Fantasy and Castration ER | Jacques Lacan | Femininity

C U LT U R E C R I T I Q U E

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FANTASY AND CAST RAT I ON:
“E AST ” V E RSUS “WE ST ”
by Ellie Ragland
Ellie Ragland was Middlebush Chair of English at the University of Missouri,
edits the Lacanian journal (Re)-Turn: A Journal of Lacanian Studies, and has
written over 100 articles on Lacan as well as authored books such as Jacques
Lacan and the Philosophy of Psychoanalysis, Essays on the Pleasures of Death:
From Freud to Lacan, The Logic of Sexuation: From Aristotle to Lacan, The Logic
of Structure in Lacanian Thought, Lacan and the Subject of Language, Critical
Essays on Jacques Lacan, as well as others. At the moment she is writing a book
on The Structure of Hysteria in Lacan: Fantasy, Discourse, and Sexuation.
culture critique, the online journal of the cultural studies program at CGU,
situates culture as a terrain of political and economic struggle. The journal
emphasizes the ideological dimension of cultural practices and politics, as
well as their radical potential in subverting the mechanisms of power and
money that colonize the life-world.
http://ccjournal.cgu.edu
© 2009
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In Jacques Lacan’s theory of the fantasy, fantasy itself organizes what we ordinarily call
“reality.” To arrive at such a notion, Lacan placed the sign of castration—or lack-in-being ,S¦—in
the position of agent of the word.
i
When a child discovers that he or she is interpellated by the
cultural/familial law of “no,” this gives rise to a sense of his or her not being a totality, a whole
being. This experience is undergone by almost everyone throughout history and society. Those
who do not accept the “law” of “no” become, structurally speaking, psychotics.
ii
While the
matheme for the fantasy is written as S (lack-in-being) <> a (object of potential fulfillment), the
psychotic’s experience of reality is written as S (the uncastrated subject) =o [equal and
equivalent to] the Other. He or she experiences his or her being as a certain subject who
incarnates the Other of social law). Only the formula for fantasy places the <> between the
subject and its mirror other. In ordinary fantasy, various objects (things, people, ideas) are sought
to fill the lack-in-being. But since the lack is a structural fait accompli, except for psychotics, the
subject always ends up unfulfilled or lacking. The other side of lack is the desire that continually
pushes one to go on, to seek something else. This lack is structured by the experiences of
alienation which determines that there be no whole self—one is re-presented by another’s words
and desires—and separation from primordial objects of fulfillment.
iii
This means that the object
a indicates a void experience in the construction of fantasy as reality. The psychotic constructs
delusion, not fantasy, because he or she believes himself or herself to be whatever he or she
believes he or she is. There is no lack-in-being in psychosis, only oneness with a delusional
universe.
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Thus, fantasy, for most people, is the reality of constructing objects of fulfillment that
they take as their sustenance and point of limit, but also as a return to reconstructing this limit in
the way in which law was first represented to make a subject. Jacques Alain Miller says that “the
little a is only the elaboratable kernel in a discourse, that is to say it is not real, it is only a
semblant.”
iv
Lacan says of the object a that it comes from the droppings [chutes] which attest to
the fact that the subject is only an effect of language. We have promoted them as object a.
v
This construction of fantasy occurs via Lacan’s rewriting of Freud’s Oedipal complex.
vi
The Name of the Father stands over the mother’s desire ,FNMD¦ and the mother’s desire stands
over a question mark-', an enigma ,MD'¦ regarding her own unconscious experience of
castration, of taking on the lack-in-being. The result is that the Name of the Father or the “law”
that imposes itself as a symptom (the sinthome in the particular) yields the cultural field of
signifiers as the Other that stands over the creation of the subject as phallus (that is, desired
object) to the Other ,FN-i [Other/phallus]).
vii
The psychotic does not undergo this experience of
castration because he or she is one with the totally alienated Other and identifies him or herself
as being the phallus desired by others instead of being the phallus created by the Other’s desire.
When we take up the question of the “East” facing “West,” we have an abundance of
examples through which to see this fantasized construction. For example, the “West” takes the
“Eastern” woman behind the veil to be a symbol of the repression of woman as a sexual being,
an emotional entity, or an intellectual presence. Woman is seen here in an uncritical leftist
construction as an annihilated being to be liberated by a “Western” fantasy of the “East”.
viii
Of
course, there is also truth to this “Western” concept insofar as “Eastern” women are oppressed,
targeted by the Taliban, and by the culture in general to represent something hidden.
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Yet, the reality of the wealthy “Eastern” woman is that the veil is a symbol of privacy. In
her own home, behind drawn curtains, the woman removes the veil and interacts with her family
and friends.
ix
Moreover, wealthy “Eastern” women have private beaches where they bathe in
bikinis. Even more surprising is that three quarters of the money spent on “Western” designer
clothes (Givenchy, Dior, Laurent, and so on) is spent by “Eastern” women who remove their
veils once they arrive at a given social occasion.
The fantasy that the “East” has of “Western” women is that they do not value themselves
sexually and emotionally as special, as women, different from men who dwell mostly in what
Lacan called the symbolic order public sphere. Here it is valuable to look at Lacan’s sexuation
graphs as examples of a difference that is made between the masculine position (not gender
specific) and the feminine position (not gender specific) and the differences that arise on the
masculine symbolic order side as opposed to the feminine on the side of the real.
x
In Lacan’s
sexuation graph, the masculine side of sexuation—where “Eastern” women tend to place
“Western” women alongside men—abides by the logic of there being an exception to the law of
castration ,Vx ux¦ as itself the law since the exception itself ,3x¦ is only a myth.
xi
For example,
God is taken as an exception to the law of castration. On the feminine side of the sexuation
graph, there is no exception to the law of castration, except for the psychotic. Women are all not
men. They hold the place of the same rather than that of the one different from the mother, the
first identificatory object ,3xux¦. But this gives rise to a paradoxical logic. A point to remember,
lest one essentialize man or woman in Lacan’s sexuation is that ”since masculine or feminine
fantasy identification do not correspond to biological gender, nor do they determine the gender of
sexual object preference.”
xii
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Because all women, except psychotic ones, are castrated in not being a man—that is, in
being the same in reference to which difference is measured—woman has to find her being in the
logic of the particular ,Vxux¦. Each feminine one goes his or her own way, unlike the masculine
one who conforms to the group of others under the symbolic law of castration ,Vxux¦. The result
of this, so-called by Lacan, discordential logic is that on the masculine symbolic order side,
masculine means accepting castration ,Su¦, except for the psychotic. The masculine subject
endures this castration by his or her links to the feminine on the side of the real. He or she is
linked to the feminine as a sexual object, heterosexual or homosexual ,S-ia¦. The castrated
subject in the symbolic order is also linked to the real by his or her myth of an essential woman
he or she fantasizes, but who does not exist ,u-i S,O¦1 Woman ,barred¦. Since there is no
essential woman, only fantasies of how one constructs difference as itself a third thing—
masculine-feminine/difference-castration—masculine social myths, whether held by a man or a
woman, reveal, rather, that there is a void in the Other, as well as a lack in the subject.
“Eastern” women regarding “Western” women, see someone who gives no place to the
real as a place of actual exception. The idea of an exception itself functions as a limit, as an
admission that there is a need for a limit in order that law exist, in order that we not be a society
of psychotics, a contradiction in terms. “Western” women are generally thought by “Eastern”
women to be immoral, loose, “little” men. And in an uncritical leftist logic, one would claim that
sexual liberation of women has resolved the fundamental problems of sexual being and sexual
difference, even questions regarding the meaning of human existence. But the realities of life in
the “West” show single parent mothers, divorced women, women who suffer having to brave the
4
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symbolic on their own. This is not to promote, however, an idea that “Eastern” women
imprisoned in their families are a model to follow. Indeed, one cannot enslave another. One
might even go so far as to suggest that “Eastern”/Arabic peace depends upon the liberation of
women in order that there be some acceptance of difference as equality, even if some differences
remain. Yet, as Andrew Long has reminded me, Americans recently fought a war against
Afghanistan in which one of their stated goals was to liberate women.
If one goes a little further with these ideas, one finds in certain groups the same logic in
“Western” fantasies of women that “Easterners” hold about “Western” women. In “Western”
fundamentalist religious right-wing thought, woman is seen as the bearer of sin insofar as she
incarnates sexual temptation. Thus, she is enjoined to cover her body with long sleeves and
simple dresses and to wear her hair pulled back. She is to wear no makeup and is urged to never
tempt man. She has been put under the veil, except that she does not have the escape of
distinguishing between the public and private spheres, between the symbolic and the real,
something the veil ensures to “Eastern” women. For example, Indian actresses are spared the
public expectation that their private lives be revealed.
Yet, at another level, these differences between “Eastern” and “Western” women can
come down to class difference insofar as truly repressed “Eastern” women are often lower class,
as are, often, the right-wing fundamentalists characterized above. But in the final analysis, both
“East” and “West” construct their fantasies of women in relation to the sexual difference which
Lacan always claimed created difference/castration as itself a third thing. Cultural practices
become so many ways to try to understand the Oedipal construct that Lacan wrote at the end of
his teaching as a O ,void in the Other¦ -ç ,castration¦. When the void in the Other appears over
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castration, one confronts an incomplete logic. The FN--iu ,inconsistent other¦ over the MD--i an
enigma. O -ç means that we are confronted in our fantasies—“East” or “West”—with O ,loss¦-
ç ,lack¦.
xiii
What is law, then, if not the structural outcome of interpreting difference as sexual
difference whose effects leave in its wake the seemingly normative masquerade, the neuroses
(obsession and hysteria), the psychoses (paranoia, schizophrenia, and ordinary psychosis), and
perversion—the categories of jouissance that arise for each person as a fantasmatic construction
of the meaning of the sexual difference which, in turn, establishes imaginary myths embodied in
symbolic order words and laws, both trying to interpret what lies outside themselves—the real—
the logic of fantasy being its place.
xiv
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Works Cited:
Aitel, Fazia and Michel Valentin, ed. The Veil in all its States. Missoula, MT: The University of
Montana Press, 2008.
Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar, Book III (1955-1956) The Psychoses, ed. by Jacques Alain Miller,
trans. by Russell Grigg. New York: Norton, 1994.
---. The Seminar, Book XI, The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psycho-Analysis, ed. by Jacques
Alain Miller, trans. by Alan Sheridan. New York: Norton, 1981.
---. The Seminar, Book XX (1972-1973), Encore, ed. by Jacques Alain Miller, trans. by Bruce
Fink. New York: Norton, 1999.
---. “La logique du fantasme,” Autres Ecrits. Paris: Seuil, 2001.
Miller, Jacques Alain. “Prologue,” in Autres Ecrits by Jacques Lacan. Paris: Seuil, 2001.
Ragland, Ellie. Essays on the Pleasures of Death: From Freud to Lacan. New York: Routledge,
1995.
---. The Logic of Sexuation: From Aristotle to Lacan. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 2004.
---. “The Masquerade, the Veil, and the Phallic Mask,” Psychoanalysis, Culture & Society, vol.
13, no. 1 (April 2008).
7
i Jacques Lacan, Le Sminaire, livre XIV (1966-1967), La logique du fantasme, unedited seminar.
ii Jacques Lacan, The Seminar, Book III (1955-1956) The Psychoses, ed. by Jacques Alain Miller, trans. by Russell Grigg
(New York: Norton, 1994).
iii Jacques Lacan, The Seminar, Book XI, The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psycho-Analysis, ed. by Jacques Alain Miller,
trans. by Alan Sheridan (New York: Norton, 1981). Cf. Chapter 16.

iv Jacques Alain Miller, “Prologue,” in Autres Ecrits by Jacques Lacan (Paris: Seuil, 2001), p. 8 (my translation).
v Jacques Lacan, “La logique du fantasme,” Autres Ecrits (Paris: Seuil, 2001), p. 324 (my translation).
vi Jacques Alain Miller, Du symptome au fantasme and de retour, Course of 1982-1983, Department of Psychoanalysis,
University of Paris VIII, Saint Denis, Unedited course.
vii Ellie Ragland, Essays on the Pleasures of Death: From Freud to Lacan (New York: Routledge, 1995), p. 186.
viii Ellie Ragland, “The Masquerade, the Veil, and the Phallic Mask,” Psychoanalysis, Culture & Society, vol. 13, no 1
(April 2008), pp. 8-23.
ix The Veil in all its States, ed. by Fazia Aitel and Michel Valentin (Missoula, MT: The University of Montana Press, 2008).
x Jacques Lacan, The Seminar, Book XX (1972-1973), Encore, ed. by Jacques Alain Miller, trans. by Bruce Fink (New
York: Norton, 1999), cf. Chapter 7.
xi Ellie Ragland, The Logic of Sexuation: From Aristotle to Lacan (Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 2004).
xii Ellie Ragland, Essays on the Pleasures of Death: From Freud to Lacan (New York: Routledge, 1995), p. 196.
xiii Ibid., 192.
xiv Jacques Lacan, “La logique du fantasme,” Autres Ecrits (Paris: Seuil, 2001), p. 326.

7 .& 8 /7 8 5 ( & 5 . 4 8 ( .8 /<  91 122 In Jacques Lacan’s theory of the fantasy. fantasy itself organizes what we ordinarily call “reality.” To arrive at such a notion. Lacan placed the sign of castration—or lack-in-being .

The psychotic constructs delusion. He or she experiences his or her being as a certain subject who incarnates the Other of social law). not fantasy. the psychotic’s experience of reality is written as 6 (the uncastrated subject) a [equal and equivalent to] the Other.” this gives rise to a sense of his or her not being a totality.iii This means that the object a indicates a void experience in the construction of fantasy as reality. the subject always ends up unfulfilled or lacking.—in the position of agent of the word. psychotics. structurally speaking. ideas) are sought to fill the lack-in-being. But since the lack is a structural fait accompli. In ordinary fantasy.i When a child discovers that he or she is interpellated by the cultural/familial law of “no. This lack is structured by the experiences of alienation which determines that there be no whole self—one is re-presented by another’s words and desires—and separation from primordial objects of fulfillment. except for psychotics. The other side of lack is the desire that continually pushes one to go on. only oneness with a delusional universe. Those who do not accept the “law” of “no” become. There is no lack-in-being in psychosis. a whole being. because he or she believes himself or herself to be whatever he or she believes he or she is. 1 .ii While the matheme for the fantasy is written as (lack-in-being) ! D (object of potential fulfillment). Only the formula for fantasy places the ! between the subject and its mirror other. to seek something else. various objects (things. people. This experience is undergone by almost everyone throughout history and society.

4 8 ( .& 8 /7 8 5 ( & 5 .vi The Name of the Father stands over the mother’s desire )10'. but also as a return to reconstructing this limit in the way in which law was first represented to make a subject. it is only a semblant. v This construction of fantasy occurs via Lacan’s rewriting of Freud’s Oedipal complex. is the reality of constructing objects of fulfillment that they take as their sustenance and point of limit. that is to say it is not real. 7 .”iv Lacan says of the object a that it comes from the droppings [chutes] which attest to the fact that the subject is only an effect of language.8 /<  91 122 Thus. fantasy. Jacques Alain Miller says that “the little a is only the elaboratable kernel in a discourse. We have promoted them as object a. for most people.

an enigma 0'". and the mother’s desire stands over a question mark-".

For example. the “West” takes the “Eastern” woman behind the veil to be a symbol of the repression of woman as a sexual being. an emotional entity. When we take up the question of the “East” facing “West. 2 . and by the culture in general to represent something hidden. there is also truth to this “Western” concept insofar as “Eastern” women are oppressed. of taking on the lack-in-being. Woman is seen here in an uncritical leftist construction as an annihilated being to be liberated by a “Western” fantasy of the “East”.vii The psychotic does not undergo this experience of castration because he or she is one with the totally alienated Other and identifies him or herself as being the phallus desired by others instead of being the phallus created by the Other’s desire.viii Of course. regarding her own unconscious experience of castration.” we have an abundance of examples through which to see this fantasized construction. or an intellectual presence. The result is that the Name of the Father or the “law” that imposes itself as a symptom (the sinthome in the particular) yields the cultural field of signifiers as the Other that stands over the creation of the subject as phallus (that is. targeted by the Taliban. desired object) to the Other )1¹ [Other/phallus]).

Here it is valuable to look at Lacan’s sexuation graphs as examples of a difference that is made between the masculine position (not gender specific) and the feminine position (not gender specific) and the differences that arise on the masculine symbolic order side as opposed to the feminine on the side of the real. behind drawn curtains. the woman removes the veil and interacts with her family and friends.& 8 /7 8 5 ( & 5 .ix Moreover. and so on) is spent by “Eastern” women who remove their veils once they arrive at a given social occasion. Even more surprising is that three quarters of the money spent on “Western” designer clothes (Givenchy. Laurent.x In Lacan’s sexuation graph. In her own home. different from men who dwell mostly in what Lacan called the symbolic order public sphere. 4 8 ( . Dior. 7 . wealthy “Eastern” women have private beaches where they bathe in bikinis. as women.8 /<  91 122 Yet. the masculine side of sexuation—where “Eastern” women tend to place “Western” women alongside men—abides by the logic of there being an exception to the law of castration ’[ e[. The fantasy that the “East” has of “Western” women is that they do not value themselves sexually and emotionally as special. the reality of the wealthy “Eastern” woman is that the veil is a symbol of privacy.

as itself the law since the exception itself Ž[.

God is taken as an exception to the law of castration.xi For example. the first identificatory object [f[. Women are all not men. there is no exception to the law of castration. is only a myth. They hold the place of the same rather than that of the one different from the mother. On the feminine side of the sexuation graph. except for the psychotic.

lest one essentialize man or woman in Lacan’s sexuation is that ”since masculine or feminine fantasy identification do not correspond to biological gender. A point to remember. But this gives rise to a paradoxical logic. nor do they determine the gender of sexual object preference.”xii 3 .

in being the same in reference to which difference is measured—woman has to find her being in the logic of the particular “[e[.8 /<  91 122 Because all women. except psychotic ones. 7 . 4 8 ( .& 8 /7 8 5 ( & 5 . are castrated in not being a man—that is.

unlike the masculine one who conforms to the group of others under the symbolic law of castration ’[f[. Each feminine one goes his or her own way.

so-called by Lacan. discordential logic is that on the masculine symbolic order side. masculine means accepting castration e. The result of this.

The masculine subject endures this castration by his or her links to the feminine on the side of the real.. except for the psychotic. heterosexual or homosexual ¹D. He or she is linked to the feminine as a sexual object.

but who does not exist e¹ 6 . The castrated subject in the symbolic order is also linked to the real by his or her myth of an essential woman he or she fantasizes.

Ê :RPDQ EDUUHG.

as well as a lack in the subject. The idea of an exception itself functions as a limit. But the realities of life in the “West” show single parent mothers. “little” men. Since there is no essential woman. “Western” women are generally thought by “Eastern” women to be immoral. see someone who gives no place to the real as a place of actual exception. reveal. loose. a contradiction in terms. only fantasies of how one constructs difference as itself a third thing— masculine-feminine/difference-castration—masculine social myths. one would claim that sexual liberation of women has resolved the fundamental problems of sexual being and sexual difference. “Eastern” women regarding “Western” women. women who suffer having to brave the 4 . in order that we not be a society of psychotics. And in an uncritical leftist logic. whether held by a man or a woman. rather. as an admission that there is a need for a limit in order that law exist. that there is a void in the Other. divorced women. even questions regarding the meaning of human existence.

8 /<  91 122 symbolic on their own. But in the final analysis. she is enjoined to cover her body with long sleeves and simple dresses and to wear her hair pulled back. If one goes a little further with these ideas. as are. One might even go so far as to suggest that “Eastern”/Arabic peace depends upon the liberation of women in order that there be some acceptance of difference as equality. Cultural practices become so many ways to try to understand the Oedipal construct that Lacan wrote at the end of his teaching as a  void in the Other.& 8 /7 8 5 ( & 5 . Thus. between the symbolic and the real. This is not to promote. even if some differences remain. one cannot enslave another. Indian actresses are spared the public expectation that their private lives be revealed. however. the right-wing fundamentalists characterized above. She has been put under the veil. She is to wear no makeup and is urged to never tempt man. 7 . woman is seen as the bearer of sin insofar as she incarnates sexual temptation. as Andrew Long has reminded me. an idea that “Eastern” women imprisoned in their families are a model to follow. often. In “Western” fundamentalist religious right-wing thought. at another level. Yet. except that she does not have the escape of distinguishing between the public and private spheres. 4 8 ( . Yet. these differences between “Eastern” and “Western” women can come down to class difference insofar as truly repressed “Eastern” women are often lower class. For example. Americans recently fought a war against Afghanistan in which one of their stated goals was to liberate women. both “East” and “West” construct their fantasies of women in relation to the sexual difference which Lacan always claimed created difference/castration as itself a third thing. something the veil ensures to “Eastern” women. one finds in certain groups the same logic in “Western” fantasies of women that “Easterners” hold about “Western” women. Indeed.

 h castration.

 When the void in the Other appears over 5 .

& 8 /7 8 5 ( & 5 . The )1¹e inconsistent other. 4 8 ( . one confronts an incomplete logic. 7 .8 /<  91 122 castration.

over the 0'¹ an enigma.  h means that we are confronted in our fantasies—“East” or “West”—with  loss.

 h lack.

in turn. then. if not the structural outcome of interpreting difference as sexual difference whose effects leave in its wake the seemingly normative masquerade. both trying to interpret what lies outside themselves—the real— the logic of fantasy being its place.xiv 6 . establishes imaginary myths embodied in symbolic order words and laws. the psychoses (paranoia. schizophrenia. and perversion—the categories of jouissance that arise for each person as a fantasmatic construction of the meaning of the sexual difference which. the neuroses (obsession and hysteria). and ordinary psychosis).[LLL What is law.

Paris: Seuil. 1999. 1 (April 2008). by Jacques Alain Miller. Missoula. The Seminar. ---. trans. “La logique du fantasme. by Bruce Fink. NY: SUNY Press. MT: The University of Montana Press. no.” Psychoanalysis. Book III (1955-1956) The Psychoses. 2001. “Prologue. Book XI. 2001. by Jacques Alain Miller. 2004. trans. 2008. Culture & Society. by Russell Grigg.& 8 /7 8 5 ( & 5 . trans. ed. “The Masquerade. New York: Norton. Encore. 13. 1995. by Alan Sheridan. The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psycho-Analysis. The Logic of Sexuation: From Aristotle to Lacan. Essays on the Pleasures of Death: From Freud to Lacan. the Veil. Ellie. 7 . Albany. ---. Fazia and Michel Valentin. Ragland. 1994.” Autres Ecrits. ---. New York: Routledge. 4 8 ( . ed. The Seminar. and the Phallic Mask. Book XX (1972-1973). by Jacques Alain Miller. The Veil in all its States. ed.” in Autres Ecrits by Jacques Lacan. Jacques. ---. 1981. New York: Norton. The Seminar. ---. Paris: Seuil.8 /<  91 122 Works Cited: Aitel. New York: Norton. Lacan. Jacques Alain. vol. ed. Miller. 7 .

“La logique du fantasme. v Jacques Lacan. the Veil. ii Jacques Lacan. iv Jacques Alain Miller. ed. xiv Jacques Lacan. trans. The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psycho-Analysis. The Seminar. 13. Course of 1982-1983. livre XIV (1966-1967). MT: The University of Montana Press. Essays on the Pleasures of Death: From Freud to Lacan (New York: Routledge. by Russell Grigg (New York: Norton. trans.” Autres Ecrits (Paris: Seuil. ed. “Prologue. p. 1995). Book XX (1972-1973). ed. by Jacques Alain Miller. University of Paris VIII. NY: SUNY Press.” in Autres Ecrits by Jacques Lacan (Paris: Seuil. “La logique du fantasme. 324 (my translation). cf. Unedited course. The Seminar. 326. Department of Psychoanalysis. La logique du fantasme. Chapter 16.” Autres Ecrits (Paris: Seuil. Encore. The Seminar. 192. Du symptome au fantasme and de retour. The Logic of Sexuation: From Aristotle to Lacan (Albany. no 1 (April 2008). ix The Veil in all its States. 2001). Essays on the Pleasures of Death: From Freud to Lacan (New York: Routledge. 2004). 1995). viii Ellie Ragland. p. unedited seminar. 8-23. 1981). 1994). Le S minaire. p. “The Masquerade. iii Jacques Lacan.i Jacques Lacan. by Bruce Fink (New York: Norton. by Alan Sheridan (New York: Norton. by Fazia Aitel and Michel Valentin (Missoula. and the Phallic Mask. Cf. Book III (1955-1956) The Psychoses. . vi Jacques Alain Miller. Book XI. 196. xi Ellie Ragland. ed. xii Ellie Ragland. p. trans. Saint Denis. 2008). vii Ellie Ragland. pp. 1999).” Psychoanalysis. 2001). p. xiii Ibid. 186. by Jacques Alain Miller. 8 (my translation).. vol. 2001). x Jacques Lacan. Culture & Society. Chapter 7. by Jacques Alain Miller.

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