ
(4), (5) → (3) ⇒ ω2 =
m(d + L sin θ)
r
[mg + 2kL(1 − cos θ)] tan θ
ω=
m(d + L sin θ)

210
7.2.43
GOAL: Find the exact equation for θ̈(t) as well as the equation for θ̈(t) under the assumption
that the center of mass of the reel, plus the rope still wrapped around it, is located at the reel’s
geometric center. Determine if the rope leave the reel at the same time for both cases. Use a
computer simulation to answer this question.
GIVEN: System geometry.
(a) Exact analysis
DRAW:

* *
ı 
e*r − cos θ − sin θ
e*θ sin θ − cos θ
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
For an exact analysis, whenever a partial turn of rope exists on the reel there will be an unbalanced
moment due to it. Thus we need to find the center of mass of a partial turn of rope and then
calculate the moment it supplies to the general equations of motion.
The length of a partial wrap of rope is given by

(2π − θ)r

where θ is the amount the reel has rotated. The mass of this partial wrap is given by

(2π − θ)rρ

The center of mass is found from


Z 2π
r(2π − θ)ρr = ρr2 dθ e*r
θ

211
(sin θ *
ı + (1 − cos θ) *
 )r
r= (1)
2π − θ
The rotational inertia of the reel plus rope about its center of rotation is given by

IO = Ireel + (L − rθ)ρr2 (2)

where L is the total length of rope.


We can now sum moments and forces. Note that the forces through the reel’s axis of rotation have
been neglected since they will not contribute to the angular acceleration.
X * * *
Moment balance: MO = T r k + r̄ e*r × (2π − θ)ρrg(− *
 ) = IO θ̈ k

* r(sin θ *
ı + (1 − cos θ) *
)×*
 *
T r k − (2π − θ)ρrg = IO θ̈ k
(2π − θ)
* * *
T r k − ρr2 g sin θ k = IO θ̈ k

(T r − ρr2 g sin θ) = (Ireel + (L − rθ)ρr2 )θ̈ (3)

Force balance: unwound rope: −T + ρrgθ = r2 ρθθ̈

T = ρrgθ − r2 ρθθ̈ (4)


SOLVE:
(4)→(3)⇒ (Ireel + Lρr2 )θ̈ = ρr2 g(θ − sin θ)

ρr 2 g(θ−sin θ)
θ̈ = (I +Lρr2 )
reel

212
(b) Approximate analysis
DRAW:

SOLVE:
Moment balance, reel: (Ireel + (L − rθ)ρr2 )θ̈ = rT (5)
Force balance, unwrapped
ρy ÿ = ρyg − T (6)
rope:
kinematics: y = rθ (7)
r 2 ρgθ
(5), (6), (7) ⇒ θ̈ = (I +r 2 Lρ)
reel

(c):
No, the rope doesn’t completely unreel at the same time. Performing a numerical integration for
both cases produces an unrolling time of t = 11.40 s for the approximate case whereas the exact
analysis requires 11.75 s to finish unrolling.

213
7.2.44
GOAL: Determine how many full rotations a wheel will undergo before coming to rest.
GIVEN: Coefficient of friction between wheel and wall/floor is µ and the initial rotational speed
is ω0 .
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Force balance: (N1 − µN2 ) *
ı + (N2 + µN1 − mg) *
 =0

*
ı : N1 − µN2 = 0 (1)

*
 : N2 + µN1 − mg = 0 (2)
mr2
Moment balance about G −µN2 r − µN1 r = θ̈ (3)
2
SOLVE:
2µg(1 + µ)
(1), (2), (3) ⇒ θ̈ = −
r(1 + µ2 )
θ̈ is a constant angular deceleration and thus we can easily integrate: θ̇ = ω0 − θ̈t. After a time t
we’ll have
2µg(1 + µ)
θ̇ = ω0 − t
r(1 + µ2 )
ω0 r(1 + µ2 )
θ̇ = 0 ⇒ t=
2µg(1 + µ)
θ = θ0 + ω0 t + 21 θ̈t2
ω 2 r(1 + µ2 ) ω02 r(1 + µ2 )
= ω0 t + 12 θ̈t2 = 0 −
2µg(1 + µ) 4µg(1 + µ)
2 2
ω0 r(1 + µ )
=
4µg(1 + µ)
The number of turns η is given by
θ
η=

and thus the number of turns is

ω02 r(1 + µ2 )
η=
8πµg(1 + µ)

214
7.2.45
GOAL: Find the time need for a rotating disk to come to rest.
GIVEN: Geometry of disk and ground interface conditions.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Consider a differential ring with thickness dr and at radius r from the center of the disk. Let the
mass density/unit area of the disk be ρ.
Friction force acting on the element: dF = µ(ρ2πrdr)g

Torque about the center due to dF : dT = µ(ρ2πrdr)gr (1)


SOLVE:
ZR
(µρ2πg)R3
(1)⇒ T = (µρ2πg)r2 dr = (2)
3
0

T
θ̈ = (3)
I
2µρπgR3 /3 4µg
(2)→(3)⇒ θ̈ = 1 2 )R2
= (4)
2 (ρπR 3R
This angular acceleration is constant and thus we have
0 = ω0 − θ̈t∗ (5)
3ω R
(4)→(5)⇒ t∗ = 0
4µg

215
7.2.46
GOAL: Determine the force applied to a car due to its wheel’s imbalance eccentricity when trav-
eling at a given speed.
GIVEN: Mass of wheel, imbalance eccentricity, wheel geometry and speed of car.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS
*
To determine the wheel’s rotation speed we’ll use v*O = ω k × r*G/ and to evaluate the imbalanced
O
mass’s acceleration we’ll use the centripetal acceleration eω 2 .
SOLVE:
v (60 mph)(5280 ft/mile)(12 in/ft)
ω= = = 81.2 rad/s
r (13 in)(3600 s/hr)

aG = eω 2 *

* 40 lb 0.05 in 2 *
F = ma*G = *
2 12 in/ft ω ı = 34.2 ı lb
32.2 ft/s

216
7.3 General Motion

217
7.3.1
GOAL: Find rocket’s equations of motion.
GIVEN: Each engine is 0.5 m from rocket’s centerline, rocket has mass m and mass moment of
inertia I
ASSUME: Rocket is a uniform bar of length L
DRAW:

* *
ı 
*
b1 cos θ sin θ
*
b2 − sin θ cos θ
FORMULATE EQUATIONS/SOLVE:
1 1
I θ̈ = N2 ( ) − N1 ( )
2 2

I θ̈ = 21 (N2 − N1 )

*
(N1 + N2 ) b 2 = m(ẍ *
ı + ÿ *
)

*
ı: mẍ = −(N1 + N2 ) sin θ

*
: mÿ = −mg + (N1 + N2 ) cos θ

218
7.3.2
GOAL: Find the angular acceleration of a cylinder.
GIVEN: System geometry and parameters.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
C serves as a point of rotation. From rest θ̇ = 0.
ASSUME: ÿ = −rθ̈ (1)

Moment balance: I θ̈ = −T r (2)

Force balance: mÿ = mg − 0.2k − T (3)


SOLVE:
(1),(2),(3)⇒ I θ̈ = −r(mg − 0.2k − mÿ) = −r(mg − 0.2k + mrθ̈)

(I + mr2 )θ̈ = −mrg + 0.2kr


0.2k − mg
θ̈ = 3
2 mr

(0.2 ft)(10 lb/ft) − 15 lb


θ̈ = = −37.2 rad/s2
1.5(15 lb)(0.5 ft)
32.2 ft/s2

219
7.3.3
GOAL: Find the speed of a disk’s mass center after dropping for 0.339 s.
GIVEN: Disk’s mass and rotational inertia properties, spring constant and initial conditions.
ASSUME: There are no lateral forces and therefore the disk will move vertically. Thus the point
at which the string leaves the unrolling disk will have zero velocity.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: The “rolling” constraint mentioned in the ASSUME section


means that
ÿ = −rθ̈ (1)
A force balance in the *
 direction gives us

mÿ = mg − T − k(y − L) (2)

and a moment balance about the disk’s mass center gives us

I θ̈ = −T r (3)

mg − ky + kL
(1), (2), (3) ⇒ ÿ =
m + I/r2
Numerically integrating ÿ from t = 0 to t = 0.339 s, with initial conditions of y = 0.5 ft, ẏ = 0
yields a final position of y = 1.50 ft (displacement of 1.0 ft) and a speed of

ẏ = 4.633 ft/s

220
7.3.4
GOAL: Find the instantaneous linear and angular acceleration of the body.
*
GIVEN: m = 40 kg, a = 0.8 m, b = 0.5 m, c = 2.2 m, F = 10 *
 N
DRAW:

ASSUME: constant linear density, each segment has identical width and depth
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
We’ll apply a moment balance about G and a force balance at G.
The total mass of the system, along with the total segment lengths, gives us the linear density of
the structure.
40 kg
m = ρ(c + 4b + 2a) ⇒ ρ = ⇒ ρ = 6.90 kg/m
(2.2 m + 4(0.5 m) + 2(0.8 m))
SOLVE:
The bulk of this problem involves finding IG but first the center of mass needs to be determined.
The center of mass can be determined by using multiparticle concepts from Chapter 5. Consider
defining axes at the center of the I-bar part of the body. Call this point O. Consider the mass of
bar c and the mass of the I-bar component:
m = ρc = (6.897 kg/m)(2.2 m) = 15.17 kg , m = 40 kg − m = 24.82 kg
bar c I-bar bar c
The center of mass of the entire structure is now found by finding the mass center of two mass
particles, using the mass values just calculated and located at the mass center of the two respective
pieces. The I-bar has a center of mass at point O (the origin) and bar c has a center of mass at
x = 2c . From Chapter 5:
Σmi ri (24.82 kg)(0) + (15.17)(1.1 m)
r̄ = = = 0.417 m
m 40 kg
Thus the center of mass is 0.417 m to the right of Point O along bar c.
We can now find IG . Recall that the mass moment of inertia of a bar about its center is given
1
by 12 ρL3 . This relationship will be applied multiple times in order to find the total mass moment
of inertia for the structure. First we’ll consider the horizontal top piece of the I-bar and label its
center as B.
1
I-bar top: IB = ρ(2b)3
12
Use the parallel axis theorem to find IO due to this segment.
I-bar top:

1 4
 
IO = ρ(2b)3 + (ρ2b)(a)2 = 2(0.5 m)(6.897 kg/m) (0.5 m)2 + (0.8 m)2 = 4.989 kg· m2
12 12
Now consider the middle of the I-bar with center at point O
1 8
I-bar middle: IO = ρ(2a)3 = (6.897 kg/m)(0.8 m)3 = 2.354 kg· m2
12 12

221
The total mass moment of inertia of the I-bar about O is the sum of the mass moment of inertia
of the I-bar middle plus twice the massmomentof inertia of the I-bar top.

IO = IO + 2 IO = (2.354 + 2(4.989)) kg· m2 = 12.33 kg· m2

I-bar: I-bar middle top
Now use the parallel axis theorem to find the mass moment of the I-bar about point G which is
the center of mass of the entire body. Note that O is the center of mass of the I-bar.

I-bar: IG = IO + (m )(r̄)2 = 12.33 kg· m2 + (24.824 kg)(0.417 m)2 = 16.65 kg· m2

I-bar I-bar I-bar
Next we’ll consider bar c. Denote its center point by D.
1 1
bar c: ID = ρ(c)3 = (6.897 kg/m)(2.2 m)3 = 6.120 kg· m2
12 12
Use the parallel axis theorem to find the mass moment of inertia of bar c about point G.
bar c:
 c 2
IG = ID + m − r̄ = 6.120 kg· m2 + (15.17) (1.1 m − 0.417 m)2 = 13.192 kg· m2

bar c bar c 2
The total mass moment of inertia of the entire body is the sum of the mass moment of inertia of
bar c and the I-bar.
I = I + I = 13.19 kg· m2 + 16.65 kg· m2 = 29.85 kg· m2

total: G G bar c
G I-bar

M Fa (10 N)(0.8 m)
θ̈ = G = = = 0.268 rad/s2
IG IG 29.85 kg· m2

θ̈ = 0.268 rad/s2

F 10 N
aG = = = 0.25 m/s2
m 40 kg

 m/s2
a*G = 0.25 *

222
7.3.5
GOAL: Find the acceleration of mass A with respect to the ground.
GIVEN: Mass and moment of inertia of the pulley, mass of the hanging block and system dimen-
sions.
DRAW:

ASSUME For no slipping:


ẍB = θ̈R (1)

ẍA = ẍB + 2Rθ̈ (2)


(1)→ (2)⇒ aA = 3aB (3)
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
block A: mA g − T2 = mA ẍA (4)

pulley B: mB g + T2 − 2T1 = mB ẍB (5)

2RT2 + 2RT1 = I θ̈ (6)


Summing moments:

SOLVE:
I ẍA
 
(5)→(6)→(3)⇒ mB g + 3T2 = mB + 2 (7)
R 3
3(m +3m )g
ẍA = B A
(7)→ (4)⇒ m +9m + I2
B A R

223
7.3.6
GOAL: Find time for mechanism to move into a given configuration
GIVEN: Dimensions, masses and applied torque
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
We’ll only need to apply moment balances on the two bodies - their motions will be purely rotational.
Let β be the absolute rotation angle of the satellite body and θ be the rotation of the outer links
with respect to the satellite body.

(12 kg) (2 m)2


" #
Ilinks =2 = 8 kg m2
12

(8 kg) (3 m)2
Isat = + 2 (4 kg) (1.5 m)2 = 24 kg m2
12
 
Moment balance, links: 24 N m = 8 kg m2 β̈ + θ̈ (1)
 
Moment balance, body: −24 N m = 24 kg m2 β̈ (2)
 
(2) → (1) ⇒ 24 N m = 8 kg m2 −1 rad/s2 + θ̈

32 rad/s2 = 8θ̈

θ̈ = 4 rad/s2 (3)

(3) → (1) ⇒ β̈ = −1 rad/s2 (4)


(a) The angular acceleration is constant and so

t2 π √
π
θ̈ = rad ⇒ t = 2 s = 0.886 s
2 2
(b) The absolute acceleration of the outer links is β̈ + θ̈ = 3 rad/s2 Thus
  t2
3 rad/s2 = 2π rad ⇒ t = 2.05 s
2

224
7.3.7
GOAL: Determine the needed thrust for the legs to lose contact with the ground immediately
upon application of the thrust.
GIVEN: Mass of the lander body is mB , mass of each of the two legs is mL .
ASSUME: The leg/moon interface is frictionless. We’ll approach the solution by first assuming
that the lander takes off and the legs remain in contact with the ground, giving us the kinematic
constraint that the motion of the tip that’ in contact with the ground moves purely horizontally.
There will, of course, be a normal force associated with this condition. We’ll then apply the
condition that the normal force is zero, which will give us the limit case at which the force lifting
the lander is just capable of causing a loss of contact.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:  
Force balance, body: 2P − mB g + T = mB −L sin θθ̈ (1)

L
 
Force balance, leg, vertical: −P + Q − mL g = mL − sin θθ̈ (2)
2
Moment balance, leg,
about B:
L L L L L
 
−mL g sin θ + QL sin θ = I θ̈ + mL − sin θ sin θθ̈ + cos θ cos θθ̈
2 2 2 2 2
L L2
−mL g sin θ + QL sin θ = I θ̈ + mL θ̈ cos(2θ) (3)
2 4
SOLVE:
At the moment of liftoff Q goes to zero and so we have
L
−mL g sin θ
θ̈ = 2 (4)
(3) ⇒
!
L2
I + mL cos(2θ)
4

225
L
 
(2) ⇒: P = −mL g + mL sin θθ̈ (5)
2

L2 sin2 θ(mB + mL )mL g


T = ! + (m + 2m )g
(4), (5) → (1) ⇒ L2 B L
2 I + mL cos 2θ
4

226
7.3.8
GOAL: Find ā and α in configuration (a) and ā and ω in configuration (b).
GIVEN: The springs have an unstreched length of 0.5 m. L = 2 m, m=2 kg and k = 10 N/m.
DRAW:

* *
ı 
*
b1 cos β − sin β
*
b2 sin β cos β
sin θ
 
β = tan−1
2 + cos θ
Shown above are the applied forces and unit vectors needed to approach the problem. Below, the
system’s configuration initially (State 1) and finally (State 2) are shown.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
(a)
* *
Force balance: T b 1 − T b 1 = ma¯* ⇒ a¯* = 0
The forcing is symmetric and only serves to spin the bar.
Moment balance about G : I¯θ̈ = 2(1 m)T sin (θ − β) (1)
Force due to each spring as a function of θ:
q 
T =k (2 + cos θ)2 + sin2 θ − 0.5 m

√ 
T = 10 5 + 4 cos θ − 0.5 N (2)

(2 kg) (2 m)2 √ 
(1), (2) ⇒ θ̈ = 2 sin (θ − β) (10 N·m) 5 + 4 cos θ − 0.5
12
√ 
θ̈ = 30 5 + 4 cos θ − 0.5 sin (θ − β) rad/s2 (3)

227
For θ = 45◦ we have β = 14.64◦

α = θ̈ = 34.84 rad/s2
(b) To numerically integrate the equations of motion we express them in first order form, letting
y1 = θ:
ẏ1 = y2    
5 + 4 cos y1 − 0.5 sin y1 − β rad/s2
p
ẏ2 = 30
sin y
 
with β = tan−1 2 + cos1 y
1
π 3π
Numerically integrating from y1 = 4 to 4 yields

θ = 2.356 rad

θ̇ = 11.40 rad/s

t = 0.282 s

228
7.3.9
GOAL: Find time for a drawbridge to rotate 60◦
GIVEN: Mass and dimensions of drawbridge. m1 = 200 kg, m2 = 150 kg, and L = 4 m.
DRAW:
The drawbridge system, the system’s two FBD=IRD diagrams and a set of coordinate transforma-
tion arrays are shown.

* * * *
ı  ı * *
 c1 c2
* * *
b1 cos θ sin θ , c1 cos η − sin η , b1 cos(θ + η) sin(θ + η)
* * *
b2 − sin θ cos θ c2 sin η cos η b2 − sin(θ + η) cos(θ + η)
1 − sin θ
 
−1
η = tan
cos θ
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
L * L *
 
Force balance, bridge:
* * *
F ı + N  − m1 g  − T c 1 = m1 *
θ̈ b 2 − θ̇2 b 1
2 2
* * * *
F (cos θ b 1 − sin θ b 2 ) + (N − m1 g)(sin θ b 1 + cos θ b 2 )−

h * *
i L * L *
T cos(θ + η) b 1 − sin(θ + η) b 2 = m1 θ̈ b 2 − m1 θ̇2 b 1
2 2
L
*
b 1: F cos θ + (N − m1 g) sin θ − T cos(θ + η) = −m1 θ̇2 (1)
2
*
L
b 2: −F sin θ + (N − m1 g) cos θ + T sin(θ + η) = m1 θ̈ (2)
2

Force balance, weight: m2 g − T = m2 ÿ (3)

229
L m L2
Moment balance about O: −m1 g cos θ + T sin(θ + η)L = 1 θ̈ (4)
2 3
SOLVE:
Relate y to θ:
√ q
Conservation of Rope: y = 2L = L2 (1 − sin θ)2 + (L cos θ)2
√ √
y = 2L[1 − 1 − sin θ] (5)

√ 1 1 θ̇L cos θ 1
ẏ = − 2L( )(1 − sin θ)− 2 (− cos θ)θ̇ = √ (1 − sin θ)− 2
2 2
" #
θ̈L cos θ 1 θ̇2 L 1 cos2 θ
ÿ = √ (1 − sin θ)− 2 − √ (1 − sin θ)− 2 sin θ − (1 − sin θ)−1 (6)
2 2 2

(6) → (3) ⇒
" " ##
T θ̈L cos θ 1 θ̇2 L 1 cos2 θ
g− = √ (1 − sin θ)− 2 − √ (1 − sin θ)− 2 sin θ − (1 − sin θ)−1 (7)
m2 2 2 2

(1), (2), (4), (7) are 4 equations in 4 unknowns, θ̈, T , F , N


 
0 − cos(θ + η) cos θ sin θ  
θ̈ 
−m1 L sin(θ + η) − sin θ cos θ  
  
2
   
T 
−m1 L2

 
sin(θ + η)L 0 0   F 

 3 



 L√
cos θ (1 − sin θ)− 21 1 0 0

N 
2 m2
 


 m1 g sin θ − m1 L 2 θ̇
2 


 


 m1 g cos θ 


= m1 g L cos θ
  2 
cos2 θ(1 − sin θ)−1
  
 2 
g + θ̇√L (1 − sin θ)− 2 sin θ −

 1 

 

2 2 

[A][X] = [F ] ⇒ [X] = [A]−1 [F ]


From here we can numerically integrate. Doing so yields

t = 3.2159 s when θ = 1.0472 rad


The complete plot of θ as a function of time is shown below.

230
231
7.3.10
GOAL: Find force acting on massless rope to open a door at a fixed rate
GIVEN: Geometry of the system and velocity of the rope past point A
DRAW:

* * * *
ı  *
ı *
 c1 c2
* * *
b 1 cos θ sin θ , c 1 cos η − sin η , b1 cos(θ + η) sin(θ + η)
* * *
b 2 − sin θ cos θ c 2 sin η cos η b2 − sin(θ + η) cos(θ + η)
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
q √ √
*
|rB/ |= L2 (1 − sin θ)2 + (L cos θ)2 = 2L 1 − sin θ
A
*
d2 | r B |
/A
If the rope is drawn in at a constant speed then dt2
=0

d2 | r*B/ |
" #
θ̈L cos θ θ̇2 L cos2 θ
A
= √ (1 − sin θ)−1/2 − √ (1 − sin θ)−1/2 sin θ − (1 − sin θ)−1
dt2 2 2 2
*
d2 | r B |
/A
Setting dt2
= 0 yields
θ̇2 cos2 θ
θ̈ = (sin θ − (1 − sin θ)−1 ) (1)
cos θ 2
L mL2
Moment balance about O: −mg cos θ + T L sin(θ + η) = θ̈ (2)
2 3
SOLVE:
L mL2 θ̇2 cos2 θ
(1),(2)⇒ −mg cos θ + T L sin(θ + η) = (sin θ − (1 − sin θ)−1 ) (3)
2 3 cos θ 2
−1 1 − sin θ
 
η = tan (4)
cos θ
d| r*B/ | −θ̇L cos θ
A
= √ (1 − sin θ)−1/2 = −v
dt 2

232

2v 1
θ̇ = (1 − sin θ) 2 (5)
L cos θ
mL θ̇2 cos2 θ mg cos θ
(3)⇒ T sin(θ + η) = (sin θ − (1 − sin θ)−1 ) +
3 cos θ 2 2
mL cos2 θ mg cos θ
T = θ̇2 (sin θ − (1 − sin θ)−1 ) + (6)
3 cos θ sin(θ + η) 2 2 sin(θ + η)
We can integrate (5) to find θ, θ̇ and use this in (6) to find T . Doing so yields t = 5.636 s to get
θ = 1.396 rad

233
7.3.11
GOAL: Find governing equations for a coupled body problem.
GIVEN: The cart has mass mc and is acted on by force F . The cart exerts a moment M at point
O. The bar has mass ma and mass moment of inertia I O
DRAW:

* *
ı 
*
b1 cos θ sin θ
*
b2 − sin θ cos θ
FORMULATE EQUATIONS: P * *
Moment Balance, Pendulum: MO = IO θ̈ b 3 − mlxa0 b 2
* * * *
−ma gl sin θ b 3 + M b 3 = IO θ̈ b 3 + ma (−l b 2 ) × ẍ *
ı

* * * * * *
−ma gl sin θ b 3 + M b 3 = IO θ̈ b 3 + ma (−l b 2 ) × ẍ( b 1 cos θ − b 2 sin θ)

−ma gl sin θ + M = IO θ̈ + lma ẍ cos θ

Force Balance, Pendu- −N4 *


* *
ı + lθ̈ b 1 + lθ̇2 b 2 )
ı = ma (ẍ *
lum:
*
ı: −N4 = ma (ẍ + lθ̈ cos θ − lθ̇2 sin θ) (1)

Force Balance, Cart: (N1 + N2 + N3 − mc g) *


 + (f + N4 ) *
ı = mc ẍ *
ı

*
ı: f + N4 = mẍ (2)

(1), (2) ⇒ f = ẍ(ma + mc ) − lθ̇2 ma sin θ + ma lθ̈ cos θ

234
7.3.12
GOAL: Plot θ versus time for t = 0 to t = 5 s.
GIVEN: mtri = 4 kg, ρ = 2 kg/m, m = 4 kg.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: Because point P is fixed, and is therefore not accelerating, we’ll
choose to write the moment balance about point P :
* *
ΣMP = IP θ̈ k (1)
In order to find the moment of inertia about point P , we can find the moments of inertia of the
triangle, rod, and point mass about P separately, and then add
them up:

IP = IP + IP + IP (2)

tri rod mass

The moment of inertia of the triangle about its center of mass is IG = 91 mtri L2 . The distance

tri

2

from its center of mass to P is rG/ = 3 L. Using the parallel axis theorem, the moment of

P tri
inertia of the triangle about P is thus
√ !2
1 2 1
IP = mtri L2 + mtri L = mtri L2 (3)

tri 9 3 3
We know the moment of inertia of the rod about the midpoint of AC is mrod r2 , where the mass
rod
of the rod is mrod = ρπrrod = √12 ρπL. We also know that the distance from the midpoint of AC to
the center of mass of the rod is π2 rrod . With the parallel axis theorem, we can then find the moment
of inertia of the rod about its own center of mass: 2
2 4 ρπL3
  
2
IG = mrod r − mrod

r = 1− 2 √
rod rod π rod π 2 2

= π2 rrod + √L2 = π+2 √
L

The distance from from the center of mass of the rod to point P is rG/ π 2
.
P rod
Thus, if we again use the parallel axis theorem, we find the moment of inertia of the rod about P
to be
2
ρπL3

4 1 π+2 L
  
2

IP

= IG

+ mrod rG = 1− 2 √ + √ ρπL √
rod rod /P

rod π 2 2 2 π 2
π+2
⇒ IP = √ ρL3 (4)

rod 2
The moment of inertia of the point mass about point P is simply

235
2
2L
 2 
IP = m rmass/ =m √ = 2mL2 (5)

mass P 2
1 π+2
(3), (4), (5) → (2) ⇒ IP = mtri L2 + √ ρL3 + 2mL2 (6)
3 2
The net moment applied about point P is due only to gravity acting at the center of mass.
* *
ΣMP = rG e*r × −mnet g *
 = −rG mnet g sin θ k
The position of the center of mass relative to point P is

1





2 √ π+2 2
rG = mtri rG/ + mrod rG/ + mrmass/ = mtri L+ 2mL+ ρL
mnet P tri P rod P 3 2

Thus, the net moment about point P is √



!
2 π+2 2
ΣMP = − mtri L + 2mL + ρL g sin θ (7)
3 2
√ √ 
ΣMP − 32 mtri L + 2mL + π+2 2 ρL2 g sin θ
(6), (7) → (1) ⇒ θ̈ = = 1 2 + π+2
IP m L √ ρL3 + 2mL2
3 tri 2

SOLVE: Plugging in values yields


h√
2
√ π+2
i
2 (9.81 m/s2 ) sin θ
3 (4 kg)(1.2 m) + 2(4 kg)(1.2 m) + 2 (2 kg/m)(1.2 m)
θ̈ = − h i
1 2 π+2
√ (2 kg/m)(1.2 m)3 + 2(4 kg)(1.2 m)2
3 (4 kg)(1.2 m) + 2

θ̈ = −6.21 sin θ rad/s2


Integrating this in MATLAB and plotting the results yields

236
7.3.13
GOAL: Solve for the angular acceleration θ̈ of the leg in terms of the given constants.
GIVEN: Leg dimensions and orientation.
DRAW:

*
ı *
 e*r e*θ
*
e*r cos θ sin θ b1 cos β sin β
*
e*θ − sin θ cos θ b2 − sin β cos β
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Moment balance, pin P *
MA = I A φ̈ b 3 + r*G/ × ma*A (1)
A: A
ASSUME:

θ − β = φ = Constant (2)

SOLVE:
L* *
(1)⇒  ) = I A φ̈ b 3 + r*G/ × ma*A
b 1 × (−mg *
2 A

L*
(2)⇒ b × (−mg * ) = r*G/ × ma*A
2 1 A

L L  
− (cos β e*r + sin β e*θ ) × mg (sin θ e*r + cos θ e*θ ) = (cos β e*r + sin β e*θ )× m rθ̈ e*θ − rθ̇2 e*r
2 2
L * mLr   *
−mg cos(θ − β) k = θ̈ cos β + θ̇2 sin β k
2 2
L mLr  
−mg cos φ = θ̈ cos β + θ̇2 sin β
2 2
g
−θ̇2 sin(φ − θ) − cos φ
θ̈ = r
cos(φ − θ)

237
7.3.14
GOAL: Determine the time for a bar to reach an orientation of 45◦
GIVEN: m = 2 kg, T = 20 N, L = 1 m.
ASSUME: We’ll initially assume the simplest, no-slip condition. If this solution isn’t supported
then we’ll move to a slip condition.
DRAW:

* *
ı 
*
b1 cos θ − sin θ
*
b2 sin θ cos θ
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
L * L *
a*G = a*B + a*G/ = ẍ *
ı + θ̈ b 2 + θ̇2 b 1
B 2 2

L 2 L L L
   
*
aG *
= ẍ ı + θ̇ cos θ + θ̈ sin θ *
ı+ θ̈ cos θ − θ̇2 sin θ *
 (1)
2 2 2 2

Force balance:

* *
L L ı 
 
m(ẍ ı + θ̈(sin θ *
*
 ) + θ̇2 (cos θ *
ı + cos θ * ı − sin θ *
 ) = N*
 − mg *
 +T √ +√ −F*
ı
2 2 2 2
L L T
*
ı: mẍ + m θ̈ sin θ = −m θ̇2 cos θ − F + √ (2)
2 2 2
L L T
*
: m θ̈ cos θ − N = m θ̇2 sin θ − mg + √ (3)
2 2 2
L L TL TL
Moment balance about G: I θ̈ = F sin θ − N cos θ + √ cos θ + √ sin θ
2 2 2 2 2 2
L L TL
I θ̈ = F sin θ − N cos θ + √ (cos θ + sin θ) (4)
2 2 2 2

238
SOLVE: Assume no slip (ẍ = 0) and θ = 0◦ , θ̇ = 0
T T
(2) ⇒ 0 = −F + √ ⇒ F = √ = 14.14 N (5)
2 2
mL T
(3) ⇒ θ̈ = N − mg + √ (6)
2 2
NL TL
(4) ⇒ I θ̈ = − + √ (7)
2 2 2

(6), (9) ⇒ θ̈ = 6.498 rad/s2


Thus from (6) we have N = 12.0 N.
the maximum possible force resisting slip is given by
µN = (0.5)(12.0 N) = 6.0 N
Fmax = µN < F = 14.14 N and so the bar will slip.
Our initial assumption is therefore invalid and we have to proceed under the assumption of slip,
i.e. that ẍ 6= 0 and F = µN
L L T
(2) ⇒ mẍ + m θ̈ sin θ + µN = −m θ̇2 cos θ + √ (8)
2 2 2
L T
(3) ⇒ m θ̈ cos θ − N = −mg + √ (9)
2 2
L L TL
(4) ⇒ I θ̈ + N cos θ − sin θµN = √ (cos θ + sin θ) (10)
2 2 2 2
Putting this in matrix form gives us

−m L T
 
2 √
mL sin θ 2 θ̇ cos θ + 2
    
m 2 µ  ẍ 






mL T
   
mL cos θ 2 √
2 θ̇ sin θ − m1 g + 2

 0 −1  θ̈ =
 2 
L (cos θ − µ sin θ)  N  
  
T√L (cos θ + sin θ)

0 I 2






2 2

[A][X] = [F ]

[X] = [A]−1 [F ]
Inverting as indicated allows us to find ẍ, θ̈, and N . Numerically integrating yields t = 0.3617
when θ = π 6 rad.
The plots show θ and the normal force N as functions of time.

239
7.3.15
GOAL: Find reaction force due to an impulse force applied to a rotating, rigid bar
GIVEN: System geometry
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: h i
Force balance: ı − 1.1Lθ̇2 *
m −1.1Lθ̈ *  = (F − T ) *
ı −N*

*
ı : −1.1mLθ̈ = F − T (1)
*
 : −1.1mLθ̇2 = −N (2)
L L L L mL2
Moment balance: −T ( − ) − F( − ) = θ̈
2 9 2 5 12
mL2 7T L 3F L
θ̈ = − − (3)
12 18 10
SOLVE:
L 7L L 3L
(1),(3)⇒ T( + ) = F( − )
13.2 18 13.2 10
T = −0.483F
Note: N is due to the steady swing of the bat, not the impact.

240
7.3.16
GOAL: A rod is supported by two massless strings up until one string is severed. Find the
acceleration of the rod.
GIVEN: System configuration.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Moment bal-
X
MG = I θ̈
ance:
L mL2
−T2 = θ̈ (1)
2 12

Force balance: (T2 − mg) *


 = m(a1 *
ı + a2 *
)
Equating coefficients :
*
ı : a1 = 0 (2)

*
 : ma2 = T2 − mg (3)
ASSUME:
The string imposes a vertical translational constraint at A. Since there are no horizontal forces, the
acceleration at A is zero and we can relate the acceleration of the rod’s center of mass and θ̈:
* L L
a* = θ̈ k × *ı = θ̈ * (4)
2 2
SOLVE:
L
(4),(3)⇒ mθ̈ = T2 − mg (5)
2
L L mL2
(1),(5)⇒ −(mg + mθ̈ ) = θ̈
2 2 12
mL2 mgL
θ̈ = −
3 2
3g
θ̈ = − 2L (6)

241
(6)→(4)⇒ a*G = − 3g *
4 

242
7.3.17
GOAL: A rod is horizontally suspended by two springs. Solve for the resultant acceleration of the
rod when the right spring breaks.
GIVEN: System configuration.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Because the force in a spring depends upon displacement, the tension on the left hand of the rod
is the same immediately following the break as just before. Thus we need to find T1 from the
equilibrium preceding the break.
The equations before the cut are:
Force balance, *
: 2T1 − mg = 0
mg
T1 = (1)
2
The equations after the cut are:
Force balance: (T1 − mg) *
 = m(a1 *
ı + a2 *
)

*
ı : 0 = ma1 (2)

*
 : T1 − mg = ma2 (3)
L mL2
Moment balance: −T1 = θ̈ (4)
2 12
SOLVE:
g
(1), (3) ⇒ a2 = − (5)
2
3g
(1), (4) ⇒ θ̈ = − (6)
L
So from (2), (5) and (6) we have:
a*G = − g2 *
 m/s2

θ̈ = − 3g
L rad/s
2

243
7.3.18
GOAL: Find the system equations of motion.
GIVEN: System configuration.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS/SOLVE:
We’ll first look at the equilibrium case.
Force Balance, *
: FB + FA − mg = 0 (1)
O O
0.65
Moment Balance about G: 0.35FB − 0.65FA = 0 ⇒ FB = F (2)
O O O 0.35 AO
1
(2) → (1) ⇒ FA [ ] = mg, FA = 0.35mg (3)
O 0.35 O

(3) → (2) ⇒ FB = 0.65mg (4)


O
FA and FB are prestress forces in the springs that keep the body horizontal when in equilibrium.
O O
Now we can move on to the dynamic case.
Force Balance, *
: −mg + FA + FB = mÿ

−mg + 0.35mg + (−y + 0.65Lθ)kA + 0.65mg − (y + 0.35Lθ)kB = mÿ

mÿ + (kA + kB )y + (0.35kB − 0.65kA )Lθ = 0

Moment balance about G: (0.65mg − (y + 0.35Lθ)kB )(0.35L)−

−(0.35mg + (−y + 0.65Lθ)kA )(0.65L) = I¯θ̈

I¯θ̈ + [(0.35)2 kB + (0.65)2 kA ]L2 θ + (0.35kB − 0.65kA )Ly = 0

244
7.3.19
GOAL: Find equations of motion for idealized car model.
GIVEN: System configuration, masses and stiffnesses.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: A balance of forces in the *


 direction gives us
L L
−kA (y − θ) − kB (y + θ) = (mA + mB + m)ÿ
2 2
where we’re using sin θ ≈ θ and cos θ ≈ 1. Thus our first equation of motion is

7m
4 ÿ + (kA + kB )y + L2 (kB − kA )θ = 0

To determine our next equation of motion we first need to determine the mass center:
7m * Lm Lm
r G/ = −
4 O 2 4 2 2
1 *
r*G/ = −
mL b 1
14O

The mass moment of inertia about the bar’s mass center G can now be found:
2 2 2
mL2 L m 6L m 8L 11
  
IG = +m + + = mL2
12 14 2 14 4 14 42
Thus a moment balance about G gives us
11 L 6L L 8L
     
mL2 θ̈ = kA y − θ − kB y+ θ
42 2 14 2 14
3 3
mL2 θ̈ + 11 (8kB − 6kA )Ly + 11 (4kB + 3kA )L2 θ = 0

245
7.3.20
GOAL: Find the system equations of motion.
GIVEN: System configuration.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS/ SOLVE:


L
Force Balance: m(ÿ +θ̈) = −N1 − N2
2
L L
m(ÿ + θ̈) = −k1 (y + θ) − k2 (y + Lθ)
2 4
k1
mÿ + m L
2 θ̈ + (k2 + k1 )y + (k2 + 4 )Lθ = 0
* *
MA = I¯θ̈ k + m r*G/ × a*G
P
Moment Balance about A: A

L* 2mg L L
( ı )×[−(− + k1 (y + θ))] *
 + L*
ı ×[−(k2 (y + Lθ))] *
 + *ı ×(−mg *
)
4 3 4 2
mL2 * L L
= θ̈ k + m( *ı )×(ÿ + θ̈) *

12 2 2
k1 k mL2 L L2
−( + k2 )Ly − ( 1 + k2 )L2 θ = θ̈ + m ÿ + m θ̈
4 16 12 2 4

mL2 θ̈ + m L ÿ + ( k1 + k )Ly + ( k1 + k )L2 θ = 0


3 2 4 2 16 2

246
7.3.21
GOAL: Determine response of a board as it slides down a wall.
GIVEN: System configuration and parameter values.
DRAW:

ASSUME: Our problem is constrained such that v*A = vA *


 and v*B = vB *
ı . Using

v*A = v*B + ω
*
× r*A/
B

gives us
*
v*A = vB *
ı − θ̇L b 1 = (vB − Lθ̇ cos θ) *
ı − Lθ̇ sin θ *

In the *
ı direction,
vB = Lθ̇ cos θ
In the *
 direction,
vA = −Lθ̇ sin θ
The velocity of the center of mass is
L L
v*G = v*B + v*G/ = θ̇ cos θ *
ı − θ̇ sin θ *

B 2 2
and the acceleration of the center of mass
d* L
a*G = v G = [(θ̈ cos θ − θ̇2 sin θ) *
ı − (θ̈ sin θ + θ̇2 cos θ) *
]
dt 2
FORMULATE EQUATIONS: A force balance in the *
ı and *
 directions yields
L
N1 = m (θ̈ cos θ − θ̇2 sin θ) (1)
2
and
L
N3 − mg + N2 = m (−θ̈ sin θ − θ̇2 cos θ)
2
Using N2 = µN1 gives
L
N3 − mg + µN1 = m (θ̈ sin θ − θ̇2 cos θ) (2)
2
Balance of moments gives
L
(N3 sin θ − µN1 sin θ − N1 cos θ) = I θ̈ (3)
2

247
SOLVE: Use (1), (2) and (3) to solve for θ̈
1
+ m( L2 )2 (2µ sin2 θ)θ̇2
2 mgL sin θ
θ̈ =
I + m( L2 )2 (1 + µ sin 2θ)

Start from θ(0) = 0.2618 and integrating to θ = 0.7856 yields an elapsed time of t = 0.698 s and
θ̇ = 1.84 rad/s

248
7.3.22
GOAL: Analyze the motion of a board that’s released from rest.
GIVEN: m = 10 kg, L = 2.0 m.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: Our problem is constrained such that v*A = vA *


 and v*B = vB *
ı.
Using

v*A = v*B + ω
*
× r*A/
B

gives us
*
v*A = vB *
ı − θ̇L b 1 = (vB − Lθ̇ cos θ) *
ı − Lθ̇ sin θ *

In the *
ı direction,
vB = Lθ̇ cos θ
*
In the  direction,
vA = −Lθ̇ sin θ
The velocity of the center of mass is
L L
v*G = v*B + v*G/ = θ̇ cos θ *
ı − θ̇ sin θ *

B 2 2
and the acceleration of the center of mass
d* L
a*G = v = [(θ̈ cos θ − θ̇2 sin θ) *
ı − (θ̈ sin θ + θ̇2 cos θ) *
]
dt G 2
A force balance in the *
ı and *
 directions yields
L
N1 = m (θ̈ cos θ − θ̇2 sin θ) (1)
2
and
L
N3 − mg + N2 = m (−θ̈ sin θ − θ̇2 cos θ)
2
Using the slip relationship N2 = µN1 gives

L
N3 − mg + µN1 = m (−θ̈ sin θ − θ̇2 cos θ) (2)
2

249
A moment balance about the center of the bar yields
L
(N sin θ − µN1 sin θ − N1 cos θ) = IG θ̈ (3)
2 3

SOLVE: Use (1), (2) and (3) to solve for θ̈


1
+ m( L2 )2 (2µ sin2 θ)θ̇2
2 mgL sin θ
θ̈ =
IG + m( L2 )2 (1 + µ sin 2θ)
2
in which IG = mL 12 .
As you can see from the plots, increasing µ slows the system down, increasing the time needed to
reach θ = 45◦ ,and decreasing the associated angular velocity once an inclination of 45◦ is reached.

250
7.3.23
GOAL: Find the equation of motion of the system.
GIVEN: Layout of the system.
DRAW:

ASSUME: Consider only small angles, thus sin θ ≈ θ and cos θ ≈ 1. We can also neglect gravity
and θ̇2 terms.
FORMULATE EQUATIONS: If we consider moments acting about point O, our moment
balance is
* *
ΣMO = IO θ̈ k (1)
The moment of inertia about point O is
" 2 #
1 1 1

2
IO = IO + IO = (m1 L ) + ρL3 + ρL L = m1 L2 + ρL3 (2)

mass bar 12 2 3

To find the force exerted by each spring, which will allow us to determine the moment it generates
about point O, we need to find the displacement of the bar at point 1 (the end of the bar) and at
point 2 (the midpoint of the bar). With the bar in its horizontal position, the positions of these
points are given by

r*1 = −L *
ı
1
r*2 = − L *
ı
2
If the bar is rotated by a small angle θ, the new positions of these points are

r*1 = L e*r = −L cos θ *


ı − L sin θ *
 ≈ −L *
ı − Lθ *

1* 1 1
r1 ≈ − L*
r*2 = ı − Lθ * 
2 2 2
Taking the difference between the initial and final positions of these points gives us the displace-
ments of each point:

∆ r*1 = −Lθ *

1
∆ r*2 = − Lθ *

2
The force exerted by the spring at point 1 is simply
*
F 1 = −k4 [∆ r*1 + y(t) *
 ] = −k4 [y(t) − Lθ] *

In order to find the force exerted at point 2, we need to simplify the arrangement of springs. The
two springs that are attached parallel to each other will always experience the same displacement,

251
therefore we can replace them with a single spring with an equivalent spring constant equal to 2k1 .
This equivalent spring is now in series with the spring that has a spring constant of k2 . Because the
magnitude of the force acting between these spring must be equal, we can say that k2 x2 = 2k1 x1 ,
where x1 and x2 are the deflections of each spring. If we were to replace these two springs with a
single equivalent spring, it too would need to exert a force equal to the force acting between the
springs, but would have a total deflection of x1 + x2 :

F = keq (x1 + x2 ) = k2 x2
!
k2 2k1 k2
keq + 1 x2 = k2 x2 ⇒ keq =
2k1 2k1 + k2
Therefore, the force acting at point 2 is due to this spring with a constant of keq and the spring
with a constant of k3 :
!
* * * *
1 2k1 k2
F 2 = −(keq ∆ r 2 + k3 ∆ r 2 )  = Lθ − k3 *
2 2k1 + k2
The net moment acting about point O is
1 *
 
*  *
 * *
*
ΣMO = L e r × F 1 + L e × F 2 − kθ θ k
2 r
1
 
* h *
i * *
* *
ΣMO ≈ L(− ı − θ  ) × F 1 + L(− *
ı − θ*
 ) × F 2 − kθ θ k
2
!
* 1 k1 k2
⇒ ΣMO = − k3 − k4 − L2 θ − kθ θ + k4 Ly(t) (3)
4 4k1 + 2k2

(2), (3) → (1) ⇒


k1 k2
  
+ 13 ρL3 θ̈ + 1
 
m1 L2 4 k3 + k4 + 4k1 + 2k2 L2 + kθ θ = k4 Ly(t)

252
7.3.24
GOAL: Find the equations of motion for a spring supported bar.
GIVEN: Bar mass and dimensions and spring constants.
DRAW:

ASSUME: Ignore lateral motion of the bar and restrict the motion to small angles and small
deflections.
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
First we’ll find the center of mass of the bar with respect to C, the bar’s geometric center. The
calculation is simplified by considering only two particles: the lumped mass and the center of mass
of the bar.
L m1 L
   
r̄ m1 + m2 = m1 ⇒ r̄ = (1)
4 4(m1 + m2 )
Next we’ll determine the forces FA and FB . These are equal to the vertical displacement of the
bar times the relevant spring constant:
L
FA = k1 (y − θ) (2)
2
L
FB = k2 (y + θ) (3)
2
The mass moment of of inertia about the center of the bar (point C) will be needed when summing
moments about this point.
m2 L2
 2
L m2 m1
 
IC = + m1 = + L2 (4)
12 4 12 16
SOLVE:
Sum moments about the center of the bar
* * *
 
ΣMC = IC θ̈ k + r*G/ ×ma*c = IC θ̈ k − r̄ *
ı × m1 + m2 ÿ *

C
 
*
k : ΣMC = IC θ̈ − r̄ m1 + m2 ÿ (5)

m1 L
(1), (7) ⇒ ΣMC = IC θ̈ − ÿ (6)
4
m2 m m1 L
   
2
(6), (10) ⇒ ΣMC = + 1 L θ̈ − ÿ (7)
12 16 4
Now we’ll sum the external momentsabout
 C.  
L L L  L2  
ΣMC = FA − FB = k1 − k2 y − k1 + k2 θ (8)
2 2 2 4

253
(7), (12) ⇒
L L2  m2 m m1 L
     
k1 − k2 y − k1 + k2 θ = + 1 L2 θ̈ − ÿ
2 4 12 16 4
m  m1 L
 
L2 k + k θ + L k − k y = 0
m    
2
12 + 161 L2 θ̈ − 4 ÿ + 4 1 2 2 2 1

Now we’ll consider translation of the bar.


m L
a*G = ÿ − rθ̈ = ÿ −  1  θ̈
4 m1 + m2

 
m1 L L L
     
Force balance: m1 + m2 ÿ −   θ̈  = −k1 y − θ − k2 y + θ
4 m1 + m2 2 2

  m1 L  
L k −k θ =0
 
m1 + m2 ÿ − 4 θ̈ + k1
+ k2
y + 2 2 1

254
7.3.25
GOAL: Find the equations of motion for the illustrated system.
GIVEN: bar mass m, lumped mass m1 , block mass m2 , geometry, springs k1 , k2 , k3 , k4
DRAW:

ASSUME: Only consider small angles of rotation (sin θ ≈ θ). Neglect θ̇2 terms.
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Find the center of mass of the bar with respect to the left end of the bar. The calculation is
simplified by considering only two particles: the lumped mass and the center of mass of the bar.
L L (2m1 + 3m)L
     
r̄ m + m1 = m1 +m ⇒ r̄ = (1)
3 2 6(m + m1 )
Consider displacements at A and B
2  2 1
xA = x1 + x2 − x1 = x2 + x1
3 3 3
5   5 1
xB = x1 + x2 − x1 = x2 + x1
6 6 6
Now consider rotation. Since each end will displace a different amount, the new bar will be at an
angle. The left end will displace a value of x1 and the right end will displace an additional x2 − x1 .
x − x1
sin θ ≈ θ ≈ 2
L
and from that comes:
ẍ − ẍ1
θ̈ = 2 (2)
L
Determine forces F1 and F2 . Springs 1 and 4 are in parallel with an equivalent spring constant of
(k1 + k4 )
5 1
 
F1 = k3 xB = k3 x + x (3)
6 2 6 1
 h i   2 1

F2 = k1 + k4 xA − x3 = k1 + k4 x2 + x1 − x3 (4)
3 3
2 1
 
F3 = k2 xA = k2 x2 + x1 (5)
3 3
The mass moment of of inertia about the center of the bar (point C) will be needed when summing
moments about this point.

255
 2
mL2 L m m
 
IC = + m1 = + 1 L2 (6)
12 6 12 36
SOLVE:
Sum moments about the center of the bar
* * *

L    ẍ + ẍ  
1 2 *
ΣMC = IC θ̈ k + r*G/ ×ma*c = IC θ̈ k − − r̄ *
ı × m + m1 
C 2 2

L
   ẍ + ẍ 
1 2
*
k : ΣMC = IC θ̈ − − r̄ m + m1 (7)
2 2
ẍ2 − ẍ1 L   ẍ + ẍ 
   
1 2
(2), (7) ⇒ ΣMC = IC − − r̄ m + m1 (8)
L 2 2
 
L
simplify 2 − r̄ :
L L(3m + 3m1 ) (2m1 + 3m)L m1 L
 
− r̄ = − = (9)
2 2(3m + 3m1 ) 6(m + m1 ) 6(m + m1 )
!
ẍ2 − ẍ1 m1 L   ẍ + ẍ 
  
1 2
(8), (9) ⇒ ΣMC = IC − m + m1 (10)
L 6(m + m1 ) 2
m m ẍ2 − ẍ1 m1 L h
      i
2
(6), (10) ⇒ ΣMC = + 1 L − ẍ1 + ẍ2
12 36 L 12
mL m1 L   m L h
  i
1
ΣMC = + ẍ2 − ẍ1 − ẍ1 + ẍ2
12 36 12
mL m1 L mL m1 L
   
ΣMC = − − ẍ1 + − ẍ2 (11)
12 9 12 18
Now sum moments
  L  
L
ΣMC = − F2 + F3 − F1 (12)
6 3

(3) − (5) → (12) ⇒


  2 1    
L
 
5 1
  
L
ΣMC = − k1 + k2 + k4 x2 + x1 − k1 + k4 x3 − k3 x + x
3 3 6 6 2 6 1 3

L   L   L 
ΣMC = − k1 + k2 + k3 + k4 x1 − 2k1 + 2k2 + 5k3 + 2k4 x2 + k1 + k4 x3 (13)
18 18 6

   
mL m L mL m L L
 
− + 1 ẍ1 + − 1 ẍ2 + 18 k1 + k2 + k3 + k4 x1
12 9 12 18
 
(11), (13) ⇒ L
+ 18 2k1 + 2k2 + 5k3 + 2k4 x2
 
− L6 k1 + k4 x3 = 0

Now we’ll consider translation of the bar.

256
(2m1 + 3m)L ẍ2 − ẍ1
 
*
aG = ẍ1 + rθ̈ = ẍ1 + L
6(m1 + m)

ẍ1 (4m1 + 3m) + ẍ2 (2m1 + 3m)


=
6(m1 + m)
ẍ1 (4m1 + 3m) + ẍ2 (2m1 + 3m)  
Force balance: m1 + m = −F1 − F2 − F3
6(m1 + m)

ẍ1 (4m1 + 3m) + ẍ2 (2m1 + 3m) 5 1 2 1 2 1


     
= −k3 x2 + x1 −(k1 +k4 ) x2 + x1 − x3 −k2 x2 + x1
6 6 6 3 3 3 3

ẍ1 (4m1 + 3m) + ẍ2 (2m1 + 3m)


+x1 13 k1 + 13 k2 + 16 k3 + 31 k4
 
6

+x2 23 k1 + 23 k2 + 56 k3 + 32 k4
 

 
−x3 k1 + k4 = 0

Finally we have to account for the motion of the mass m2 :


m2 ẍ3 = F2
= (k1 + k4 ) 23 x2 + 13 x1 − x3
 

m2 ẍ3 + k1 + k4 x3 − 13 k1 + k4 x1 − 32 k1 + k4 x2 = 0
     

257
7.3.26
GOAL: Find translational and rotational acceleration of rod.
GIVEN: Dimensions of rod and mass distribution.
DRAW:

ASSUME: Only small angles are considered and thus sin θ ≈ θ, cos θ ≈ 1.
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
1
Moment of inertia of rod: I¯ = mL2 (1)
12
*
Force balance: F = ma*G (2)
* *
Moment balance about G: MG = I¯θ̈ k (3)
L L
Kinematics of rod: yA = y + sin θ, yB = y − sin θ (4)
2 2
 2
Parallel Axis Theorem: IO = IG + m rO/ (5)
G

SOLVE:
(2) ⇒ (m1 + 2m2 + ρL)ÿ = FA + FB (6)
L
 
(4) ⇒ FA = −kyA = −k y − sin θ (7)
4
L
 
(4) ⇒ FB = −kyB = −k y + sin θ (8)
4

(6), (7), (8), sin θ ≈ θ ⇒ (m1 + 2m2 + ρL)ÿ + 2ky = 0


 2
1 L 1 1
(1), (5) ⇒ I¯ = Ibar/ + Im1/ + 2Im2/ = (ρL)L2 + 2m2 = ρL3 + m2 L2 (9)
G G G 12 2 12 2
L L
Moments about G ⇒ M G = − FA + FB (10)
4 4
Lk Lθ Lk Lθ kL2
   
(7),(8), (10), sin θ ≈ θ ⇒ MG = y− − y+ =− θ (11)
4 4 4 4 8
* * MG
(3) ⇒ MG k = I¯θ̈ k ⇒ θ̈ = (12)

258
2
− kL8 θ
(9), (11), (12) ⇒ θ̈ = 1 3 1 2
(13)
12 ρL + 2 m2 L

(13) ⇒ (ρL + 6m2 ) θ̈ + 1.5kθ = 0

259
7.3.27
GOAL: a) Find θ̈ of the bar. b) Numerically integrate the equations of motion and comment on
the results.
GIVEN: System configuration and parameter values.
DRAW:

* *
ı 
*
b1 cos θ sin θ
*
b2 − sin θ cos θ
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
* *
ı + Lθ̈ b 2 − Lθ̇2 b 1
a*B = a*A + a*B/A = ẍ *
* *
Force Balance: (N − mg) *
 +T* ı + Lθ̈ b 2 − Lθ̇2 b 1 )m
ı = (ẍ *

* * * * * * * *
(N − mg)(sin θ b 1 + cos θ b 2 ) + T (cos θ b 1 − sin θ b 2 ) = (ẍ(cos θ b 1 − sin θ b 2 ) + Lθ̈ b 2 − Lθ̇2 b 1 )m

*
b 1: (N − mg) sin θ + T cos θ = (ẍ cos θ − Lθ̇2 )m (1)
*
b 2: (N − mg) cos θ − T sin θ = (−ẍ sin θ + Lθ̈)m (2)
I¯ = 0 since all the mass is concentrated at one point. Thus, summing moments about m we have

T L sin θ − N L cos θ = 0

N = T tan θ (3)
SOLVE:
(1), (3) ⇒ (T tan θ − mg) sin θ + T cos θ = (ẍ cos θ − Lθ̇2 )m

sin2 θ
T( + cos θ) = (ẍ cos θ − Lθ̇2 )m + mg sin θ
cos θ

T = m cos θ[g sin θ + ẍ cos θ − Lθ̇2 ] (4)

(3), (4) ⇒ N = m sin θ[g sin θ + ẍ cos θ − Lθ̇2 ] (5)

260
(4), (5) → (2) ⇒ [sin θ(g sin θ + ẍ cos θ − Lθ̇2 ) − g] cos θ − sin θ cos θ[g sin θ + ẍ cos θ − Lθ̇2 ] =

−ẍ sin θ + Lθ̈

Lθ̈ = ẍ sin θ + g sin2 θ cos θ + ẍ cos2 θ sin θ − Lθ̇2 sin θ cos θ −


g cos θ − g sin2 θ cos θ − ẍ cos2 θ sin θ + Lθ̇2 sin θ cos θ

1 (ẍ sin θ − g cos θ)


Lθ̈ = ẍ sin θ − g cos θ ⇒ θ̈ = L

Equilibrium: ẍ sin θ − g cos θ = 0


g g)
tan θ = ⇒ θ? = tan−1 ( ẍ

For ẍ = g, tan θ = 1 ⇒ θ1 = π4 rad and θ2 = 5π4 rad.
Numerically simulate using initial conditions θ(0) = ( π4 +0.01) rad, θ̇ = 0 and θ(0) = ( 5π
4 +0.01) rad,
θ̇(0) = 0.
The first plot shows that perturbations from θ = π4 rad leads to an unstable situation with the
pendulum exponentially swinging away from the equilibrium position. A very different behavior
is exhibited in the second plot, for which the motion starts from θ = 5π 4 rad. This solution seems
stable - a small perturbation simply oscillates about the equilibrium position.

261
262
7.3.28
GOAL: Determine whether the vase will tip or slip first.
GIVEN: µ = 0.7, ω0 = 0.8, L = 2 m, d = 0.04 m, h = 0.09 m
DRAW:

* *
ı 
*
b1 cos θ sin θ
*
b2 − sin θ cos θ
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
* * * * * *
Force balance: S b 1 + N b 2 − mg *
 = mω0 k ×(ω0 k ×(L b 1 + h b 2 ) (1)
*
b 1: S − mg sin θ = −mLω02 (2)

*
b 2: N − mg cos θ = −mhω02 (3)
SOLVE:
(3) ⇒ N = mg cos θ − mhω02 (4)

(2) ⇒ S = mg sin θ − mLω02 (5)


Smax = µs N so our slip condition is

mg sin θ − mLω02 = µs (mg cos θ − mhω02 )

ω02 (L − µs h)
sin θ − µs cos θ = g (6)

This takes care of the slip condition. Now we need to consider the case of tipping. As we saw in
Example 7.14, we have the tip condition

hω 2
h sin θ − d cos θ = g 0 (L − d) (7)

Both (6) and (7) can be re-expressed:


ω02 (L − µs h)
(6) ⇒ sin θ − µs cos θ =
g

263
ω02 (L − µs h) q
sin(θ − φ2 ) = where a2 1 + µ2s and
a2 g

φ2 = tan−1 (µs ) (8)


d ω (L − d)
(7) ⇒ sin θ − cos θ = 0
h g
s
 2
ω (L − d) d
sin(θ − φ1 ) = 0 where a1 = 1+ and
a1 g h
d
 
φ1 = tan−1 (9)
h
For our parameter values this gives
(0.8 rad/s)2
Tip: sin(θ − 0.418 rad) = (2 m − 0.04 m) = 0.0026
(1.094)(9.81 m/s2 )

θtip = 0.421 rad

(0.8 rad/s)2
Slip: sin(θ − 0.611 rad) = (2 m − 0.7(0.09 m)) = 0.103
(1.221)(9.81 m/s2 )

θslip = 0.715 rad

Tipping will occur first

264
7.3.29
GOAL: Find the instantaneous linear and angular acceleration of the triangle.
GIVEN: weight= 40 lb ⇒ m = 1.242 slg, L = 2 ft , F = 10 lb
DRAW:

ASSUME: constant linear density, each segment has identical width and depth, center of mass is
exactly in the center
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
general motion: MG = IG θ̈ , F = ma

ΣF = F *
 −F*
 =0 ⇒ a=0

There is no linear acceleration


L L FL
   
ΣMG = F +F = F L ⇒ θ̈ =
2 2 IG
SOLVE:
Choose O to be the center of the segment BC. The center of mass will be the center of the
equilateral triangle due to symmetry, some distance above O. √
1 ◦ 3
r̄ = rG/ = L tan 30 = L
O 2 6
IG is needed to find θ̈. Since each edge is identical and the same distance away from point G, find
the mass moment of inertia about G of one edge, and triple it. Recall that the mass moment of
1
inertia of a bar about its center is 12 mbar L2
1 m 1
 
IO |BC = L2 = mL2
12 3 36
Use the parrallel axis theorem to find IG |BC
√ !2
m 1 m 3 1
   
IG |BC = IO |BC + (r̄)2 = mL2 + L = mL2
3 36 3 6 18

1 1
   
IG = 3 IG |BC =3 mL2 = mL2
18 6
FL FL 6F 6(10 lb)
θ̈ = = 1 2
= = = 24.2 rad/s2
IG 6 mL mL (1.242 slg)(2 ft)

θ̈ = 24.2 rad/s2

265
7.3.30
GOAL:
(a) Calculate the acceleration of the mass center for each case under the assumption of pure rolling.
(b) Determine the conditions needed to ensure that slip doesn’t occur.
GIVEN: Bicycle wheel mass distribution for each case.
DRAW:

Case (a):
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
X *
MG1 = I1 θ̈1

−S1 r = mr2 θ̈1 (1)


X*
F = ma*
     
* *
F − S1 ı + N1 − mg  = ma* = m a1 *
ı + a2 *

Equating coefficients:
*
ı : F − S1 = ma1 (2)

*
 : N1 − mg = ma2 (3)
ASSUME:
Pure rolling ⇒ a2 = 0 and a1 = −rθ̈1
(1),(2),(3) become
−S1 = mrθ̈1 (4)

F − S1 = −mrθ̈1 (5)

N1 = mg (6)
Case (b):
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
X *
MG2 = I2 θ̈2

266
−S2 r = 0 · θ̈2 ⇒ S2 = 0 (7)
X*
F = ma*
     
F − S2 *
ı + N2 − mg *
ı + a02 *
 = ma* = m a01 * 
Equating coefficients:
*
ı : F − S2 = ma01 (8)

*
 : N2 − mg = ma02 (9)
ASSUME:
Pure rolling ⇒ a02 = 0 and a01 = −rθ̈2
(7),(8),(9) become
S2 = 0 (10)

F − S2 = −mrθ̈2 (11)

N2 = mg (12)
(a):
(4), (5) ⇒ F + mrθ̈1 = −mrθ̈1
F
θ̈1 = −
2rm
For the case of all the mass in the rim
F
a1 = − 2m

F
(10), (11) ⇒ θ̈2 = −
rm
For the case of all the mass at the hub
a01 = − m
F

(b):
To ensure pure rolling we’d need the required traction to be less than the maximal allowable friction
force.
For cases (a) and (b) the normal force is equal to mg.
For case (a)
F
(4) ⇒ S1 = −mrθ̈1 =
2
S
Therefore we’d need to ensure that the coefficient of friction µ is equal or greater than 1 or
N
1
F
F
µ1 = 2
mg = 2mg

For case (b) (10) tells us that S2 = 0. Because this simplified model has zero rotational inertia
about its mass center, there exists no tractive ground force. Thus any µ2 greater than zero suffices.
µ2 > 0

267
7.3.31
GOAL: Find the acceleration response of a yo-yo.
GIVEN: Geometry of the yo-yo.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

m = m1 + 2m2 = 0.215 kg

m1 r12
I¯ = + m2 r22 = 4.007x10−5 kg·m2
2
−F r
Moment balance: I¯θ̈ = −F r1 ⇒ θ̈ = ¯ 1 (1)
I
F − mg
Force balance: mÿ = F − mg ⇒ ÿ = (2)
m
SOLVE:
(1) ⇒ θ̈ = −225 rad/s2

(2) ⇒ ÿ = 4.14 m/s2

268
7.3.32
GOAL: A reel is pulled to the right with a force F . If slip occurs, in what direction will the reel
slip for the two cases?
GIVEN: System configuration for both cases.
DRAW:

ASSUME: The reel moves purely in the horizontal direction.


FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
(a) Moment balance: −F r1 − Sa r2 = IG θ¨a (1)

(a) Force balance: (F − Sa ) *


ı + (Na − mg) *
 = ma1 *
ı
Equating coefficients:
*
ı : F − Sa = ma1 (2)
*
 : Na = mg (3)

(b) Moment balance: F r1 − Sb r2 = IG θ¨b (4)

(b) Force balance: (F − Sb ) *  = ma01 *


ı + (Nb − mg) * ı
Equating coefficients:
*
ı : F − Sb = ma01 (5)

*
 : Na = mg (6)
SOLVE:
If the reel is slipping then the frictional force at the reel/ground interface is known:
Sa = µNa = µmg, Sb = µNb = µmg (7)

F − µg
a1 = m
(2), (7) ⇒

−F r1 − µmgr2
(1), (7) ⇒ θ̈a = − IG

F − µg
a01 = m
(5), (7) ⇒

269
F r1 − µmgr2
(4), (7) ⇒ θ̈b = − IG

270
7.3.33
GOAL: A reel is pulled to the right by a constant force F . Find the acceleration of the reel’s
center of mass for two different winding arrangements.
GIVEN: System configuration for the two cases. System undergoes roll without slip.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
(a) Moment balance: −F r1 − Sa r2 = IG θ¨a (1)

(a) Force balance: (F − Sa ) *


ı + (Na − mg) *
 = m(a1 *
ı + a2 *
)
Equating coefficients:
*
ı : F − Sa = ma1 (2)

*
 : Na − mg = ma2 (3)

(b) Moment balance: F r1 − Sb r2 = IG θ¨b (4)

(b) Force balance: (F − Sb ) *


ı + (Nb − mg) * ı + a02 *
 = m(a01 * )
Equating coefficients:
*
ı : F − Sb = ma01 (5)

*
 : Na − mg = ma02 (6)
ASSUME:
We’ll assume that only horizontal motion occurs and thus
a2 = a02 = 0
For pure rolling, we have:
a1 = −r2 θ¨a

a01 = −r2 θ¨b

(1)⇒ −F r1 − Sa r2 = IG θ¨a (7)

(2)⇒ F − Sa = −mr2 θ¨a (8)

271
(3)⇒ Na = mg (9)

(4)⇒ F r1 − Sb r2 = IG θ¨b (10)

(5)⇒ F − Sb = −mr2 θ¨b (11)

(6)⇒ Nb = mg (12)
SOLVE:
−F (r1 + r2 )
(7),(8)⇒ θ¨a = (13)
(IG + mr22 )
F (r1 − r2 )
(10),(11)⇒ θ¨b = (14)
(IG + mr22 )
Note that in both cases the angular acceleration is negative (since r2 > r1 ).
For case (a):
F r2 (r1 + r2 ) *
(13)⇒ a*G = ı
(IG + mr22 )

And for case (b):


F r2 (r2 − r1 ) *
(14)⇒ a*G = ı
(IG + mr22 )

272
7.3.34
GOAL:
Find the cylinders angular and linear acceleration if µ = 0.1. Find the cylinder’s angular and linear
acceleration if µ = 0.3. Comment on the results.
GIVEN: m = 100 kg, r = 0.5 m. The coefficient of friction between the cylinder and the sloped
surface is µ.
DRAW:

* *
ı 
*
b1 cos 30 − sin 30◦

*
b2 sin 30◦ cos 30◦
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
mr2
Moment balance: −P r = θ̈ (1)
2
* *
Force balance: N b 2 − P b 1 − mg *
 = ma*G
√ !
mg 3
 
* * *
b 1 −P + + b2 N − mg = ma1 b 1
2 2
mg
*
b1 : − P = ma1 (2)
2

* 3
b2 : N= mg (3)
2
ASSUME:
Two possibilities exist. Either there’s no slip and
a1 = −rθ̈ (4)
Or there is slip and
P = µN (5)
SOLVE:
Assume no slip:
mr2 mg mg
   
(1), (2) ⇒ θ̈ = −r − ma1 = −r + mrθ̈
2 2 2
!
3mr2 mrg
θ̈ = −
2 2
g
θ̈ = − (6)
3r
Assume slip

273

mr2 3
(1), (5) ⇒ θ̈ = −rµN = −rµ mg
2 2

3µg
θ̈ = − (7)
r

mg mg 3 mg √
(2), (5) ⇒ ma1 = − µN = −µ mg = (1 − 3µ)
2 2 2 2
g √
a1 = (1 − 3µ) (8)
2
(a):
Assume that µ = 0.1 supports a no slip condition.
(9.81 m/s2 )
(6) ⇒ θ̈ = − = −6.54 rad/s2
3(0.5 m)
mr (100 kg)(0.5 m)
(1) ⇒ P =− θ̈ = − (−6.54 rad/s2 ) = 163.5 N
2 2

3
(3) ⇒ N= (100 kg)(9.81 m/s2 ) = 849.6 N
2
The maximum frictional force is equal to µN = (0.1)(849.6 N) = 84.96 N. The force needed to
support no slip is 163.5 N. Since 163.5 > 84.96 we don’t have enough force available to ensure pure
rolling and therefore we have a slip condition.

3(0.1)(9.81 m/s2 )
(7) ⇒ θ̈ = − 0.5 m = −3.40 rad/s2

9.81 m/s2 √
(8) ⇒ a1 = 2 (1 − 0.1 3) = 4.06 m/s2

(b):
We’ve seen in (a) that the necessary friction force for no slip is 163.5 N. In the current case
µN = (0.3)(849.6 N) = 254.9 N. Since 254.9 > 163.5 we have a no-slip condition.
(9.81 m/s2 )
(6) ⇒ θ̈ = − = −6.54 rad/s2
3(0.5 m)

(8) ⇒ a1 = −θ̈r = (6.54 rad/s2 )(0.5 m) = 3.27 m/s2


(c):
The results make physical sense. In Case (b) we’re rolling. In Case (a) we’re slipping and so would
expect a1 to increase (as the cylinder slips downslope) and θ̈ to decrease (since there’s less frictional
force acting at the contact point to spin the cylinder).

274
7.3.35
GOAL: Determine the friction force acting on a rolling cylinder, the cylinder’s acceleration and
the minimum coefficient of static friction to prevent slipping.
GIVEN: Slope is at an angle β and cylinder has a radius r, mass m and mass moment of inertia
I.
DRAW:

* *
ı 
*
b1 cos β sin β
*
b2 − sin β cos β
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
* * *
mẍ b 1 = −mg *
 + S b1 + N b2
*
b1 : mẍ = S − mg sin β (1)
*
b2 : N = mg cos β (2)

Moment balance: I θ̈ = Sr (3)


SOLVE: No slip gives us:

θ̈ = − (4)
r
I
(3), (4) ⇒ − ẍ = Sr (5)
r
I
(1),(5)⇒ mẍ = − ẍ − mg sin β
r2
!
I
m+ 2 ẍ = −mg sin β
r

ẍ = −mg sin β
!
(b) I
m+ 2
r

Using (5), we can now answer (a):

S = − I2 ẍ = Img2 sin β
(a) r mr + I

275
(c) Roll with slip means that S cannot exceed µN . This condition implies:

µmin N = S

S =
µmin = N Imgsin β =  I tan β
mr2 + I mg cos β mr2 + I

276
7.3.36
GOAL: Determine the acceleration of a cylinder on a moving surface and the minimum coefficient
of static friction to allow no-slip conditions.
2
GIVEN: Cylinder has mass m, radius r, moment of inertia mr2 , the slope has an inclination angle
β and is accelerating upward at z̈.
DRAW:

* *
ı 
*
b1 cos β sin β
*
b2 − sin β cos β

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
* *
Force balance: ma*m = −mg *
 + S b1 + N b2 (1)

Moment balance: I θ̈ = Sr (2)


The acceleration of the cylinder’s mass center is equal to the acceleration of the surface plus the
acceleration of the mass center with respect to the surface:
*
a*G = z̈ *
 + ẍ b 1 (3)
No-slip of the cylinder on the surface gives us

θ̈ = − (4)
r
SOLVE: 2
Let I = mr
2 .
* * *
(3)→(1)⇒ m(z̈ *
 + ẍ b 1 ) = −mg *
 + S b1 + N b2
 * *
 * *
m (z̈ sin β + ẍ) b 1 + z̈ cos β b 2 = b 1 (S − mg sin β) + b 2 (N − mg cos β)

*
b1 : m(z̈ sin β + ẍ) = S − mg sin β (5)
*
b2 : mz̈ cos β = N − mg cos β (6)
I
(4)→(2)⇒ − ẍ = Sr (7)
r
I
(5),(7)⇒ m(z̈ sin β + ẍ) = − ẍ − mg sin β
r2
!
I
ẍ m + 2 = −m sin β(g + z̈)
r

277
*
 * *
sin β(g+z̈)
a*G = z̈ *
 + ẍ b 1 = z̈ sin β − 1.5 b 1 + z̈ cos β b 2

To ensure pure rolling, S can’t exceed µN .


(6)⇒ N = mz̈ cos β + mg cos β = m cos β(z̈ + g) (8)
I
(7)⇒ S=− ẍ (9)
r2
Using ẍ in (8) and (9), and applying S = µN gives us:
mI sin β(g + z̈)
= µmin m cos β(z̈ + g)
(mr2 + I)
tan β
µmin = 3

278
7.3.37
GOAL: Find the angular acceleration θ̈ of the spider.
GIVEN: System configuration and parameters.
DRAW:

e*r e*θ
*
b1 cos(φ − θ) sin(φ − θ)
*
b2 − sin(φ − θ) cos(φ − θ)
In the figure I’ve referenced a point C on one of the gears. φ indicates the absolute rotation of the
gear and θ indicates the spider’s rotation. C is in contact with the rim when θ = φ = 0. Since the
contact condition is no-slip, we know v*C = 0. Thus

v*C = v*O + v*B/ + v*C/ = 0


O B
* * * *
= 0 + θ̇ k ×L e r + φ̇k ×R b 1
*
= θ̇L e*θ + φ̇R b 2
*
When θ = φ = 0, e*θ = b 2 and so
L
v*C = (θ̇L + φ̇R) e*θ = 0 ⇒ φ̇ = −θ̇ (1)
R
a*B = ω ω × r*B/ ) + α
~ ×(~ ~ × r*B/
O O

= −θ̇2 L e*r + θ̈L e*θ (2)

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

279
Spider:
*
k : M − 3N1 L = I¯S θ̈ (3)
Gear:
Force balance: (N1 − N3 ) e*θ − N2 e*r = mg a*B = mg (−θ̇2 L e*r + θ̈L e*θ )

e*r : −N2 = −mg θ̇2 L (4)

e*θ : N1 − N3 = mg θ̈L (5)

*
k: I¯G φ̈ = −RN3 (6)
SOLVE:
I¯G I¯ L
N1 = mg θ̈L − = mg θ̈L − G (−θ̈ )
φ̈ |{z}
(5),(6)⇒ R R R
(1)

I¯G L
N1 = θ̈(mg L + ) (7)
R2
I¯G L
(7)⇒(3)⇒ M − 3Lθ̈(mg L + ) = I¯S θ̈
R2
L
θ̈(I¯S + 3L2 mg + 3I¯G ( )2 ) = M
R

θ̈ = M 2
L

I¯S + 3L2 mg + 3I¯G
R

280
7.3.38
GOAL: Find θ̇ and ṙ just as the masses reach the ends of the rods.
GIVEN: Dimensions, geometry, I, ¯ mass of blocks, and initial conditions.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
*
Force balance: F mass = ma*mass (1)
Moment balance about G for * *
MG = I¯θ̈ k (2)
the three-arm body:    
Acceleration of each block a*mass = r̈ − rθ̇2 e*r + 2ṙθ̇ + rθ̈ e*θ (3)
SOLVE:     
(1), (3) ⇒ F e*θ = m r̈ − rθ̇2 e*r + 2ṙθ̇ + rθ̈ e*θ (4)
 
(4) · e*r ⇒ 0 = m r̈ − rθ̇2 ⇒ r̈ = rθ̇2 (5)
 
(4) · e*θ ⇒ F = m 2ṙθ̇ + rθ̈ (6)

*
(2) · k ⇒ −3F r = I¯θ̈ (7)
6mrṙθ̇
(6), (7) ⇒ θ̈ = − (8)
I + 3mr2

Define state variables: x1 = r, x2 = ṙ, x3 = θ, x4 = θ̇ (9)


Numerical integration of (8)
with the given initial condi-
tions (integration time of t = ṙ = 6.50 m/s, θ̇ = 3.91 rad/s
0.1554 s) brings r to 1.2 m and:

281
7.3.39
GOAL: Find the critical value of θ above which the cylinder slips rather than rolls without slipping.
GIVEN: Radius of cylinder and coefficient of friction.
DRAW:

* *
ı 
*
b1 cos θ sin θ
*
b2 − sin θ cos θ
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
* * *
Force balance: S b 1 + N b 2 − mg *
 = ma b 1
*
b 2: N − mg cos θ = 0 ⇒ S = µN = µmg cos θ
*
b 1: S − mg sin θ = ma ⇒ a = g(µ cos θ − sin θ) (1)
* * *
*
Moment balance: ΣMG = −r b 2 × S b 1 = IG α
* 1 *
⇒ αk = µrmg cos θ k (2)
IG
Rolling without slipping requires that
* *
a* = α
*
× r b 2 = −αr b 1 (3)
1 2
(1), (2) → (3) ⇒ g(µ cos θ − sin θ) = − µr mg cos θ
IG

µmr2
sin θ − µ cos θ = cos θ
IG
!
mr2
sin θ = µ cos θ 1 +
IG
" !#
−1 mr2
θ = tan µ 1+
IG
The moment of inertia for a cylinder about its center of mass is IG = 21 mr2 , therefore
" !#
−1 mr2
θ = tan µ 1+ 1 2 = tan−1 (3µ)
2 mr

SOLVE: Plugging in the value of µ yields θ = tan−1 [3(0.4)] = tan−1 (1.2) ⇒ θ = 50.2◦

282
7.3.40
GOAL: Find the amount of time it will take for the spool to complete a full rotation.
GIVEN: m1 = 2 kg, m2 = 4 kg, r1 = 0.1 m, r2 = 0.15 m, I1 = 0.02kg·m2
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
If the reel rolls without slippage we have
−ẍ = r2 θ̈ (1)
The massless rope connecting the mass and reel gives us
−ÿ = (r2 − r1 )θ̈ (2)
First consider the reel. We can apply a moment balance about C:
* *
MC = I θ̈ k + r*G/ ×m1 a*G
A
* * *
where a*G = ẍ b 1 = −r2 θ̈ b 1 and r*G/ = r2 b 2 .
C

Moment balance about C: m1 gr2 sin θ − T (r2 − r1 ) = I θ̈ + m1 r22 θ̈ (3)


* * *
Force balance: (T + S − m1 g sin θ) b 1 + (N − m1 g cos θ) b 2 = m1 ẍ b 1
*
b1 : T + S − m1 g sin θ = m1 ẍ (4)
*
b2 : N = m1 g cos θ (5)
Now examine the hanging mass m2 :
Force balance: (m2 g − T ) *
 = m2 ÿ *

*
 : m2 g − T = m2 ÿ (6)
(1), (2), (3), (4), (6) are five equations with five unknowns θ̈, ẍ, ÿ, T , S. Thus, the system is
solvable.
SOLVE:
(1)→(4)⇒ T + S − m1 g sin θ = −m1 r2 θ̈ (7)

283
(2)→(6)⇒ m2 g − T = −m2 (r2 − r1 )θ̈ (8)

(8)⇒ T = m2 g + m2 (r2 − r1 )θ̈ (9)

(9)→(3)⇒ m1 gr2 sin θ − (r2 − r1 )(m2 g + m2 (r2 − r1 )θ̈) = (I + m1 r22 )θ̈


 
m1 gr2 sin θ − (r2 − r1 )m2 g = I + m1 r22 + (r2 − r1 )2 m2 θ̈

g(m1 r2 sin θ − m2 (r2 − r1 ))


θ̈ =
I + m1 r22 + m2 (r2 − r1 )2

Thus we see that θ̈ is constant.

(9.81 m/s2 )(2 kg(0.15 m)(0.5) − 4 kg(0.05 m))


θ̈ = = −6.54 rad/s2
0.02 kg·m2 + 2 kg(0.15 m)2 + 4 kg(0.05 m)2

The motion is up-slope. For constant θ̈ we have:


1
θ = θ̈t2
2
Thus, in order to find the time needed for a single rotation, starting from rest, we need to evaluate
1
−2π = (−6.54 rad/s2 )t2
2
t = 1.39 s

284
7.3.41
GOAL: Find the acceleration of the reel’s center.
GIVEN: m = 20 kg, r1 = 0.5 m, r2 = 0.7 m, IG = 6.8 kg· m2 .
DRAW:

* *
ı 
*
b1 cos θ sin θ
*
b2 − sin θ cos θ
FORMULATE EQUATIONS: If motion is possible we’ll apply a moment balance about G and
a force balance at G in order to determine the system’s dynamic behavior.
We need to apply kinematics to the reel/rope in order to determine if the cylinder can move
downslope using our rigid body velocity relationship
v*B = v*A + ω× r*B/
A

SOLVE:
For roll without slip we know that v*C = 0. Hence at G we have
* *
v*G = θ̇ k ×(r2 ) b 2
*
= −r2 θ̇ b 1
For the reel to move downslope at −r2 θ̇ we need rope to be unreeled from it at that same rate.
The rate of unreeling is given by the velocity of the point A with respect to G:
* *
v*A/ = θ̇ k ×(−r1 b 2 )
G
*
= r1 θ̇ b 1
r1 < r2 and therefore this would imply that the reel unrolls rope slower than the reel is moving
downslope. Such a situation could only occur if the rope could stretch and thus make up the
difference between the displacement of the reel and the amount of rope that has come off the reel.
For our case the rope is not extensible and the only solution that’s viable is that the entire reel is,
in fact, stationary. Thus we have the result
a*G = 0

285
7.3.42
*
GOAL:Determine α of a cylinder, part of a three mass system.
GIVEN: I 1 = 0.015 kg·m2 , I 2 = 0.018 kg·m2 , m1 = 4 kg, m2 = 20 kg, m3 = 5 kg, r1 = 7 cm,
r2 = 10 cm and r3 = 3 cm.
DRAW:

* *
ı  *
ı *

*
b1 cos 20◦ sin 20◦ , *
c1 cos 20 − sin 20◦

*
b2 − sin 20 cos 20◦
◦ *
c2 sin 20◦ cos 20◦

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
The reaction force and gravity force for the pivoted cylinder are ignored as irrelevant to the problem
as they don’t affect a moment balance about its center - the only equation which we’ll be using
with respect to this body.
* * *
Force balance, reel: (T2 − T3 ) b 1 + N2 b 2 − m1 g *
 = m1 ẍ b 1
*
b1 : T2 − T3 − m1 g sin 20◦ = m1 ẍ (1)
*
b2 : N2 − m1 g cos 20◦ = 0 (2)

Moment balance, reel: I 1 θ̈ = T2 r1 − T3 r2 (3)

Moment balance, cylinder: I 2 β̈ = (T2 − T1 )r3 (4)

Force balance, body A: (m3 g sin 20◦ − T1 ) *


c 1 + (N1 − m3 g cos 20◦ ) *
c 2 = m3 ÿ *
c1
*
c1 : m3 g sin 20◦ − T1 = m3 ÿ (5)
We also have constraints to account for. The first is a no-slip constaint for the reel:
ẍ = −r2 θ̈ (6)
Next, we have the constraint that the massless rope joining the reel to the cylinder has to have the
same speed at bodies and hence we have

286
(r2 − r1 )θ̈ = r3 β̈
For this problem r2 − r1 = r3 and thus we have
θ̈ = β̈ (7)
Finally, the block A is connected to the cylinder and thus the cylinder’s angular acceleration is
related to A’s linear acceleration by
ÿ = −r3 β̈ (8)
SOLVE:
It is easiest to solve (1), (3), (4), (5) simultaneously as AX = B:

m1 g sin 20◦
    
0 1 −1 −m1 T1
 0 r1 −r2 I 1 /r2  T2   0 
 =  (9)
    
−r3 r3 0 I 2 /r2 T3 0
  
    
1 0 0 (m3 r3 )/r2 ẍ m3 g sin 20◦

Using the function inv in MATLAB and vector multiplication (with the given parameter values)
yields:
h i h i−1 h i
X = A B (10)

 
18.40
h i  24.89 
X =  (11)
 
15.80

 
−1.08

   
T1 18.40
 T2   24.89 
 =  (12)
   
T3 15.80
 
   
ẍ −1.08

From ẍ = −1.08 m/s2 :


1.08 m/s2
β̈ = = 10.82 rad/s2
0.1 m
*
ωC = 10.82k rad/s2

287
7.3.43
GOAL: Determine which components of the given set are correct.
GIVEN: System configuration.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
a*G = a*A + a*G/
A

= (r̈ − rθ̇2 ) e*r + (rθ̈ + 2ṙθ̇) e*θ + ω


* *
× (ω × r*G/ ) + α
*
× r*G/
A A

= (r̈ − rθ̇2 ) e*r + (rθ̈ + 2ṙθ̇) e*θ + dθ̇2 e*θ + dθ̈ e*r

= (r̈ − rθ̇2 + dθ̈) e*r + (rθ̈ + 2ṙθ̇ + dθ̇2 ) e*θ


Equations of motion for Body B: 
mB (r̈ − rθ̇2 + dθ̈) e*r + (rθ̈ + 2ṙθ̇ + dθ̇2 ) e*θ = −mB g *
 − N e*θ

e*r : mB (r̈ − rθ̇2 + dθ̈) = mB g sin θ (1)

e*θ : mB (rθ̈ + 2ṙθ̇ + dθ̇2 ) = −N + mB g cos θ (2)

*
k : I B θ̈ = C (3)
Equations of motion for the bar:
X
*
k : I O θ̈ = MO

1 m gL
mL L2 θ̈ = −C + L cos θ + N r (4)
3 2
For the first equation, the choices are (from (2)):
0, cos θ, −1, mB , θ̈, dθ̇2

288
For the second equation, the choices are (from (3)):
C, I B , 0

For the third equation, the choices are (from (4)):


mL g L2 cos θ, −1, N r, 13 mL L2

For the fourth equation, the choices are (from (1)):


0, sin θ, −rθ̇2 , dθ̈

289
7.3.44
GOAL: A two link mechanism is acted on by gravity and an external force F . Determine the
value of µ that allows no-slip and then, for a given µ, the minimum F that causes the normal force
between the legs and ground to go to zero.
GIVEN: System configuration and parameter values.
Part (a):
DRAW:
(a) The problem is symmetric so only a single link will be examined (the other being a mirror
image)

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Force balance: (T1 − N2 ) *
ı + (N1 − mg) *
 = m(a1 *
ı + a2 *
) (1)

*
ı: T1 − N2 = ma1 (2)

*
: N1 − mg = ma2 (3)
L L L
Moment balance about G: T1 sin θ − N1 cos θ + N2 sin θ = IG θ̈ (4)
2 2 2
ASSUME:
No-slip implies a1 = a2 = θ̈ = 0. Also, θ = 45◦ .
SOLVE:
(2)⇒ T1 = N2 (5)

(3)⇒ N1 = mg (6)
(5),(6)→(4)⇒ N2 − mg + N2 = 0
mg
N2 =
2
mg
T1 =
2
The minimum allowable value of T1 is µN1 . Thus
mg
= µmg ⇒ µ = 0.5
2
**********************

290
Part (b):
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
L
Moment balance about G: (T sin θ − N1 cos θ + F cos θ + N2 sin θ) = IG θ̈ (7)
2 1

Force balance: (T1 − N2 ) *


ı + (N1 − mg + F ) *
 = m(a1 *
ı + a2 *
)

*
ı: T1 − N2 = ma1 (8)

*
: N1 − mg + F = ma2 (9)
ASSUME:
We’ll assume that the system isn’t slipping and solve for the maximal F that supports this condition.
If slip isn’t occuring then a1 = a2 = θ̈ = 0. θ = 45◦ .
SOLVE:
(8)⇒ T1 = N 2 (10)

(9)⇒ N1 = mg − F (11)
(10),(11)→(7)⇒ N2 − (mg + F ) + F + N2 = 0
mg
N2 = (12)
2
Since T1 = µN1 we have from (10), (11), and (12)
max
mg
= µ(mg − F ) (13)
2
1
µF = mg(µ − )
2

1
mg(µ − )
F = 2
µ

291
7.3.45
GOAL: Derive the equations of motion for the system and also derive the equations that must be
satisfied to the person to ride uphill at a velocity and with body at a constant angle with respect
to the ground.
GIVEN: Configuration of the wheel/person system.
ASSUME: M , the moment applied to the wheel by the rider, is sufficient to to cause the system
to move upslope. Assume a no-slip condition holds. Because the rider’s orientation is constant we
know β̇ = β̈ = 0.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Wheel:
Moment balance: m2 r2 θ̈ = F r − M (1)
  *
  *
Force balance: −N3 + F − m2 g sin θ b 1 + −N2 + N1 − m2 g cos θ b 2 = m2 a*G =
 * *
 *
m2 a1 b 1 + a2 b 2 = m2 a1 b 1
Equating coefficients:
*
b1 : −N3 + F − m2 g sin θ = m2 a1 = m2 ẍ (2)
*
b2 : −N2 + N1 − m2 g cos θ = 0 (3)
rider: X
Moment balance: MO = −IC β̈ = −IC (0) = 0
L L
M − N2 sin (β + θ) + N3 sin (90 − β − θ) = 0 (4)
2 2

292
  *
  *
 * *

Force balance: N3 − m1 g sin θ b 1 + N2 − m1 g cos θ b 2 = m1 a1 b 1 + a2 b 2 =
*
m1 a1 b 1 = m1 ẍ
Equating coefficients:
*
b1 : N3 − m1 g sin θ = m1 a1 = m1 ẍ (5)
*
b2 : N2 − m1 g cos θ = 0 (6)
No-slip conditions imply
ẍ = −θ̈r (7)
SOLVE:
M
(1) ⇒ F = m2 rθ̈ + (8)
r

(5) ⇒ N3 = m1 ẍ + m1 g sin θ (9)


M
(8), (9) → (2) ⇒ m2 ẍ = −m1 ẍ − m1 g sin θ + m2 rθ̈ + − m2 g sin θ
r
Using ẍ = −θ̈r yields
  M
−g sin θ m1 + m2 +
(a) ẍ = r (10)
m1 + 2m2

(b):
(5) ⇒ N3 = m1 ẍ + m1 g sin θ (11)

(6) ⇒ N2 = m1 g cos θ (12)

L  L
(11), (12) → (4) ⇒ M − m1 g cos θ sin (β + θ) + m1 ẍ + m1 g sin θ sin (90◦ − β − θ) = 0
2 2
Using sin (90◦ − β − θ) = cos (θ + β)

L L
M + m1 g (− cos θ sin (β + θ) + sin θ cos (β + θ)) + m1 cos (β + θ) ẍ = 0
2 2
Finally, using − cos θ sin (β + θ) + sin θ cos (β + θ) = − sin β yields
M − mg L2 sin β + m1 L2 cos (β + θ) ẍ = 0

293
7.3.46
GOAL:Determine the angular acceleration of a rolling cylinder.
GIVEN: System geometry.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
WHEEL:
*
ı : F1 − F2 = m1 ẍ (1)

*
 : N 2 = m1 g + N 1 (2)
*
k : I 1 θ̈ = −M + rF1 (3)
BAR:
*
ı : F2 = m2 ẍ (4)

*
 : N1 = m2 g (5)
L
*
k : 0 = M − N1 (6)
2
ROLL WITHOUT SLIP:
ẍ = −rθ̈ (7)
SOLVE:
(3),(1)⇒ I 1 θ̈ = −M + r(m1 ẍ + F2 )

I 1 θ̈ = −M + rm1 ẍ + rm2 ẍ

I 1 θ̈ = −M + (m1 + m2 )r(−rθ̈)
 
θ̈ I 1 + (m1 + m2 )r2 = −M (8)

L L
(5),(6)⇒ M= N 1 = m2 g
2 2

294
Lm g
M= 2 (9)
2

m1 r 2 Lm2 g
(8),(9)⇒ θ̈(I 1 + (m1 + m2 )r2 ) = θ̈( + (m1 + m2 )r2 ) = −
2 2
−Lm g
θ̈ = 2
(3m +2m )r2
1 2

295
7.3.47
GOAL: Determine the vehicle’s acceleration.
GIVEN:
r = 0.3 m, L = 1.4 m, mb = 10 kg, mw = 14 kg, µ = 0.7, and M = 50 N·m. No friction exists
between the drag and the road surface.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Body:
L L m L2
Moment balance: M 1 + F2 − N2 = b θ̈1 (1)
2 2 12
X*
F = ma*G
   
−F1 *
ı + F2 + N2 − mb g *
 = ma*G = m a1 *
ı + a2 *

1
Equating coefficients:
*
ı : −F1 = ma1 (2)

*
 : F2 + N2 − mb g = ma2 (3)
Wheel: X * *
MG = I w θ̈2 k
2

mw r 2
−M1 − F3 r = θ̈2 (4)
2
X*
F = ma*G
     
F 1 − F3 *
ı + N1 − F2 − mw g  = ma*G = m a01 *
*
ı + a02 *

2
Equating coefficients:

296
*
ı : F1 − F3 = ma01 (5)

*
 : N1 − F2 − mw g = ma01 (6)
ASSUME:
Assume that the car moves to the right because of the applied moment. From physical consid-
erations we see that the angular velocity and acceleration of the body is zero since the reaction
moment simply serves to push the drag more firmly into the ground. Therefore a2 = 0. The wheel
doesn’t leave the ground and so a02 = 0. The two pieces translate at the same rate and thus a01 = a1 .
Aassume roll without slip. This means a1 = a01 = −rθ̈2
Rewriting the equations to reflect these assumptions yields
L L
(1) ⇒ M 1 + F2 − N 2 = 0 (7)
2 2

(2) ⇒ −F1 = −mb rθ̈2 (8)

(3) ⇒ F2 + N2 = mb g (9)

mw r2
(4) ⇒ −M1 − F3 r = θ̈2 (10)
2

(5) ⇒ F1 − F3 = −mw rθ̈2 (11)

(6) ⇒ N1 − F2 = mw g (12)
6 equation’s in 6 unknowns: θ̈2 , N1 , N2 , F1 , F2 , F3
(8),(10) and (11) will be all we’ll need to consider to find the car’s acceleration.
(8) ⇒ F1 = mb rθ̈2 (13)

(11) ⇒ F3 = F1 + mw rθ̈2 (14)


  mw r 2
(14) → (10) ⇒ −M1 − r F1 + mw rθ̈2 = θ̈2 (15)
2
  mw r 2
(13) → (15) ⇒ −M1 − r mb rθ̈2 + mw rθ̈2 = θ̈2
2
M1
θ̈2 = − (16)
3r2 mw
r2 mb +
2
Since a1 = −rθ̈2 we have
rM1
a1 = (17)
3r2 mw
r2 mb +
2
If we write this as f = ma we have
3 M
 
mb + mw a1 = 1
2 r
 
M
which makes sense. The moment induces a horizontal force proportional to r 1 and the mass
r

297
 
3
consists of the body’s translational mass (mb ) and the equivalent mass of the rolling wheel 2 mw .
Verification of no-slip assumption:
m g M
(7), (9) ⇒ F2 = b − 1 (18)
2 L
mb g M1 mb M
 
(12), (18) ⇒ N1 = − + mw g = g mw + − 1
2 L 2 L
 
(11), (13) ⇒ F3 = mw rθ̈2 + mb rθ̈2 = rθ̈2 mw + mb

Using (16)  
M1 mw + mb
F3 = − 
3mw

r m +
b 2

If F3 > µ N1 then no-slip can’t be supported for our parameter values.

N1 = 151 N, F3 = −129 N

µ N1 = 0.7(151 N) = 105.7 N

Since the required traction force of 129 N is more than 106 N we have slip and our initial non-slip
assumption was incorrect.
Solving with a Slip Assumption:
Body:
*
ı : F1 = mb ẍ (19)

*
 : N2 + F2 − mb g = 0 (20)
 L
*
k : F2 − N 2 + M1 = 0 (21)
2
Wheel:
*
ı : µN1 − F1 = mw ẍ (22)

*
 : N1 − F2 − mw g = 0 (23)

*
k : −µrN1 − M1 = IG2 θ̈2 (24)

(19), (22) ⇒ µN1 − mb ẍ = mw ẍ


 
µN1 = mb + mw ẍ (25)
mb g M 1
(20), (21) ⇒ F2 =− (26)
2 L
m M
(26) → (23) ⇒ N1 = mw g + b g − 1 (27)
2 L
m M
   
(27) → (25) ⇒ µg mw + b − µ 1 = mb + mw ẍ
2 L

298
mb M
 
µg mw + −µ 1
ẍ =  2  L = 4.39 m/s2
mb + mw

299
7.3.48
GOAL: Find the linear acceleration ẍ of the vehicle and angular acceleration θ̈ of the wheel.
GIVEN: System configuration, mW = 10 kg, mB = 40 kg, L = 1 m, r = 0.5 m, M = 2 N·m.
DRAW:

* *
ı 
*
b1 cos 30 − sin 30◦

*
b2 sin 30◦ cos 30◦

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Body W :
* *
Force Balance: −mW g *
 − Qb2 − Rb1 + N *
 + S*
ı = mw a*W
Moment Balance about GW : Sr + M = I¯ θ̈ W

Body B:
* *
Force Balance: Q b 2 + R b 1 + (T − mB g) * = mB a*B
Moment Balance about GB : T L2 cos θ − Q L2 − M = I¯B β̈
ASSUME: If the system rolls without slip and both W and B contact the ground then
rθ̈ = −ẍ
a*W = ẍ *
ı + 0*
aB = ẍ ı + 0 *
* *

β̈ = 0
SOLVE:
Applying the constraints to the system equations of motion yields
Body W :
*
ı: −mW ẍ − (cos 30◦ )R − (sin 30◦ )Q + S = 0 (1)

*
: −(cos 30◦ )Q + (sin 30◦ )R + N = mW g (2)

300
*
k: −I¯W θ̈ + rS = −M (3)
Body B:
*
ı: −mB ẍ + (cos θ)R + (sin θ)Q = 0 (4)

*
: (cos 30◦ )Q − (sin 30◦ )R + T = mB g (5)
L L
*
k: (cos 30◦ )T − Q = M (6)
2 2
If we include our rolling without slip condition as a final equation:

rθ̈ + ẍ = 0 (7)
we can then express (1)-(7) in matrix form

1 −(sin 30◦ ) −(cos 30◦ )


    
−mW 0 0 0 
 ẍ 
 
 0 

0 −(cos 30◦ ) (sin 30◦ )
   

 0 0 1 0 
 θ̈





 mW g 


   
0 −IW r 0 0 0 0  −M
    
 

 S 



 


−mB sin 30◦ cos 30◦


 0 0 0 0 
 Q = 0 (8)
0 0 0 cos 30◦ −(sin 30◦ ) 0 1√
  



 R 




 mB g 


L 3    
− L2 N M
    
 0 0 0 0 0 2 2















T  0
1 r 0 0 0 0 0
  

m r 2
where I¯W = W2 .
Using the given parameter values
   

 ẍ 
 
 −0.0727 m/s2 

0.1455 rad/s2
   
θ̈ 

  
 


 
 
 

 −3.6364 N
   
 S 

  
 

 
Q = 167.2 N
−100
   



 R 






 N 



N 292.8 N

 
 
 


 
 
 

 T 
  
  197.7 N 

ẍ = −0.0727 m/s, θ̈ = 0.1455 rad/s2

301
7.3.49
GOAL: Find the linear acceleration ẍ of the vehicle and angular acceleration θ̈ of the wheel.
GIVEN: System configuration, mW = 10 kg, mB = 40 kg, L = 1 m, r = 0.5 m, M = 2 N·m.
DRAW:

* *
ı 
*
b1 cos 30 − sin 30◦

*
b2 sin 30◦ cos 30◦

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Body W :
* *
Force Balance: −mW g *
 − Qb2 − Rb1 + N *
 + S*
ı = mw a*W
Moment Balance about GW : Sr + M = I¯ θ̈ W

Body B:
* *
Force Balance: Q b 2 + R b 1 + (T − mB g) * = mB a*B
Moment Balance about GB : T L2 cos θ − Q L2 − M = I¯B β̈
ASSUME: If the system rolls without slip and both W and B contact the ground then
rθ̈ = −ẍ
a*W = ẍ *
ı + 0*
aB = ẍ ı + 0 *
* *

β̈ = 0
SOLVE:
Applying the constraints to the system equations of motion yields
Body W :
*
ı: −mW ẍ − (cos 30◦ )R − (sin 30◦ )Q + S = 0 (1)

*
: −(cos 30◦ )Q + (sin 30◦ )R + N = mW g (2)

302
*
k: −I¯W θ̈ + rS = −M (3)
Body B:
*
ı: −mB ẍ + (cos θ)R + (sin θ)Q = 0 (4)

*
: (cos 30◦ )Q − (sin 30◦ )R + T = mB g (5)
L L
*
k: (cos 30◦ )T − Q = M (6)
2 2
If we include our rolling without slip condition as a final equation:

rθ̈ + ẍ = 0 (7)
we can then express (1)-(7) in matrix form

1 −(sin 30◦ ) −(cos 30◦ )


    
−mW 0 0 0 
 ẍ 
 
 0 

0 −(cos 30◦ ) (sin 30◦ )    

 0 0 1 0 

 θ̈





 mW g 


   
0 −IW r 0 0 0 0  −M
    
 

 S 



 


−mB sin 30◦ cos 30◦


 0 0 0 0 
 Q = 0 (8)
0 0 0 cos 30◦ −(sin 30◦ ) 0 1√
  



 R 




 mB g 


L 3    
− L2 N M
    
 0 0 0 0 0 2 2















T  0
1 r 0 0 0 0 0
  

m r2
where I¯W = W2 .
An input of M = 2 N· m produces an acceleration and forces of
   

 ẍ 
 
 −0.0727 m/s2 

0.1455 rad/s2
   
θ̈

 
 
 


 
 
 

 −3.6364 N
   


 S 



 


Q = 167.2 N
−100
   



 R 






 N 



N  292.8 N

  
 


 
 
 

 T 
  
  197.7 N 

If M is increased to 200 N· m these change to


   

 ẍ 
 
 −7.27 m/s2 

14.55 rad/s2
   
θ̈

 
 
 


 
 
 

 −363.64 N
   


 S 



 


Q = −102.8 N
−276.6 N
   



 R 











N  143.3 N

  
 


 
 
 


 T   
  343.2 N 

ẍ and θ̈ increased by a factor of 100 when M was increased by the same factor. This makes sense.
If we have roll without slip then we should expect an increase in acceleration proportional to the
applied moment. S also increased by a factor of 100. This follows from ẍ. S is directly proportional
to ẍ as seen from the force balance. Q decreased and, in fact, became negative. This makes sense
as well. The greater reaction moment being applied to Body B is trying to rotate the body in a
clockwise fashion. If we visualize it as trying to rotate about the right end in a clockwise directions
we see that the left end of the bar, which was essentially resting on the pivot between the two
bodies when M was 2 N· m is now pressing upward against the pivot as it tries to rotate. Thus the

303
sign of Q will change. R increased as well, which reflects the fact that if the system is accelerating
more strongly to the left, a greater force will be required to pull Body B along.
* * *
We can see that the increase is correct by calculating
 √  Q b 2 + Rb 1 and taking the ı component. For
3 1
M = 2 N· m this gives a resultant force of −99.9 2 N + 167 2 N = −2.91 N. For M = 200 N· m
√   
this gives a resultant force of −277 23 N − 103 21 N = −291 N. The overall force has increased
by a factor of 100, as expected.
N went down from 293 N to 147 N. This is sensible because we’ve already seen that Q is pulling
up strongly, which will reduce the force with which S contacts the floor. Finally, T increased from
198 N to 343 N. This is completely in line with the fact that the clockwise moment has increased,
thus pressing the right end more firmly into the ground.

304
7.3.50
GOAL: Find if a sufficient moment M can be applied to the hinged bar B to the wheel W such
that the system can experience wheel lift-off.
GIVEN: System configuration.
DRAW:

* *
ı 
* √
b1 3/2 −1/2
* √
b2 1/2 3/2
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Wheel:
* *
Force balance: −mw g *
 − Qb2 − Rb1 + N *
 + S*
ı = mw a*O

3 1
*
ı : −mw ẍ − R− Q+S =0 (1)
2 2

3 1
*
 : − Q + R + N = mw g (2)
2 2

Moment balance: Sr + M = I w θ̈

−I w θ̈ + rS = −M (3)
Link:
* *
Force balance: Q b 2 + R b 1 + (T − mB g) *
 = mB a*G

3 1
*
ı : −mB ẍ + R+ Q=0 (4)
2 2

305

3 1
*
 : Q − R + T = mB g (5)
2 2

L 3 L
Moment balance: T − Q − M = I B β̈
2 2 2

3 L
TL − Q=M (6)
4 2
Assume rolling without slip: rθ̈ = −ẍ

rθ̈ + ẍ = 0 (7)
We are given β̈ = 0.
SOLVE:
Putting (1)-(7) into matrix/vector form gives:

1
1 −√2
    
3 0
−mw 0 − 2 0 ẍ 0
0 0 0 − 23 1
1 0 θ̈ mw g
    
 2    
0 −I w r 0 0 0 0 −M
    


 S   
0 √21
    
 −mB 0 3 0 0  Q  =  0  (8)
 2    
 0 0 0 3
− 12 0 1

 R   mB g 
2
    

0 0 0 −L 0 L 3 
N
 
M


2 0 4
   
1 r 0 0 0 0 0 T 0

m r2
where I w = w2 .
We want the contact force between the wheel and the ground to equal zero. By typing a few values of
M and evaluating the resultant accelerations/parameters, you can quickly find that M = 400.5 N·m
leads to a solution of :

ẍ = −14.56 m/s2 , θ̈ = 29.13 rad/s2 , S = −728.2 N,


Q = −376.3 N R = −455.5 N, N = 0.0, T = 490.5 N
Thus it seems that M = 400.5 N·m would cause a loss of contact (N going to zero), the prerequisite
for lift-off. Can this actually occur? No. The tractive force exists because of the tire/road frictional
interface. If N goes to zero then the tire won’t be able to generate any tractive force at all. In
fact, the maximum tractive force that can be sustained (in pure rolling) is µN . Clearly, as N is
reduced, µN reduces in kind.

306
7.3.51
GOAL: Find the system’s equation of motion and integrate to find x(t), the horizontal displacement
of the cylinder.
GIVEN: System configuration.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Force balance, mass 1: −N3 *
ı + (N4 − m1 g) *
 = m1 ẍ *
ı

*
ı : −N3 = mẍ (1)

*
 : N4 − m1 g = 0 (2)

Force balance, mass 2: (N3 − N2 ) *


ı + (N1 − N4 − m2 g) *
 = m2 ẍ *
ı

*
ı : N3 − N2 = m2 ẍ (3)

*
 : N1 − N4 − m2 g = 0 (4)
Moment balance about ID θ̈ = −kθ θ − N2 r
D:
Applying no-slip:
kθ x I ẍ
− N2 r = − D (5)
r r
SOLVE:
kθ x I ẍ
(3),(5)⇒ − r(N3 − m2 ẍ) = − D (6)
r r
kθ x I ẍ
(1),(6)⇒ − r(−m1 ẍ − m2 ẍ) = − D
r r
I k x
 
ẍ D + r(m1 + m2 ) = − θ
r r

307
k
ẍ = − θ x
I +r 2 (m +m )
D 1 2

This equation is actually in the form of a linear oscillator and has a closed form solution. If we
define the system’s natural frequency ωn as
v
k
u
θ
u
ωn ≡ t
(ID + r2 (m1 + m2 ))

then we can write our governing equation of motion as

ẍ + ωn2 x = 0

which, for x(0) = 0 and ẋ(0) = v0 has the solution


v0
x(t) = sin(ωn t)
ω0

The solution is in the form of a sine wave - the toy starts at zero, rolls away, stops, and then rolls
back.

308
7.3.52
GOAL: Find the long term behavior of a simple toy.
GIVEN: System configuration and parameters.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Cylinder:
*
k : m2 r2 θ̈ = M + rF1 (1)

*
ı : −rθ̈m2 = −N2 + F1 (2)

*
 : 0 = N1 − N3 − m2 g (3)

Pendulum:
*
 : N3 − m1 g = m1 [e(β̇ + θ̇)2 cos(θ + β) + e(θ̈ + β̈) sin(θ + β)] (4)

*
ı : N2 = m1 [−e(β̇ + θ̇)2 sin(θ + β) + e(θ̈ + β̈) cos(θ + β) − rθ̈)] (5)

*
k : −M = N2 e cos(θ + β) + N3 e sin(θ + β) (6)

(1), (2), (5) ⇒ 2m2 r2 θ̈ + rem1 (θ̇ + β̇)2 sin(θ + β) − rem1 (θ̈ + β̈) cos(θ + β) + r2 m1 θ̈ − kβ = 0
(7)

(4), (5), (6) ⇒ e2 m1 (θ̈ + β̈) + em1 g sin(θ + β) − erm1 θ̈ cos(θ + β) + kβ = 0 (8)

SOLVE:
(7) and (8) can be written as [A]X = [B] where

309
" #
r2 (2m2 + m1 ) − rem1 cos(θ + β) −rem1 cos(θ + β)
[A] =
m1 e2 − rem1 cos(θ + β) m1 e2
" #
θ̈
X=
β̈
" #
−r(θ̇ + β̇)2 em1 sin(θ + β) + kβ
[B] =
−m1 ge sin(θ + β) − kβ
Solving the 2 equations is accomplished by premultiplying by [A]−1 :
" #
θ̈
= [A]−1 [B]
β̈
Integrating the equations of motion will produce the illustrated θ,β vs t plot. Both the absolute
rotation of the cylinder (θ) and the absolute rotation of the pendulum (θ + β) are plotted. The
cylinder rolls forward for a bit over two revolutions and then returns and, in fact, then overshoots
the starting point. The long term behavior is a continuous oscillation back and forth. Note that the
pendulum does not stay oriented vertically downward but rather oscillates about this orientation.

310
7.3.53
GOAL: Find the acceleration of block A with and without pulley mass.
GIVEN: Pulley geometry and system parameters.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
We will have four force balance and three moment balance equations.
Moment balance, 1: r1 (T3 − T2 ) = I1 θ¨1 (1)

Moment balance, 2: r2 (T1 − 50) = I2 θ¨2 (2)

Moment balance, 3: r3 (T4 − T3 ) = I3 θ¨3 (3)

Moment balance, 4: r4 (T2 − T1 ) = I4 θ¨4 (4)

Force balance, 4: T5 − T2 − T1 − T6 = m4 ÿ (5)

Force balance, 3: T6 − T3 − T4 = m3 ÿ (6)

Force balance, A: −T5 + mA g = mA ÿ (7)


The relative velocity relations for the pulley pieces are given in the problem statement. and the
same ratios have to hold for acceleration as well. Thus :
7 1
α1 = α α2 = α α3 = α
5 2
5.25 0.175
 
α4 = α ÿ = α m
5 5
(Note that all I’m doing here is normalizing block A’s acceleration by the inner pulley 1. All the
accelerations scale linearly, one to another, and since we know the ratio of block A’s speed to the

311
pulley’s rotational speed we can divide the magnitude of the block’s linear speed (0.175 m/s) by
the magnitude of the pulley’s known rotational speed (5 rad/s) and then multiply by the, as yet
unknown, angular acceleration α.)
SOLVE:
    
0 −r1 r1 0 0 0 −I1 T1 0

 r2 0 0 0 0 0 −I2 ( 57 ) 
 T2



 50 Nr2 

0 0 −r3 r3 0 0 −I3 ( 12 ) T3 0
    
    
−I4 ( 5.25
    

 −r4 r4 0 0 0 0 5 )

 T4  = 
  0  (8)


 −1 −1 0 0 1 −1 −m4 ( 0.175
5 )

 T5 


 0 

0.175
0 0 −1 −1 0 1 −m3 ( 5 ) T6 0
    
    
0 0 0 0 −1 0 −mA ( 0.1755 ) α −mA g

The solution for the nominal case and for the case of essentially massless pulleys are shown below,
both of which match expectations. If the masses are close to zero, each rope carries the full driving
force of 50 N. The angular acceleration α = −290.06 rad/s2 corresponds closely to the expected
2
acceleration of mA with massless pulleys : (290)( 0.175
5 ) = 10.15 m/s . With the addition of mass to
the pulley disks, the acceleration of mA is reduced. This is in line with expectations. More mass
and rotational inertia implies less acceleration.

312
7.3.54
GOAL: Find the car’s equation of motion.
GIVEN: mc = 1100 kg, me = 100 kg, ms = 10 kg, mt = 20 kg, mw = 14 kg, rs = 0.05 m,
rt = 0.2 m, rw = 0.3 m.
DRAW:

ASSUME: We have two velocity conditions to apply. First there’s the rolling contact of gears
that occurs between the engine’s output shaft and the transmission gear:
r
−rs θ̈ = rt β̈ ⇒ θ̈ = − t β̈ (1)
rs
and second there’s the roll without slip assumption for the wheels

ẍ = −rw β̈ ⇒ β̈ = − (2)
rw
r
(1), (2) ⇒ θ̈ = t ẍ (3)
r s rw
All wheels have the same mass of 14 kg. Each of the three undriven wheels experience the same
forces. We assume motion in a straight line and thus the moments needed to keep the bodies oriented
as shown are not going to affect our final equation of motion and are omitted for simplicity. The
forces T1 and T3 arise from an interaction between the vehicle body and the wheels’ individual
axles (they’re the forces that constrain each wheel to move with the body).

313
FORMULATE EQUATIONS: Balance of forces for the car:

(mc + me )ẍ = −P + 3T1 − T3 (4)

Balance of forces and moments for the shaft:

P + N = ms ẍ (5)

−M + rs N = I s θ̈ (6)
Balance of forces and moments for the transmission/driven wheel:

T3 − (N + Q) = (mt + mw )ẍ (7)

rt N − rw Q = (I t + I w )β̈ (8)
Balance of forces and moments for each undriven wheel:

−T1 + T2 = mw ẍ (9)

rw T2 = I w β̈ (10)
SOLVE:
(4), (5) ⇒ (mc + me )ẍ = N − ms ẍ + 3T1 − T3 (11)

M + I s θ̈
(6), (11) ⇒ (mc + me )ẍ = −ms ẍ + 3T1 − T3 + (12)
rs
Iw
(9), (10) ⇒ T1 = T2 − mw ẍ = β̈ − mw ẍ (13)
rw

(7), (8) ⇒ rN (I + I )β̈


T3 = (mt + mw )ẍ + N + Q = (mt + mw )ẍ + N + rt − t r w
w w (14)
rt + rw (I t + I w )β̈
= (mt + mw )ẍ + r N− r
w w

(6), (12) − (14) ⇒


rt I s 4I w It r + rw 1
[mt + mc + me + ms + 4mw ]ẍ = − θ̈ + β̈ + β̈ − t M+ M (15)
rs rw rw rw rw rs rs
Let the total mass of the vehicle be denoted by mv :
mv ≡ mt + mc + me + ms + 4mw (16)
2
rt 4I w It rt

(2), (3), (15), (16) ⇒ mv ẍ = − I s ẍ − 2 ẍ − 2 ẍ − r r M
rs rw rw rw w s
" #
 r 2 r
t
mv + r r I s + 4I2w + I2t ẍ = − r tr M
s w rw rw w s

Note how the rotational inertias affect the overall effective translational mass of the system. Treat-
ing all the gears and wheels as uniform cylinders and using the given parameter values, we have
rt 2 4I w It
 
I s = 2.2 kg, 2 = 28 kg, 2 = 4.4 kg
rs rw rw rw

314
The actual mass of the vehicle is 1286 kg, and thus we see that the rotational inertia of the gears
and wheels has increased the effective mass of the car by 2.7 percent.
(1321 kg) ẍ = (13.3 m−1 )M

315
7.3.55
GOAL: Find the clamping force needed in four brakes to decelerate a car from 60 mph to zero in
2 seconds.
GIVEN: Locations of disk brakes and size of car’s wheels.
ASSUME: All brakes experience identical forces and the car moves in a straight line, without
rotation.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
The F1 s are the interaction forces between the car body and the brake/wheel assembly, the F3 s are
the forces from the brakes and the F2 s are the ground/wheel interaction forces. Twisting of the
brake/wheel assembly (which would need to be countered by opposing moments) are neglected.
Force Balance, Body: 4F3 − 4F1 = mb ẍ (1)
Force Balance,
F1 − F2 − F3 = mT ẍ (2)
Brake/Tire:
Moment Balance, ẍ
−F2 r2 + F3 r1 = I T θ̈ = −IT (3)
Brake/Tire: r2
SOLVE:
m
 
(1), (2) ⇒ −F2 = mT + b ẍ (4)
4
m ẍ
 
(4) → (3) ⇒ r2 mT + b ẍ + r1 F3 = −I T
4 r2

!
m I
r2 mT + b + T ẍ = −r1 F3 (5)
4 r2

5280 ft/mi
 
0 − 60 mph
3600 s/h
ẍ = = −44 ft/s2 (6)
2

316
!
2900 lb
(1 ft) (44 ft/s2 )
(4)(32.2 ft/s2 )
(5), (6) ⇒ F3 = = 2380 lb (7)
5 in
 

12 in/ft
Each F3 is the sum of two piston contributions. The force for each contacting surface will be equal
to the normal force Fp times the coefficient of friction µ:

2µFp = 2380 lb

1190 lb
Fp = µ lb

317
7.3.56
GOAL: Find the maximum velocity v of the sports sedan.
GIVEN: Relevant equations, ρ = 1.2 kg/m3 , A = 2 m2 , m = 1450 kg, M = 300 N· m, r = 0.3 m,
n = 2.74, cr = 0.02, 15% loss in force from the engine.
DRAW:

ASSUME: I¯W = mE = I¯E = mF = 0. The vehicle rolls without slip and thus rθ̈ = −ẍ where r is
*
the wheel’s radius, θ̈ is the wheel’s angular acceleration in the k direction and ẍ is the acceleration
*
in the ı direction. The inner disk on the wheel represents a gear attached to the wheel which has
a radius that’s 2.74 times larger than the rotating gear labeled E (for engine).
FORMULATE EQUATIONS: We’ll use a force and moment balance applied to the illustrated
model, a massless framework that connects the engine to the driven wheel. All the mass of the
vehicle will be viewed as being contained in the hub of the wheel. We don’t need to know the masses
of the individual wheels because we’re looking for the car’s top speed - implying zero acceleration.
If we’d wanted to know, for instance, how large an acceleration were possible then we’d need to go
into more detail with regard to the particular masses making up the car.
Wheel (W ):
*
ı : mẍ = S1 − F1 (1)

*
k : T 1 r W − F1 r = 0 (2)
Engine (E):
*
ı : R1 = 0 (3)

318
*
k : −M + T1 rE = 0 (4)
Framework (F ):
*
ı : −S1 − R1 = 0 (5)
SOLVE:
(3), (5) ⇒ S1 = 0 (6)
M rW
(2), (4) ⇒ F1 = (7)
r rE
M rW
(1), (6), (7) ⇒ mẍ = − (8)
r rE
Thus we see that the force acting on the car depends on the applied moment M divided by the
wheel’s radius r and multiplied by the gear ratio.
Adding the wind drag gives us
nM
mẍ = − − Fdrag
r
where n is the overall gear ratio and Fdrag is the total drag force acting on the car.
Because ẍ = 0 at the car’s maximum speed we have (including the drivetrain loss)
0.85nM 1
0= − ρca Av 2 − cr mg
r 2
0.85(2.74)300 N· m 1
0= − (1.2 kg/m3 )(0.35)(2 m2 )v 2 − 0.02(1450 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )
0.3 m 2

v = 69.8 m/s = 156 mph

319
7.3.57
GOAL: Determine the angular acceleration of disk A.
GIVEN: r = 1.0 m, mA = mB = 50 kg, mC = 0, M = 60 kg· m.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Force balance on disk A:
*
ı: SA + FA sin θ + PA cos θ = mA ẍA (1)
Moment balance on disk A:
*
k: −M + rSA − r2 FA = I¯A θ̈ (2)

Rolling constraint on disk A: ẍA = −rθ̈ (3)


Force balance on disk B:
*
ı: SB + FB sin θ + PB cos θ = mB ẍB (4)
Moment balance on disk B:
*
k: rSB − r2 FB = I¯B θ̈ (5)

Rolling constraint on disk B: ẍB = −rθ̈ (6)


Force balance on body C:
*
ı (mC = 0): −FA sin θ − PA cos θ − FB sin θ − PB cos θ = 0 (7)
*
 (mC = 0): FA cos θ − PA sin θ + FB cos θ − PB sin θ = 0 (8)
Moment balance on body C:
* L 
k (mC = 0): −FA cos θ + PA sin θ + FB cos θ − PB sin θ = 0 (9)
2

320
SOLVE: (1) – (9) constitute a set of 9 equations in 9 unknowns.

(8) + (9) ⇒ FB cos θ = PB sin θ (10)

(8) − (9) ⇒ FA cos θ = PA sin θ (11)

(7), (10), (11) ⇒ PA = −PB , FB = PB tan θ, FA = −PB tan θ (12)


 
(1), (2), (3) ⇒ M + FA (r2 + r sin θ) + rPA cos θ = − I¯A + mA r2 θ̈ (13)
 
(4), (5), (6) ⇒ FB (r2 + r sin θ) + rPB cos θ = − I¯B + mB r2 θ̈ (14)

M
(12), (13), (14) ⇒ θ̈ = − ¯ ¯ (15)
IA + IB + mA r2 + mB r2
mA = mB = 50 kg, I¯A = I¯B = 12 (50 kg)(1 m)2 , M = 60 N· m

(15) ⇒ θ̈ = −0.4 rad/s2

321
7.4 Linear/Angular Momentum of 2-D Rigid Bodies

322
7.4.1
GOAL:
Determine the minimum length (L) of the platform such that the man can reach the absolute
position x = 2 m without leaving the platform.
GIVEN:
An 80 kg man is standing centered (x = 0 m) on a 20 kg platform which rests on an frictionless
surface and at t = 0 the man begins to walk to the right.
DRAW:

SOLVE:
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Momentum is conserved for the system (all the interaction forces are internal to the system).
Therefore the system’s center of mass won’t change position.
SOLVE:
Initially the man M is located at the center of mass GP of the platform. In his final state he’s 2 m
to the right, as illustrated. We know that the mass center of the system can’t change and so have
L
 
− 2 m (20 kg) = (2 m)(80 kg)
2

L
= 10 m
2
L = 20 m

323
7.4.2
GOAL: Find (a) the velocity and (b) the position of the two mass system after relative motion as
well as (c) the internal forces between elements.
GIVEN: System configuration and initial conditions.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: By applying our linear impulse and momentum formulas we’ll
be able to determine the speeds of the two bodies. The accelerations can then be found by using
the formulas for change in speed due to a constant acceleration.
SOLVE:
(a) All forces are internal and thus the system momentum (initially zero) remains zero. m1 ac-
celerates at a constant rate rα0 in the negative *ı direction and then decelerates an equal amount
(rα0 in positive *
ı direction). Thus its velocity relative to m2 is zero when it reaches point A.
.
System Momentum= 0 = m1 (v*m + v*m1 /m2) + m2 v*m
2 2

0 = (m1 + m2 )v*m ⇒ v*m = v*B = 0


2 2

(b) Because there are no external forces, the system’s center of gravity doesn’t move. Initially the
CG is at
(3 m)m2 + (4 m)m1
(m1 + m2 )xCG = (3 m)m2 + (4 m)m1 ⇒ xCG =
m1 + m2
x is the distance of point A from 0.

(1 m)m2 + (4 m)m1 (3 m)m


xm1 + (x + 2 m)m2 = (3 m)m2 + (4 m)m1 ⇒ x = m1 + m2 = 1 m + m + m1
1 2

(3 m)m (3 m)m
(c) Initially point A is at x = 1 m and at t = 4 is at 1 m + m + m1 . Thus ∆x = m + m1 . At
1 2 1 2
1.5 mm1
t = 2 s it has traveled half the distance: m + m . Let the constant acceleration be given by a.
1 2
∆x (∆t)2 (2 s)2 (0.75 m/s2 )m1
=a =a = 2a s2 ⇒ a =
2 2 2 m1 + m2

(0.75 m/s2 )m1 m2


Thus F = m1 + m2 . F acts from 0 ≤ t ≤ 2 and −F from 2 ≤ t ≤ 4.

324
7.4.3
GOAL: Find angular velocity of disk.
GIVEN: Velocity of disk’s mass center and initial linear momentum.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
The system’s mass center is stationary and thus we have:
LI(0) = 0 (1)
Motion is constrained to the horizontal direction and because there are no external horizontal forces
we have conservation of linear momentum:
LI(t) = LI(0) (2)
Because we have roll without slip we have
ẋ = ẏ − rθ̇ (3)
SOLVE:
(1), (2) ⇒ mA ẋ + mB ẏ = 0 (4)
−(mA + mB )ẋ −(10 kg + 5 kg)(5 m/s)
(3), (4) ⇒ θ̇ = = = −75 rad/s
mB r (5 kg)(0.2 m)

325
7.4.4
GOAL: Determine rotation rate of a uniform cylinder after linear impulse applied to supporting
block.
GIVEN: masses, dimensions, applied force, final speed of block.
DRAW:

ASSUME: Roll without slip implies

ẋ = ẏ − rθ̇
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
The linear momentum of the system is increased from zero due to the applied linear impulse.
* * *
L(t2 ) = L(t1 ) + LI1−2
SOLVE:
*
LI1−2 = (10 *
ı N)(5 s) = 50 *
ı N·s (1)

*
L = mB vB *
ı + mA vA *
ı

= mB ẏ *
ı + mA (ẏ − rθ̇) *
ı (2)

(1), (2) ⇒ (8 kg)(3.75 *


ı m/s) + 16 kg(3.75 *
ı m/s − (0.5 m)θ̇ *
ı ) = 50 *
ı N·s

30 *
ı kg·m/s + 60 *
ı kg·m/s − 8θ̇ *
ı kg·m = 50 *
ı N·s

θ̇ = 5 rad/s

326
7.4.5
GOAL: Find v*A and v*B the speed of the racks after 0.5 s when a moment is applied to the center
gear which starts at rest.
GIVEN: mA = 10 kg, mB = 20 kg, mC = 6 kg, mD = 12 kg, mE = 6 kg, rC = 0.2 m, rD = 0.4 m,
rE = 0.2 m, M = 200 N m, ∆t = 0.5 s
DRAW:

ASSUME: Constant moment is applied.


FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
On a system level only a single external moment is applied. We will calculate the equivalent total
system momentum Isys and use it to determine the final speeds.
Considering the angular momentum
of the system we have
Isys θ̇D − Isys θ̇D = M ∆t ⇒ Isys θ̇D = M ∆t (1)

t t
2 1
The relative speeds of the gears can be easily found. The points of interaction between the various
pieces are labeled as 1,2,3 and 4. Assume that the left rack (and hence point 1) is moving with
velocity v1 *
 . This means that the leftmost point of Gear C moves at the same speed and the
rightmost point moves with the same magnitude but directed down, giving us v*2 = −v1 *  . The
leftmost point of Gear C moves at the same velocity and thus point 3 moves up at v1 *  . This
caused point 4 to move with velocity −v1 *  and hence Rack B moves with a velocity −v1 *  as well.
Thus we’ve seen that the racks move with the same speed but in opposite directions.
SOLVE: We could analyze the system as separate bodies but it’s more convenient to realize that
all the bodies move by a known amount (through kinematics) when Gear C rotates. Thus what
we’ll do is determine what the equivalent rotational inertia is of a gear that’s connected to the
driven gear and then generalize this to the entire system. Further simplifying the analysis is the
realization that the racks move with precisely the same velocity as the tangential velocity of the
gear with which they mesh. Thus we can view them not as separate bodies but as point masses
attached the the outer edge of the relevant gear. They will thus contribute a rotational inertia
equal to mr2 where m is the rack’s mass and r is the gear’s radius.
Carrying through with this analysis gives us
2
mC r C 2 (6 kg)(0.2 m)2
IC = + mA rC = + (10 kg)(0.2 m)2 = 0.52 kg m2
2 2
2
mD r D (12 kg)(0.4 m)2
ID = = = 0.96 kg m2
2 2
2
mE r E 2 (6 kg)(0.2 m)2
IE = + mB r E = + (20 kg)(0.2 m)2 = 0.92 kg m2
2 2
Now we need to determine how to combine these mass moments of inertias into a system-wide mass
moment of inertia. Consider a simpler system of 2 gears, where a moment is applied to Gear 1 and

327
an interaction force exists between the gears.
Sum Moments for Gear 1: M − F r1 = I1 θ̈1 (2)

Sum Moments for Gear 2: −F r2 = I2 θ̈2 (3)


From kinematics we have
−r1
θ̈2 = θ̈ (4)
r2 1

!
−r1 r1
(4) → (3) −F r2 = I2 θ̈ ⇒ F = I2 θ̈ (5)
r2 1 (r2 )2 1

!  !2 
r r1
(5) → (2) M − I2 1 2 θ̈1 r1 = I1 θ̈1 ⇒ M = I1 + I2  θ̈1
(r2 ) r2

 2
r
And thus the effective mass moment of inertia of the 2 gear system is I1 + 1 I2 . The relationship
r
2
derived here can be applied to the current problem.
!2 !2
rD rD
Isys = ID + IC + IE
rC rE
2 2
0.4 m 0.4 m
 
Isys = 0.96 kg m2 + 0.52 kg m2 + 0.92 kg m2 = 6.72 kg m2
0.2 m 0.2 m
M ∆t (200 N m)(0.5 s)
(1) ⇒ θ̇D = = = 14.88 rad/s
Isys 6.72 kg m2
!
r
vA = −rC − D θ̇D = rD θ̇D = (0.4 m)(14.88 rad/s) = 5.95 m/s
rC

vA = 5.95 *
 m/s vB = −5.95 *
 m/s

328
7.4.6
GOAL: Find the velocity of the rack at t = 0.3 s.
ı m/s, mR = 10 kg, M = 90 N·m, IM = 0.05 kg· m2 , r = 0.1 m.
GIVEN: v*R (0) = −5 *
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: The balance of angular momentum for the gear about the shaft
of the motor is
IO θ̇(t2 ) − IO θ̇(t1 ) = AI 1−2
For the rack, we can formulate a balance of linear momentum:
mR (t2 )vR (t2 ) − mR (t1 )vR (t1 ) = LI 1−2
From the free body diagrams of the gear and the rack, the angular and linear impulses are
Z t Z t
2 2
AI 1−2 = (M − rF )dt = M ∆t − r F dt
t t
1 1
Z t
2
LI 1−2 = F dt
t
1

Because the angular speed of the gear is related to the speed of the rack by vR = rθ̇, we can write
the two momentum balances as Z t
1 1 2
IO vR (t2 ) − IO vR (t1 ) = M ∆t − r F dt (1)
r r t
1
Z t
2
mR vR (t2 ) − mR vR (t1 ) = F dt (2)
t
1
SOLVE: We can eliminate the unknown force term and solve for the velocity of the rack at time
t2 :
 
1 1
r M ∆t + m+ I
r2 O
vR (t1 )
(1) → (2) ⇒ vR (t2 ) = 1
m+ I
r2 O
 
(90 N·m)(0.3 s) 0.05 kg·m2
0.1 m + 10 kg + (0.1 m)2
(−5 m/s)
vR = = 13 m/s
0.05 kg·m2
10 kg + (0.1 m)2

v*R = 13 *
ı m/s

329
7.4.7
GOAL:
Determine the absolute angular velocity of the disk at t = 3 s and the angular velocity of the disk,
relative to the bar AG, at t = 3 s.
GIVEN:
r1 = 0.1 m, L = 0.5 m, md = 1 kg, mb = 1.2 kg, M = 3 N·m
DRAW:

Since the disk doesn’t rotate, its only contribution to the overall rotational inertia is in its mass.
The system is equivalent to a bar with a tip mass:

Applying angular impulse:


* * *

H = H + AI0−3

3 0

*

I A θ˙b = 0 + M (3 s)

3
!
mb L2
md L2 + θ˙b = (3 N· m)(3 s)

3 3
!
(1.2 kg)(0.5 m)2
2
(1 kg)(0.5 m) + θ˙b = 9 kg m2 / s

3 3


θ˙b = 25.7 rad/s

3

A reference frame attached to the bar will rotate with angular velocity 25.7 rad/s and one attached
to the disk would rotate at 0 rad/s. Therefore the angular velocity of the disk with respect to the
bar is

−25.7 rad/s

330
7.4.8
GOAL: Determine how long it will take a rotating wheel to come to rest.
GIVEN: Initial angular speed is ω0 and coefficient of friction is µ.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Force balance: (N1 − µN2 ) *
ı + (N2 + µN1 − mg) *
 =0

*
ı : N1 − µN2 = 0 (1)

*
 : N2 + µN1 = 0 (2)
X
Moment sum about G MG = −µN2 r − µN1 r (3)
SOLVE:
X µmgr(1 + µ)
(1), (2), (3) ⇒ MG = −
1 + µ2
Our initial angular momentum is
mr2 ω0
IG ω0 =
2
and we want to apply enough angular impulse to bring the angular momentum to zero:
mr2 ω0 µmgr(1 + µ) ∗ ∗ rω0 (1 + µ2 )
− t = 0 ⇒ t =
2 1 + µ2 2µg(1 + µ)

rω0 (1 + µ2 )
t∗ =
2µg(1 + µ)

331
7.4.9
GOAL: Find the time need for a rotating disk to come to rest.
GIVEN: The coefficient of friction between the disk and the ground is µ and the disk’s initial
angular speed is ω0 .
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Consider an differential ring with thickness dr and at radius r from the center of the disk. Let the
mass density/unit area of the disk be ρ.
Friction force acting on the element: dF = µ(ρ2πrdr)g

Moment about center due to dF : dT = µ(ρ2πrdr)gr (1)


SOLVE:
The total moment acting over the entire disk is given by
ZR
2µρπgR3
(1)⇒ T = 2µρπg r2 dr = (2)
3
0

mR2 ω0
The disk has an initial angular momentum of Iω0 = 2
The moment acting to slow the disk is constant in magnitude and thus we have
mr2 ω0 2µρπgR3 ∗
− t =0
2 3
3mω0 3Rω0
t∗ = =
4µρπgR 4µg
3Rω
t∗ = 4µg0

332
7.4.10
GOAL:
Determine the absolute rotational velocity of the disk at the instant the moment goes to zero.
Determine the behaviour of the system after t2 .
GIVEN:
At θ = 0, θ̇ = 5 rad/s and t = 0. When θ = 90 degrees (t = t1 ) the clamp unlatches and a negative
moment is applied to AG at A to slow the rotation to zero. Once the bar becomes stationary the
*
moment goes to zero (t = t2 ) and r = 0.3 m, L = 1.5 m, md = 10 kg, mb = 20 kg and M = −100 k
N·m.
DRAW:

SOLVE:
At t = 0 the two bodies are joined together and thus constitute a single rigid body. Thus

θ˙d = θ˙b = 5 rad/s

t=0 t=0

At t = t1 the rotational velocity of AG will alter, but since there’s no way to apply a moment to
the disc, its angular velocity remains at 5 rad/s.
(a):
When the bar stops rotating the disk is rotating at

5 rad/s
(b):
After t2 the disk is still rotating at 5 rad/s since there’s still no applied moment to alter it.

333
7.4.11
GOAL: Determine his rotation rate if he starts at 5 rad/s (arms and legs extended) and ends with
his arms and legs brought in?
GIVEN: The chair plus his thighs and torso have a rotational inertia of IC/T /LL = 4 slug·ft2 , B is
16 in from the chair’s center of rotation, AB = 26 in, D is 9 in from the chair’s center of rotation,
CD = 26 in. Each of his arms (CD) weighs 11 pounds, each lower leg (AB) weighs 15 pounds, and
each Starfleet manual weighs 5 pounds.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: There are no external torques acting and so we can apply the
conservation of angular momentum. We’ll need the mass moment of inertia of a rod about its
center, mL2 /12 and the parallel axis theorem

IO = I¯ + md2

where d is the distance from the center of mass to O.


SOLVE:

IC/T /LL = 4 slug · ft2


Out:
Lower Legs (LL) about their mass center:
  2
30 26
mL2 32.2 slg 12 ft
I¯LL = = = 0.364 slg· ft2
12 12
2
30 29
 
2 2 2
IO = 0.364 slg· ft + md = 0.364 slg· ft + slg ft = 5.81 slg· ft2
LL 32.2 12
Arms about their mass center:
  2
22 26
mL2 32.2 slg 12 ft
I¯Arms = = = 0.267 slg· ft2
12 12
2
22 22
 
2 2 2
IO = 0.267 slg· ft + md = 0.267 slg· ft + ft = 2.56 slg· ft2
Arms 32.2 slg 12
Manuals about O:
2
5 35
 
IO = 2md2 = 2 slg = 2.64 slg· ft2
manuals 32.2 12
In:

334
Lower Legs about O:
2
30 16
 
IO = slg ft = 1.66 slg· ft2
LL 32.2 12
Arms about O:
2
22 9
 
IO = slg ft = 0.384 slg· ft2
Arms 32.2 12
Manuals about O:
2
5 9
 
2
IO = 2md = 2 slg = 0.175 slg· ft2
manuals 32.2 12
The total angular momentum is conserved and thus

(4.0 + 5.81 + 2.56 + 2.64)ω1 = (4.0 + 1.66 + 0.384 + 0.175)ω2

(15.0)(5 rad/s) = (6.22)ω2

ω2 = 12.1 rad/s
The rotation rate has more than doubled as a result of the mass rearrangement.

335
7.4.12
GOAL: Determine the rotational velocity of two discs after they’ve been joined.
GIVEN: Prior to joining ω1 = −50 rad/s and ω2 = 100 rad/s. Their physical parameters are
r1 = 5 cm, r2 = 8 cm, m1 = 1.1 kg and m2 = 3 kg.
DRAW:

SOLVE:
Moments of inertia:
1 1
I¯G1 = m1 r12 = (1.1 kg)(0.05 cm)2 = 1.375 × 10−3 kg· cm2
2 2
1 1
I¯G2 = m2 r22 = (3 kg)(0.08 cm)2 = 9.6 × 10−3 kg· cm2
2 2
Before Join:

Hsystem = I¯G1 ω1 + I¯G1 2 ω2

Hsystem = (1.375 × 10−3 kg· cm2 )(−50 rad/s) + (9.6 × 10−3 kg· cm2 )(100 rad/s) = 0.891 kg· cm2 / s

After Join:
 
Hsystem = 1.375 × 10−3 kg· cm2 + 9.6 × 10−3 kg· cm2 ω
 
Hsystem = 1.10 × 10−2 kg· cm2 ω
Equating the two angular momenta yields
 
0.891 kg· cm2 / s = 1.10 × 10−2 kg· cm2 ω

ω = 81.2 rad/s

336
7.4.13
GOAL: Calculate how far a ball travels before it transitions to pure rolling.
*
GIVEN: µ = 0.65, d = 7 cm, m = 0.11 kg. Initially we have v*G = 5 * *
ı m/s and ω = 20k rad/s.
DRAW:

ASSUME: *
The ball is initially moving to the right at a velocity v1 *
ı and with an angular velocity ω1 k . Pure
rolling implies v*G = −θ̇r *
ı
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Currently v*G = 5 m/s and θ̇ = −20 rad/s.
We’ll use momentum to first find the impulse needed, use this to find the time required and from
the time deduce the displacement. v1 , ω1 and v2 , ω2 refer to the speed of the sphere’s mass center
and it’s angular speed, respectively, 1 indicating the initial state and 2 the final state at which pure
rolling initiates.
Linear momentum:
* * *
L2 = L1 + LI1−2
Z ∆t
mv2 = mv1 + −F1 dt = mv1 − F1 ∆t (1)
0
Angular momentum:
* * *
H2 = H1 + AI1−2
Z ∆t  
IG ω2 = IG ω1 + −F1 r dt = IG ω1 − F1 r∆t (2)
0
2mr2
Using IG = 5 gives us

2mr2 2mr2
ω2 = ω1 − F1 r∆t (3)
5 5
SOLVE: For the ball to undergo roll without slip at State 2 we’ll need
v2 = −rω2 (4)

Because the sphere is initially slipping we have |F1 | = µmg which, when used with (3), gives us
5
rω2 = rω1 − µg∆t (5)
2
The slip assumption used with (1) gives us
v2 = v1 − µg∆t (6)

337
5
(4), (5), (6) ⇒ v1 − µg∆t = −rω1 + µg∆t
2
7
 
µg∆t = v1 + rω1
2
2(v1 + rω1 )
∆t =
7µg
2[5 m/s + (3.5×10−2 m)(20 rad/s)]
∆t = = 0.255 s
7(0.65)(9.81 m/s2 )
 
*
Force balance: N1 − mg  − F1 *
ı = ma*G = mẍ *
ı

*
ı : −F1 = mẍ ⇒ ẍ = −µg = −0.65(9.81 m/s2 ) = −6.38 m/s2

6.38 m/s2 (∆t)2


∆x = (5 m/s)(∆t) − = 1.07 m
2
∆x = 1.07 m

338
7.4.14
GOAL: Find the post collision velocity of mass particle.
GIVEN: System configuration and impact position.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: We need to apply an impact equation and conservation of an-


gular momentum about O:
vB − v 0
e= =1 (1)
v
0.2mLv = 0.2mLv 0 + IO ω (2)
ASSUME: Because the bar is a rigid body, v 0 isn’t independent of ω:
vB = 0.2ωL (3)
SOLVE: Parallel axis theorem:
IO = I + m(0.3L)2 = 0.173mL2 (4)

(3) → (1) ⇒ v 0 = 0.2ωL − v (5)

(4), (5) → (2) ⇒ 0.2mLv = 0.2mL(0.2ωL − v) + 0.173mL2 ω (6)


1.875v
(6) ⇒ ω= rad/s (7)
L
*
(7) → (5) ⇒ v*0 = −0.625v b 1

339
7.4.15
GOAL: Find the forces acting during the particle/bar collision.
GIVEN: System configuration and impact position.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
vB − v 0
e= = 1 ⇒ v = vB − v 0 (1)
v
Call the total linear impulse between the mass and bar LI F and the linear impulse at the hinge
LI R .
linear momentum, mass: mv − LI F = mv 0 (2)

angular momentum, bar: 0 + (0.2L)(LI F ) = IO ω (3)

system angular momentum: 0.2mLv = 0.2mLv 0 + IO ω (4)

Rigid body constraint: vB = 0.2ωL (5)

Parallel axis theorem: IO = I + m(0.3L)2 = 0.173mL2 (6)

(5) → (1) ⇒ v 0 = 0.2ωL − v (7)


1.875v
(6), (7) → (4) ⇒ ω= (8)
L

(8) → (3) ⇒ LI F = 1.625mv (9)


1.625mv
F = ∆

To find R we can examine the angular momentum of the bar about its mass center, equating the
applied angular impulse with the final angular momentum.
0 + (0.5L)LI F − (0.3L)LI R = IG ω

mL2 1.875v
(0.5L)(1.625mv) − (0.3L)LI R = ( )( ) = 0.156mvL
12 L
LI R = 2.19mv

R = 2.19mv

340
7.4.16
GOAL: Find the velocity of a mass particle immediately after impacting a hinged bar.
GIVEN: System configuration and impact position.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
vB − v 0 ωL v
e= = 0.5 ⇒ v 0 = − (1)
v 4 2
Angular momentum balance, 7
0.25mLv = 0.25mLv 0 + IO ω = 0.25mlv 0 + mL2 ω (2)
system: 48
ωL v 7
 
(1) → (2) ⇒ 0.25mLv = 0.25mL − + mL2 ω
4 2 48
18v
simplfying: ω= (3)
17L
(3) → (1) ⇒ v 0 = ( 17L
18v L
)( 4 ) − v
2 = −0.235v

341
7.4.17
GOAL: Find v*m after collision with bar.
2
GIVEN: System configuration and impact position. L = 1 m, m1 = 3.5 kg, m2 = 0.1 kg, e = 0.75,
v = 40 m/s, ω1 = 25 rad/s.
DRAW:

ω1 is the rotational speed of bar before collision, ω2 is the rotational speed of bar after collision, v
is the velocity of ball before collision, and v 0 is the velocity of ball after collision.
Before: HO = IO ω1 − m2 v(0.75L) (1)

After: HO = IO ω2 − m2 v 0 (0.75L) (2)

(1),(2)⇒ IO ω1 − m2 v(0.75L) = IO ω2 − m2 v 0 (0.75L) (3)


−0.75Lω2 − v 0
Impact: e= (4)
v + 0.75ω1 L

(4)⇒ v 0 = −0.75Lω2 − e(0.75Lω1 + v) (5)


 
(5)→(3)⇒ IO ω1 − 0.75Lm2 v = IO ω2 − 0.75m2 L −0.75Lω2 − e(v + 0.75Lω1 )
 
ω1 IO − (0.75L)2 em2 − v(1 + e)(0.75Lm2 )
ω2 = (6)
IO + (0.75L)2 m2
SOLVE:
(6)→(5)⇒ v 0 = −e(v + 0.75Lω1 ) − 0.75Lω2

 
ω1 IO − (0.75L)2 em2 − v(1 + e)(0.75Lm2 )
v 0 = −e(v + 0.75Lω1 ) − 0.75L
IO + (0.75L)2 m2
 
m2 (0.75L)2 v − IO ev + 0.75Lω1 (1 + e)
v0 = (7)
IO + (0.75L)2 m2

m1 L2
IO = + m1 (0.35L)2 = 0.7204 kg· m2 (8)
12
*
(7)→(8)⇒ v*0 = −55.4 b 1 m/s

342
7.4.18
GOAL: Find a general expression for the rotational speed of a hinged bar after being impacted by
a mass particle as a function of e.
GIVEN: System configuration and impact position.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
vB − v 0 ωL
e= ⇒ v0 = − ev (1)
v 4
ωL
using vB = 4 .
m2 Lv m Lv 0 m Lv 0 7
Angular momentum balance, system: = 2 + IO ω = 2 + m1 L2 ω (2)
4 4 4 48
SOLVE:
m2 Lv m L ωL 7
 
(1) → (2) ⇒ = 2 − ev + m1 L2 ω
4 4 4 48

ω= m2 v(1 + e) 
Simplifying: m2 7m1
L +
4 12

343
7.4.19
GOAL: Find how large a circle, centered at the origin must be drawn such that the entire mech-
anism stays within the circle for all time.
GIVEN: L = 0.3 m, mA = 20 kg, mB = 60 kg, M = 10 N m
DRAW:

ASSUME: The supporting surface is frictionless.


FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Because only an internal moment is applied to the 2-link system, the system’s mass center will
remain fixed in space and the links will move about that point. The largest these links can span
is when they are 180◦ apart from each other. This configuration is what defines the largest circle
that needs to be drawn so the mechanism stays inside for all time. Find the center of mass of
the system, treating the 2 links as mass particles at their respective center of masses, and consider
using x0 and y 0 axes which are centered at the hinge.
center of mass mr̄ = Σmi ri
SOLVE:

L* L L(mB − mA ) (0.3 m)(60 kg − 20 kg)


mr̄ *
 = mB  −mA * ⇒ r̄ = = = 0.075 m
2 2 2(mA + mB ) 2(20 kg + 60 kg)

Thus the distance from the center of mass of the system to the hinge is 0.075 m in this configuration.
The center of mass of the system always stays at the origin, therefore it is the hinge that has altered
its position. Here, the hinge would be located at y = −0.075 m. The distance from the center of
mass of the system to the end of link A would be L + r̄ = 0.375 m . The distance from the center
of mass of the system to the end of link B would be L − r̄ = 0.225 m. To enclose this configuration
in a circle centered at the origin, you would need a circle of radius 0.375 m
5L
circle of radius 0.375 m = 4

344
7.4.20
GOAL: Find the angular velocity of the body.
*
GIVEN: LI = 100 *
ı N· s, m = 50kg, a = 1 m, b = 0.5 m, c = 2 m
DRAW:

ASSUME: Let us assume that the body is initially at rest, and that it has a uniform linear density
ρ.
FORMULATE EQUATIONS: The balance of angular momentum is
*
*
*
1 *
IG ω = AIG ⇒ ω = AIG (1)
IG
The angular impulse is related to the linear impulse by
* *
AIG = r*O/ × LI (2)
G

SOLVE: The position of point O relative


 to the center of mass  is
1 1 ρc 1 *
 
r*O/ = ρc2 *
 + 2ρac *
 + 4ρbc *
 = c  + 2a *
 + 4b *

G m 2 m 2
The mass of the body expressed in terms of its density is m = ρ(c + 2a + 4b). Thus,
50 kg = ρ[2 + 2(1) + 4(0.5)] m ⇒ ρ = 8.3 kg/m
(8.3 kg/m)(2 m) 1
 
*
Therefore, rO/ = (2 m) + 2(1 m) + 4(0.5 m) = 1.6 *
 m
G 50 kg 2
1 2
The moment of inertia of a bar about point O is IO = 12 mL + mrG2 . The distances from the
/O
individual mass centers of each bar to the mass center of the entire body are
k r*A/ k = c − rO/ = (2 − 1.6) m = 0.3 m
G G
q
2
q
k r*B/ k = a2 + k r*A/ k2 = 1 + 0.3 m = 1.054 m
G G

1 1
 
*
krC/ k = rO/ − c = 1.6 − (2) m = 0.6 m
G G 2 2
Thus, the moments of inertia of each individual bar about point the center of mass of the body are

1 1 2 1
   
Ia = (2ρa)(2a)2 +2ρarA2 = 2ρa a + rA2 = 2(8.3 kg/m)(1 m) (1 m)2 + (0.3 m)2 = 7.7407 kg· m2
12 /G 3 /G 3

345
1 1 2 1
   
Ib = (2ρb)(2b)2 +2ρbrB2 = 2ρb b + rB2 = 2(8.3 kg/m)(0.5 m) (0.5 m)2 + (1.054 m)2 = 9.9521 kg· m2
12 /G 3 /G 3

1 1 2 1
   
Ic = (ρc)(c)2 +ρcrC2 = ρc c + rC2 = (8.3 kg/m)(2 m) (2 m)2 + (0.6 m)2 = 12.9628 kg· m2
12 /G 12 /G 12
Thus, the total moment of inertia about the center of mass is

IG = Ia +2Ib +Ic = (7.7404 + 2(9.9521) + 12.9628) kg· m2 = 30.6556 kg· m2

*
1  *
(2) → (1) ⇒ ω = 2
1.6 *
 m × 100 *
ı N · s = −5.44k rad/s
30.6556 kg · m
* *
ω = −5.44k rad/s

346
7.4.21 *
GOAL: Find time required for wheel to have angular velocity of -10 k rad/s.
GIVEN: Geometry, coefficient of friction, and initial conditions.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
1
Moment of inertia of uniform disk: Idisk = mdisk r2 (1)
2 disk

1  
Moment of inertia of right triangle: Irgt∆ = mrgt∆ a2 + b2 (2)
18

Parallel Axis Theorem: IA = I¯ + mr2 (3)


* *
Z t *
Linear momentum: L(t) − L(0) = F ext dt (4)
0
Z t
* * *

Angular momentum: H(t) − H(0) = r*×F ext dt (5)
0
SOLVE: √
Find outer ra- 2 3L
rinner = = 0.5774 ft ⇒ router = rinner + 0.4L = 0.9774 ft (6)
dius: 3 2
We can solve for the object’s areal density:
30 lb
2
mtotal 32.2 ft/s
ρ= = √
Areatotal 2 1 1 ft 3(1 ft + π ((0.9774 ft)2 − (0.5774 ft)2 )
2 2 2

ρ = 0.3904 slug/ft2 (7)


and then find I for an the annular disk using (1): 
I¯disk = ρπ 4 4
2 router − rinner

(0.3904 slug/ft2 )π
(0.9774 ft)4 − (0.5774 ft)4

= 2

I¯disk = 0.4914 slug · ft2 (8)


We can most easily determine the rotational inertia of the inner equilateral triangle by breaking it
into two right-triangles. We’ll first find the mass moment of inertia of a single right-triangle using
(2) and (3).

347
 
2 √ !2  
1 1 3 1 L
  
I¯∆ = 2 I¯rgt∆ + mrgt∆ d2 = 2mrgt∆   L + L +  (9)
18 2 2 32

√ ! !
1 1 3 1 (1 ft)
(9) ⇒ I¯∆ = 2mrgt∆ 2
( (1 ft)) + ( 2
(1 ft)) + = 0.0141 slug · ft2 (10)
18 2 2 3 2

(8), (10) ⇒ I¯total = I¯∆ + I¯disk = 0.5055 slug · ft2 (11)

Assume wheel is slid- −I¯total θ̇


ing, (5): H(t) = I¯total θ̇ = −router µmtotal gt ⇒ t = (12)
router µmtotal g

(0.5055 slug · ft2 )(−10 rad/s)


(12) ⇒ t= = 0.287 s
(0.6)(30 lb)(0.9774 ft)
We can verify the sliding assumption using (4):
Z t
L(t) = L(0) + −µmtotal g ⇒ v(t) = 30 ft/s − (0.6)(32.232.2 ft/s2 )(0.287 s) = 24.5 ft/s (13)
0

Speed of contact point,


v(t) + router θ̇ = 24.4552 ft/s − (0.9774 ft)(10 rad/s) 6= 0
(13):
Thus the slipping assumption was valid.

348
7.4.22
GOAL: Find body’s rotational velocity after application of a linear impulse.
GIVEN: Size, mass of body and orientation, magnitude of linear impulse
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
* * *
I ω(t 2
) = I ω(t 1
) + r*A/ × L I
G

SOLVE: From Appendix B we have


m 2
(a + b2 )
I=
18
where a, b correspond to the base, height of a right triangle. Break up our equilateral triangle into
two right triangles. For our left triangle we have
 √ 
2
3L  mL2
 2
m L
I= + =
18 2 2 18

G (triangle’s mass center) is L


6 from A :

mL2 3mL2
 2
L
IG = +m =

18 6 36
Left
√ √
3L2 ρ and thus I 3ρL4

m= 8 G
= 96
Le √ 4
We have two pieces (Left and Right) and thus 3ρL 48
The areal density for our system is found from
  √ ! !
L 3L 20 lb 1.43 (slug·ft2 )
ρ = ⇒ ρ =
2 2 32 ft/s2 L2
√ √ !
3(1.43 slug·ft2 )L2 * 3L *
ω(t2 ) = 0 + (40 lb·s)k
48 6

) = 223
* *
ω(t 2 L k rad/s

349
7.4.23
GOAL: Find ω2 , The angular velocity of the wheel after striking a 45◦ slope.
GIVEN: v = v *
ı , m = 10 kg, r = 0.25 m
DRAW:

ASSUME: Assume zero rebound and the wheel rolls without slip.
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
When the wheel hits the incline, a normal force will exist which is directed through both G and C.
This normal force doesn’t create a moment therefore we have conservation of angular momentum
about C. Letting t1 , t2 denote the time just before and just after impact we have
* *
HC t = HC t
2 1
where each momentum term includes both angular momentum due to rigid body translation and
angular momentum due to rigid body rotation.
* * *
H = I ω k, H = Iω¯ k* + r* ×mv*
C t C C C t 1 G/ 1
2 1 C

From our roll without slip constraint we have


v2 = v1 = −rω1
SOLVE:
The final angular momentum is given by !
* * 3mr2 *
HC t = IC ω2 k = ω2 k (1)
2 2
The angular momentum just before impact is given

by √
* *

¯
HC t = Iω1 k + − 2 r ı + 2 * 2 *
×mv1 *
2 r ı

1 h  √ i*
2
= mr
2 ω 1
− rmv1 22 k
h  −v  √ i* (2)
mr2 1 − rmv 2
= 2 k
 r√  * 1 2
1+ 2
= −mrv1 2 k
! √ ! √
3mr2 1+ 2 v(1 + 2)
(1) = (2) ⇒ ω2 = −mrv1 ⇒ ω2 = −
2 2 3r

ω2 = − v(1+
3r
2)

350
7.5 Work/Energy of Two-Dimensional Rigid Bodies

351
7.5.1
GOAL: Determine the angle at which a slowly rolling cylinder begins to slip.
GIVEN: Coefficient of friction.
DRAW:

* *
ı 
e*r sin θ cos θ
e*θ cos θ − sin θ

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Force balance:  + T e*r − S e*θ = m(rθ̈ e*θ − rθ̇2 e*r )
−mg *

e*r : −mrθ̇2 = T − mg cos θ (1)

e*θ : mrθ̈ = −S + mg sin θ (2)

Moment balance: mr2 θ̈ = Sr (3)


SOLVE:
(2), (3) ⇒ mr2 θ̈ = r(mg sin θ − mrθ̈)
g sin θ
θ̈ = (4)
2r
g sin θ
Use θ̈dθ = 2r dθ = θ̇dθ̇ and integrate:
g
θ̇2 = (1 − cos θ) (5)
r
(5) → (1) ⇒ T = mg(2 cos θ − 1) (6)
g mg sin θ
(4) → (2) ⇒ S = mg sin θ − mr sin θ = (7)
2r 2
Smax = µT and, using (6) and (7) we have
mg sin θ
= µmg(2 cos θ − 1)
2

352
sin θ = 2µ(2 cos θ − 1)
Solving this gives us an answer of
θ = 0.522 rad

353
7.5.2
GOAL: Determine θ when the cylinder loses contact with the path.
GIVEN:
The slope is constant at -8◦ . The distance from A to B is 0.8 m r1 = 0.15 m, r2 = 1.5 m, m = 4kg
The cylinder rolls without slip.
DRAW:

We’ll break the problem into 2 phases: “A to B” and “after B”. We’ll use energy to find the
angular rotation of the cylinder at B.
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Going from A to B we have energy conservation. Denote the rotation rate of the cylinder at B as
β̇B .

KE + PE = KE + PE

A A B B
2
!
1 3mr1 2
0 + mgh = β̇B
2 2
SOLVE: !
◦ 2 1 (3)(4 kg)(0.15 m)2 2
sin 8 (4 kg)(9.81 m/s )(0.8 m) = β̇B
2 2
2
β̇B = 64.7 s−2

β̇B = −8.05 rad/s


Note that we know it’s negative (clock-wise rotation) because the cylinder is rolling downhill to the
right.
Now consider the case after the cylinder passes the point B. We need to determine when the normal
force goes to zero. The fact that the cylinder is rolling on a circular path will induce centrifugal
forces that will affect the normal force. When the cylinder rolls with angular velocity β̇ the velocity
of its center of mass is equal to r1 β̇. The center of mass follows a circular path with radius r2 + r1 .
This implies an acceleration component in the e*n direction.
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:

   
" 2
vG
! #
* * * *
Force balance: − N1 − mg sin θ e n + −S1 + mg cos θ e t = m e n − r1 β̈ e t
r 1 + r2

Equating coefficients:

354
2
vG mr12 β̇ 2
*
en : mg sin θ − N1 = m = (1)
r 1 + r2 r 1 + r2

e*t : mg cos θ − S1 = −mr1 β̈ (2)


mr12
Moment balance: −S1 r1 = β̈ (3)
2
mr12 β̇ 2
(1) ⇒ N1 = mg sin θ − (4)
r1 + r2
Now we’ll use conservation of energy to find β̇. We know that θ = 82◦ at the point at which the
cylinder leaves the flat surface (from geometry). Hence we have:

KE + PE = KE + PE

B B N =0 N =0

3mr12 3mr12
! !
1 2
 
◦ 1 2
 
β̇B + mg r1 + r2 sin(82 ) = β̇N =0
+ mg r1 + r2 sin θ (5)
2 2 2 2

SOLVE:
Evaluating (5) with our known parameter!
values yields
1 (3)(4 kg)(0.15 m)2
(64.7 s−2 ) + (4)(9.81 m/s2 )(1.65 m) (0.990) =
2 2
!
1 (3)(4 kg)(0.15 m)2 2
β̇N =0
+ (4 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )(1.65 m) sin θ
2 2

68.5 s−2 = 0.0675β̇N


2
=0
+ 64.7 sin θ s−2

2
β̇N =0
= (1015 − 959 sin θ) s−2 (6)

(4) ⇒ N1 = 39.24 sin θ N − (0.54 N· s2 )β̇ 2 (7)

(6), (7) ⇒ N1 = [39.2 sin θ − 0.54(1015 − 959 sin θ)] N

N1 = [91.6 sin θ − 55.3] N


Lift off occurs when N1 = 0 and so we have
91.6 sin θ = 55.3
sin θ = 0.604
θ = 37.2◦

355
7.5.3
GOAL: Find the maximum v0 to let the cylinder roll without a jump.
GIVEN: Cylinder has a radius R and the slope is inclined at an angle α. The cylinder rolls without
slip.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
We need to consider the cylinder when it has reached the position indicated by State 2 - it’s at the
end of its rotation about A and is just about to roll down the slope.
At State 1 the cylinder has a kinetic energy equal to 21 mv02 + 21 IG θ̇2 . The relationship between
the angular speed and the cylinder’s translational speed is v0 = −Rθ̇. Hence the kinetic energy at
State 1 is given by !
1 1 mR2 −v0 2 3

2
KE = mv0 + = mv02

1 2 2 2 R 4
At State 2 the center of mass of the cylinder is moving at v and has moved vertically down by a
distance d = R(1 − cos α). Thus an energy balance between States 1 and 2 gives us
3 3
mv 2 = −mgR(1 − cos α) + mv 2 (1)
4 0 4
Now, looking at our FBD=IRD we see that a force balance in the e*n direction gives us
mv 2
= mg cos α − N
R
We’re interested in the case N = 0 (which is associated with the highest speed for which contact is
maintained between the cylinder and the surface). Setting N = 0 gives us
mv 2
= mg cos α (2)
R
3 7
(1), (2) ⇒ mv02 = mgR cos α − mgR
4 4
r
gR(7 cos α − 4)
v0 = 3

356
7.5.4
GOAL: Find angular velocity and reaction at O when rod is vertical.
GIVEN: k = 2×105 N/m and is initially compressed by 0.1 m. m1 = 10 kg, m2 = 5 kg, L = 2.8 m
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Apply conservation of energy from State 1 to State 2 followed by a force and moment balance at
the vertical position:

1
KE = 0, PE = (2 × 105 N/m)(0.1 m)2 = 1000 N· m (1)

1 1 2
1 L
KE = I 0 θ̇2 , PE = m2 gL + m1 g = (9.81 m/s2 )(10 kg)(2.8 m) = 275 N· m (2)

2 2 2 2
 
Force Balance: R2 *
ı − (mg + R1 ) * ı − θ̇2 rG *
 = θ̈rG *  m
*
ı:
R2 = mrG θ̈ (3)
*
:
mg + R1 = mrG θ̇2 (4)
Balance of Angular Momentum about O:

I 0 θ̈ = 0 (5)

Find the center of mass:


L 2.8 m
(15 kg)rG = m1 + m2 L = (10 kg) + (5 kg)(2.8 m) = 28 kg· m
2 2

rG = 1.86 m (6)
SOLVE:
1
(1), (2) ⇒ 1000 N· m = I 0 θ̇2 + 275 N· m
2
!
1 m1 L2
1000 N· m = + m2 L2 θ̇2 + 275 N· m
2 3

(1000 − 275) s−2 = 32.6θ̇2

357
θ̇ = 4.71 rad/s (clockwise)
(7)
(3), (5) ⇒ R2 = 0

(4), (7) ⇒ (15 kg)(9.81 m/s2 ) + R1 = (15 kg)(1.86 m)(4.71 rad/s)2

R1 = 474 N

358
7.5.5
GOAL: Find ω of a constrained rod at the bottom of a circular guide.
GIVEN: Initial position and orientation of rod within guide.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Apply conservation of energy :

KE + PE = KE + PE

1 1 2 2
SOLVE:
State 1: Center of AB defined as zero elevation

PE = 0 KE = 0

1 1

State 2: Center of AB at −h = − 0.45 m◦ = −0.6194 m


tan(36 )

PE = −mgh

2
!
2mL2 (0.9 m)2
IG = I + mh = + mh2 = m + (0.6194 m)2 = (0.4511 m2 )m
12 12
1
KE = IG θ̇2

2 2
Apply conservation of energy:
KE + PE = KE + PE

1 1 2 2

1
0 = [(0.4511 m2 )m]θ̇2 − m(9.81 m/s2 )(0.6194 m)
2

θ̇ = 5.19 rad/s

359
7.5.6
GOAL: Calculate the speed at which the end of a rod strikes the ground and the terminal rotation
rate for two different cases.
GIVEN: System dimensions and mass.
DRAW:

CASE (a):
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
State 0 corresponds to the upright rod and State 1 to the rod in a horizontal
position.
KE + PE = KE + PE

0 0 1 1
!
1 mL2
KE = θ̇2 , PE = 0

1 2 3 2

KE + PE = KE + PE

0 0 1 1
SOLVE:

mgL mL2 2 q
= θ̇ ⇒ θ̇ = 3g
L
2 6
q
3g
θ̇ = L


vA = θ̇L = 3gL

CASE (b):

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
mgL
KE = 0 PE =

0 0 2
* * *
v*A = ẋ *
ı + θ̇ k ×L b 2 = ẋ *
ı − θ̇L b 1

360
* L* θ̇L *
v*G = ẋ *
ı + θ̇ k × b 2 = ẋ *
ı − b
2 2 1
π
When θ = 2 rad we have
θ̇L *
v*G = ẋ *
ı − 
2
Because there are no horizontal forces, there can be no horizontal velocity of the mass center. Thus
ẋ = 0.
SOLVE:
KE + PE = KE + PE

0 0 1 1
!
mgL 1 mL2 q
3g
= θ̇2 ⇒ θ̇ = L
2 2 3

vA = θ̇L = 3gL

We have the same final result for both cases.

361
7.5.7
GOAL: Determine the velocity with which corner A of a square body strikes the ground and the
body’s angular velocity just before the strike.
GIVEN: System orientation at release and strike. For case (a) the body is hinged whereas in (b)
it slides on a friction-free surface.
DRAW:

CASE (a):
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
State 1 corresponds to the square body balanced on a corner and State 2 corresponds to having
rotated to the right by 45◦ .
For a uniform square body we have
mL2
IG =
6
and thus the mass moment of inertia about the corner O is given by
L 2 2
 
IO = IG + m √ = mL2
2 3
L
PE = mg √ , KE = 0

1 2 1
L 1
PE = mg , KE = IO ω 2

2 2 2 2
SOLVE:
Applying
KE + PE = KE + PE

1 1 2 2
gives us
L L 1
mg √ = mg + mL2 ω 2
2 2 3

g 1 1 3g( 2 − 1)
 
2
ω =3 √ − =
L 2 2 2L
* *
ω = ω k where
r √
3g( 2 − 1)
ω=− 2L
*
v*A = ω k ×L *
ı

362
r √
* 3gL( 2 − 1) *
vA = − 2 

CASE (b):
FORMULATE EQUATIONS: In this case we know from conservation of linear momentum in
the *
ı direction that the center of mass has to drop vertically down. At impact we have
v*G = −vG *

We’ll use this relationship and conservation of energy to solve the problem.
SOLVE:
L * * ωL * ωL *
   
* * * * *
v O = v G + v O/ = −vG  + ω k × (− ı −  ) = ı + −vG − 
G 2 2 2
v*O has no component in the * direction if contact isn’t lost between the block and the ground.
Thus we have
ωL * ωL *
   
* *
v O = vO ı = ı + −vG − 
2 2
ωL 2v
vG + =0 ⇒ ω=− G
2 L
Applying conservation of energy we have

PE + KE = PE + KE

1 1 2 2
L L 1 2 1
mg √ = mg + mvG + IG ω 2
2 2 2 2
! 2
1 1 1 1 mL2 4vG
 
2
mgL √ − = mvG +
2 2 2 2 6 L2

2 3( 2 − 1)gL
vG =
5
s √
3( 2 − 1)gL
vG =
5
r √
2v 3( 2 − 1)g
ω = − LG = −2 5L
Now we can find v*A .
 + ωk × L
*
v*A = v*G + ω×
*
r*A/ = vG * * *
2 (ı −  )
G
= −vG * + ωL ( *ı +*)
r √ 2 r √
3( 2 − 1)gL * 3( 2 − 1)gL * *
=− 5  − 5 (ı +  )
r √
* 3( 2 − 1)gL *
vA = 5 (− ı − 2 *
)

363
7.5.8
GOAL: Find Sam’s speed after falling 5 m while holding onto an unwinding chain.
GIVEN: Unwinding resisted by a force of 500 N. Mass moment of inertia of the gear/cylinder is
240 kg· m2 , r = 1.1 m, m = 72 kg.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Initial state: KE = 0, PE = mgh.

1 1
Work done: −(500 N)h.
 2
Final state: KE = 12 I θ̇2 + 12 m rθ̇ , PE = 0.

2 2
SOLVE: Letting the final energy equal the initial plus the work done yields:

1 1
 
(72 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )(5 m) − (500 N)(5 m) = (240 kg· m2 ) + (72 kg)(1.1 m)2 θ̇2
2 2
θ̇ = 2.51 rad/s

v = (2.51 rad/s)(1.1 m) = 2.76 m/s oriented down

364
7.5.9
GOAL: Determine response of a board as it slides down a wall.
GIVEN: System configuration and parameter values. L = 2 m, m = 10 kg.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: If we define the zero potential energy level as corresponding to


the θ = 45◦ position then initially we have
L
KE = 0, PE = mg (cos 15◦ − cos 45◦ )

1 1 2

At State 2 (θ = 45 ) we have
1 1
KE = I θ̇2 + mvG2
, PE = 0

2 2 2 2

θ̇ and vG are related through the system constraints. Because of the constraining wall and floor we
have v*A = vA * and v*B = vB *
ı . Using

v*A = v*B + ω
*
× r*A/
B

gives us
*
v*A = vB *
ı − θ̇L b 1 = (vB − Lθ̇ cos θ) *
ı − Lθ̇ sin θ *

In the *
ı direction,
vB = Lθ̇ cos θ
*
In the  direction,
vA = −Lθ̇ sin θ
The velocity of the center of mass is
L L
v*G = v*B + v*G/ = θ̇ cos θ *
ı − θ̇ sin θ *

B 2 2
Thus we have
mL2 2
 2
1 2 1 L
mvG = m θ̇2 = θ̇
2 2 2 8
2
I for a uniform bar is mL
12 .
(a) Equating the energies at State 1 and 2 gives us
mgL 1 1
(cos 15◦ − cos 45◦ ) = mvG
2
+ I θ̇2
2 2 2
!
mgL mL2 mL2
(cos 15◦ − cos 45◦ ) = + θ̇2
2 8 24

365
s s
3g(cos 15◦ − cos 45◦ ) 3(9.81 m/s2 )(cos 15◦ − cos 45◦ )
θ̇ = =
L 2m

θ̇ = 1.95 rad/s
(b) To solve with numerical integration we’ll need to find the system equations of motion.

A force balance in the *


ı and *
 directions yields
L
N1 = m (θ̈ cos θ − θ̇2 sin θ) (1)
2
and
L
N3 − mg = m (θ̈ sin θ − θ̇2 cos θ) (2)
2
A moment balance about G gives
L
(N3 sin θ − N1 cos θ) = I θ̈ (3)
2

Use (1), (2) and (3) to solve for θ̈


3g sin θ
θ̈ =
2L
Integrating from an initial condition of θ = 15 until θ reaches 45◦ produces a corresponding value

of θ̇ equal to 1.95 rad/s, matching the energy-based prediction.


(c) From the time integration of (b) we find that θ reaches 45◦ at
t = 0.657 s

366
7.5.10
GOAL: Find the total kinetic energy of the three moving links.
GIVEN: System configuration, dimensions and masses.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
v*A = 2ωL *
ı (1)

v*B = 2ωL *
ı + 3φ̇L *
 (2)
*
v*B = η̇ k ×L(− *
 ) = η̇L *
ı (3)
For a rigid body the kinetic energy is given by
1 2 1
KE = mvG + IG ω 2
2 2
SOLVE:
(2), (3) ⇒ φ̇ = 0 and η̇ = 2ω (4)
1 1 1
KE = I ω 2 + m |vG |2 + I η̇ 2 (5)
2 OA 2 AB 2 BC
* *
v + vB
(1), (3) ⇒ v*G = A = 2ωL *
ı (6)
2
! !
1 2m(2L)2 1 1 mL2
(4), (6) → (5) ⇒ KE = ω + (3m)(2ωL)2 +
2
(2ω)2
2 3 2 2 3

T = 8mω 2 L2

367
7.5.11
GOAL: Find the total kinetic energy of two link/single mass system.
GIVEN: System configuration, dimensions and masses. Each link has length L and mass mL and
the translational body has mass mC .
DRAW:

* * * *
ı  ı 
* *
b1 cos β sin β d1 cos β − sin β
* *
b2 − sin β cos β d2 sin β cos β

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
v*B = v*A + ω×
*
r*B/
A

For a rigid body the kinetic energy is given by


1 2 1
KE = mvG + IG ω 2
2 2
SOLVE:
G1 and G2 are the mass centers of AB and BC, respectively.
*
v*B = β̇L b 2 (1)
* *
v*C = v*B + v*C/ = β̇L b 2 − β̇Ld2
B

We have the constraint that the motion at C is purely horizontal (v*C = vC *


ı ) and thus we have
* *
vC *
ı = β̇L b 2 − β̇Ld2 = −2β̇L sin β *
ı

vC = −2β̇L sin β (2)

β̇L *
v*G = b
1 2 2
* L*
v*G = v*B + v*G = β̇L b 2 − β̇ d2
2 2/B 2

368
3 1
   
v*G = − β̇L sin β *
ı + β̇L cos β *

2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1
KE = I β̇ 2 + I β̇ 2 + mL vG
2 2
+ mL vG 2
+ mC vC
2 AB 2 BC 2 1 2 2 2
1 1
     
1 2 2 1 2 2
KE = 2 12" mLL β̇ + 2 12 mL L β̇
2
#
+ 21 mL β̇L + 94 (β̇L)2 sin2 β + 41 (β̇L)2 cos2 β
2
+ 21 mC (−2β̇L sin β)2

1
h  i
2 2
KE = β̇ 2 L2 3 + sin β mL + 2mC sin β

369
7.5.12
GOAL: Find the speed of a block when a roller just reaches the block’s edge.
GIVEN: Masses and dimensions of the block and rollers.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
* * * *
v*D = v*C + ω b 3 × r*D/ = ω b 3 ×d b 2 = −ωd b 1
C

* d* ωd
v*O = v*C + ω b 3 × b 2 = −
2 2
We can conclude that the block moves downslope twice as rapidly as the roller’s centerpoint. The
relative speed of the block with respect to the roller is ωd
2 . Initially Roller 2 is positioned at the
middle of the block, as shown. When it reaches the position that Roller 1 initially occupied (see
State 1 in the figure), the end B of the block will also have reached that point. Thus the block
rolls a distance L.
The change in height of the block is L sin θ and the change in height of the roller is L2 sin θ.
L
KE = 0, PE = mblock gL sin θ + 2mroller g sin θ

1 1 2

2 !
1 ωd 1¯ 1
  
KE = 2 m +2 Iroller ω 2 + mblock ω 2 d2 , PE = 0

2 2 roller 2 2 2 2

(mroller )d2
I¯roller =
8

KE + PE = KE + PE

Energy conservation: 1 1 2 2
SOLVE:
mroller m m
 
2
gL sin θ(mblock + mroller ) = (ωd) + roller + block
4 8 2

3
 
2 ◦ 2 2
(9.81 m/s )(2 m)(sin 12 )(730 kg) = ω (0.2 m) (30 kg + 350 kg)
8

ω = 14.4 rad/s

370
* * *
v*D = −ωd b 1 = −(14.4 rad/s)(0.2 m) b 1 = −2.87 b 1 m/s

|vblock | = 2.87 m/s

371
7.5.13
GOAL: Determine the minimum h so that a cylinder remains in contact with a track under roll
without slip conditions and friction-free slip conditions.
GIVEN: r1 = 0.9 m, r2 = 0.04 m.
DRAW:

* *
ı 
e*r cos θ sin θ
e*θ − sin θ cos θ
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
We’ll use a force balance to determine the necessary θ̇ to preclude a loss of contact and then apply
energy conservation:
KE + PE = KE + PE

1 1 2 2
to determine h.
SOLVE:
(a) At State 1 the cylinder is at rest with its center of mass a distance h above the floor and at
State 2 the cylinder is just barely touching the top, inner surface of the loop. The center of mass
of the cylinder is r2 from the contact point.
Force balance: m[(r̈ − rθ̇2 ) e*r + (rθ̈ + 2ṙθ̇) e*r ] = −N e*r − S e*θ − mg *

*
 : −m(r1 − r2 )θ̇2 = −N − mg
The minimum speed is found by setting N = 0, giving us
(r1 − r2 )θ̇2 = g
g
θ̇2 = (1)
r 1 − r2
At the top of the loop the cylinder’s center is moving to the left at (r1 − r2 )θ̇ and the contact point
between the cylinder and the loop has zero velocity. Hence the cylinder is rotating with an angular
speed of

372
−(r1 − r2 )θ̇
ω= (2)
r2
When we apply energy conservation we’ll have to account for both the translational as well as the
rotational kinetic energy of the cylinder.
KE + PE = KE + PE

1 1 2 2
1 2 1
mgh = mg(2r1 − r2 ) + mvG + IG ω 2
2 2
2 = (r − r )2 θ̇ 2 and I =
mr22
Using vG 2 1 G 2 gives us
mr22
!
1 1
mgh = mg(2r1 − r2 ) + m(r2 − r1 )2 θ̇2 + ω2 (3)
2 2 2

(1), (2), (3) ⇒


mr22
!
1 1 g(r1 − r2 )
mgh = mg(2r1 − r2 ) + m(r1 − r2 )g +
2 2 2 r22
1 1
h = 2r1 − r2 + (r1 − r2 ) + (r1 − r2 )
2 4
11 7
h = r1 − r2
4 4
h = 2.405 m
(b) Now we’ll consider the case of friction-free sliding.

KE + PE = KE + PE

1 1 2 2
1
mgh = mg(2r1 − r2 ) + m(r1 − r2 )2 θ̇2
2
1
gh = g(2r1 − r2 ) + g(r1 − r2 )
2
5 3 5 3
h = r1 − r2 = (0.9 m − (0.04 m)
2 2 2 2
h = 2.19 m
Note that the height is greater in the case of rolling over the friction-free case. This greater height
provides the extra potential energy needed to allow the cylinder to rotate as well as translate.

373
7.5.14
GOAL: Plot the total energy of the system as a function of the disk’s rotation angle.
GIVEN: Angular velocity of the disk and dimensions of the system.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS: The total energy


of the system is given by
E = KE + KE + KE + PE + KE (1)

disk link block link block
Using the expressions for kinetic and potential energy, each of these terms are
1
KE = Idisk ω 2 (2)

disk 2
1 
KE + KE = Ilink + Iblock ω 2 (3)

link block 2 link

PE = m2 gylink (4)

link

KE = m3 gyblock (5)

block
SOLVE: The moments of inertia of the disk, link, and block about the pivot are
1 1
Idisk = m1 r2 = (2 kg)(0.2 m)2 = 0.04 kg· m2
2 2

1 1 1 1
Ilink = m2 L2 + m2 ( L)2 = m2 L2 = (0.5 kg)(0.5 m)2 = 0.0416 kg· m2
12 2 3 3
1 1
Iblock = m (a2 + b2 ) + m3 ( a + L)2
12 3 2
2
1 1
h i 
Iblock = (0.2 kg) (0.03 m)2 + (0.15 m)2 + (0.2 kg) (0.03 m) + 0.5 m
12 2

Iblock = 0.0534 kg· m2


In order to find the angular velocity of the link, we can write out the velocity of point P relative
to both point G and the pivot, point O. To do so, we use the unit vectors e*r , e*θ attached to the
* *
disc, and b 1 , b 2 attached to the link.

* * * *
*
ı *
 ı  b1 b2
* *
e*r cos θ sin θ b1 cos φ − sin φ ⇒ b 1 cos(θ + φ) sin(θ + φ)
* *
e*θ − sin θ cos θ b2 sin φ cos φ b 2 − sin(θ + φ) cos(θ + φ)

374
* * *
Relative to G: v*P = ω k × rP/ e*r = ωrP/ e*θ = −ωrP/ sin(θ + φ) b 1 + ωrP/ cos(θ + φ) b 2
G G G G

* * * * *
Relative to O: v*P = ωlink k × −rP/ b 1 + vrel b 1 = −ωlink rP/ b 2 + vrel b 1
O O

rP/
G
* ωlink = − ω cos(θ + φ)
Equate b 2 components: rP/
O

The position of point P relative to the pivot O is


r*P/ = rP/ e*r − rG/ *
ı = (rP/ cos θ − rG/ ) *
ı + rP/ sin θ *

O G O G O G
r
⇒ rP/ = k r*P/ k = rP2 + rG2 − 2rP/ rG/ cos θ
O O /G /O G O

Thus, the angular velocity of the link is


rP/ ω cos(θ + φ)
G
ωlink = − q 2
rP + rG2 − 2rP/ rG/ cos θ
/G /O G O

The height of the centers of mass of the link and the block are
1
ylink = L sin φ
2
1
yblock = (L + a) sin φ
2
Plugging quantities in yields
1
(2) ⇒ KE = (0.04 kg· m2 )(10 rad/s)2 = 2 J

disk 2
(3) ⇒

1h i (0.15 m)2 (10 rad/s)2 cos2 (θ + φ)


KE + KE = (0.0416 + 0.0534) kg· m2

link block 2 (0.15 m)2 + (0.35 m)2 − 2(0.15 m)(0.35 m) cos θ

0.1067 cos2 (θ + φ)
KE + KE = J

link block 0.145 − 0.105 cos θ
1
(4) ⇒ PE = (0.5 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )(0.5 m) sin φ = 1.2263 sin φ J

link 2

0.03 m
 
2
(5) ⇒ PE

= (0.2 kg)(9.81 m/s ) 0.5 m + sin φ = 1.0104 sin φ J
block 2

Putting these into (1) gives us !


0.1067 cos2 (θ + φ)
E= 2+ + 2.2367 sin φ J (6)
0.145 − 0.105 cos θ
The relation between φ and θ is
rP/ sin θ (0.15 m) sin θ
G
tan φ = =
rG/ − rP/ cos θ 0.35 m − (0.15 m) cos θ
O G

375
0.15 sin θ
⇒ φ = tan−1 (7)
0.35 − 0.15 cos θ
Evaluating (6) and (7) in MATLAB for θ = 0 to 2π and plotting the results yields

376
7.5.15
GOAL: Plot the kinetic, potential and total energy of a cylinder/link system.
GIVEN: mA = 20 kg, mB = 1 kg, r = 0.25 m, L = 0.22 m. Initial rotational velocity of the link is
*
12k rad/s.
DRAW:

* *
ı 
*
b1 cos θ sin θ
*
b2 − sin θ cos θ
FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Cylinder:
* *
Force balance: (F1 *
 − mA g * ı − F4 b 1 − F3 b 3 = mA ẍ *
 + F2 * ı)

Using the roll without slip condition rβ̈ = −ẍ and decomposing onto the *
ı ,*
 directions gives us
*
ı : F2 − F4 cos θ + F3 sin θ + rmA β̈ = 0 (1)

*
 : F1 − mA g − F4 sin θ − F3 cos θ = 0 (2)

Moment balance: I A β̈ = rF2 (3)


Bar:
We’ll apply a moment balance about O, the hinge point, and use
X *
MO = IO θ̈ k + mB r*G/ × a*O
O

The acceleration of O is given by


a*O = −rβ̈ *
ı
and the acceleration of the bar’s mass center is given by
L * L *
a*G = a*O + a*G/ = −rβ̈ *ı + θ̈ b 1 + θ̇2 b 2
O 2 2
Using these relationships gives us
* *
Force balance: −mB g *
 + F4 b 1 + F3 b 2 = mA a*G )
L L
 
*
ı : F4 cos θ − F3 sin θ − mB rβ̈ − θ̈ cos θ + θ̇2 sin θ = 0 (4)
2 2
L L
 
*
 : −mB g + F4 sin θ + F3 cos θ − mB θ̈ sin θ + θ̇2 cos θ = 0 (5)
2 2

377
L mL2 L
Moment balance about O: −mB g sin θ = θ̈ − r cos θmB β̈ (6)
2 3 2
m r2
The cylinder has a mass moment of inertia about its center of A2 .
SOLVE:
(1), (2) ⇒ 1.5rmA β̈ − F4 cos θ + F3 sin θ = 0 (7)
Putting (4)-(7) into matrix/vector form gives:
 
0 
0

1.5rmA
 
 L m cos θ sin θ − cos θ  β̈
L m θ̇2 sin θ
−rmB
 
 2 B sin θ − cos θ  
θ̈
  2 B 
L m sin θ  =  (8)
  
 − L m θ̇ 2 cos θ − m g


0 2 B 2 − cos θ − sin θ  

F3 
2 B
   B 
 L mB L

− 2 r cos θmB 0 0 F4 −mB g L
2 sin θ
3

This can easily be solved with a MATLAB M-file for the relevant derivatives β̈ and θ̈ which can
then be used for a numerical integration. A simple M-file is attached to the end of the solution
which accomplishes this task. Once we’ve integrated the system equations of motion and gotten θ,
θ̇, β and β̇ we can form the system energies.
The kinetic energy is found from
1 2 1 1 1
KE = mA vO 2
+ I A β̇ 2 + I B θ̇2 + mB vG
2 2 2 2
ı +L
*
Using v*G = −rβ̇ * 2 θ̇ b 1 we can find
1  m L2 m rLβ̇ θ̇ cos θ
KE = 1.5mA r2 + mB r2 β̇ 2 + B θ̇2 − B
2 6 2
The potential energy is due to the bar’s center of mass being raised up:
L
PE = mB (1 − cos θ)
2
And M-file can also be used to calculate these quantities which can then be plotted as shown below.

378
379
7.5.16
GOAL: Determine the rotation rate of the crank when the chain has moved down 6 in.
GIVEN: Mass moment of inertia of the crank assembly is 0.0112 slg· ft2 , the chain weighs 0.73 lb,
its length is 56 in and r1 = 4 in.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
We’ll apply conservation of energy: KE + PE = KE + PE .

1 1 2 2
SOLVE:
Assume that initially a length x of chain is hanging off the left end of the chainring. This means
that a length x − 2 is hanging off the right side. At State 2 the length of chain hanging off the left
side has increased to x + 6 in and the length on the right has decreased to x − 8 in.
The total length of the chain is 56 in and the radius of the chainring is 4 in. Hence we can solve
for x. For computational ease we’ll convert from inches to feet. Considering the configuration at
State 1:
x + x − 2 in + πr1 = 4.6 ft

2x = 4.6 ft − π(0.3 ft) ⇒ x = 1.893 ft

Zx Z ft
x−0.16
PE = − ρgz dz − ρgz dz

1
0 0

Z ft
1.893 Z ft
1.726
PE = − ρgz dz − ρgz dz

1
0 0
ρg h i
PE = − (1.893 ft)2 + (1.726 ft)2 = −105.7 ft2 ρ

1 2
We can easily calculate ρ:
mchain 0.73 lb/(32.2 ft/s2 )
ρ= = = 4.86×10−3 slg/ft
4.6 ft 4.6 ft
Thus we have
PE = −0.513 lb· ft

1
Doing the same calculation for the system at State 2 (with a left length of x + 0.5 ft and a right
length of x − 0.6 ft) gives us

PE = −0.566 lb· ft

2
Now that we have the change in potential energy we need to consider the kinetic energy at State 2.
If the crank rotates at ω, the hanging chain and that portion in contact with the chainring all have

380
a speed equal to ωr1 . The kinetic energy of the chain that’s in contact over the top half of the
chainring is 21 mchain r12 ω 2 .
The kinetic energy of the chain is thus given by !
1 0.73 lb
KE chain = (0.3 ft)2 ω 2
2 32.2 ft/s2
The energy of the chainring assembly due to its rotation is
1
KE CR = (0.0112 slg· ft2 )ω 2
2
Equating the total energies at States 1 and 2 gives us
0.0521 lb· ft = [0.00686 slg· ft2 ]ω 2

ω = 2.76 rad/s counter-clockwise

381
7.5.17
GOAL: Find speed of impact of two cylinders.
GIVEN: m2 = 200 kg, L = 3 m.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
We’ll apply conservation of energy: KE + PE = KE + PE .

1 1 2 2
At State 1 the beam is horizontal and m1 is in its fully raised position. At State 2 the beam is
vertical and m1 is in its fully lowered position.
State 1:


KE = 0

1

PE = 0

1

State 2:

1
KE = I ω2

2 2 O
L √
PE = m2 g − m1 g 2L

2 2
SOLVE:
L √ 1
0 = m2 g − 2m1 gL + IO ω 2
2 2
1 √ L
IO ω 2 = 2m1 gL − m2 g
2 2
The minimum m1 will get the beam upright with no angular velocity:
√ L
0 = 2m1 gL − m2 g
2
m 200 kg
m1 = √2 = √ = 70.7 kg
2 2 2 2

m1 = 70.7 kg

382
7.5.18
GOAL: Determine the acceleration of m1 as the bar passes through the vertical position.
GIVEN: m1 = 70 kg, m2 = 100 kg, L = 2 m.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
We’ll apply conservation of energy: KE + PE = KE + PE .

1 1 2 2
At State 1 the beam is horizontal and m1 is in its fully raised position. At State 2 the beam is
vertical and m1 is in its fully lowered position.
State 1:


KE = 0

1
PE = 0

1

State 2:

1
KE = I ω2

2 2 O
L
PE = m2 g − m1 g∆y

2 2
SOLVE: From geometry we have
p
∆y = L 1.32 + 1 − 0.3L = 1.34L
The uniform bar rotation about its end has a mass moment of inertia of
m2 L2
IO =
3
Applying conservation of energy gives us
L 1 m2 L2 2
0 = m2 g − m1 g(1.34L) + θ̇
2 2 3
!
2 6g 1.34m1 1
θ̇ = − (1)
L m2 2

Now we have to examine the relationship between ẍ (the acceleration of m1 and θ̇, θ̈. The bar is
pictures at an inclination θ, along
q with the relevant dimensions.

AB = L (1.3 − sin θ)2 + (cos θ)2 = L 2.69 − 2.6 sin θ

383
The distance m1 falls (x oriented down) is

x = 1.34L − L 2.69 − 2.6 sin θ
Differentiating with respect to time gives us
1
ẋ = 1.3Lθ̇ cos θ(2.69 − 2.6 sin θ)− 2
and differentiating again yields
1 3
ẍ = 1.3L(2.69 − 2.6 sin θ)− 2 (−θ̇2 sin θ + θ̈ cos θ) + 1.69L(cos θ)2 θ̇2 (2.69 − 2.6 sin θ)− 2
At θ = π
2 we have
1
 
ẍ = 1.3L(2.69 − 2.6)− 2 −θ̇2 = −4.3 θ̇2 L (2)
!
1.34m1 1
(1),(2)⇒ ẍ = −26g −
m2 2

ẍ = −26(9.81 m/s2 )(1.34(0.7) − 0.5) = −112 m/s2

384
7.5.19
GOAL: Find v with which the drawbridge reaches the open position.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Apply conservation of energy: KE + PE = KE + PE

1 1 2 2
SOLVE:
1 1
mgh = IO θ̇2 + kx2
2 2
2
1 1
q
(450 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )(6 m) = (21, 600 kg·m2 )θ̇2 + (690 N/m) (12 m)2 + (6 m)2 − 6 m
2 2
θ̇ = 0.834 rad/s

v = (12 m)θ̇ = 10.0 m/s

385
7.5.20
GOAL: Determine the speed of a falling cylinder after traveling 1.0 ft.
GIVEN: k = 3 lb/ft, unstretched length is 0.5 ft, r = 0.25 ft. The cylinder as a weight of 3 lb. The
cylinder is released from 0.5 ft below the ceiling (i.e. the spring is unstretched).
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Apply conservation of energy: KE + PE = KE + PE .

1 1 2 2
SOLVE: The cylinder has a mass of m = 3 lb = 9.32×10−2 slg.
32.2 ft/s2

KE = 0

1
1
PE = (y − L)2

1 2 0
1 1
KE = mẏ 2 + I θ̇2

2 2 2
1
PE = −mg(y − y0 ) + k(y − L)2

2 2

1 1 1 1
k(y0 − L)2 = mẏ 2 + I θ̇2 − mg(y − y0 ) + k(y − L)2 (1)
2 2 2 2
Motion constraint:
ẏ = −rθ̇ (2)
!
1 I 1 h i
(1), (2) ⇒ m+ 2 ẏ 2 = k (y0 − L)2 − (y − L)2 + mg(y − y0 )
2 r 2
 h i  12
k (y0 − L)2 − (y − L)2 + 2mg(y − y0 )
ẏ =  
m + I/r2
2
Using I = mr
2 gives us a final result of
 h i 1
(3 lb/ft) 02 − (1.5 ft − 0.5 ft)2 + 2(3 lb)(1.0 ft) 2

ẏ =   = 4.63 ft/s
1.5(9.32×10−2 slg)

386
7.5.21
GOAL: Find k such that angular speed of a drawbridge is 0.5rads as it strikes the ground. Verify
the correctness of the solution approach.
GIVEN: System geometry and parameters. Drawbridge has a length of 6 m, mass of 450 kg and
mass moment of inertia about O of IO = 5400 kg· m2 .
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Apply conservation of energy: KE + PE = KE + PE .

1 1 2 2
SOLVE:
1 2 1
mgh = Io θ̇ + k(∆x)2
2 2
2
1 1
q
(450 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )(3 m) = 2 2
(5400 kg· m )(0.5 rad/s) + k 2 2
(12 m) + (6 m) − 6 m
2 2

(a) k = 457 N/m


(b) Let the drawbridge move very slightly and check the moments at O. If it rotates a small angle
∆ from the vertical then the moment due to gravity is:
L
mg sin(∆) ≈ (450 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )(3 m)∆ = (1.32 × 104 N· m)∆
2
The moment due to the spring is:

−Lk(L∆) ≈ −(6 m)(457 N/m)(6 m)∆ = −(1.65 × 104 N/m)∆

Total moment about O is:

(1.32 × 104 − 1.65 × 104 )∆ N· m = −3.2×103 ∆ N· m < 0

Thus there is a negative moment which means that once the drawbridge is perturbed from the
vertical, it will return to the vertical position rather than striking the ground as desired.

387
7.5.22
GOAL: Find speed of impact of two cylinders.
GIVEN: Initial and final state of the system elements. Spring has an unstretched length of r.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Apply conservation of energy: KE + PE = KE + PE .

1 1 2 2


KE = 0

1
1
PE = k(4r − r)2

1 2
1
PE = k(2r − r)2

2 2

For KE we apply symmetry to realize that A and B will approach at identical speeds. Rolling

2
without slip gives us |v| = r|θ̇| (v: speed of center).
 " #
1 2 1 I

KE = 2 I θ̇ + mv 2 = m + 2 v 2

2 2 2 r

SOLVE: !
1 1 I
k(3r)2 = kr2 + m + 2 v2
2 2 r

4kr2
= v2
I
m+ r2
2
Using I = mr
2 gives us
q
v=r 8k
3m

388
7.5.23
GOAL: Find the speed of block A after it has fallen 2m.
GIVEN: System geometry and masses.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
Apply conservation of energy: KE + PE = KE + PE .

1 1 2 2


KE = 0

1
1
PE = k(0.02 m)2

1 2
1 1 1 1
KE = I 1 θ̇2 + m1 ẋ2 + I 2 θ̇2 + mA ẋ2

2 2 2 2 2
1 2
PE = kx − mA gx

2 2
SOLVE:
1 1 1 1
k(0.02 m)2 = (I 1 + I 2 )θ̇2 + (m1 + mA )ẋ2 + kx2 − mA gx
2 2 2 ! 2
1 1 I1 + I2 1
k(0.02 m)2 = + m1 + mA ẋ2 + kx2 − mA gx
2 2 r2 2
v
u −kx2 + 2mA gx + k(0.02 m)2
u
ẋ = t
I 1 +I 2
r2
+ m1 + mA
v
2
u −(10 N/m)(2 m)2 + 2(10 kg)(9.81 m/s )(2 m) + (10 N/s)(0.02 m)2 )
u
ẋ = u
t 1.8 kg· m2 + 15 kg
(0.6 m)2

ẋ = 4.20 m/s

389
7.5.24
GOAL: Find v*B of a multi-mass pulley system once Block A moves 1.5m.
GIVEN: Mass and size of pulley components, slope of surface and distance traveled by Block A.
DRAW:

* *
ı 
*
b1 cos θ sin θ
*
b2 − sin θ cos θ
Apply conservation of energy :

KE + PE = KE + PE

1 1 2 2
ASSUME: We have the well-known pulley relationships
∆x = −2∆y

ẋ = −2ẏ (1)

ẍ = −2ÿ (2)
Determine whether Block A moves up or down. We can ignore the pulley’s mass (they will just
add inertia but don’t change the direction of the motion). From the FBD, we have:
* * *
Force balance, A: (T1 − mA g sin θ) b 1 + (N1 − mA g cos θ) b 2 = −mA ÿ b 1
*
b1 : T1 − mA g sin θ = −mA ÿ (3)
T1
 
* * *
Force balance, B: − mB g sin θ b 1 + (N2 − mB g cos θ) b 2 = −mB ẍ b 1
2
*
T1
b1 : − mB g sin θ = −mB ẍ (4)
2
SOLVE:
1
(2),(3),(4)⇒ (m g sin θ − mA ÿ) − mB g sin θ = 2mB ÿ
2 A

390
1 1
ÿ(2mB + mA ) = g sin θ( mA − mB )
2 2
g sin θ( 12 mA − mB )
ÿ = 1 = −0.48 m/s2
2mB + 2 mA
Thus
Block A moves upslope.

KE = 0, PE = 0, KE = 12 mA ẏ 2 + 21 mB ẋ2 , PE = mA g sin θ(1.5 m) − mB g sin θ(2(1.5 m))

1 1 2 2
Now apply conservation of energy:
!
1 ẋ2 1
0 = mA + mB ẋ2 + (1.5 m)mA g sin θ − (3 m)mB g sin θ
2 4 2

0 = ẋ2 (5.25 kg) − 30.2N·m


ẋ = 2.40 m/s
*
v*B = 2.40 b 1 m/s
Now find the motion of pulleys 1 and 2.

A indicates speed of rope. Rope comes off pulley 1 at same rate as it’s moving around pulley 2. C
has zero velocity and so the speed of the center of pulley 1 is A2 .
2 2
A A
ω1 = 2r , ω2 = r, KE = 0, PE = 0, KE = 21 mA ẏ 2 + 21 mB ẋ2 + 12 ( 32 mr2 )( ẋ2r ) + 12 (m r2 )( ẋr )2 ,

1 1 2
PE = mA g sin θ(1.5 m) − mB g sin θ(3 m) + mg sin θ(1.5 m)

2
Apply conservation of energy:
2 2
1 ẋ2 1 3 ẋ 1 (0.05 m)2 ẋ
 
0 = (10 kg) + (8 kg)ẋ2 + (4 kg)(0.05 m)2 + (4 kg)
2 4 2 4 2(0.05 m) 2 2 0.05 m
+(10 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )(sin 20◦ )(1.5 m) − (8 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )(sin 20◦ )(3 m)
+(4 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )(sin 20◦ )(1.5 m)

0 = (7 kg)ẋ2 − 10.07 N· m
ẋ = 1.20 m/s
*
v*B = 1.20 b 1 m/s
The mass made a very large difference, halving the velocity.

391
7.5.25
GOAL: Determine the velocity with which B contacts the horizontal guide.
GIVEN: The bar is 2 m long, and has a mass of 20 kg. B has a speed of 2 m/s downwards. The
vertical guide resists motion of B within it with a force of 100 N. k = 100 N/m.
DRAW:

* *
ı 
* √ √
b1 1/ 2 1/ 2
* √ √
b2 −1/ 2 1/ 2
The problem is well suited to an energy approach.
First find the initial ω (ω1 )
v*B = v*A + ω
*
× r*B/
A

*3*
 m/s = v*A *
−2 * ı + θ̇ k × b m
2 1
3 1 * 1 *
 
*
* * *
−2  m/s = v A ı + θ̇ k × √ ı + √  m
2 2 2
!
3θ̇ 3θ̇
−2 *
 m/s = v*A − √ m ı + √ *
*
 m
2 2 2 2
Equating coefficients
3θ̇
*
ı : v*A = √ m (1)
2 2

4 2
*
 : θ̇ = − rad/s (2)
3
(1), (2) ⇒ v*A = −2 *
ı m/s (3)
*
Now that we have the rotation rate of the bar, we can find the velocity of its mass center, v G :

4 2* 4 4
   
* * * * * * *
v G = v A +θ̇ b 3 ×(1 m b 1 ) = −2 ı m/s− b 2 m/s = ı −2 + m/s+  − m/s
3 3 3
2* 4
v* = − ı m/s − * m/s (4)
3 3
We can now form the initial energies:

392
1 1
KE = m||v*G ||2 + IG ω 2

1 2 2
" 2  2 # " #" √ #2
1 2 4 1 (20 kg)(2 m)2 4 2
KE = (20 kg) m/s + m/s + − rad/s

1 2 3 3 2 12 3

KE = 34.07 N· m

1
1
 
PE = mgh = (20 kg)(9.81 m/s2 ) √ m = 138.7 N· m

1 2
Initial Energy: 34.07 N· m + 138.7N· m  = 172.8
 N· m
3 1
Work done by friction: (−100 N) 2 m √2 = −106.1 N· m
As the bar becomes horizontal the velocity of its left end A goes to zero. Hence we can determine
the kinetic energy simply from 21 IA θ̇2 :
2 ! !
1 1 v 1 (20 kg)(2 m)2 v2

2
KE = IA ω2 = IA = = (5.926 kg)v 2

2 2 2 1.5 m 2 3 2.25 m2
2
1 1.5

PE = PE spring = (100 N/m) 1.5 m − √ m = 9.651 N· m

2 2 2
Equating the energies
(172.8 − 106.1) N· m = 9.651 N· m + (5.926 kg)v 2

v = 3.10 m/s
From physical considerations (knowing that it’s moving down) we have
v* = −3.10 *
 m/s

393
7.5.26
GOAL: To determine the velocity of the bowl with respect to the ground.
GIVEN: System configuration at State 1 (m1 at A) and at State 2 (m1 at B).
DRAW:

* *
ı 
e*t sin θ − cos θ
*
en cos θ sin θ

FORMULATE EQUATIONS:
We’ll apply conservation of energy (kinetic and gravitational potential) and conservation of linear
momentum in the * ı direction. The initial height of m1 is h1 and the final height is h2
The absolute velocity of m2 is given by
v*m2 = ẋ *
ı (1)
and the absolute velocity of m1 is given by
v*m1 = ẋ *
ı + ṡ e*t (2)
Conservation of linear momentum in *
ı direction:
m1 (ẋ + ṡ sin θ) + m2 ẋ = 0 (3)
Conservation of energy:
1 1
m1 gh1 = m1 gh2 + m2 ẋ2 + m1 (ẋ2 + ṡ2 + 2ẋṡ sin θ) (4)
2 2
SOLVE:
(m1 + m2 )ẋ
(3) ⇒ ṡ = − (5)
m1 sin θ
(m1 + m2 )ẋ
(5) → (4) ⇒ ṡ = −
m1 sin θ
" #
1 1 (m1 + m2 )2 ẋ2 2ẋ2 (m1 + m2 )
m1 gh1 = m1 gh2 + m2 ẋ2 + m1 ẋ2 + −
2 2 m21 sin2 θ m1
" #
2 (m1 + m2 )
2m1 gR sin θ = (m1 + m2 )ẋ −1 +
m1 sin2 θ

394
v
2m21 gR sin3 θ
u
u
ẋ = t
(m1 + m2 )(m2 + m1 cos2 θ)
From physical considerations we know that the bowl is moving left as the mass slides down and
thus we have
s
2m2 gR sin3 θ
ẋ = − 1 *
ı
(m +m )(m +m cos2 θ)
1 2 2 1

395
7.5.27
GOAL: Determine the percentage of a car’s kinetic energy that’s stored in its wheels.
GIVEN: Car weighs 2500 lb, each wheel weighs 50 lb, the radius of gyration of each wheel is
k = 10 in, the wheel’s radius is r = 12 in. and the car is traveling at 60 mph (rolling without slip).
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS
We’ll use the formulas for kinetic energy due to translation
1
KE = mv 2
2
and due to rotation
1
KE = I θ̇2
2
SOLVE:
The car is traveling at 60 mph = 88 ft/s.
The translational kinetic energy of the car minus the wheels is!given by
1 2500 lb − 4(50 lb)
KE = (88 ft/s)2 = 2.77×105 lb· ft (1)

c−w 2 32.2 ft/s2
Each wheel’s rotation rate is found from
v 88 ft/s
v = −rθ̇ ⇒ θ̇ = − =− = −88 rad/s (2)
r 1 ft
50 lb
Each wheel has a mass of mw = 2 = 1.55 slg. and the mass moment of inertia about its
32.2 ft/s
mass center for each wheel is found from 2
10 in.

I = mk 2 = (1.55 slg) = 1.08 slg· ft2 (3)
12 in./ft

The total kinetic energy of the wheels (KE ) is given by

 w
1 2 1 1 1
  
2
KE = 4 I θ̇ + mv = 4 (1.08 slg· ft2 )(−88 rad/s)2 + (1.55 slg)(88 ft/s)2

w 2 2 2 2

KE = 4.08×104 lb· ft

w
Thus the percentage of kinetic energy
in the wheels is given by
KE
!
w 100(4.08×104 lb· ft)
= % = 12.8%
2.77×105 lb· ft + 4.08×104 lb· ft

KE + KE

c−w w

396
7.5.28
GOAL: Determine what’s the better scenario for a soapbox derby car with a maximum weight
constraint - light or heavy wheels.
GIVEN: Only variable parameters are the relative weights of the wheels versus the body/racer.
DRAW:

FORMULATE EQUATIONS
We’ll use the formulas for kinetic energy due to translation
1
KE = mv 2
2
and due to rotation
1
KE = I θ̇2
2
SOLVE:
Assume a total wheel mass of mw and body/racer mass of mb . Our constraint says that the total
mass mt must be constant:
mt = mw + mb ⇒ mb = mt − mw
Our energy will be equal to the potential energy at the start and the kinetic energy at the finish
(assuming a zero gravitational potential state at the finish):

mt gh = KE + KE (1)

w b
The wheels will have two components to their kinetic energy: rotational energy and translational.
Assuming roll without slip, a radius r for the wheels and a radius of gyration k we have a kinetic
energy of
 2  2 !
1 2 v 1 2 1 k
KE = (mw k ) + mw v = mw 1 + v2 (2)

w 2 r 2 2 r
The kinetic energy of the car minus the wheels is given by
1
KE = (mt − mw )v 2 (3)

b 2
 2 !
1 k 1
(1), (2), (3) ⇒ mt gh = mw 1+ v 2 + (mt − mw )v 2
2 r 2
 2 !
1 k
mt gh = mw + mt v 2
2 r
2mt gh
v2 =  2 (4)
k
mw r + mt

We want v 2 to be as large as possible. Looking at (4) we see that v 2 is maximized if mw is

397
minimized; kinetic energy is “wasted” in the wheel’s rotational energy. Hence making the wheels
lighter rather than heavier is the superior design choice.

398