ME 320.

1: Fluid Flow Syllabus – Tentative
Fall Semester 2009

Required Text
Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, Yunus A. Cengel and John M. Cimbala, Second Edition,
McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.

Suggested Reference
Schaum's Outline Series: Mathematical Handbook of Formulas and Tables by Murray R. Spiegel. McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Date Period
Assignment

08/24

1

Introduction – What is a fluid?

• State the definition of a fluid
• State the continuum hypothesis
• Distinguish between the Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions of
fluid motion

1-1 1-1  1-7, 1-10

p. 132
08/26 2
Stress Fields • Sketch a two-dimensional stress element, labeling the stresses
• State the sign convention for stresses
• Show that
yx xy
t t = and by extension that
zx xz
t t = and
zy yz
t t =

08/28 3
Fluid Properties • Distinguish between Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids

• Show that rate of deformation can be related to the velocity
dy
du
dt
d
=
o

• State the relation between the shear stress and the velocity
• Define a Newtonian fluid:
dy
du
yx
µ t = at a wall or for a one-
dimensional flow
2-6
2
08/31 4
Fluid Statics – Pressure and Its
• Show that the pressure does not vary with direction at a point
• Show that for a fluid at rest, g p

µ = V . In Cartesian coordinates
with k g g
ˆ
÷ =

, 0 = =
y
p
x
p
c
c
c
c
, g
dz
dp
µ ÷ =
3-1
09/02 5
Equilibrium Concepts • Sketch forces acting on a fluid element
• State the types of forces that can act on a control volume (and
describe these forces)

09/04 6
Application – Manometry 3-2
09/07
LABOR DAY
09/09 7
Application – Hydrostatic Force on
Submerged Surfaces
Show that for a submerged object, F = p
cg
A, where
cg a cg
h p p ¸ + = , and that the location of the center of pressure is
at
A p
I
x
cg
xy
cp
u ¸ sin
÷ = and
A p
I
y
cg
xx
cp
u ¸ sin
÷ = ,
where
}
=
A
xy
dA xy I
and
}
=
A
xx
dA y I
2

3-4  3-6
09/11 8
Application – Rigid Body Motion Show that for rigid-body motion, ( ) p a g V = ÷
 
µ
3-7
09/14 9
The Basic Equations – Integral Form
The Reynolds Transport Theorem
• State the Reynolds Transport Theorem and its significance
• Beginning with a streamtube, show that

( ) ( )
in out
cv
cm
AV AV V d
dt
d
dt
dB
|µ |µ |µ ÷ + =
}
,
where
B
is any extensive fluid property and
dm
dB
= |
Note: state the significance of a streamtube
4-6
09/16 10
Conservation of Mass State conservation of mass in integral form
(symbolically, with a discussion of each term)
5-1, 5-2
09/18 11
Problem Solving Session
09/21 12
Conservation of Momentum

State conservation of momentum in integral form (symbolically, with
a discussion of each term)
6-1  6-4
09/23 13
Problem Solving Session

6-4
09/25 14
Problem Solving Session
09/28
NO CLASS
3
09/30 15
The Energy Equation
EXAM #1 – Evening
State conservation of energy in integral form (symbolically, with a
discussion of each term)
5-3, 5-5, 5-6
10/02 16
Problem Solving Session
10/05 17
A first Look at the Bernoulli Equation State the Bernoulli equation along with the appropriate assumptions 5-4
10/07 18
The Basic Equations –
Differential Form Conservation of Mass

• State conservation of mass in differential form (symbolically, with
a discussion of each term)
• Show that 0 = + + +
z
w
y
v
x
u
t c

c

c

c

, beginning with an
infinitesimal control volume where k w j v i u v
ˆ ˆ ˆ
+ + =

9-1, 9-2
10/09 19
Problem Solving Session
10/12 20
The Material Derivative
• Define the material derivative, i.e.,
z
w
y
v
x
u
t Dt
D
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
+ + + =
• Define the acceleration following a fluid particle, i.e.,
z
v
w
y
v
v
x
v
u
t
v
Dt
v D
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
    
+ + + =
• Define the vorticity, i.e., v
 
× V = e
pp. 132 – 138

pp. 154 – 157
10/14 21
Conservation of Momentum

• State conservation of momentum in integral form (symbolically,
with a discussion of each term)
• Show that
z y x
g
Dt
Du
zx
yx
xx
x
c
ct
c
ct
c
ct
µ µ + + + = , beginning with
Newton's second law of motion. In other words, motivate one
component of conservation of momentum for a differential element. If
given the constitutive equations, develop the Navier-Stokes equations
from conservation of momentum.
9-4  9-6
10/16 22
Problem Solving Session
10/19 23
The Stream Function and Streamlines
Define the stream function, i.e.,
y
u
c

= ,
x
v
c

÷ =
9-3
10/21 24
The Bernoulli Equations (Derivation)
and their relation to the streamlines

• Distinguish between rotational and irrotational flows
• Show that C z
g
v p
= + +
2
2
¸
along a stream line, beginning with the
Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible flow with constant
viscosity – for either rotational or irrotational flow. (Note: C is a
constant)
pp. 502-510
4
10/23 25
Problem Solving Session
10/26 26
Dimensional Analysis –
The Buckingham Pi Theorem
• Solve problems using the Buckingham H theorem to determine the
dimensionless parameters and dynamic similarity
• State the drag coefficient
Chapter 7

10/28 27
Problem Solving Session
10/30 28
Flow Similarity Example: Pump
Scaling Laws
• Develop and define the specific speed and the specific diameter
• Select a pump using the pump curves
14-2
(pp. 764-774)

14-3
11/02 29
Problem Solving Session
11/04 30
Problem Solving Session
Exam #2 – Evening

11/06 31
Applications
Internal Flow -- Duct Flow
Laminar Flow through Infinite Parallel
Plates and Circular Pipes
• State the hallmark of a fully-developed flows: the velocity does
not vary in the direction of flow (if the flow is both steady and
fully developed, then the acceleration is zero)
• Define the entrance length
8-1  8-4
11/09 32
Turbulent Flow in Pipes and Ducts

• Characterize turbulent flow
• Distinguish between laminar and turbulent flows
8-5

11/11 33
Energy Considerations
f o v s
h h h h z
g
V p
z
g
V p
+ + + + + + = + +
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
2 2
o
¸
o
¸
from
conservation of energy, where
g
m Q u u
h
f

/ ˆ ˆ
1 2
÷ ÷
= – state the
necessary assumptions that lead to this relation
Review 5-6
5
11/13 34
Calculation of Head Loss – The Moody
Chart

• State the Darcy-Weisbach Equation
• Show that
g
V
D
L
f h
f
2
2
= , where
8 /
2
V
f
w
µ
t
÷ and V is the average
velocity
• State the kinetic energy coefficient for an incompressible flow:
dA
V
u
A
A
}
=
3
3
1
o

• Show that 2 = o for a laminar flow and that 1 ~ o for a turbulent flow
• Show that
D
f Re / 64 = for a laminar pipe flow
• Solve problems using the Moody chart (or empirical relation) that
relates the friction factor to the Reynolds number and the relative
roughness, ( ) c , Re
D
f f = , and
g
V
D
L
f h
f
2
2
= together with the
energy equation
pp. 345 – 351

discussion in
margin, p. 219

11/16 35
Minor Losses/Multiple Pipe Systems 8-6
11/18 36
Problem Solving Session
11/20 37
External Flow Potential Flow Theory • State the hallmarks of a potential flow – potential flow: the
vorticity is zero, viscous effects are insignificant in the Navier-
Stokes equations, the no-slip condition cannot be satisfied at a
solid surface (Note: viscosity is not zero)
• State the significance of potential flow theory
10-1, 10-5

Thanksgiving Break
11/30 38
Boundary Layer Theory – The
Boundary Layer Concept
• Distinguish between potential/inviscid flows and boundary-layer
flows – the pressure does not vary through the thickness of the
BL, viscous effects cannot be neglected
• State the hallmarks of boundary-layer flows
• State the von Kármán integral equation:

( )
( )
dy u U u
dx
d
x
w
}
÷ =
·
o
µ t
0

10-6

6

• Show that
( )
( )
dy u U u
dx
d
x
w
}
÷ =
·
o
µ t
0
– the von Kármán integral
equation
• Define the displacement thickness and provide a physical
explanation:
( )
dy
U
u
x
} |
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
·
o
o
0
*
1
• Define the momentum thickness and provide a physical explanation:
( )
dy
U
u
U
u
x
} |
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
· ·
o
u
0
1

12/02 39
Drag Calculations – Skin Friction
and Pressure Drag
• Use the von Kármán integral equation – to determine the
wall shear stress and the boundary layer thickness
• Distinguish between skin friction and pressure drag
• Solve problems using the drag coefficient tables and charts
10-6, 11-2  11-7

12/04 40
Problem Solving Session
12/07 41
Speed of Sound and the Mach
Number
• Derive the speed of sound
• Define the Mach number
• Distinguish between the flow regimes
12-1
12/09 42
Isentropic Flow • Define stagnation properties
• Derive the isentropic flow equations
• Sketch the static and stagnation properties versus the Mach
Number
12-2 & 12-3
12/11 43
Normal Shocks State under what conditions shock waves develop 12-4
Self-Review

• Distinguish between the three methods of analysis (integral, differential, experimental/dimensional analysis) and indicate
when each method is appropriate to use
• Solve problems using
a) integral equations for conservation of mass, momentum, and energy
b) continuity and the Navier-Stokes equations
c) summation of forces on an infinitesimal element for fully-developed flows

ME 320.1: Fluid Flow
Course Policy
Fall Semester 2009

135 Reber Building
12:20 – 1:10 PM

Required Text: Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications by Yunus A. Cengel and John M.
Cimbala, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.
Suggested Reference: Mathematical Handbook of Formulas and Tables by M.R. Spiegel,
Schaum's Outline Series, McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Prerequisite: E MCH 012; MATH 251; ME 201 or ME 300; MATH 230 or MATH 231.

Instructor: G. Talmage, Professor of Mechanical Engineering
306 Reber Building (ME Building)
863-3204

Office Hours: 1:30 – 3:00 PM MWF

Course Description: This course serves as an introduction to fluid mechanics and, therefore, begins
by asking the question what constitutes a fluid? The first part of the course considers the concept of
a continuum, velocity and acceleration fields, and "secondary properties." In the second part of the
course, the conservation equations, in both integral and differential form, are either motivated or
derived. The remainder of the course will treat solutions of the conservation equations, both exact
and approximate. The approximate solutions include irrotational (potential) flow and high-Reynolds
number (boundary-layer) flow.

Course Objectives and Course Learning Outcomes may be found at the following website:

Homework 10 % Due Friday at beginning of class
Exam 1 30 % Wednesday, September 30 – Evening
Exam 2 30 % Wednesday, November 4 – Evening
Final Exam 30 % To be announced by the University – check eLion

Note that the dates of Exams 1 and 2 are tentative. The instructor reserves the right to hold the
examinations in class.

A- 90
B- 80
C 70
D 60
F < 60
Evaluation

Homework: Every Friday (except for exam weeks) a homework set will be due at the beginning
of class. Homework sets will contain one or more problems representative of the material
covered in the previous lectures. It is expected that you solve the homework problems on your
own. Copying problem solutions will lead to disciplinary action, and no credit will be given. A
solution to the problems will be provided in the Engineering Library after the due date. No late
homework will be accepted. Included in the homework sets will be articles from The New York
Times that you will read and critique.

Exams: Two evening examinations and a comprehensive final examination will be given. The
exams are closed book, closed notes.

Absence from an Exam: Makeup exams will be given only under extremely unusual
circumstances. A written request for a makeup exam must be presented one week prior to
the exam. It is possible that the makeup exam will be oral. In addition, you must apply to the
Registrar for a conflict final exam.

Grade Appeal: You may appeal the grade by discussing the points with the course instructor
within one week after the exam has been returned to the class. After one week, no appeals
will be accepted.

Cheating on Exams: Students caught cheating will be dealt with according to University Policy.

Class Attendance: It is expected that you attend all classes. Arriving late three times, three
unauthorized absences, or any combination thereof may result in an automatic 10% grade
reduction.

Classroom Policy:
(1) Cell phones must be turned-off.
(2) No text messaging during class.

Late Drop – deadline November 13. As a reminder, you may drop a course (late drop) up until the
late drop deadline. However, a WP (passing), WF (failing), WN (no grade) symbol will be
entered on your academic record. Whether you obtain a WP, WF, or WN will depend on
your performance. Usually, a 70% average on the homework and the Exams is sufficient to
obtain a WP.
Problem Solving Procedure

One objective of ME 320 is to continue to develop your engineering problem solving skills, which were
introduced in ME 300. As in ME 300, problem-solving skills will be mastered through homework.
There is a preferred approach to problem solving. It is characterized by a systemic format consisting
of the following steps:

1) KNOWN: After carefully reading the problem, state briefly and concisely what is known about the
problem. Do not repeat the problem statement.

2) FIND: State briefly and concisely what is to be found.

3) SCHEMATIC: Draw a schematic of the physical system. If application of the conservation laws is
anticipated, represent the required control surface by dashed lines on the schematic.

4) ASSUMPTIONS: List all pertinent simplifying assumptions.

5) PROPERTIES: Use a table format to compile property values needed for subsequent calculations.
Identify the source from which they were obtained.

6) ANALYSIS: Begin your analysis by applying appropriate conservation laws. Develop the analysis as
completely as possible before substituting numerical values. Perform the calculation needed to
obtain the desired results. Clearly identify your final results.

7) COMMENTS: Discuss your results. Such discussion should include a summary of key conclusions,
an inference of trends, and a critique of the original assumptions.

• Perform all work on one side of the "Engineer's Computation Pad" paper. Do not write on the back of
the page. Place your name, the date, the assignment number, and the page number in the right-hand
corner of each page.
• Use one (1) staple in the upper left-hand corner.
• Exercise care when treating units. Answers without appropriate units are meaningless.
• Be neat. If your work is sloppy, it will not be graded.
• Final answers clearly identified and given to three significant digits.

From Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer by Frank P. Incropera and David P. DeWitt. Published
by John Wiley and Sons: New York, 1990, pp. 22-23.

If your homework does not follow the “Problem Solving Format” or any of the

and that the location of the center of pressure is x cp   I xy  sin  pcg A and at y cp   I xx  sin . x y dz 3-1 09/02 5 Equilibrium Concepts • Sketch forces acting on a fluid element • State the types of forces that can act on a control volume (and describe these forces) 3-2 09/04 09/07 09/09 6 Application – Manometry LABOR DAY 7 Application – Hydrostatic Force on Submerged Surfaces Show that for a submerged object. show that dBcm d   dV  AV out  AV in . with a discussion of each term) 6-1  6-4 6-4 NO CLASS . where 3-4  3-6 pcg  pa   hcg . dt dt cv  where B is any extensive fluid property and Note: state the significance of a streamtube 09/16 09/18 09/21 09/23 09/25 09/28 10 11 12 13 14  dB dm 5-1. F = pcg A. pcg A where 09/11 09/14 8 9 I xy  xy dA and I xx  y 2 dA A   Application – Rigid Body Motion The Basic Equations – Integral Form The Reynolds Transport Theorem Show that for rigid-body motion.  p g .2 08/31 4 Fluid Statics – Pressure and Its Gradient • Show that the pressure does not vary with direction at a point • Show that for a fluid at rest. with a discussion of each term) State conservation of momentum in integral form (symbolically. 5-2 Conservation of Mass Problem Solving Session Conservation of Momentum Problem Solving Session Problem Solving Session State conservation of mass in integral form (symbolically.  g  a   p A   3-7 4-6 • State the Reynolds Transport Theorem and its significance • Beginning with a streamtube. dp   g with g   g k . In Cartesian coordinates  ˆ p  p  0 .

.3 09/30 10/02 10/05 10/07 15 16 17 18 The Energy Equation EXAM #1 – Evening Problem Solving Session A first Look at the Bernoulli Equation State conservation of energy in integral form (symbolically.. 9-2 The Basic Equations – Differential Form Conservation of Mass  u v w     0 . If given the constitutive equations. i.. 10/14 21 Conservation of Momentum • State conservation of momentum in integral form (symbolically. i. D      u v w Dt t x y z pp. u  y . motivate one component of conservation of momentum for a differential element. beginning with  g x  xx   Dt x y z Newton's second law of motion. i. with a discussion of each term) • Show that pp.. (Note: C is a constant) . 10/16 10/19 22 23 Problem Solving Session The Stream Function and Streamlines The Bernoulli Equations (Derivation) and their relation to the streamlines Define the stream function. develop the Navier-Stokes equations from conservation of momentum.      Dv v v v v  u v w Dt t x y z     v • Define the vorticity. with a discussion of each term) State the Bernoulli equation along with the appropriate assumptions • State conservation of mass in differential form (symbolically.e. beginning with the 2g 2 Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible flow with constant viscosity – for either rotational or irrotational flow. with a discussion of each term) • Show that 5-3. 132 – 138 • Define the acceleration following a fluid particle.e.e. 5-6 5-4 9-1. 154 – 157 9-4  9-6   yx  zx  Du . i. v  x 9-3 pp. 502-510 10/21 24 • Distinguish between rotational and irrotational flows • Show that p   v  z  C along a stream line. In other words.e. beginning with an t x y z  ˆ ˆ j infinitesimal control volume where v  ui  vˆ  wk 10/09 10/12 19 20 Problem Solving Session The Material Derivative • Define the material derivative. 5-5.

4 10/23 10/26 25 26 Problem Solving Session Dimensional Analysis – The Buckingham Pi Theorem Problem Solving Session Flow Similarity Example: Pump Scaling Laws Problem Solving Session Problem Solving Session Exam #2 – Evening Applications Internal Flow -. where hf  ˆ ˆ   u2  u1  Q / m g – state the necessary assumptions that lead to this relation . 764-774) 14-3 11/02 11/04 11/06 29 30 31 11/09 11/11 32 33 • State the hallmark of a fully-developed flows: the velocity does not vary in the direction of flow (if the flow is both steady and fully developed. then the acceleration is zero) • Define the entrance length • Characterize turbulent flow • Distinguish between laminar and turbulent flows 8-1  8-4 8-5 Review 5-6 p1   1 V12 p V2  z1  2   2 2  z 2  hs  hv  ho  h f from 2g  2g conservation of energy.Duct Flow Laminar Flow through Infinite Parallel Plates and Circular Pipes Turbulent Flow in Pipes and Ducts Energy Considerations • Solve problems using the Buckingham  theorem to determine the dimensionless parameters and dynamic similarity • State the drag coefficient • Develop and define the specific speed and the specific diameter • Select a pump using the pump curves Chapter 7 10/28 10/30 27 28 14-2 (pp.

219 for a laminar flow and that   1 f  64 / Re D for a laminar pipe flow • Show that • Show that  2 for a turbulent flow • Solve problems using the Moody chart (or empirical relation) that relates the friction factor to the Reynolds number and the relative roughness. f  f Re D . the no-slip condition cannot be satisfied at a solid surface (Note: viscosity is not zero) • State the significance of potential flow theory • Distinguish between potential/inviscid flows and boundary-layer flows – the pressure does not vary through the thickness of the BL. 345 – 351 hf  f LV D 2g 2 . where f w V 2 / 8 and V is the average velocity • State the kinetic energy coefficient for an incompressible flow:  1 u dA AAV 3  3 discussion in margin. viscous effects are insignificant in the NavierStokes equations. and h f  f LV2 together with the D 2g 8-6 energy equation 11/16 11/18 11/20 35 36 37 Minor Losses/Multiple Pipe Systems Problem Solving Session External Flow Potential Flow Theory • State the hallmarks of a potential flow – potential flow: the vorticity is zero.5 11/13 34 Calculation of Head Loss – The Moody Chart • State the Darcy-Weisbach Equation • Show that pp. 10-5 Thanksgiving Break 11/30 38 Boundary Layer Theory – The Boundary Layer Concept 10-6 w  d dx  uU 0  u  dy . viscous effects cannot be neglected • State the hallmarks of boundary-layer flows • State the von Kármán integral equation:  x  10-1.   . p.

experimental/dimensional analysis) and indicate when each method is appropriate to use • Solve problems using a) integral equations for conservation of mass. 11-2  11-7 12/04 12/07 40 41 Problem Solving Session Speed of Sound and the Mach Number 12-1 Derive the speed of sound Define the Mach number Distinguish between the flow regimes 12-2 & 12-3 Isentropic Flow Define stagnation properties Derive the isentropic flow equations Sketch the static and stagnation properties versus the Mach Number 12-4 Normal Shocks State under what conditions shock waves develop • Distinguish between the three methods of analysis (integral. momentum. differential.6  x  • Show that  w  equation d dx   u U 0 u  dy – the von Kármán integral • Define the displacement thickness and provide a physical  x  explanation:  *   1  U  0  u   dy    • Define the momentum thickness and provide a physical explanation:  x   12/02 39 U 0 u  u  1   U  dy      Drag Calculations – Skin Friction and Pressure Drag • Use the von Kármán integral equation – to determine the wall shear stress and the boundary layer thickness • Distinguish between skin friction and pressure drag • Solve problems using the drag coefficient tables and charts • • • • • • 10-6. and energy b) continuity and the Navier-Stokes equations c) summation of forces on an infinitesimal element for fully-developed flows 12/09 42 12/11 43 Self-Review .

mne. MATH 230 or MATH 231. MATH 251. November 4 – Evening To be announced by the University – check eLion Note that the dates of Exams 1 and 2 are tentative. ME 201 or ME 300. Course Objectives and Course Learning Outcomes may be found at the following website: http://www. therefore.1: Fluid Flow Course Policy Fall Semester 2009 135 Reber Building 12:20 – 1:10 PM Required Text: Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications by Yunus A. in both integral and differential form. Inc.html Grading Policy: Final Grade Construction Homework Exam 1 Exam 2 Final Exam 10 % 30 % 30 % 30 % Due Friday at beginning of class Wednesday. are either motivated or derived. Schaum's Outline Series.psu. Second Edition. The approximate solutions include irrotational (potential) flow and high-Reynolds number (boundary-layer) flow.edu/Current/UGrad/Curriculum/Section2-ME320. Suggested Reference: Mathematical Handbook of Formulas and Tables by M. September 30 – Evening Wednesday. McGraw-Hill. the conservation equations. both exact and approximate. The instructor reserves the right to hold the examinations in class. and "secondary properties. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. Professor of Mechanical Engineering 306 Reber Building (ME Building) 863-3204 Office Hours: 1:30 – 3:00 PM MWF Course Description: This course serves as an introduction to fluid mechanics and. Spiegel. velocity and acceleration fields. Instructor: G. Cimbala. Cengel and John M." In the second part of the course. The remainder of the course will treat solutions of the conservation equations. Talmage. begins by asking the question what constitutes a fluid? The first part of the course considers the concept of a continuum. Prerequisite: E MCH 012.R. Typical Letter Grade Construction ABC D F 90 80 70 60 < 60 .ME 320.