J 0 U R N A I.


1821; 1822, 1823. PART OF THE YEARS

















IjONnoK: Printed by A. & R. Spottiswoode, New-Street- Square.


ALTHOUGHthe Journal of a voyage to Brazil, and of a residence of many months in that country, was not written without a view to publication at some time yet many unforeseen circumstances forced the writer to pause before she committed it to press, and to cancel many pages recording both public and private occurrences. Perhaps there is even yet too much of a personal nature, but what is said is at ]east honest and if the writer should suffer personally by candour, the suffering will be eheerMIy borne. As to public events, all that can be new in the Journal is the bringing together facts which have reached Europe one by one, and recording the impression produced on the spot by those occurrences which might be viewed in a very different light elsewhere. Sonie have, no doubt, been distorted by the interested channels through which they have reached the public; some by the ignorance of the reporters and most by the party spirit which has viewed either with enthusiasm or malignity the acquisition of freedom in any quarter of thé globe. Thé writer does not pretend to perfect impartiality, for in some cases impa,rtiality is no virtue but knowing that no human good A 2



can be attained without a mixture of evil, she trusts that a fair picture of both has been given, although it has cost some pain in the writing. Of the natives of the country, or of those engaged in its service, what is said, whether of those still employed or of those no longer in the empire, was written under the impression of the moment; and the writer's confidence in the good sense and justice of the Brazilian government and people is such, that she leaves the passages as they stood at the moment of writing. The events of the last three years in Brazil have been so important, that it was thought best not to interrupt the account of them, by continuing what may be called thé writer's personal narrative after she reached Chile therefore the two visits to Brazil are printed together, along with an Introduction containing a sketch of the history of the country previous to the first visit, and a notice of the public events of thé year of her absence, to connect it with the second. The Journal of a visit to Chile will form the subject of a separate volume. It was thought essential that the narratives and Portuguese America should be kept quite tries themselves being as different in climate and inhabitants are in manners, society, institutions, concerning Spanish separate the counproductions, as the and government. than the actual situation of the

Nothing can be more interesting whole of South America. While Europe was engaged in the great revolutionary war, that country was silently advancing towards the point at which longer subjection to a foreign dominion became Circumstances, not- laws, had opened the ports of the impossible. South Atlantic and the Pacifie. Individuals, not nations, had lent



their aid to the patriots of the New World and more warlike instruments and ammunition had gohe silently from the warehouses of the merchant to arm the natives against their foreign tyrants, than had ever issued from the arsenals of the greatest nations. But, for a period, Brazil did not openly join in the struggle for independence. The Royal Family of Portugal took refuge there and converted it, by that step, from a colony into the seat of government, from a state of slavery to one of sovereignty. Therefore, while thé court continued to reside at Rio de Janeiro, the Brazilians had no inducement to break with the mother country. But it was very different when the King returned to Lisbon, and the Cortes, forgetting the change of men's minds produced by circumstances, endeavoured to force Brazil back to the abject state ~'om which she had arisen. Then arose the struggle, some part of which it was the fortune of the writer to witness and concerning which she was able to collect some facts which may serve as materials for future history. She trusts that if the whole truth is not to be found in her pages, that there will be nothing but the ~M~. It is with no small anxiety that the Journal is sent into the world, in the hope that it may tend to excite interest for the country by making it better known. Perhaps thé writer has over-rated her powers, in attempting to record the progress of so important an event as the emancipation of such an empire from the thraldrom of the mother country. The lighter part of her task, namely, thé description of the country, its inhabitants, and the manners of the different classes, both of natives and foreigners, should have been fuller; but that want of health, and sometimes want of spirits, prevented her from making use of a!I the means that might hsve been



within her reach of acquiring knowledge. She trusts, however, that and that thé Journal, there is no misrepresentation of importance the writing of which bas to her beguîled many a lonely and many a sorrowful hour, will not give a moment's pain to any human creature.

English Burial Ground 307 VIGNETTES. of which Humboldt has given so interesting an account. Gamella Tree at Bahia . at the Entrance to the Harbour of Rio de Janeiro 158 VII. That at the head of the Journal.. century old. when I saw it. The End of an Island in thé Harbour of Rio de Janeiro. View of Rio from the Gloria Hill 169 VIII. or Slave Market at Rio to front the Title Page.135 V. 1 drew it after ithadiosthalfitstop. seen from Cocoa-nut Island.170 VII. as seen from thé Roça 157 VI. from Botoibgo 220 IX. Val Longo. Larangeiras 163 VI. Palace of San Cristovaô 246 X. represents the Great Dragon Tree ofOratava.131 IV. Dona Maria de Jesus 292 XI. to face Page 85 III.PLATES. He saw it in aU its greatness. and had not. View from Count Hoggendorp's Cottage . page 77. Cadeira. I. Part of Pernambuco. drawn for thé sake of the variety of Vegetation 201 V III. Stone Cart at Rio de Janeiro 321 . with the Slave Market 107 IV. The Sugar-Ioaf Rock. within the Reef 9" 111. represents two young Dragon Trees that with a single head is twenty years old. PLATE I. II. or Sedan Chair of Bahia 133 V. Church and Convent of Sant Antonio da Barre at Bahia. Slaves dragging a Hogshead in thé Streets of Pernambuco · . and the bark is disfigured by the incisions made in it to procure thé S" 77 i ~o~K-c~~ II. been tapped for the The other is about a Dragon's Blood. View of Count Maurice's Gate at Pernambuco. Corcovado. Convicts carrying Water at Rio de Janeiro 21-fi IX.

and they made war for food few of thé tribes knew even the cultivation of the mandioc. &rmH'eread<mfa.INTRODUCTION. 59. The Spanish conquests were more quicidy B . 65. In Mexico. 64. m Chili. 23. <orgt)Mrnn<e~read~M!erttMe)t< in the first line of note t for not read most. t26. for ~'tf~o read Piraja. 4. and waging war for conquest and for glory. 21. 16. from bottom. 2t.Md<M'. l'or sodier read soldier. 6. 4. in Peru. for CtMtotMSread CrHttœaS. last line but one. 41. But the savages of Brazil were hunters and cannibals. and fewer still had adopted any kind of covering. in the list of sbips that remained at Lisbon. line 20. ERRATA. 4. 47. <bram&Hsaderreadam&M. 17.&rI8t7readt80T. 45. I4J. save paint and feathers for ornament. line t3.fuchsia readfuschia. acquainted with many of the arts of polished life agriculturists and mechanics knowing in the things belonging to the altar and the throne. they wandered. 79. for. the conquerors encountered a people civilised and humane. read '~&aS ° `~ T~ Cir~tMStmï~W-S~n~ ~(fTëri~ëse~~A~ very different in every stage. 69. ïao. <br foH<a read ~nte. for <mpo<a<tMt read importation. for ~o )ine 12. 57. for C«~<'<read Caula. &rAope<rBad&MM. Page 30. 61.

acquainted with many of the arts of polished life agriculturists and mechanics knowing in the things belonging to the altar and the throne. But the savages of Brazil were hunters and cannibals they wandered. if not impertinent. and fewer still had adopted any kind of covering. Southey's authorities. It would have been easy for me to have referred to the Southey. The Spanish conquests were more quickly B . In Mexico. and they made war for food few of the tribes knew even the cultivation of the mandioc. ` The circumstances of Spanish and Portuguese America were very different in every stage.INTRODUCTION. 1 JUDGED necessary to prefix the following sketch of the it history of Brazil to the journal of my in order that the voyage thither. but 1 hope that littlé is correct. in Peru. Portuguese authors. SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF BRAZIL. political events to which 1 was an eye-witness might be the better understood. in Chili. the conquerors encountered a people civilised and humane. Southey had been so faithfui as well as judicious in the use he has made of his authors. and waging war for conquest and for glory. as 1 have read nearly ail that are to be found in print of Mr. and some that he does not mention but Mr. to have neglected his guidance. that it would have been absurd. The early part of the history is almost entirely taken from Mr. save paint and feathers for ornament. From the time of the KIng's arrival in Brazil. or rather of his leaving Lisbon. 1 am answerable for aU 1 have stated: it is little.

They are plain. is the more disgusting as it is more sordid. Hence the history of the early settlers in Brazil presents none of those splendid and chivalresque pictures that the chronicles of the Corteses. and Pizarros. In Brazil the land that was granted by leagues was <o be ~o~ &y inches from thé hordes of savages who succeeded each other in incalculable multitudes.and an edition printed.2 INTRODUCTION. and thé land already cultivated. that the copies of his Incas were bought up. This prophecy was recorded by Garcelaço de la Vega and it is said. looked round the chamber of thé viceroys. and appeared more easily settled. sense and a remembrance of national honour and freedom. full of patience. deed had been thinned by the cruelties of the conquerors.t Thé hall with thé picture~of the viceroys was filled there would be no room in it for Lacerna. omitting thé prophecy. and often pathetic scenes of human life. and the mines already known and worked. when he visited Lima. to hand down the prophecies uttered in the phrenzy of their dying patriots and the Peruvian. . were entered upon at once by the conquerors. when he saw thé Admirai of the Chilian squadron. But the very circumstances that facilitated the settling of the A Spanish colonies were also likely to accelerate their liberation. because in states so far advanced in civilisation the defeat of an army decides the fate of a kingdom. with no common émotion and many a dreamer on the Peruvian coast. but enough were left to perpetuate the memory of their fathers. remained Their numbers inamong the polished Mexicans and Peruvians. made. and whose migratory habits rendered it a matter of course for one tribe immediately to occupy the ground from which its predecessors had been driven. was ready to hail him as the golden-han'ed son of light who was to restore the kingdom of the Incas. till the fated number should be accomplished. and Almagros furnish. as he saw niche after niche filled up with their pictures. and endurance but the wickedness that stains even thé best of them. and enterprise.

the people are wretched. near Cape St. He carried home some valuable drugs. In 1499. of Portugal.INTRODUCTION. he steered to the south-west. that it fell in with the coast of Brazil. so that the introduction of the hardier Africans was deemed and if here and necessary they now people the Brazilian fields Indian aldea is to be found. to the command of a large fleet. He and his brothers were in search of new countries. precious stones. however. drove the expedition so far to the westward. 3 But in Brazil. real and respectable part of the assertors of thé indépendance of their country. Meantime Pedro Alvarez Cabral was appointed by Emanuel. and much less than Negro spirit or inHence. thé Indians are nothing in Brazil even as a mixed race. till he came to the coast of Brazil. which had been exterminated. or wholly subdued. and one of the companions of Cohimbus. Brazil was discovered by Vicente Yanez Pinçon. destined to follow King the course of Vasco de Gama in the east. but had claimed the country for Spain. systematic on the first occupation of the land. a native of Palos. had diminished the wretched Indians. with there an less than Negro comforts. and though they did not arise principally out of the causes of the emigration and return of the Royal family. they were at least quickened and accelerated by them. and thence to the mouth ofthe Oronoco. and after touching at the Cape de Verd Islands. The slave hunting. They have been either pointing to a better or more glorious time. or at least by any recollection of their's. and Brazil wood but had lost two of his three ships on the voyage. what was once gained was not likely to be lost by the efforts of the natives. He made no settlement. and more especially after the discovery of the mines.. Augustine. and the ships anchored in Porto Seguro on GoodB 2 . and coasted along as far as the river Maranham. Adverse winds. they have less part among the dinerent casts than in the Spanish colonies and therefore iealousies among the Portuguese themselves could alone at this period have brought anairs to their present crisis. along with the Creole Spaniards. while the original Mexicans and Peruvians form a dustry. These jealousies have taken place.

* There they remained five months. as it now began to be called. the country ceased for a time to excite the attention of government. the King of Portugal invited Amerigo Vespucci from Seville. and a stone cross was erected to commemorate thé event. and suffering from intolerable cold. But as Brazil. and parrots. but Amerigo with thé other two reached a port which they called AU Saints. they returned to Lisbon early in 1504. and very early in their intercourse with the natives they discovered that they were cannibals. and having loaded their two ships with Brazil wood. or nearly. the dilïerence it must therefore be being 120 leagues a port to the northward. that after coasting 260 leagues they were in I8"S. proceeded to India. without making any settlement. and the first actual settlements This cannot be Bahia. and then. Friday of the year 1500. Cabral dispatched a small vessel to Lisbon to announce his discovery. monkéys.4 INTRODUCTION. and which the Portuguese gained with less hazard from Africa. On Easter-day thé first Christian altar was raised in thé new continent under a large tree. did not promise that ample supply of gold which the Spaniards had discovered in their new countries. . after passing thé Cape de Verds by the orders of the commander. On the arrival of the news in Europe. and left twelve men with guns and provisions. four of the vessels were lost. 52% finding neither port nor inhabitants. They erected a small fort. for they say. at which the innocent natives assisted with pleased attention the country was taken possession of for thé crown of Portugal by the name ofthe land of the Holy Cross. with whom some of the party travelled forty leagues into thé interior. they returned to Lisbon in 1502. in friendship with the natives. arrived. Early in the next year Amerigo sailed again with six ships but having stood too near the coast of Africa. and mass was performed. but nevertheless they established a friendly intercourse with some ûf the tribes and after coasting along South America as far as lat. and fi'om the East. and sent him with three ships to After a long and distressing voyage they explore the country. now Bahia is in 12<' 40'.

They made Cape St. 5 were made by private adventurers. they are apt to practise such cruelties and injustice as disgust thé natives. erecting crosses as they went but some disputes having arisen between them. andis as easilyattractedby the loadstone s steelfilings. and if they teach any thing. he saw the South Sea he heard ofPeru. where there is where nothing to do but to reclaim thé land.in thé bay of Panama. which Pinçon had discovered. its mines. Miguel's where he walked sword in hand up to his middle into the water bay. well aware of the dangers and difficulties he had to encounter. a sort of settlers that may do well in an unpeopled country. were desirous of having some kind of agents among the people.INTRODUCTION. No one in Europe now doubted that the western way to the East Indies was discovered. 40° south.. Thé sandof thé beachof those islandsis iron. as an interference with her discoveries. because they either become degraded to thé savage level themselves. for it was not until 1515 that Solis was on a second voyage. and its Hamas. on account of their trade. they returned to Spain and it appears that the remonstrances of Portugal against the voyage. He had heard from the Indians of its existence. render colonisation difficult. which had been sought and seen by Balboa in 1513. its cities and its aqueducts. if they continue frlends. Amerigo Vespucci having returned to the service of the King resolved to take possession of the new land which Spain. a . Pearl islands. if not. and he received pearis from the islands that lay in front of St. had some weight. dispatched and then it was with the avowed purpose of seeking a passage to thé Great Pacifie Sea. After twenty-five days of suffering and fatigue. and coasted along to lat. who. The first persons employed for this purpose were criminals. he sent Vincent Yanez Pinçon and Juan Diaz de Solis to assert them. That extraordinary but unfortunate man was the first European whose eyes rested on the broad Pacifie. but that must do 111 there are many and savage natives. if is ail the worst part ofthe life of civilised nations. and resolutely set out to discover it.or. Augustine's. But in 1508. had been discovered and founding his daims on the grant of Alexander VI. and took possession for the King of Spain.

by which he might communicate with the océan but it was the river La Plata. discovered them. monkies and parrots. . Antonio da Barre. or strait. and examining ail its coves. when Magelhaens touched at BIo de Janeiro. The ships then put back to St. had contrived He had saved a musket and some powder to conciliate thé natives. That able navigator made the coast of Brazil far to the southward of Cape St. Augustine. and again remonstrated against the interference of Spain so enectually. and entered what he hoped at nrst would be a sea. married at least one Indian wife. from thé wreck. Cristovam Jaques. who had been wrecked on the shoal off the entrance of the harbour and who had seen half his companions drowned. near an excellent spring. where he had been with Pinçon and on the Ist of January 1516 he discovered the harbour of Rio de Janeiro. sailing into the port. as he accompanied them on an expedition against their enemies the Tapuyas. and sunk the ships. and sometimes plundered some of the weaker Portuguese traders. About the same time. loaded with Brazil wood. or thé man of fire and. But the King Don Emanuel claimed these cargoes. and had begun to trade with the Indians. where Solis and several of his followers were murdered and devoured by the natives. that three years afterwards. crews. 1 suppose that off St. and fixed his residence at the spot now called Villa Velha. they called him Caramuru. and half eaten by the Indians. In 1616. he purchased nothing but provisions. and had taken in their cargoes of Brazil wood. and having taken an opportunity of shooting a bird in the presence of the inhabitants.6 INTRODUCTION. when the Portuguese commander. two of thèse ad~enturers entered the bay of Ail Saints. Augustines. and not far from the entrance to thé bay. a young Portuguese nobleman. and returned to Spain. thence he sailed still to thé southward. he became a favourite. Great hopes were therefore entertained from the expedition of Solis. Meantime several French adventurers had corne to Brazil. and cargoes.

and of the articles necessary for trading with the natives. by the number and fierceness of the Indian tribes that occupied them. ofthe artillery of the ships. in 1531. three wise men went Westward to seek the world's true orient. who sometimes daims the discovery of Rio de Janeiro as his. however. many of which extended fifty leagues.INTRODUCTION. where they were well received by the court. was not permitted to go to Portugal but by means of a young Portuguese student at Paris he communicated his situation to the King Joam III. Still. although it had been named by Solis fifteen years before. Souza was probably deterred from fixing on the shores of that beautiful bay. and each captaincy was made hereditary. into captaincies. whose marriage was now celebrated according to the Christian form. -and accordingly seized thé opportunity afforded by the arrivai of a French vessel. Caramuru. or what is more. however. 7 Caramuru. nor that rich commerce which the Portuguese derived from their Indian trade. Thé first person who took possession of one of these captaincies was Martim Affonso de Souza. . was granted. thé first bishop of Brazil. it was pretty much left to itself for the first thirty years after its and then the regulations adopted by the court were not.. The coast was divided by Joam III. and pressed him to send an expedition to the bay of Ail Saints. felt some natural longing to see his native land. the king and queen standing sponsors at the baptism of the Brazilian lady. having agreed to freight two ships with Brazil wood as the price of his passage. however. Caramuru returned to Bahia. both criminal and civil. discovery perhaps. the most advantageous for the country. as Brazil furnished neither gold. Shortly afterwards. and taking his favourite wife. naming Three kïngs. he went with her to France." Pedro Fernandez Sardinha. He therefore coasted towards the Ilha Grande dos Magos on twelfth-day. when south. and granted to any one who was willing to embark with sufficient means in the adventure and to these captains an unlimited jurisdiction.

and five years of warfare reduced him to the necessity of sending to Espirito Santo for vessels to remove his colonists. and in it also the first cattle were bred. St. was imme. Vasco Fernandez de Coutinho began to settle Espirito Santo in the same year (1531) in which the former colonies had been begun. leagues of coast in two allotments diately to the north of San Vincente. and St. VIncent's on the 22d but having proceeded as far south as the La Plata. Sebastian's on INTRODUCTION. and the other was Tamaraca. where he had before highly distinguished himself He introduced the sugar-cane from Madeira into his colony. Amaro. which they Coutinho called N. he was attacked by the native tribe of Goaytacazes. and whence he named the whole captaincy. the settlers having now obtained some indications of gold and jewels to be found In the country. with which he established himself at Porto Seguro.8 St. Pero Lopes de Souza. and expended most of it in collecting volunteers for his new colony sixty fidalgoes and men of thé royal household accompanied him. S. returned to Lisbon for recruits and implements for mining. the harbour where Cabral had . a nobleman and a navigator. sions at home. the brother of Martim Affonso. between Pernambuco and Paraiba. the 20th. where he ultimately founded his colony. Martim Affonso de Souza was no ordinary man his cares for his colony did not relax even after he had been recalled. On their arrival they built a fort. The adjoining captaincy of Porto Seguro was given to Pedro de He sold his possesCampo Tourinho. and established four sugar-works. Thence they hâve spread ail over the continent of South America. and sent as governor-general to India. The adventurers had a prosperous voyage. da Victoria. and have proved of more real value to it than its mines. had his fifty one part. he returned to thé neighbourhood of San Vincente. He had amassed a great fortune in the East. and raised a large body of colonists. About the same time the Fidalgo Pedro de Goes attempted a settlement at Paraiba do Sul but after two years tolerable prosperity.

three changes of indwellers. fertile. should have by been. who had a place in the treasury. was settled by Jorge de Figueredo Correa. called that of dangerous St. that the Portuguese resolved to desist from open warfare. The Indians were so thinned. exterminating men for the sake of growing canes. He nxed his abode at Villa Velha. that the Capitam Môr resolved to get rid of it. driven out each other. or reconcave of AU Saints. but defended itself so bravely. a who had made himself a name fidalgo in India. and speedily became flourishing. there is a shoal to large vessels. by the murder of a son of one of the chiefs. so called from its principal river. In this very captaincy. that it must always have been an object of desire whether to savage or civilised and it is not surprising that three inhabitants revolutions. is stamed with the most atrocious cruelties not such as soldiers in the heat of war commit. but cold calculated cruelties. before the settlement of Coutinho. The the following tale is not true. The history of the settlement of Porto Seguro. where Caramuru had formed his little settlement. under Joam IIL.* T~os. mat they were easily overcome c 1 . The bay. between 1531 and 1540. that îs. It was attacked. Antonio da Barre.INTRODUCTION. but with uunatural ingenuity exposed nbands ànd toys infected with smallpox matter in thé places where & savages were likely to find them the plan succeeded. that mutucu. That nobleman. imprudente and cruelly disturbed the peace of the rising settlement. being remarkably favourable to thé sugar culti° vation. and two of his followers married the daughters of Caramuru. with its adjacent territory. and on the left. an Indian tribe had been so troublesome. 9 first taken possession of Brazil. coral reefs running ofF from The country that surrounds it is so Itaporica. given to Francisco Pereira Coutinho. within thèse twentyyears. in the memory of the Indians. Ilke that of aîi thé others. which has three islands at the mouth. so waiting patiently for the~-M~ of crime. whose-early life had been passed in the East-Indian Portuguese wars. hope though my authority is good. Bahia de Todo os Santos was. is a the magnificent harbour entrance appears to be a league in breadth but on the right hand. on entering.

sailed in ten ships for their new possession. where the natives murdered him. had been planted at Olinda. Three adventurers undertook this settlement the jointly. the first donatory. first under Sebastian Cabot. was opposed not only by thé natives. now joined the Indians in retarding those regular settlements which were likely to put an end to their commerce. that after a most disastrous warfare. Aires da Cunha. he and Caramuru were both obliged to abandon the settlement and retire to Ilheos. Soon afterwards. thé Indians. the sons of Barros slain by undertaking. Thé colony. and nothing farther. he made peace with thé Indians but on his return to the Reconcave. in the course of which the already flourishing sugar. father of the writer of the others were Fernam Chronicle. The last colony whieh was founded during these ten eventful years was that of Maranham. and nine hundred men. The most celebrated was Joam de Barros. but were wrecked on the shoals so that it was long before any success attended the of Maranham Da Cunha was drowned. except the seizure of the little settlement of Garussa.10 INTRODUCTION. occurred to impede thé prosperity of the captaincy. who having carried on a desultory though profitable trade on the coast. and afterwards There is a note in the first volume of Southey's Brazil concerning thé name of Marino given to Olinda by Hans Staade. Barros's two sons. The war was but of short continuance. and the Spaniards.* a situation as strong as it is beautiful. Is this from the town or their nautica! habits ? or from the name of the Indian village Marim which existed in the neighbourhood? . and Pereira contrived to engage some of the Indian tribes in his favour. Meantime the passage through Magellan's Straits had been discovered. in the woods and near the creek which separates Itameraca from the main ]and. and the rest of the people with difficulty survived in a very wretched condition. Duarte Coelho Pereira. The other Brazilians call the Pernambucans of Recife Marineros still. consequence was. the historian Alvares de Andrada. but spared Caramuru. who returned to his old dwelling. In the settlement of Pernambuco. but by numbers of French. however. he was wrecked on the reef off Itaporica. and Aires da Cunha.-works were burnt. however.

a Portuguese. Orellana had also made his daring voyage down thé mighty river that is sometimes called by his name. Catherine's. He is believed to have thé hand of one of his own followers. had. In one of these he found traces ofthe adventurer Garcia. derived inestimable advantage from the friendship and assistance of the patriarch Caramuru as to the spiritual. that he was followed by a very considerable army. by Thome de Souza. and consequently more formidable enemies to the rising towns. and after settling himself in the journey government of Assumption. and nearly the same fate had attended Luiz de Mello da Silva. had conducted various expeditions of discovery. had begun to settle on the shores of the Plata. During the next ten years. who founded Buenos Ayres. who carried out with him the first Jesuit missionaries. For the site ofhis new town De Souza fixed upon the hill immediately above thé deepest part of the harbour of Bahia. Salvadors. who.fNTRODUCTION. which is defended at thé back by a deep lake. Cabeza de Vacca had also made his adventurous overiand from St. who made a similar attempt on the part of Portugal. but no particulars perished by were ever known of his fate. except the founding of thé city of St. and a more obstinate and fatal resistance from the Indians. the first Captain General of Brazil. and is said to have penetrated even into Tarija. This man had by some means so conciliated the Indians. nothing remarkable occurred with regard to Brazil. The temporal concerns of the new colony. with five companions. and lies about half a league from the Villa Velha of Coutinho and Caramuru. He had afterwards perished in an attempt to make a settlement on its shores. under the orders of Martim Affonso de Souza. 11 under Don Pedro de Mendoza. not without opposition from the Portuguese. always in hopes of finding an easy way to the gold countries. The settlers had hitherto c 2 . it was indeed time that some rule of faith and morals should find its way to Brazil. The tribes in this neighbourhood appear to have been more civilised than those of the coast of Brazil. undertaken to explore the interior of South America.

a thing so unnatural. a palace.nem a licentious depravity. and a customand a cathedral house were begun the whole was defended by a mud wall. kine. See thé collection of tracts by Barbosa Maehpdo. a college for the Jesuits. Brazil was becoming an object of importance to the crown of The new settlement of Bahia was established on the Portugal. by Pero de Magalhaens de Gandano. and to miscarried Hans Staade. But it is far from being so disgusting. with dowries in negroes. whose manners were as dissolute as their own. plate representing The author gives a short account of the then known plants and animals of Brazil. and brood-mares. should so very far exceed ail the savage tribes of thé old in barbarity. Thé apostle of Brazil. 1576. and who encouraged in .* It is curious that the Indians of the new world.12 INTRODUCTION. These latter are said to have eaten the children born by their own daughters to their prisoners of war. Thé next year supplies of ail kinds arrived from Lisbon. another Las Casas. with regard to his steady attempts to protect as well as to convert the Indians. had no instructors but friars. six batteries. was Nobrega. as he may in truth be called. There is a copperthé dragging the prisoner with cords..1549. But it is certain In the Historia da Provincia Sancta Cruz. scarcely less shocking than the cannibalism of the savages. and the year after that several ~emale orphans. the cotemporary and rival in the race of disinterested services to his fellow creatures of St. we are indebted for the most authentic and particular account of the Brazilian Savages. one of the crew who survived and after various adventures fell into the power of the Indians. Francis Xavier and. About this time. that it only gains credit because thé Portuguese sold as slaves even their own children by the native women. and concludes with the hope that the mines believed to exist may speedily be found. were sent out as wives for the officers. of noble family. a Spanish expedition destined for the river Plata one of the ships was wrecked off St. In four months there were 100 houses. Vincent's. and felling him with a club. and at his expense 1000 persons had been sent out the first year. . and chief of the six Jesuits who accompanied Souza. there is an account sufficiently tallying with that which Southey has compiled <rom Hans Staade and De Lery. king's account.

colony The school was opened on the feast of the conversion of St. the first school was established in Brazil. and therefore successful that while they wrought their own purposes. received the Anchieta was not on!y a man of extraordinary nrmness of mind and real piety. Salvador's. Southey of his usual rancour against the Roman Catholic faith. joint provincials.* Ti~e chief of the order. he erected Brazil into a new province. and the establishment. who had been principal at Coimbra. in the high plains of Piratininga. were mile'. while his labours as a missionary and teacher were beyond those of any individuai of whom 1 have ever read. they made their people happy and that centuries will not repair the evil done by their sudden expulsion. And whatever may be the opinions entertained." Taylor . as to their politics and ultimate views. so that thé general circulation of it is rendered impossible. His merits as a christian apostle and a man of literature. have disarmed even Mr. Bahia. that Mr. Paul. 13 that no authentic accounts of cannibals have ever been brought from Africa whereas. and the infant colony rising round it. and the good it might otherwise do in the country for which it is written frustrated. Oh. which broke up the bands of humanised society which were beginning to unite the Indians with their fellow creatures. as it is generally called. and was succeeded by Don Duarte da Costa. as characteristic of the people. Anchieta was the school-master. and his civil services to the Portuguese government were equal to those of the greatest captains. Southey would remember the quotation which he himself brings forward from Jeremy Zeal against an error is not always the best instrument to find out truth. or. by Nobrega. who was accompanied by seven jesuits. among whom was the celebrated Anchieta. In J553. about thirteen leagues from the of San Vicente. and appointed Nobrega and Luis de Gran. From that moment the labours of the fathers for thé real good of the country commenced. The year 1552 is distinguished by the arrival of thé first bishop in Brazil. His see was fixed at St. was still alive.INTRODUCTION. 'In the next year. none of thé early writers on Brazil and its inhabitants have failed to dwell upon their love of human flesh. there is not a doubt but that the means they employed to reclaim and civilise thé Indians. Loyola. Thome de Souza retired from his government. That excellent writer's book on Brazil is spoilt by intemperate langnage on a subject on winch human feeling is least patient of direct contradiction. but a politician of no common cast.

who had most of them intermarried . learnt from these last their own He had tongue. the daily lesson for each. like ail the others. so that !ie wrote on separate leaves. while he taught Latin to the Portuguese and Mamalucos. no books for his pupils. and with one hundred other white persons put to death by the Cahetes. and exclaimed against it as an infringement of what they called their right to the services of the natives. and more humane principles than most of those to whom the government of Mamaluco. to the government of Brazi]. slaughtered. But the colony had. saint. to fight for its early existence it was attacked by the Mamalucos of the neighbouring settlement of St. Paul's. They engaged by other pretences some of thé neighbouring tribes to assist them. the high and free spirit of its inhabitan< who have taken thé lead in every effort for the good of the country. and ail but exterminated. died. He served as physician. André.14 name ofthe INTRODUCTION. St. Its rich minerais. with the natives. prevented thé country from immediately feeling the evils which a regency generally entails even in an established government. who regarded the instruction of the Indians as a step towards abolishing their slavery. in four dînèrent languages. and other manu~ctures. but which are sure to fall with tenfold weight upon a rising colony. above ail. its iron-works. but they were met and defeated by those of St. Anchieta. His appointment of Mem de Sa. These were the Creole Portuguese. and practised and taught thé most useful domestic arts. but was wrecked on thé coast at a place called the Baixos de San Francisco. as well as priest and school-master. distinguish it above ail the southern towns of Brazil. before his death. and there seized. thé latter resolved to return to Lisbon. The revenge of thé Portuguese was horrible.* and Portuguese to thé Brazilians. Joam III. but. Paul's bas since grown to be one of the most important towns in Brazil. the Cahetes were hunted. Meantime some disputes having arisen between thé Governor and thé Bishop. In the year 1557. Mem de Sa was a man of more enlightened mind. and composed a grammar and dictionary for them.

to set at liberty ail the Indians who had been wrongfully enslaved. exclaimed against these proceediMgs as violations of the freedom of the natives. He arrived at Bahia in relations in which 1558. Villegagnon. Having visited Brazil in 1558. His first acts were directed towards reclaiming the allied Indians from some of their most brutal practices. he had been employed by Mary of Guise. on his return to Europe. gave him two vessels. gave out that the new settlement was to be a refuge for the persecuted Hugonots. Nicholas Durand de Villegagnon was a native of Provins en Brie. One powermi colonist alone refused to obey Mem de Sa ordered his house to be surrounded and instantly levelled with the Such an act was certainly calculated to inspire the Indians ground. and a Knight of Malta. thé Creoles. that of Rio de Janeiro. had formed a settlement in the finest harbour of Brazil. with confidence in his good intentions towards them. The selfish planters. and. he made such representations at court of these advantages. and to induce them to form settlements near those of the Jesuits. and this answered the double pur- .INTRODUCTION. Meantime an adventurer of no ordinary stamp. each of 200 tons. wishing to make use of Coligny's interest. and who at that time were numerous. the Indians. In 1648. that Henry II. ]5 the Brazilian provinces had been intrusted. in order to procure slaves. and the mixed race stood to each other. and they were equally displeased at thé orders issued. interested in keeping up the feuds of the Indians. to convey her daughter the young Queen of Scots to France in 1651 he was engaged in the defence of Malta. namely. and a store ship of 100 tons. Villegagnon could not be insensible to the advantages that must arise to France from having a settlement there. at the entreaty of the French court. and earnestly applied himself to the the Portuguese. to convey the adventurers who might wish to leave France. against the Pacha Sinan and the famous Dragut Reis. at the same time that his vigorous measures to punish them for any infraction of their engagements kept them in awe. and two years afterwards published an account of that campaign.

stopped them. of the Hugonots were obliged to return to France. attacked it in January. where there is only one landing place. to hate the Portuguese. where there is now a sman fort called the Laje. and threw Villegagnon now imagined He behaved so tyrannically that many off the mask of toleration. Those. pose of securing thé AdmiraFs friendship. With thèse he reached Rio de Janiero. and orders were sent to the Captain General to examine into its state first. Ten thousand treachery was thé protestants were ready to embark for Coligny. had at least encouraged them. and whose form and situation is singularly adapted for 'safety. he would have found it Among these was Jean de Lery. who. that they were heretics worthy of the stake. however. especially against such enemies as the Indians. and then. vo take it. now called Villegagnon. Meantime Coligny had exerted himself to send out assistance of But every kind. whom Villegagnon flattered himself that he should be able to keep aloof by thé assistance of the Savages. and of them he made thé most malicious complaints. he pitched on an island within the harbour. and made his first settlement in a low rock at the mouth of the harbour. of the Rio had been long accustomed to trade with the French. recruits* and protestant ministers. and gaining a number of respectable colonists. But nothing is so short-sighted as wickedness. At length the attention of the court of Lisbon had been drawn towards thé French settlement. as the island. and demolished the works. and had Villegagnon succeeded in returning with the recruits he expected. but had not sufficient force to attempt forming a settlement. Accordingly. and thé colony was left in a defenceless state. but finding it not sumciently elevated to resist thé high tides. while Villegagnon was absent in France. was then named but the report of those who had returned. VIHegagnon's cause of the ruin of his enterprise. if they had not taught them. and concluded by saying. if possible. accompanied by Nobrega and two other Jesuits. 1560. Mem de Sa. . himself secure in his colony.16 INTRODUCTION. provisions.

Before these works. and near the Sugar-loaf mountain. he went to San Vincente for reinforcements these. more commonly called the city of Rio and for its security the Jesuits. from a base of about four hundred feet. or the wal!s of the town were completed. where they attempted to form a settlement at Recife. thé French embarked in the four ships they still possessed. the civil war prevented thé government from assisting him. was sent out n-om Portugal to form a settlement in Rio. led them in person. and the French colony was lost. Sebastian's day. 1T But his bad faith easy to re-establish and perhaps revenge himseK deterred the Hugonots from joining him. St. Juan. nor could 1 find any person at Rio de Janeiro who remembered such a place. and arrived in the harbour on the 18th of January. and fled to the coast of Pernambuco. the French made a vigorous effort to disturb the rising colony but it ended in their defeat. however. which. but finding his means inadequate to contend with the Indians. the French attempted to form a settlement at Paraiba the next year but thé Indians. D .INTRODUCTION. a bare and inaccessible rock. and their guns were made use of to fortify thé mouth of thé harbour. with their Indians. however. on the west side of the bar. Sebastian. 1567. Mem de Sa now founded the city of St. which is about four miles distant from the city across the bay. Driven from Rio. then called Uraçumiri. collecting what force he could. and having obtained a decisive victory. In 1564. with thé Jesuits . fortifi'ed both sides of the entrance to the harbour. Estacio de Sa.at their head. shoots up to a thousand in perpendicular height. or of the fort of Praya Vermelha. however. It was. only enabled him to keep up the war. the Indians and French were attacked in their strongest hold. but were dislodged by the Portuguese of Olinda. But there is no place existing in Mr. On the 20th. led on by the few remaining French. most probably on the site of the present St. the neighbourhood of that name. He therefore applied to his uncle for succour. and to maintain himself in a post he had fortified not far from the entrance of the harbour. nephew of Mem. who. which answers e~actiy to the description. Southey says this spot is called Villa Velha.

With him sailed a fleet of seven ships. besides the governor. so that Brazil was deprived nearly at once of the two ablest men that had yet been concerned in its government. by Pero Magathaës de Gadano. fixed his résidence. and then named Luiz de Vasconcellos to succeed him. But Luiz de Brito did not succeed to the government of au Brazil. and a number of orphan girls. and whom thé government was sending out to settle in Brazil. arrived. fell in with French and English ships. and Doctor Antonio Salerna was appointed governor of the south. bearing. and the new governor was As soon as his death was known at killed in action off Tercera. This was thé year when thé loss of Don Sebastian in Afi-ica threw Portugal into thé hands of Spain. which included Porto Seguro and every thing to the south of it while Bahia reThere Luiz de Brito mained the capital of the northern districts. they were still separate. Diego Laurenço da Viega. and the Jesuits. under the commander Martim Leytam. sixty-nine Jesuit missionaries. but Southey's MS. King Philip. eager to annex that When the Historia da Provincia de Sancta Cruz. who had begun that system. whose parents had died of thé plague. and a very few troops. But this division was soon found inconabout 1578. to use their own expression. Don Sebastian. that though he had been Captain-general far beyond the term of his original appointment. and the two parts were re-united which a new governor. That nobleman never reached Brazil. save one. It was judged proper to divide the colony into two captaincies. The fleet. 1575. had died a few months before. continued him in office for two years longer. the year in venient. in different divisions.18 INTRODUCTION. Nobrega. expelled them. received the crown of martyrdom. . Lisbon. Luiz de Brito de Almeida was appointed to his vacant office and Mem de Sa just lived long enough to witness the arrival of his successor. ofl578 says they had been re-united. on which the singular government of the Jesuits in Paraguay was conducted. Under Mem de Sa the state had been so prosperous. was printed. Rio de Janeiro being the capital of the southern division. on assuming the crown.

Olinda partook of ail these advantages. and consequently Lord of Brazil. ànd he refused it. work and thatched with palm-leaves. and the mandioc furnished never-failing stores ofbread. and was itself the best built and most populous town in Brazil. of the first settlers. The colony was at this period most flourishing. and the climate milder nor were the other captaincies less prosperous. though not altogether able to do without occasional supplies from the mother But already the original mud-cottages. Rio de Janeiro had become a place only inferior in importance to the other two. Inferior to the Spanish American countries in mines. now King of Portugal as well as of Spain. native fruits. The reconcave of Bahia had sixty-two the land was well churches. He attempted to form a colony and maintain a fort in the Straits. His appearance in the southern seas alarmed Philip the Second. and upwards of seventy sugar-works stocked with cattle. 19 kingdom for ever to his crown. had given way to well built and handsome houses of stone and brick. covered with tiles as in Europe. and so forming a barrier against the intrusion of other nations. in order to prevent future navigators from passing. with the title of King.INTRODUCTION. Some vessels trading peaceably at San Vincente were attacked in the harbour by the D2 . The Port Famine. which attests the miserable fate of the colonists. it was considered only of consequence as being occupied by Spanish subjects. offered Brazil. But it was reserved for his descendant t<j achieve the independence of Brazil. and in 1577 Drake had passed through the Straits of Magellan in his memorable voyage round the world. to Braganza if he would give up his daim to the crown of Portugal. but ofit nothing is left but the name. its natural advantages being still greater. By this time the English had begun to trade on the coast of Brazil. English commerce was also eut off in Brazil. ail the kinds of orange and lime trees introduced The country abounded in excellent by Europeans had flourished. supported by framecountry. But the transfer of the crown into foreign hands changed the aspect of affairs in Brazil.

and the secret. which entered the reconcave of Bahia and plundered it. Antonio Barreiros the bishop. and had committed such ravages on thé coast of Spanish America. During his captaincy some search was made after mines by a descendant of Caramuru. the Earl of Cumberland fitted out an expedition. In 1686. on This Philip refused to condition of receiving the title of Marques. and he sailed for England. He was also reinforced by Captain Vernon with two . and the English escaped next day. the city being only saved by thé Indian archers. he embarked in a second expedition. grant. and Don Francisco de Souza was appointed in his stead. and 60 tons. however. who had many great and who might certainly think it allowable to supply good qualities. He therefore ntted nve out of near thirty small prizes to accompany him. but by a mistake in executing his orders it failed. and took Santos and The ships then sailed for the Straits. as not even the atrocious habits of naval warfare in those days can excuse. in which Raleigh served and Witherington was admiral. In 1591. and Christovam and they were soon superseded by de Barros as joint governors Francisco Giraldes he. thé governor of Brazil. The most remarkable expedition of the English to the coast of Brazil He had the comwas that of Sir James Lancaster to Pernambuco. but died of a broken heart on the passage. Cavendish. died with him. remaining there six weeks. and himself on an enemy's coast. if indeed the man had one. were bamed in their attempt to pass. and returned t. who offered to discover where he had found the silver of which he had services in his house and chapel. mand ofthree small vessels of 240. Spaniards in superior force one of the latter was sunk. never arrived in the country. made an attempt on Espiritu Santo. At Cape Blanco he learned that a rich carrack from India had been wrecked near Olinda. and that her cargo was safely stowed at Recife. and was succeeded by D. 120. Meantime thé celebrated Cavendish had made one voyage round the world.20 INTRODUCTION. and built a galley frigate to landwith.o the coast of Brazil to obtain provisions. Baretto. but burned San Vincente. died thé next year. arrived in December on the coast of Brazil.

to examine the country. on thé very last day of his stay. some of his people. He had been at the taking of Maranham from the French. Mr. Southey's RKautt ? . that Daniel de la Touche was induced to go thither by Itayuba of the jf? OM Is this ~r~.~ ships. He says. Some French privateers coming in. And this was the last attack made by thé English on the coast of Brazil. containing 500 men. In Barbosa Machado's curious collection of pamphlets. and under Rifault and his successor De Vaux had succeeded in forming a settlement in the island ofMaranham. and his paper is evidently a decoy for colonists. a pinnace. speedily conciliated the natives. and then sailed direct for Recife. were killed. Lord of La Rivardière*. a Frenchinan who had been brought up among the Tupinambas. and the colony But the court of Madrid quickly sent out orders promised to thrive. His report was favourable. was fitted out. in order to ~brm a permanent colony. was taken with little resistance. Various accidents to the governor of Brazil to attack the intruders. having advanced too far in a sally against the Portuguese.INTRODUCTION. and Lancaster permitted not thé He fortified the sandy slightest disorder after the place was taken. and then proceeded at leisure to stow his ships with thé goods found in the town. The Portuguese made several attempts to burn Lancaster's ships. Symam Estacio da Sylveira. and thougb on his return to France Henry was dead. where On GoodFriday ofthat year the town they arrived in March. But the French had renewed their attempts. he also hired them with part of the booty to assist in the defence of the place. isthmus which connects Recife with Olinda. in thé library of Rio de Janeiro. 2t ships. and in 1612 they arrived on the island. is one by the Capt. which Lancaster being now ready for sea had no inclination to dispute. And shortly afterwards Henry IV. and a prize. an expédition ofthr. 1611. which were all baiBed by his prudence. both English and French. and after remaining in possession of Recife twenty days he prepared to sail. sent Daniel de la Touche. printed in 1624. till the lading of the vessels should be completed. However. 1595. and the enemy claimed a victory. and hired thé Dutch vessels lying in the port as store-ships.

trusting that they would thereby be able to annoy the court of Spain in their American possessions. In 1624. as they had already done in the East Indies. and St. The Dutch were weakened by the departure of Willekins for Holland. where he waited for the rest of the convoy. Willekins made the Morro de San Paulo. who had hoped that the Dutch had only come to plunder the city. who had been sent from Spain with a strong force to recover the capital of Brazil. and Jews instantly joined him. Dort had been killed. and it was not until 1618 that they were dislodged. The next year. of which the capital was fixed at San Luiz. pitched on the Bishop Don Marcos Texeira. They capitulated. . Meantime the Dutch had formed a West Indian Company. and conditioned for being sent to Holland with sufficient arms and their persopal baggage. Salvador was taken almost without a struggle. When it arrived he sailed boldly into the reconcave. the plan ofthe West India Company being to secure that settlement. He fixed his head-quarters on the Rio Vermelho. a town and fort built by the French on thé island. The Bishop's troops harassed those of the city in every direction. Its distance from the seat of government determined the court of Madrid to erect Maranham and Para into a separate state. and after some little disagreement as to who should command them. many Indians. roused themselves. and proclamations being issued promising freedom and redress of wrongs to ail who should submit. the Dutch general. But the Portuguese. and the Dutch were prepared to become an easy prey to Don Fadrique de Toledo. 1625. in order to have a certain supply of slaves for their new conquests in Brazil. about forty miles south of Bahia. immediately began to fortify the place. therefore. seeing that they were sitting quietly down as in a permanent establishment. The ships having been separated in a gale of wind. negroes. prolonged the warfare. and a permanent Portuguese colony formed. a fleet under Jacob Willekins and the famous Peter Heyne was fitted out for that purpose.22 INTRODUCTION. and of Peter Heyne for Angola. and there was no compétent commander. Vandort. leaving the city and forts as they were. in May. Peter Heyne returned to the reconcave. however.

who took possession of St. the admirai was Peter Ardian.INTRODUCTION. thé l'est of his squadron not being able to come up with him. by . Thèse men were governed by a chief whom they called Zombi they had some laws. and Wardenburg was commanded the troops. and compelled several others to strike his own ship. ran in between two of them. sunk one. Nor was this his only success. Nassau. for although the Dutch had been bamed in several attempts on the coast. and he burnt her. they sent home prizes enough to be of national importance. and had multiplied so that they are said to have amounted to upwards of thirty thousand. At length thé Dutch govemment sent out Count Maurice of He arived in ]53*7. They harassed the Portuguese. he sent one of his officers. about thirty leagues inland. which. loaded four others with prize-goods. but chiefly by the Dutch and while these things were going on. He added four ships to his own fleet. grounded. a shadow of the Christian religion. Jan Koin. and added by their depredations to thé general misery. over to the coast of Africa. Jorge da Mina. however. and were agriculturists. and carried on the war so vigorously that the Portuguese retired out of thé province. and burnt the rest. in 1630. while the ships kept up a regular fire opposite to the place consequently the Portuguese were surprised. a number of negroes had escaped from time to time into thé gréât palm-forests. 23 Four Every precaution was taken against him by the governor. He also set about reforming thé abuses which existed among the Dutch themselves at Recife. The Dutch general-in-chief Henrik Loncq. large ships with men and artilîery were placed to intercept him but in his single ship. The latter landed at Pao Amarello. and the towns and forts easily taken. was taken after a feeble resistance on the part of Matthias de Albuquerque. But a conquest of infinitely more consequence was shortly made that of Olinda. during which atrocious cruetties were committed by both parties. But the country around continued to be the theatre of a most cruel predatory war. to take the command at Pernambuco. three leagues to the north. and having established himself firmly there.

looking forward to the permanent . he was finally There he occupied repulsed and returned with loss to Pernambuco. returned to Recife. in fortifying the mouths of rivers and harbours. The viceroy. in 1640. Marques de Monte Alvam. took place. and Loanda in Angolar and St. sea-warrior Jol into thé reconcave. fell on the land-side of the captaincy. Storms and sickness diminished it. besides planting In 1640 he sent the famous trees. and a commission. and improving the fortifications.24 INTRODUCTION. either to the States or the Company aH the money and produce which he had gained in Brazil. His fleet anchored in the bay of Tapagipe but though he obtained at first some important posts. which placed Braganza on the throne of his ancestors. was sent home. Maranham conquered. as well as of his private fortune. One of the first acts of the restored Portuguese government was to make a ten years' truce with the Seven United States. and fitted out a large armament for its relief. in building a new town. and leaving a garrison there. and the bishop. and in other public works. while the Indians who were friendly to the Dutch. and making the two first bridges himself that had yet been built in Portuguese America. Thomas's taken. ere-it arrived. The next year. Serigipe was surprised. to nearly one hait That half arrived at Bahia. Salvador. Before he had time either to make open war.. he had laid out great part of it. or to negociate. At length the court of Madrid began to be alarmed for the safety of Brazil. Correa. and harassed the unhappy settlers in an equal degree. unjustly suspected of adhering to Spain. Maurice made an unsuccessful attack on St. and the other foreign possessions of Portugal. to lay it waste and he accordingly burnt the whole of the sugar-works in the bay. composed of Barbalho. these successes. But this did not prevent the continuance of hostilities in Brazil. which a supply of slaves was secured. Jorge de Mascasentras. appointed in his stead. the Dutch government disapNotwithstanding Instead of sending home proved of Count Maurice's administration. which. under D. particularly Recife. in repairing and beautifying the towns. the revolution in Portugal.

" C'a~'o~o Z~~ano. a native of Madeira. and that event seemed to be the signal for the long and calamitous struggle that ensued in Pemambuco and the neighJoam Fernandes Vieyra. This man. one of whom he commissioned t~ apply to the government of Bahia in person for succour. Against the latwas animated both by patrotism and superstition. que as do imperio. Castiioto Liisitano. bouring Captaincies. and then summoned the Indian chief Camaram and the Negro chief Henrique Diaz*. had. executed his commission exactly. however. and sixty soldiers. were Thé following is an extract from one of the letters of this Creole Negro Faltamos a obediença. He had succeeded. left his native island in hopes of bettering his fortune in Brazil. their destruction. He concealed them in thé woods in the neighbourhood of his dwelling. ter. that the Portuguese began to rise against it almost establishment universally. and returned to solutely necessary. which was on the plain to the westward of thé city. he for years for a proper opportunity to attempt seized thé first months of Nassau's absence. at a very early age. were sent to Vieyra. and communicated his designs to his neighbours. and communicating his plans to none but to two friends. called the Varzea. Maranham had already been wrested from their hands at the time of his returning. he was one of the richest Portuguese of Pernambuco. que nos occupava no certam de Bahia. por nao faltarémos as obrigaçoens da patria respeitando primeiro as leys da natureza. E . and they were heretics. and at the time we speak ot. he After waiting They oppressed his people. atrocities were committed by both parties. to his assistance. he waited patiently for an answer. especially towards thé Indians. he considered as abHe was accordingly recalled. After the departnre of Maurice the tyranny of the Dutch became so intolerable. who themselves as they were the most faithful allies. and shortly afterwards Antonio Diaz Cardozo. and highly esteemed by both his countrymen and the Dutch. André Vidal de Negreiros. Holland in 1644. 25 of the Dutch in the country. The most shocking Early in 1645 the war began in earnest.INTRODUCTION.

from time to time. had the nominal chieftainship. at one of the strong posts of the latter.of the Eternal city. also the most inveterate and cruel enemies.26 INTRODUCTION. as well as that to Mem de Sa.–Disiz. that he might not in public do any thing imper~ëctiy. When a number of Indians were taken among the Dutch. In the course of the struggle. but on ail occasions of ceremony used an interpreter. Nuvem de Marte horrendo Quai Jupiter em Segra. But men once determined on freedom. several leaders on both sides were slain. Ves Agros Gararapes. and to restore to the crown of Portugal the empire of Brazil. entre a negra. read. but none so remarkable as the Indian Camaram. who was the real commander in this war. where every civilised being feels he has an interest. and spoke Portuguese perfectly. on his conquests at Rio de Janeiro. during which the private fortune. Hollanda o vistes iulminar tremendo. and the determined spirit of individuals had sustained the conflict. . and on the 23d of January 1654. had decided the fate of the Dutch in Brazil but it was the co-operation of the fleet of the new Brazilian company that enabled Vieyra. But he wrote on subjects of a minor interest. generally without the aid. Camaram did not intercede for the life of his kinsman. after nine years of the most cruel war. This writer is one of the best of the Arcadian school. The two battles of the Gararapes*. He had been educated by the Jesuits he understood Latin. At length this horrible warfare was ended. which lasted until 1654. to present the keys of the city to thé Royal Commander Francisco Beretto. while Guidi wrote to thé "d'Arcadia fortunate Genti". and buried him decently. must in the end overcome ail obstacles and vanquish every difficulty. but he saved his honour he slew him with his own hand. and left for the fowls of the air. The Portnguese reader will do weU to read the whole of Dinizs fine ode to Vieyra. These men had ail been condemned to death. wrote. a relation of Camaram's was found among them. or on national independence. The rest were hanged by the common executioner. had. although several military men of reputation. and often in direct opposition to the commands of the court. and thereby derogate from the dignity of his chieftainship. to reduce Recife.

thsy attempted to set up a king Their attempt was baflied by Amador Bueno de for themselves. when the people shouted Long live king Amador. 2'7 While these things were going on in the northern provinces. and the activity with which The consciousthey had brought in slaves for the new settlements. and the most disgraceful scenes took place in various captaincies between thé parties. had distinguished people had become hardy. and endeavoured to stop. either on their own judgment. and to mitigate the lot of such as were already enslaved. and Interest was on the therefore they opposed them with vehemence. a settlement The on the plain of Piratininga. it was seldom in their power to enforce it. They themselves by the courage and perseverance with which they had explored the country in search of mines. The best part of the colony of St. nedictine couvent Joam IV. attempted to carry any new measure into execution which the people disliked. who. side of thé Friars. the Governors being either not able or not willing to interfere with enect. Vincent's had been removed to St. The low state to which Portugal was now reduced." cried out Long live Joam IV. if not fierce. being swift of foot. or at least limit the slave hunting ôf the Portuguese in the interior. though withput effect. as there was no alternative. ness of their strength begot in them a longing for independence. and endeavoured by every means to restrain the practice of making slaves of them. and they could expect little assistance from home. the Jesuits had formed their singular establishments in Paraguay." and. Ribiero.INTRODUCTION. was seen in When the appointed its effects on thé government of Brazil. The Jesuits had undertaken the defence of the Indians. Paul's. Governors. ran and took refuge in the Beand the same day. or in obedience to the orders of the court of Lisbon. But the Franciscans and some other orders derived equal pecuniary benefit with the hunters from the sale of slaves. and had nourished surprisingly. and seizing the opportunity of the accession of the House of Braganza to the throne of Portugal. E 2 . the very person they intended for their monarch. was proclaimed by ail the people.

as his sincere exertions in thé cause of the suffering Indians is creditable to himself. pass under the eye till the heart grows callous to the cry of the orphan. to which the Indians were again sacrificed. the prosperity of the country would soon have been but wherever slavery is established it brings a equal to its means twofold curse with it. there was a compromise between humanity and avarice. Had it been possible to have purified their religion from some of its most superstitious observances. of thé seeking. and not at al! more inclined to listen to the remonstrances of thé friends Thé Pau] Istas were the most dimcuItofaHto maof the Indians. It degrades both parties even where thé slaves are imported. and a feeling that to attain it was in their own power. and they were not willing to participate with others. disgusting and iniquitous as they are. as was the case here. and to reform thé moral habits of thé people. capturing. the people became accustomed to canvass and to understand public questions their governors began to respect them as a real part of the estate and a value for independence. far less to resign the advantages they had gained by . when they were hunted on their own grounds. the grief of the widow. and the despair of the parent in being torn from whatever has been dear to them ? The history of the Jesuit Vieyra's mission to Maranham is as humiliating to human nature. grew out of these disorders. and even when they returned to obedience. where ait the détails.28 INTRODUCTION. How much more then. but neither his exertions. Rio de Janeiro had enjoyed a greater degree of tranquillity during the eighty years since its ibundàtion than any other settlement. nor the royal authority. and bending to thé yoke. nage they had been thé most active and daring of a!l that hunted either for slaves or for mines. however. and its trade had increased together with its population but the southern part of its jurisdiction was little more peaceable than Maranham. could baffle the selfish cruelty and avarice of thé people of that captaincy they broke out into open rebellion in defence of their detestable practices. Meantime.

and even Rio. however. and its inhabitants proceeded to beautify it with churches. and had shewn a disposition to depose the governor appointed by the crown and nothing but the unimpeachable character and firm conduct of Salvador Correa de Sa e Benevides (1658) prevented him from falling a sacrifice to that disposition. and even of their Mulatto daughters and female slaves till at length the government resolved to free the country of them. negroes beat off their assailants. their city was forced. and nunneries. and whose depredations had been disregarded in comparison with the evils of a foreign government. and being weakened by famine. as well as the kidnapping Indian slaves.the freedom of a colony. Their conduct on the restoration of Portugal had evinced a désire of more than . and their neighbottrs were little less disposed for indeSantos. and mandioc. and the inmates seized as slaves. had joined them. escaped to the Palmares. But their enemies had the advantage of cannon against them. and called in the aid of a Pautista regiment for thé Ten thousand of the negroes bearing arms had assembled purpose. and convents. had become a real source of ill to the Pern~mbucans. its very emancipation from a The negroes who had foreign power might have been regretted. They therefore robbed the Creoles of their cattle. Although they cultivated maize. Zombi. 29 unwearied labour and great sacrifices. their sugar. Pernambuco was still undergoing the miserable effects of the long and desultory war it had sustained au the bands of government had been loosed during that disastrous law and justice had fallen into disuse and had there not period been a redeeming virtue in thé free spirit that lived on in spite of the evils among which it had sprung. in their chief city. they wanted every other supply. while they defied the spirit of Christianity by the importation ofAfrican. and plaintains. pendencethanthemselves. which was surrounded by wooden walls. threw themselves from a high rock when they perceived their . and the most resolute of his followers. leaving the lesser ones uninhabited. Bahia continued to be the capital of the Brazilian states. their manutactured goods. and of supplies of every kind yet once the But numbers overpowered them.INTRODUCTION.

The discovery of the gold and diamond mines assisted the government. and after making several attempts to land a force at the different inlets. to crown ail. Yet. They were also virtually free from responsibility. their opportunities. their temptations to extortion were almost irrésistible and. In 1710. though absolute ruin was averted. thé corrupt administration of the laws kept pace with the vices and the irregularity of In vain had thé wisest regulations been made. both. nay. for they were possessors of. a French squadron. condition desperate. They had too much little. succeeded at Guaratiba. under Duclerc. above ail. while at home there was a scanty and impoverished population. in consequence of the hopes sustained in the east. if any appeal lay ~om them-too for the term of their government. Their salaries were insufficient. in every department of government. and. sailed on. Every thing was wanted there was nothing to return and at the beginning of the eighteenth century.erred by the appearance of thé militia of the country. by covering with her precious metals thé excessive balance that was against her in every branch of commerce.. where he was db!. appeared off Rio de Janeiro. the weakness of thé crown rendered it impossible to defend its foreign possessions from thé attacks of a daring enemy. between thirty . but not daring to pass the forts.30 INTRODUCTION. that rendered Portugal dependent on fbreigners for corn. concerned they were so in ail cases where Indians and negroes were the objects of their judgment. if they were absolute power. But there was an evil that affected Brazil generally-the too much and the too little power of the governors. What wonder then if thé administration was corrupt! The cultivation of sugar and cotton had proceeded silently amidst ail this confusion.and murdered the rest. both in Brazil and in the mother country. The judges were in many cases parties the most just decrees issued. and the government. Brazil may be truly said to have saved Portugal. ruined manufactures. to make a stand in the midst of the eminent peril which threatened. The Portuguese abused their victory. a neglect of agriculture. their fées arbitrary.

atter refreshing his people. the greatest anxiety on account of Brazil in the cabinet of Lisbon and at the peace ofUtrecht. and taking advantage of a fog. of the French actually within the harbour. Duclerc himself is said to have been murdered in his bed. made no attempt to stop him until his arrival at the city. Francisco Castro with about one thousand marines. de Moraes. between two hills. in August. and accordingly. ought to have done. seems to den appearance have palsied the understanding of every person on shore. where the place of the Rosario now is. entered the bay. whose business it should have been to oppose them. and thence he marched upon it The governor. and the Duvictory disgraced by the inhuman conduct of the Portuguese. It would. The next year drew on Rio de Janeiro a signal punishment for thèse proceedings. Thèse circumstances had awakened.INTRODUCTION. The French having divided. clerc and his people were imprisoned and harshly treated. 1713. one year at~er Duclerc's adventure. and returned to France early in 1*712. who appeared every where. Francisco de Menezes. have been impossible for the French to maintain themselves in Rio therefore Duguay Trouin. and the forts and the city were given up almost without a struggle. notwithstanding the fire of the forts. 1*711. The Portuguese government had notice of his design. a Trinitarian friar. . he arrived off the coast. 31 and forty miles from the city. and had sent out stores and ammunition to meet the attack.000 cruzadoes. but desperate struggle. who remained quietly intrenched in a nat space. as he had done Rio but he had Mnlled thé ostensible purpose of his voyage by avenging the treatment of Duclerc and his people. however. ransomed thé city for 600. but the students of the college defended it successfully and after a short. one party attacked the palace. There thé first check the enemy met was from F. and had apBut the sudpointed Gasper da Costa commander of the troops. and did what the governor. Bad weather alone prevented him from laying waste the reconcave of Bahia. the French were overpowered. The famous Duguay Trouin undertook to inflict it.

Sad indeed has been the waste of human life in searching for gold but have aïï the mines together consumed more men than the single revolutionary war ? And have not the religions contests among Christians. Disputes without end arose between Portugal and Spain concerning thé colonies adjoining to the Rio de la Plata. should be allowed to form settlements there on account of the facilities such settlements might afford for smuggling the precious metals out of thé country. every precaution was adopted by the Portuguese ministers to avoid any expression that might seem to admit of a free trade by any power whatever to Brazil. and provide the necessaries of life. Great inconvenience must have been felt by the early adventurers to thé mines for so many hands were employed in searching for gold. and the district of the mines had been formed into a captaincy the inhabitants of the coast flocked to the interior. The philosophie historian and the poet are atike ready to condemn the man who first dug thé ore from the mine the panegyric in prose and in verse is lavished on thé hero and the patron. But gold furnished the means for thé hero's conquests and the patron's liberality. notwithstanding the agreements to that effect actually existing at the time. and their persecutions and mutilations and burnings cost many more ? 1 would not justify the gold finders their actions . but the possession of it gives power. that few remained to cultivate thé soil. Paul's had been erected into a city. and gold.32 INTRODUCTION. where new towns were daily ~pringing up aïï were desirous of a share in that lottery where the prizes were so enormous. is the object of both. particularly England. or the worth of gold. and that is thé real object of most men's ambition it is certainly that of the ambition of all nations. or of that fame which patronage can bring. Thèse had now become the first object in Brazil. that the great preponderance of blanks was overlooked. and this object is held legitimate we account those base or wicked who seek the means we admire those who attain thé end. Yet that insatiable thirst of gold is a stimulus which has led to usemï and to honourable things it is not thé love of the métal. St. whether in the form of continued power. and it was especially stipulated that no other power.

and must refer to Mr. and death they persevered. they braved cold. and persecution. and having a camera or municipal council to govern its internal affairs. they performed great things.INTRODUCTION. their oppressions atrocious but let them have justice the stimulus was great urged on by it. and the town had increased till it became the second of Brazil while Olinda graduaHy declined. and the commerce of Recife had become extremely The merchants. Southey's elaborate and excellent account of them. 33 were horrible. shall have passed away. and especially those from Europe.it sjlicited and obtained thé royal assent to its becoming a town. having few inhabitants besides priests and the representatives of the old families of the province. 1 am but a looker on to whom the actions of the present are more interesting than the past. and there were not wanting voices to exclaim that thePernam- . settled there. The sugar plantations had reappeared. when thé effect of their evil deeds. and hunger. Fresh disturbances ensued. But 1 have neither space nor inclination to follow their adventures. but yet am not insensible to the influence that the elder days have had upon us. three of the ten parishes belonging to Olinda were assigned to Recife. Daniel Defoe âlone could have so handled the subject as to make delightful so dull and so sad a tale. had it erected in the night. which they conceived would raise the plebeian traders and foreigners to an After several tumultuous meetings on equality with themselves. and the governor. fearing to set up the pillar which marks a township openly. The jealousy of the people of Olinda and the other old Brazilians was violently excited by tins concession. they opened the way to unknown lands. they laid the foundations for future civilisation in countries which will have reason to bless their discoveries. Pernambuco had during the half century which had elapsed since thé expulsion of the Dutch had time to recruit. in which some of the magistrates were concerned. and fatigue. had important. as well as the memory of the brutal customs of the savages they so unjustly oppressed. the subject. in 1*710. who might be called its nobility still Recife was but a village until.

and some towns. off thé yoke of yet not daring to join the party who wished to shake in Portugal. and proofs were not wanting that the judge and the bishop had at least consented to the attempt on his life. now returned to daim his office as governor on the removal of thé former one. were built on the coast and on thé shores of the Plata. and ail Europeans were deprived of their offices and commissions. and by his vacillating conduct betraying both his friends that party.disquieted . between the Spaniards and Portuguese. bucans had shown they could shake off the strong chains of the Dutch. nor indeed could so smaU and ill-peopled a state as Pernambuco have maintained its freedom even for a year unconnected with the other While these things were going on in the captaincies of captaincies. in 1'733 but the border war. and his nrst act was But he. and that they could as easily shake off others and govern The seditious magistrates were arrested and thrown themselves. and the trust reposed in him by the crown. thé Jesuits were labouring in the interior to reclaim the Indians. The soldiers were employed to disarm the people but into prison. in Jose 1'711. with success far beyond the apparent means. Brazil. was induced to fly to Bahia for safety. weakened both in body and mind. He began to exercise his authoto declare a general r ity in thé king's name. which was theneighbourhood waged on account of these settlements. particularly Monte Video. however appears to have been a timid man willing pardon. which have since become of importance. the governor. But the bishop. whô had been at Paraiba since the time when De Castro was wounded. At length. and Sebastian de Castro.34 JNTRODUCTION. Six of the chief Pernambucans were now aptill pointed to exercise the onctions of a provisional government orders should be received from Lisbon. The governor they had now advanced too far to be easily reduced. these disturbances were quieted by a new governor. was fired at and dangerously wounded. some blood was shed in thé course of their contentions with the soldiers. Felix Brazil was not yet ripe for independence Machado de Mendonça. The most serious disturbances ibilowed the inhabitants of the whole district took up arms.

namely. to one of his favourite objects. before the squadron despatched by the governor of Brazil. three-fourtbs of the Thé other Lord Clive. were drowned. under the administration of Carvalho. first act of hostility in the western world was thé seizing of the Porof tuguese settlement of Columbia. Macnamara the Ambuscade. but owing to ships were nearly destroyed and obliged the neglect of the Spaniards. in'order to retake the place. Its importance. had begun to attend to. was soon forgotten in the disturbances caused by the treaty of division between Spain and Porto emigrate. of thé forts ships retired before Macnamara. tugal. overlooked. Gomez Freyre. of 40 guns. having resolved on the suppression of the order of Jesuits. meantime. That squadron consisted of the Lord Clive. the important services they had rendered. when. an English ship commanded by in which Penrose. And this was the most remarkable action of thé war beyond the Atlantic. and thé first in which the English distinguished themselves in the defence of Brazil. of 64 guns. and were daily thé improvement rendering. in thé Plata. however. 35 for a time. and the Gloria. they were able to refit and return to Rio. which forcing the Indians who had been reclaimed roused them to a vigorous but short and useless résistance. and he ran underthe guns of Colonia. The Portuguese government. He had nearly succeeded in took silencing the batteries. of 38 guns. among which was the captain. F 2 . in the ardour with which he pursued that measure. which only began thé evils that the Jesuit missions were destined to perish under. by the governor Buenos Ayres. but particuthé larly in the newly founded captaincies and settlements. could arrive to protect it. thé Capt. For a time defence The against a foreign enemy superseded every other consideration. of the condition of the Indians. to retreat. the ship crew of the fire the enemy renewed their fire.INTRODUCTION. The Spanish poet. afterwards Marquis of Pombal. served as lieutenant. Their plan of discipline. by accident or negligence. indeed. when war with France and Spain broke out in 1'762. and attempt to reform thé abuses which existed throughout Brazil. Pombal.

His judgment in thé portioning and disposing of his and virtues that arise property is never called forth ail the qualities out of the practice of domestic economy lie dormant. and to provide for their The newly reclaimed did own families after the first generation. Some convulsions either from without or from within must end them. that in order to than of manly improvement. in other countries. When a man has but depends for the supply of his daily wants upon the providence of The stimulus others. in thé most cruel Those of the Spanish American colonies and arbitrary manner. Their dominion was an Utopia and had it been possible to shut out every European and every wild Indian.–thé habits of savage life were abandoned. Whatever might have been their faults. nor would Paraguay have gone back as it has done towards a savage state. hitherto had kept their pupils rather in a state of childish innocence Their fault was. was thé community of goods. But the well-intentioned labours of the missionaries had produced one decided good efïëct. they had stopped short of wha t they might have effected. he has no incitement to particular exertion. and the advantages of agriculture and manufactures had been felt. in these their conduct had been exemplary. no anxiety about the provision of his family. the and their patience advocates of mercy. require to be provided for. But such artificial polities can never be of long duration. secure obedience. or even their crimes. and that with a more complete ruin than could befal states less curiously framed. They of their spiritual would have become men andwhen the removal fathers took place. They had been the protectors of a persecuted race. split. but the children growing up in the Aldeas might have been intrusted with their own property. eight years later. The rock on which the education of the Indians no property. the founders of civilisation .36 INTRODUCTION. to industry cannot exist where a man has no hope of growing richer. The Jesuits of Brazil were expelled in 1760. and the man remains an infant. no fear of becoming poorer. that wide and deep désolation would not have overwhelmed them. It would have been easy to remedy this. by allowing the Indians to possess private stock. it might have lasted.

and concerning the limits of which. and the introduction of new branches of commerce. and that of the French admirât. Baird's expedition to the Cape of Good Hope. to the great advantage of the province. is composed of the thé enmismanagement and decay of thé Jesuit establishments largement of the mining districts. in 1805. and even fleets. Guillaumez. for instance. particularly in the direction of Mato Grosso some disputes with the French on the frontier of Cayenne and the more peaceful occupations of opening roads. if possible. for the next thirty years. The project of the conspirators was to form an independent republic in Minas. though That under Sir H. commonly called Tiradentes. 37 under their unmerited sufferings forms not thé least honourable trait in their chacter. The history of Brazil. and. Popham. . But their measures were most inadequate for the end proposed.INTRODUCTION. This tranquillity was for a moment interrupted by a conspiracy in the province of MInas~ Geraes. Being a good deal left to themselves. and their conduct so imprudent. in 1806. Thé direct effects upon Brazil of the nrst thirteen years of the revolutionary war in Europe were confined to some slight disputes regarding the boundaries of the Portuguese and French Guiana. the colonists had leisure to discover what sort of cultivation and crops suited best with the climate. and the improvement of the old. and were nttest for thé market and some branches of industry were introduced. and others improved. much less of beginning the meditated revolution. that. or rather the peace of Amiens in 1802. had also begun to resort thither*: so that. to induce Rio de Janeiro to unite with it. on Sir D. headed by an officer named Joaquim Jose de Silva Xavier. there was an article in Lord Cornwallis's negotiations with France. The indirect effects were greater. the conspirators were al! seized before they bad formed anything like a party capable of resistance. Foreign ships. although there was a pretty general feeling of discontent on account of the taxes and some other grievances.

per month. The Portuguese forces were marched to the sea-coast. that the resentment which at another time would certainly but a strong squadron have been openly declared. as if iniatuated by the negotiations of France. that the armament at Bayonne. and joining the French and Spaniards. the entrance of men of war. It was in vain that frequent representations were made to thé ministry at Lisbon on thé subject. would of course So early as 1796. and particularly in the Rio . introduced a virtual freedom. partly to prevent thé Portuguese vessels from coming out of port. the English ministry was not less attentive to the designs of France on thé South American colonies. or. as if they apprehended an invasion thus leaving thé kingdom defenceless on the land from England side. and the refusal of Spain to forbid thé passage of French troops through her territories.000. and such merchant ships as could find no others to refit in. which France had demanded. 180*7. which it would afterwards have been impossible not to have confirmed. be thatofaggression had contemplated the advantages that must arise to Britain from thé possession of a port in Soutn America.000 of livres or 40. While this system of watchfulness was kept up in Europe. by a proclamation. partly to watch thé proceedings on shore. as a point whence to attack the great enemy. The court of Portugal meanwhile. was suppressed was always kept up off the coast. Mr.000/. consented to buy a disgraceful neutrality at the price of 1. and thé ports were shut against English commerce.38 INTRODUCTION. thé views of Napoleon were better answered than they could have been by the possession of ail their territory But the moment in whieh they should and ail their colonies. as neutral ground. the ports had as yet been closed against foreign traders. dated 20th October. A~ long as Spain and Portugal continued to pay the enormous price in money for their neutrality. Pitt and invasion. become unable or unwilling to pay that price. besides granting free entrance to French woollens into the kingdom. in the event of a French government in Spain. But the importance of Portugal to England. was such. were pointed out.

were to lay before the ministry of Lisbon. or forming a settlement there. His instructions from Mr. the imminent danger which threatened the country. had intentions of touching on the coast of Brazil. see Lord Melvilie's évidence on thé court martial on Sir Home Popham. Pitt. . was Sir Home Popham probabïy his knowledge of the views so long ehtertained by that minister. by observing. or obtaining for England a port in South America. and. if possible.* In 1806. it was impossible to co-operate with him. entering the La Plata. although the advantage to England of securing such a market for her manufactures was clearly perceived. the intelligence he had procured. 39 de la PIata. But we were then at peace with Spain. to draw his attention. but particularly to England. and taking Buenos Ayres without orders to that effect. of leaving the Cape of Good Hope so soon after it had been occupied by the English forces. encouraged the undertaking. His immediate motive was. that thé squadron of the French admirai. that induced him to take the hazardous step. then prime minister. Guillaumez. 1804. the demonstrations of hostilities against Portugal on the part of France were so evident. and to offer assistance For the political and commercial views entertained with regard to the assisting Miranda. in which Lord St. nor did he ever afterwards iose sight of it.INTRODUCTION. Fox. Among thé onicers who had been most confidentially consnlted by Mr. Vincent and General Simcoe werejoined with him. Some circumstances occurred in December. particularly towards thé subject. and however willing to prevent such an aggression on the part of France. on the practicability of obtainand it was ing a settlement on thé La Plata. seizing. in 1806. and to assist General Miranda in bis intended expedition to South America. inasmuch as he had intelligence that France was about to attempt to seize on one of thé Spanish settlements on the first opportunity. that Lord Rosslyn was despatched thither on a special mission. as he earnestly pressed the ministry to do. and some North Americans whom he had met. that to throw open the ports of South America would be a common benefit to ail commercial nations.

however. if he did not. and shut the ports of the kingdom against the English and lastly. On the 8th of August. he had orders to demand his passports and to declare war. the however. Portugal troops under General Simcoe were to be landed. and there establishing the capital of thé empire. England. and the fleet was to enter the river and secure the Portuguese ships and vessels.he persisted in regarding them only as measures to intimidate and harass Thisnobleman had been ambassador at the court of St. and did not seize ail the English residents. insisted on rejecting assistance in either case. Rayneval. and send back the English minister. in case the government should decide on a vigorous and effective resistance. (!807) Mr. and at the earnest entreaty of the court of Lisbon. was to be revived. If. and stores from England. thé troops and the fleet were withdrawn from thé Tagus. on the other hand. unite his armies and fleets with those of the rest of the 'continent against England. money. the French preparations for the invasion were not at that time so far advanced as had been imagined. that grandisement on the part of England. then prime minister. however. The Conde de Barca. and If. recalling the Portuguese ambassador from London. thé strong forts on thé Tagus occupied by them. the idea that had once occur red to King Don Alfonso of emigrating to Brazil. received orders from his court to declare to the Prince Regent of Portugal. Petersburg. the French chargé d'affaires at Lisbon. without delay. and on his recall to take the first place in the cabinet at . that if by the first of September he did not declare war against England. thé next year.40 INTRODUCTION. taking care to impress thé government and people with the feeling that this was done from regard to the nation. in men. to put Portugal in a state of defence. Portugal should think itself too weak to contend with France. was certainly aware of the preparations of the French government. promises made of assistance and protection for that purpose. and by no means for the sake of selfish agIt appears. confiscate their property. But with that obstinate blindness which sometimes seems to possess men like a fatp.

the most interesting that had occurred to Portugal since the révolution that had placed Braganza on the throne of his ancestors. where he saw and conversed both with Napoléon and Talleyrand." and that its members were reduced to the common herd of ex-princes. There cannot be the least doubt but that he was duped by those able men. This was in the month of November. and he consented to that step. and thé shutting the ports against English commerce: adopting. and was. The very day before Junot was to reach Lisbon. which D. and Don José had contemplated. His Majesty had exhausted the means ofibrbearance. and holding out no very flattering expectations for the future. that in agreeing not to resent the exclusion of British commerce from the ports of Portugal. though it makes him weaker. the whole of the continental system. after mentioning the Prince's departure forBrazii 1 had frequently and distinctly stated to the cabinet of Lisbon. will be best understood by the following extracts from the despatches received by the British ministry from Lord Strangford and from Sir Sydney Smith at the time. but he chose to peribrm the journey by way of Paris. a Paris newspaper.men by his own eyes.Brain anticipation of the event.INTRODUCTION. the confiscation of their property. namely.HisLordship writes. and thence to Portugal. John IV. the true spring of his actions. makes him less wicked. His Majesty had done ail that friendship and thé remembrance of ancient alliance could but that a single step beyond the line of modified justty require G . who aiways said he had gone to judge of these. This completely opened thé Prince Regent's eyes. the transferring the seat of his empire to his Transatlantic possessions. 181'7.. &c. giving no very favourable description of them. But thé vanity of the Conde. 180'7. He it was who carried the measures for the détention of the English. Many considered him as a traitor. 41 Lisbon. however. in short. announced that ganza no longer reigned. that in making that concession to the peculiar cir« cumstances of the Prince Regent's situation. perhaps. but the events ofthat month. written The House of . On the 29th November. he was ordered to go by sea to London.

42 INTRODUCTION. and of thé inconsiderable portion of British property which yet remained at Lisbon. or of immediately employmg it to remove the Prince Regent and his family to the Brazils. I caused the arms of England to be removed from. neither his own dignity nor the interests of his people would permit His Majesty to accept that excuse for a compliance with the full extent of her unprincîpled demands. 1 resolved. therefore. The Prince Regent. gâtes of my residence. to proceed forthwith to ascertain the effect produced by the blockade of Lisbon. which arrived on~the coast of Portugal some days ai~er 1 had received my "passports. in case thé Portuguese government should pass thé bounds which His Majesty had thought fit to set to his fbrbearance.and proceeded to thé squadron commanded by Sir Sydney Smith. 1 immediately suggested to Sir Sydney Smith the expediency of establishing thé most rigorous blockade at the mouth of the Tagus and 1 bad the high satisfaction of afterwards finding that 1 had thus anticipated the intentions of His Majesty for despatches (which 1 received on the 23d) directing me to authorise that measure. His Royal Highnesswas induced to sign an order for the détention of the few British subjects. however. in the present state of Europe. . On the 8th inst. no country could be permitted to be an enemy to England with impunity. suffered himself for a moment to ibrget that. and attempt to take any further step injurious to the honour or interests of Gréât Britain. that blockade should cease. must necessarUy lead to the extrernity of actual war. and which I joined on the 17th inst. presented a final remonstrance against the recent conduct of the court ofLisbon. thus most reluctantly consented to. demanded my passports. On the publication of this order. hostility. and to propose to as the only condition upon which "thePortuguesegovernment. the alternative (stated by you) either of surrendermg the Heet toHis Majesty. and that however much His Majesty might be disposed to make allowance for thé denciency of means possessed by Portugal of résistance to the power of France.the.

the particulars of which shall be detailed in a future desIt sumces to mention in this place. wisely directed ail his apprehensions to a French army. Dec. on thé faith ofmy sovereign. in which the Prince Regent announced his intention of retiring to the city of Rio de Janeiro until the conclusion of a general peace. 1. with a postscript of the 26th. 1 had in His Majesty's sloop Confiance. being so much innuenced by terror of the French arms as to have acquiesced to certain demands of France operating against Gréât Britain. In a former despatch.INTRODUCTION. and his voyage to the Brazils. The distribution of the Portuguese force was made wholly on the coast. 1 proceeded to Lisbon on the 2*7th. 43 1 accordingly requésted an audience of the Prince Regent. that the British squadron before the Tagus should be employed to protect his retreat from Lisbon." Sir Sydney Smith writes on the first of December the following letter to the admiralty His M~esty's "Sm. together with due assurances of protection and security and upon receiving His Royal Highness's answer. and of appointing a regency of government at Lisbon. dated 22d November. that the Prince Régent patch. 1 conveyed to you. A decree was published yesterday. British subjects of ail descriptions were detained and it therefore became necessary to inform the G 2 . 22 leagues west of the Tagus. immediately most interesting communications with the court of Lisbon. during to transact the administration His Royal Highness's absence from Europe. Ship Hibemia. and ail his hopes to a British fleet that he received the most explicit assurances from me that His Majesty would generously overlook those acts of unwilling and momentary hostility to which His Royal and that 1 promised to Highness's consent had been extorted His Royal Highness. thé proofs contained in various documents of the Portuguese government. while the land side was left totally unguarded. 1807. bearing a flag of truce. for the information of my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty.

ManoeldaCunha. Garçao. TXc ~«'CM aK~~M: M ~M~!p. to protect the oppressed. 74. Capt. as well as other persons attached to his present fortunes.. 32. while the nring of a reciprocal salute of twenty-one guns announced the friendly meeting of those. Don Manoel Menezes. Commanded by a lieutenant. the scene impressing every beholder (except the French army on the hills) with the most lively emotions of gratitude to Providence. Capt. Minerva Golfinho Urania Cherua Princesa S. Henrique de Souza Prego. 74. Capt. SYDNEYSMITH. Capt. as well as willing. . Joam de Castro Principe do Brazil Martim de Freitas FRt&ATES. and one schooner*.Pr!Mc~ Z)o!ccg~ and ~M~ ?%c f/a! (. Conde de Viana. Capt. with a crowd of large armed merchant ships ar<' ranged itself under thé protection of that ofHIs Majesty. This fleet of eight sail of the line. the Portuguese fleet came out of the Tagus with His Royal Highness the Prince of Brazil.44 INTRODUCTION. came in this ship. four frigates." (Sir Sydney then yepea~~a~ of Lord <S'~aM~/br~ ~sp~cA.4. "W." List < ~'o?-<c~ that came out of the Tagus CM the 29~ of November. 20.) On the morning of the 29th. Capt. 4. &c. Commanded by 84. PnncipeReat Rainha de Portugal Conde Henrique Medusa Anbnsod'Abuquerque D. Guns. Jose Maria de Almeida.Luiz d'Acunha. -f~P~ioda 64. who but the day before were on terms of hostility. Rodrigo Lobo. 1807. (. Don Manoel Juan Souça. 36. two brigs. S. able. Capt. Portuguese government. 64. Manoel da Canto. which required. that the case had arisen. Capt. in obedience to my instructions. 64. 74. Costa QuinateHa. Capt. Tancos.! . fAdm. that 1 should déclare the Tagus in a state of blockade. that there yet existed a power in the world 1 have.. Francisco Manoel Soetomayor. 7~9 Capt. and the whole of the royal family of Braganza on board.. together with many of his faithful councillors and adherents.

. S. The Golfinho is broken up. is at Lisbon. The Rainha de J~eZ The Medusa is the sheer hulk at Rio. Capt. 20. The Vingança is broke up. Hoisted ~cHc~ colours and ~~c< The Principe is Of these vessels. 22. ( Do.is. Thé three other line-of-battle ships Henrique. a List o~~ that r<MHa:K~~t ZMOMt. so momentous the struggle between the principals in the mighty warfare that was going on. The Voador is now a corvette. Curiosa t2. to seek shelter and security beyond the Atlantic.A~MH-(brokeupatBahia). influence had removed the Portuguese troops from the mountainBRIGS. at Lisbon). in the payment of the French enormous sums demanded as the price of its neutrality. 44. Yet such was the state of Europe at that time. Vasco de Gama 74. 22. Nicolas Kytten. Such are the public accounts transmitted by foreigners to their court of one of the most singula? transactions that has occurred in the history of kingdoms and of courts. Do. and the Gaivoto is now the Liberal. either broke up or about to be so. at Lisbon). The French Government had waited to invade Portugal till that unhappy country had exhausted its treasury.* ~M~rr~paM. Aamazona Do. Past y~oaM. fo~ t'~M:r. Voador Vingança Gaivota SCHOONER.Mar~M Freitas is now the ~<Zro~~m~o. Ord~ <'<w\~oa<!Mg battery. as well as the Conde the receiving ship at Rio. ~Mat'~ rca< Princesa de Beira 64'. FRIGATES. Or<&rc<~t'M!<~ &a~~y–mo~/S~. Firtao 40. Veney Hulk at Rio. Guns. Guns. ( Do. almost without notice and with less ceremony than had formerly attended an excursion to its country palaces.INTRODUCTION. Commandedy b Lieut. Fenix 48. UK~et'McMHetc~AoM~<Aof<M~A~'cpa?t.Maxuniiian. Of the frigates. . Maria Prima 74'. 4. 7M~~<<Moag. the . Perola Do. the Minerva was taken by the French in India.4. Sebastao 64'. that the ancient house of Braganza left the seat of its ancestors. Do. and the ManM was wrecked on the Cape de Verde Islands. 30.

Conde de Redondo. whatever could be moved on board the fleet. By emigrating to Brazil thé Prince retained in his hands the largest and richest portion of his domains. though not courageous. where they might have opposed the entrance of French armies. was fortunate enough to leaving papers.46 INTRODUCTION. he ought not to have left. and Portugal had become a French province. and secured at least. and even his hat behind him on the beach. and Carafa occupied Under these circumstances. and on the next morning to have a breakfast ready for him at a house half-way between Sacavem This man had smuggled. These . thé Prince and ail his family were prisoners in the hands of one who had respected no crown and besides. plate. he had been night and day getting provisions. who had the care of the valuables belonging to the patriarchal churph. were the Visconde de Rio Seco. and arrested thé English on the simultaneous entrance of three Imperial and Spanish armies. jewels. Junot invaded Algarve and passed the Zezere. thé ships. books. money. and. remaining but he to thé last. which. that the last council held in that capital should decide on thé emigration of the court to Brazil. One of thèse had been actually ordered to provide quarters for Junot. the Padre José Eloi. of thé ministry. the Marquis de Vagos. Had it remained. who managed all. perhaps. the conduct Alentejo and Algarve. passes. admirai of the fleet. and it was as natural when Lord Strangford returned to Lisbon. England had intimated that in that case she must occupy Brazil for her own security. his family on board one of and Lisbon. who had the charge of the royal pangentleman of the bed-chamber tries Manoel da Cunha. was again ordered to provide quarters for Junot secure a boat to carry him off to the fleet. at the same moment when Solano threw himself upon Oporto. was natural. the personai îreedom and safety of his family. and the Prince Regent only declared his adherence to the continental system. At the end therefore of the last meeting of his and ordered councillors thé Prince called his confidential servants them to prepare every thing in secret for the embarkation ofthe court on the next night but one.

and having convoyed them to lat. that he remained at St. Moore. at the age of 35. but by the 5th of December they were ail collected again on that day Sir Sidney Smith having supplied the ships with every thing necessary for their safety. and the smallest land which he emigrated. The fleets had no sooner got off the land than they encountered a violent gale of wind. a considerable portion of both beauty and talent.f Thé Conde da Ponta was at that time governor of Bahia. Monarch and Bedibrd.* They proceeded without farther accident to the coast of Brazil. and arrived on the 30th. and an embarrassed estate. Salvador's a month. be had married a lady of high family who was not less so. ISOS. 1809. l The Conde died in May. leaving ten children. and landed at Bahiaon thé 21 st of January. and then left it with In commemoration of the visit. Thé Rainha de Portugal. Capt. 47 Such is the picture of the hasty embarkation. however agreeable a residence at Bahia might hâve been to His Royal Highness. 3*7° 47~ north. and long. and commanding a fine view over thé whole of the beautiful bay~ and there an obelisk was erected with an inscription. But. the London. Us 17' west. the place is too insecure for the purposes for If it is besieged by sea. Peter's. in trust for Portugal. stating its purpose. and the Conde Henrique with the Princess Dowager and The Martim thé younger Princesses arrived straight at Rio. . de Freitas and Gotnnho arrived on the 15th at Bahia for supplies.INTRODUCTION. with a broad pennant. Sir Samuel Hood and Gênerai Beresford took possession of Madeira. till a restoration should take place. every day being a festival. left them to go on under the protection of the Mariborough. a spot was cleared near thé regret. and she possessed. Thé reception of the royal party was rendered so agreeable to the Prince by thé governor and his lady. ibrtress of St. sailed for Rio on the 24-th. on the 15th of January. and the surrounding ground was planted &nd converted into a public garden. besides the manners of the court. On the removal of the family of Braganza to Brazil. and is said to have been very popularj. given by some of the attendants on the royal ïamily.

the harbour of Rio is easily defended. The first ministryappointed Etruria. on condition that England shouid restore Gibraltar. Besides. if he would submit to the conditions*. on the arrival of the court at Rio. on the 26th February. abounds in corn. which.can prevent ships from going in when they please.48 INTRODUCTION. and nearly ruined them by a forced war contribution of nearly 3. and war between France and Portugal was fbrmally announced. Entre Minho e Douro with Godoy was to have Alentejo and Algarve of Oporto. were to be subject to the crown of Spain. might have saved lier from invasion were turned against her. mandioc. cotton. being at ail times able to communicate with the rich province of thé Minas. eight days before the signature of the treaty of Fontainbleau. &c. and. –~In addition to this a conscription of 40. cattle. and thus the means which Portugal possessed. &c. began by disarming the inhabitants. which. Junot publisbed a proclamation flattering the people in proportion to his oppressions and exactions. and which. and arrived in Rio de Janeiro on the 7th March. that nothing. Meantime the French troops had occupied Portugal. it bas resources which Bahia bas not. < . to Spain. and even the coarse manufactures such as cotton. and Junot.. hogs. if timely used. for the use of the slaves and for ordinary purposes. by which Portugal was divided into three great feoffs. besides thé metals.000 men was raised. Thé entrance of the bay is so wide. His Royal Highness sailed from Bahia. coffee.0001. it not being possible for ships to enter without being exposed to the fire of the forts. it is actually without the means of subsistence. when a Braganza the city was to be placed at its head. under the King of Etruria. and a Braganza. force gets possession of the neck of land between the Cape and Rio Vermelha. Rio was therefor e the best adapted for the asylum of the illustrious house of Braganza. tlie Prince of Peace Godoy. Trinidad. Whereas.000. whc commanded in chief. the rest was to be sequestrated till a general peace. and had fixed his head-quarters at Lisbon.

and thé Marquez d'Agmar. It was before 1808 confined to little more than the ground it occupied when attacked by Duguay Trouen in 1712 and the beautiful bays above and below it. and where. The manifesto also denied having. On one side ofthe square a theatre was begun. his old and faithful ally the king of and this was aU the direct Interférence of the Prince in Englaud thé affairs of lus ancient European kingdom. This was now filled up. and in conjunction with. and a muddy pond filled up thé centre. those of Maranham. that the French government having broken faith with that of Portugal. and a proportional number. Pernambuco. into which the negroes were in the habit of throwing ail the impurities from the neighbourhood. as the French government alleged. not inferior to those 28th January. 49 consisted of Don Rodriguez de Souza Continho.1808. and Bahia. Thé effect of the residence of the court was soon felt in the city of Rio de Janeiro. and declared that he could only make peace by consent of. Don Juan d'Almeida. H . setting forth the conduct of France towards Portugal from the beginning of the revolution the efforts of the government to preserve its neutrality and detailing ail the events which had led immediately to the emigration of the royal family. before the end of the year (i808). given any succours to the English fleet or troops in their expedition to thé River Plate and it states. The first measure of thé court was to publish a manifesto. and the convention of Cintra had been signed. formed by the harbour. thé battle ofVimiera had been fought. His Royal Highness considered himself at war with France. A spot near the church of San Francisco de Paulo had been cleared for a square. where a junta of five persons was appointed to govern.INTRODUCTION. except by a few fishermen. the Visconde d'Anadia. while thé swamps and morasses which surrounded it rendered it filthy in the extrême. were unoccupied. but scarcely a dozen houses had risen round it. Thé first sensible effect of the arrival of the royal family in Brazil was the opening of its numerous ports and in the very first year (1808) ninety foreign ships entered the single harbour of Rio.

. nor indeed would its freedom at that time have been of any consequence. which has become not only a luxury. but even a necessary. every station was occupied by and the beautiful bay of Boto Fogo. the desert islands of the bay became thriving farms.50 INTRODUCTION. had called forth greater exertions and speculations in commerce and in October a public bank was chartered in Rio. it formed the first step towards awakening rational curiosity and that desire for reading. where there were before only fishermen and gipsies. with its surrounding hills. between the foot of the mountain of the Corcovado. soon became a populous and weathy suburb. artificial especially near the capital. and the sea. did not boast ofmuch freedom. in some countries. On the arrival of the court many of the old Creole families hastened to the capital to greet their sovereigns. delightml country-houses. the woods and hills were cleared. The establishment of a regular gazette naturally took place. the square was finished. for the speedier dissemination of whatever tidings might arrive from Portugal. where lay the possessions and the interest ofthe court and the new people of Brazil and though the press. of course. The trade had naturally rapidly increased the money brought by the emigrants from Portugal. while on the other. John several niagnificent houses rose in thé immediate neighbourhood. It is not in my power to give a detailed account of ail the transactions of this important year. and placed under the patronage of St. and which makes a rapid and daily progress here. new industry was excited. of Europe m size and accommodation. with a capital of from seventy to eighty thousand pounds sterling. gardens sprung up every where. on one side of the city. The sons and the daughters of these marr ied into the noble houses of Portugal the union of the two nations became intimate and permanent and the manners and habits of the Brazilians more polished. With the wants that sprung up. and another and much larger laid out beyond it. and the délicate table vegetables of Europe and Africa were added to the native riches of the soil and climate.

By the treaty of Amiens. and their combined attack forced the enemy to surrender on the of 12th January. Strangford resumed H 2 . that a trait like this. Don Rodrigo de Souza Continho. the Visconde d'Anadia. so that Rio presented a scene of almost continued On the festivity. Joao d'Almeida de Mello e Castro. The English ship of war. commanded by Captain Yeo. Conde das Galveas. accompanied him. to the mouth of the Oyapok. and was now. Sir Sidney Smith. The Papal Nuncio. The terms were honourable to both parties and among the articles 1 observe the 14th. Confiance. governed by the mfampus Victor Hughes. were honoured with the order of the Tower and Sword six English officers were named commanders of the order of the Cross. is too pleasing to be over-looked. Luiz de Vasconcellos e Souza was made Conde de Figuerio. that the botanic garden. and the demands at home were too urgent and too great to permit much to be hazarded for the sake of such a distant possession. lessas commander f o the Britishnaval forcein thoseseas.INTRODUCTION. The court of Rio. the birthday of the queen. resolved to send a body of troops under Colonel Manoel Marquez. and Lord Strangford*. l'7th of December. the foreigners vied with the Portuguese in their feasts. Conde de Redondo. called the Gabrielle. that is. Lord had hischaracterofambassador. six counts were created. The beginning of 1809 was marked by an event of some importance. Thé fleets of England impeded thé navigation. together with French Guyana and It was long Cayenne. but kept up in the state of perfection in which it was given up. D. therefore. and five others were made knights of the same. War is so horrible. The rest of the year passed in Brazil in quiet though important Sir SydneySmithhad followed Portuguese the court to Rio. by which it is stipulated. shall not only be spared. Conde de Linhares. Fernando Jose de Portogal Conde d'Aguiar. Jose de Souza Continho. 51 The numbers of the royal family furnished birthdays for frequent galas. than as the protectorof the Braganzas. D. and D. Conde d'Anadia. since France had been able to send out succour to these colonies. Portuguese Guiana had been given up to France. in the midst of its evils.

so tranquil was it. SniN KEI CHI. the pirates surrendered their ships. and immense numbers of persons of all colours were vaccinated. in common Macao was still Portuguese. during the year 1810. PoM. had been plagued with the pirates of the Yellow Sea till. which the strength and the treasure of England were waging in defence of them in the Peninsula. but twelve months elapsed ere the happy tidings reached Brazil. Judge. CHES. The extensive dominions of Portugal in the east Yet had fallen off one by one. as pearls from a broken thread. it. MiGUEL BRUN DA DE ARRIGA.etails of those desperate battles. The Portuguese were by this treaty to furnish six vessels of from sixteen to twenty-six guns. it was establishment renewed both at Bahia and Rio. SILVA. and promised to become peaceable subjects. For twenty years past. Meanwhile the Portuguese arms were employed in another quarter of the world. signed by the following personages. and therefore made a treaty with the Portuguese government of Macao. General. but for the packets which brought across the Atlantic the d. on thé 23d of November. the Chinese government found it necessary to take measures for suppressing them. The great European interests of Brazil and its sovereign might have been forgotten in the country itself. with the coast of China.52 INTRODUCTION. JosE JoAQUiN BARRus. . but being in want of bail and other stores they were supplied liberally by the English East India Company's factory and the result was. at length. operations many roads were opened through the still wild country a school of anatomy a naval academy was instituted in the interior and the vaccine was founded in thé naval and military hospital formed in Brazil in 1804 having declined. that after three months' resistance. and the people of Macao performed a Te Deum in honour of their success.

whom they found aiready settled in villages. In fact. a proclamation was issued in the month of September. with ail its privileges. Several well appointed detachments were sent into different parts of the country for the purpose of repelling the Indians. should be erected into a villa. by which great and reciprocal advantages were obtained. These people were gentle. holdin~ out to such as should become proprietors and reclaimers of land in the province of the Minas Geraes and on the banks of the Rio Doce. to the number of nearly a thousand. Lord Strangford and the Conde de Linhares.. and not without some of the arts and habits ofindustry but they were heathens and polygamists. further the views with which these expeditions had been formed. as she had decidedly the interest in opposing France. in behalf of their respective governments. above ail.0001. The party that was sent up the Rio Doce discovered one hundred and forty-four farms that had been ruined by the Indians. and which they restored they formed a friendly treaty with several tribes of Puri Indians. especially among the friendly Indians but such as were refractory were to be pursued even to To extermination. that the British Parliament had voted 980.INTRODUCTION. Strict orders were given the commanders to proceed peaceably. provided they built no steeples to their churches. of furthering the graduai civilisation of the Indian tribes. a commercial signed treaty at Rio. and that they used no bells. England had now taken the battle into her own hands. and ten houses of white persons. This was followed in the month of Jvfay by a formai notice from Lord Strangford. whose inroads had destroyed several of the Portuguese settlements. 53 On the 19th ofFebruary. and the English were allowed the &ee exercise of their own form of worship. and promising that every settlement that should contain twelve huts of reclaimed Indians. and the royal house of Bragreatest ganza was at leisure to devote its whole attention to its American dominions. and. of forming roads to connect the different provinces with each other. ail the advantages of original donatories and lords paramount. not that a plurality of wiveswas . for the carrying on of the war in Portugal.

The fisheries off the coast were attended to. and done one of the Creole Brazilians. general. were invited and encouraged. They do not appear to bave been cannibals. considering its natural 1 have in my possession a curious drawing. That savages may eat their enemies taken in battle 1 do not doubt under the circumstances of savage life revenge and retaliation are sweet but 1 doubt their eating the dead found after the battle. though it is strongly asserted that the neighbouring Botecudos were so. and of islanders from the Açores. With the latter atrocities.54 INTRODUCTION. for there were only one hundred and thirteen wives to ninety four husbands. of mixed breed. it is not uncharitable to believe that much exaggeration crept into the accounts of thé savages. as well as the soldiers of the black regiment who accompanied them. Thèse savages appear quite naked. in order to enhance their services. especially if we recollect the miracles ascribed in those Besides very accounts to many of thé missionaries themselves. it was politic to exaggerate the difficulties these usefui men had to encounter. found in a Botecudo cottage. and being armed with bows and arrows. 1 confess 1 am sceptical about thèse anthropophagi. whose views were au directed to the good of the country. have the flesh stripped &om thé bones. hands. they had eaten four of them who &11into their hands. or devouring women and children. or even common. who shows himselfhidden by in a cave. and that of the island of St. and 1 doubt their hunting men. The Botecudos are represented as carrying off this flesh ia baskets. excepting the head. they have not been charged in modern times and as at the period the missionaries wrote the first histories of them. Catherine and on the same particularly island sumcient experiments were made upon the growth of hemp. thèse measures concerning the Indians. having their mouth pieces. other steps were taken for the good of the country of no less importance several colonies. indeed. and feet. he also perceived how poor and how backward it was. to provethat time and industry only were wanting to furnish great quantities of that valuable article of a very good quality. The year 1811 was the last of the life and ministry of the Conde de Linhares. his white companions dead. both of Europeans. Fully aware not only of its richness and fertility. . and they. and that having gained a slight advantage over the Portuguese.

river and the Gequetinhonha had been ascertained experiments in every kind of cultivation had been made even the tea had been introduced from China. at doing more than was possible in the short time. Matthew's terly perished. in which his active disposition could operate. cities. and some seeds of improvement which have not utThe possibility of navigating both the St. Bahia.000 crusadoes per annum to be taken from the customs of Bahia. both for use and omament. a subscription of 30. a public library had been formed. in which the spices of the East were cultivated with success and perhaps as the greatest possible good. paved her streets and at Rio. Pernambuco. and its regulations framed on the most liberal principles.INTRODUCTION. suffered it to be carried on. completing the public gardens. and seemed to attend only to domestic imNew buildings. when that illustrious meeting. But they aU continued tranquil for the present. who had suffered during the French war a measure regarded even then with jealousy by thé northern captaincies.000 crusadoes was raised towards beautifying the palace square. 55 In endeavouring to remedy the evils. Anna. He had formed roads and planned canals he had invited colonies. and under thé circumstances. Then indeed England consented to pay . besides the handsome theatre opened there in 1812. he perhaps aimed advantages. to the Portuguese. arose in the provement. which indeed afterwards sunk but they left behind them some of their ingenious practice. Maranham and Pernambuco improved their harbours. assigning 120. Three ships had been captured by the British squadron off the coast of Africa. and Maranham. In 1813. though most of its highest and must powerful members had exclaimed loudly against the villanous practice. and the matter engaged in illegal s~MMM~ continued suspended until after the congress of Vienna. A botanical garden had been formed. some disputes arose between the court of Rio and England on account of the slave trade. and draining the campo de Sta. while certainly remonstrances were made. Towards the end of 1811 a royal decree was issued. for &)rty years.

both civil and military. the more grievous. to take offthe public attention from such vexations by a measure at once just and gratifying to the of the Brazilians by an edict of the 16th of December. remained unpaid yet there were exactions. and the feasts and rejoicings on that happy occasion occupied the people to the exclusion of au other considerations. 13. 181. These negotiations suffered some little interruption from an event which had long been expected. 1815) In the same year there appears to have been some discontent manifested.56 INTRODUCTION. 1816. and the family of Braganza. of officers. in every the administration of justice was notoriously department corrupt the clergy had fallen into disorder and disrepute and though much that was useful had been done.000/. especially in thé distant provinces. the necessity for an English guardian squadron at Rio had ceased and accordingly the British establishment was broken up. on the 20th of March. both of body and mind. that various officers who had come to Rio either on private business or to remonstrate on public wrongs. whose state. It was wisely done at this juncture. and the stores sold. yet that was forgotten. having caused the exile of Napoleon to Elba. She was buried with great pomp in the church of the convent of thé Ajuda . Meantime the victories of the allies in Europe. because they were irregular. namely. and such a portion of discontent existed. or suspected in the provinces. again independent of foreign aid. had long precluded her from ail share in public affairs. were peremptorily ordered to return to their own provinces. some months addresses of thanks and congratulation poured in to the king from various provinces. to indemnify the Portuguese slave traders for their loss (July.5 pride Brazil was raised to the dignity of a kingdom. the death of the queen. Many of the salaries. and thé style and titie altered so as to place it on an equal footing with For Portugal. began to renew its connections with the other courts of Europe.

the keys of Montevideo were delivered up to the Portuguese general Lecor. The i . which was happily efected. and. two of the Infantas of Portugal had been married to Ferdinand thé 7th of Spain. Prince of Portugal and Brazil. and the Archduchess Maria LeoOn the 28th of November. and the person the most important to thé hopes and happiness of Brazil. In the autumn precéding. therefore. On the l*7th of February following. dirges were sung for her in all the churches in thé kingdom. by which the long-wished-for command of the eastern bank of the Plata was obtained. 57 and. in the captaincy of Pernambuco. as is usual. he went to Vienna. was welcomed with ~nthusiasm by all classes ofpeople. the Marquis Marialva standing for Don Pedro but it was not until the Il th of November that she arrived at Rio. several skirmishes took place. and his brother the Infant Don Carlos. 181'7. thé contract was made public.INTRODUCTION. and the Porte da Santa Theresa had been occupied in order to check the motions of that active leader during the autumn of 1816. but thé arts of negotiation as well as of war were resorted to. to negotiate a marriage between Don Pedro de Alcantara. Meantime the discontents in the northern provinces had broken out into open insurrection. and shortly afterwards the way having been prepared by an inferior minister. she was privately contracted at Vienna to thé prince. had been sent along with two frigates for her to Trieste. In the month of June. and on the Igth of May she was married by proxy. and on the 9th of January. poldina. The chief Artigas showed a disposition to encroach on the Portuguese Une. the voyage was performed without accident. But the frontier of Brazil to the southward now began to feel the effect of those disturbances which had long agitated Spanish South America. the Marquis Marialva was received at Paris as ambassader of Portugal and Brazil. The line of battle ship Joam VI. a corps of volunteers had been formed for thé purposes of observation.

The example of the Spanish Americans had no doubt its weight. as well as Tamandré. a man of wealth and family. which they despaired of ever seeing redressed. and a regular plan for obtaining independence was formed. aided by a priest. posted themselves on the Rio Formosa as a check on that quarter. in order to harass the marches of the enemy. fortifications were begun at Alagoas and at Penedo. . and Recife being secured. especially of Rio.58 INTRODUCTION. who had been sent forward by Lacerda. where he was not long afterwards joined by Colonel Mello. and which only served to enrich the creatures of the court. They remembered besides. on the ~st: and by the 29th Gordilho had occupied that post. Such were the exciting causes of the insurrection of 1817. They were. which they considered as more favoured than themselves. had driven out those masters. with a strong reinibrcement. while great abuses existed. people of Recife. therefore. Domingos Jose Martins. especially in the judicial part of the government. These parties were headed by Cavatcante. however. that their own exertions. and they were disgusted at thé payments of taxes and contributions. was known. marched immediately from Bahia. which threatened for many months the peace. The insurgents. received a decided check from a body of royalists. to be pardisposed ticularly jealous of the provinces of the south. and its immediate neighbourhood. in Pernambuco. had probably miscalculated thé degree of concurrence or assistance they should meet with from their Thé people of Serinhaern as soon as thé insurrection neighbours. had imbibed some of the notions of democratical government from their former masters the Dutch. namely the middle of April. having attacked the Villa de Pedras. without any assistance from the government. and had restored to the crown the northern part of its richest domain. The Pernambucan leader Victoriano. and forming gueriUa parties. and thé king's troops under Lacerda. under Major Gordilho. if not the safety of Brazil. Meantime thé Pernambucan chief. which by they never profited. troops were raised and disciplined. was actively employed in collecting troops.

others imprisoned. was the cause of much evil àfterwards. and had served with distinction under Lord Wellington. i2 . to the ingenio of Trapiche. The severe military punishments inflicted on this occasion certainly produced irritation. and the Conde da Barca in June when the Conde de Palmela became prime minister. and the priest. Their chiefs were either killed or taken and of the latter some were exiled. 1 cannot pretend to speak of the character or measures of these or any other Portuguese or Brazilian ministers. Of a firm and vigorous mind. a bold and enterprising man. by the famous Pernambucan division of the south. and Don Tomas Antonio de Portogal secretary to the house of Braganza. were hanged in Bahia. and brought an odium upon that gallant soldier himself. Jose Luiz Mendonça. on which he drew off his people with those of the south. Miguel Joaquim de Alameida. The Marquis d'Aguiar. Domingos Jose Martins. On the 2d of May. Bezerra became president of the treasury. the Conde dos Arcos secretary for transmarine and naval affairs. who had succeeded to thé Conde de Linhares. which had hitherto received ho check but the assailants were repulsed with the lôss of their artillery and baggage. He was a native of Portugal. 5'9 Souto.INTRODUCTION. suffered a complete defeat. died in January. from which his high character in other situations could not shield him. and a column under Martins coming up met with the same fate. a vigorous attack was made on~ Serinhaem. At this juncture Luiz do Rego Barreto was appointed by the government at Rio to the office of captain-general of Pernambuco. and three. which though it did not break out immediately. and jealous of the honour of a sodier. who was far from being the only ecclesiastical partisan. and in as knowledge. he was perhaps too little yielding to the people and the temper of the times. On the 6th of May they left that position. My opportunities of information were too few. and meeting the royalists under Mello. the Conde de Funchal counsellor of state. my habits as a woman and a foreigner never led me into situations where 1 could the necessary acquire 1 wish only to mark the course cf events. This year the ministry underwent a-complete change.

formed a great part of thé entertainment. Portugal and Africa and India. The Portuguese troops. ail appeared to do Algarve. That year opened at Rio with unusual testivity. where the trade was still considered lawful. and a commission of English and Portuguese jointly was formed for thé examining into and deciding on causes arising out of the treaties on that most important subject. a certain number of commissioners being appointed to reside in the different ports in Africa and Brazil.60 INTRODUCTION. Donna Maria da Gloria. the royal country house. China and Brazil. in honour of the young princess's birth-day it was followed by a military dance. which was remarkably quiet. and strengthened . On thé 22d of January. far as they are linked with each other. was an event to gratify both the court and thé people of Brazil. some additional restrictions concerning thé slave trade. which had been agreed to by Conde de Palmela during the last year at London. took place. were published at Rio.. Music. They had now the heir of their kingdom born among them. a great bull-feast was given at San Christovam. king was unrivalled. The following year was not less tranquil. by facilitating the communications from place to place. The early part of 1820 was disturbed by some irruptions of thé Spanish Americans under Artigas. in which the costume of the natives of every part of the Portuguese dominions in the east and west were displayed. John VI. In the early part of 1818. in which the taste of the homage to the illustrious stranger. The birth of the young princess. thé only public acts of note being the farther prosecution of the plans for civilising thé interior. the causes of those effects which took place under my own eyes. however. and reclaiming the border tribes of In dians. a circumstance which they were disposed to hail as a pledge that the seat of government would not be removed from among them. on the eastern side of the Plata. soon repulsed him. On the 6th pf February the coronation of his majesty. and never perhaps had Brazil witnessed so magnificent a festival. and these peaceful festivities gave a character to the year.

and under which. The provinces were ail more or less agitated. in which they lost six officers and 19 men killed. Bahia was far from tranquil. The royalist troops were sent out against them and were victorious. Naples had been convulsed by an attempt to obtain a constitution similar to that promulgated by the Spanish Cortes and now Portugal began to feel the universal impulse. and that nothing but a total reform in the government should reconcile them to longer subjection to the government of Rio. and the Arroyo Grande. Meantime the peace in Europe had not brought back ail the tranquillity that was expected from it. and the reformation of ancient abuses. 61 their line by thé occupation ofTaquarembo. and 134 wounded. The Cortes had assembled in Spain. . from which ail good was to be expected. Indeed it was not to be expected that Brazil should remain unconscious of the proceedings of EuPernambuco rope. In vain did the old government expect to step back into exactly the same places they had occupied before the revolutionary war. was as usual foremost in feeling. and prepared them for a future and more obstinate resistance. at the same time that they farther exasperated the people. tended to increase thé desire of a constitutional government. They declared their grievances to be intolérable. Lisbon and Oporto were both the seats of juntas of provisional government. after an action of six hours. if was hoped. A considerable party had assembled at about thirty-six leagues from' Olinda.INTRODUCTION. and as usual severe military exécutions increased the evits of the civil war. and both assembled Cortes to take into consideration the framing of a new constitution. Thé old jealousy which had subsisted from the time thé seat of government had been transferred from the city of St. but it was not until the month of November that the government of Brazil made publie thé recent occurrences in the mother country. Salvador to Rio. combined with other causes. The loss on the other side was much greater. and in the expression of feeling. Simar. On the 21 st of August the Cortes of Lisbon had sworn to adopt in part thé constitution of the Spanish Cortes.

This manifesto appears to At hâve produced an effect very different from what was intended. Viva a The Prince then returned to thé ReligiaÔ. and the Infant Don Miguel. secretary for foreign affairs. The Carnara~ was assembled in the great saloon of the theatre. Antcnio Luiz Pereiro da Cunha. head of the board of trade. president of the board of conscience. Barboza. Sebastian Luiz Terioco. fiscal. from its size and situation. As soon as this circumstance could be known at San Christovaô.64 INTRODUCTION. &c. José da Silva Lisboa. and each individually approved. Conde de Aseca. appeared upon the balcony of the saloon. police. most lively planted at the heads of the principal streets. second treasurer.t. commander-in-chief. José Gaetano Gomes.1 The Prince. after conferring for a short time with the membérs of that body. such as it should be framed by the Cortes ofLisbon. and read to the people and the troops. Joao Fereiro da Costa Sampaio. Silvestre Pinhero Fereiro. Viva a constituicao. the Prince Don Pedro. director of the bank. and ordered thé secretary of the Camarato draw up the form ofthe oath to be taken to observe the constitution. Conde de Louça. grand treasurer. secretary of state. <. not fit for the f Thé square in front of the théâtre. Joao Rodriguez Pereira de Almeida. Bishop of Rio. and also a list of a new ministry. This was received with loud cries of Viva el Rei. head of police. Thé whole municipal body. The list of ministers was first read. and to thé peculiar situation of Brazil. was assembly of thé people and troops on such an occasion. literary department. New ~'MM~ Vice-admiral and Commander-in-chief Quintella. came into the city. ail the streets and squares Six pieces of'artillery were of the city were found full of troops. and secretary for transmarine aitairs. and the sensation agitated every part of the city of Rio. . Brigadier Carlos Frederico da Cunha. to be submitted to the people for theit approbation. minister of marine. saloon. antedated the 24th. Joaquin Jose Monteiro Torres. head of the treasury. four o'clock in the morning of the 26th. securing to them thé Constitution. a royal proclamation.

and where the piece presented was a decided iavourite. and signed the same. and to entreat his presence in the city. and solemniy vowed. thé people again assembling to drag the Kino~s s carriage thither. in thé following fbrm 1 swear. K . declaring at the same time his perfect approbation of every thing that had been done.. and the King held a court. passionately fond of music. after whom thé ministers and a multitude of other persons crowded to follow his example. where ail thé music vocal and instrumental was selected with exquisite taste. Thé Prince then took the oath in like manner for himself. and arrived at the great square at about eleven o'clock. The troops then dispersed. grateful for a boon granted that very day.* Yet it may be questioned whether there existed in his wide dominions one heart Rossini's Cenerentola. veneration and respect for our holy religion to observe. and forming in thé square before the doors. to inform him of all that had passed. keep. in the name of the King. His Majesty accordingly set off immediately. 65 His Royal Highness then proceeded to take the oath for his father. At one of the centre windows the King presently appeared. and maintain for ever the constitution such as established by the cortes in PorThe bishop then presented to him thé holy Gospels. as the best means of securing order and confidence. my father and lord. to a theatre built by himself. promised. when the people took thé horses from his carriage and dragged him to the palace. and was immediately followed by his brother. at San Custovaô. which was most numerousiy attended and the day ended at the opera. Joam VI. thé Infant Don Miguel. on tugal.INTRODUCTION. the troops following as on a day ofgala. Meantime the Prince rode to the King at his country seat of Boa Vista. It would be curious to investigate the feelings of princes on occasions so momentous to themselves and to their people." which he laid his right hand. was dragged by a people. and confirmed ail that the Prince had promised in his name.

brought about the revolution of the pretend to give. feux de joie. might disturb. The members of the diplomatie body scarcely concern But circumstances which that they were busy. less at ease than his own. itself seriously on thé business of the constitution. Thornton. The new government early began to manifest a détermination to be no longer subordinate to Rio. and fire-works succeeded and at the opéra. and troops were raised in order to maintain thé constitution. the great saloon was again crowded with persons eager to sign the oath to thé constitution. the pictures only of thé king and queen appeared but were received with loud acclamations. and when the curtain of the royal box was drawn up. in case the court at Rio should be adverse to its adoption. most contrary to the ancient system of continental Europe. on which day Messrs. and almost without disturbance. one insuring the liberty of the press. waited on His Majesty. the magistrates were calfed on to take an oath to adhere to the constitution. But he was too much fatigued with thé events of the last two days to go. ministers from different motions or interferences of thé' this period. and. England and France.among others. On the lOth of February the troops and people assembled in the city. as if the royal personages they themselves had been present. and began by publishing some edicts highly iavourable to the people. and to acknowledge no other authority Thé 87th. was ordered in compliment to thé King. Thus was a most important revolution brought about without The junta occupied bloodshed. illuminations. actuated by thé same spirit as Rio. Puccito's Henrique IV. and Ma!er. to every thing. Grimaldi. though they 26th. a provisional government was formed. formed ofthe students at. The next day there was nothing but joy in the city. in short.66 INTRODUCTION. to a wide-spread desire for freedom. There is no doubt but they could not control. the different collèges and schools ofthe city. and this day those feelings and prejudices had been obliged to bend to the spirit of the times. the visible facts alone of which 1 . Ail his feelings and prejudices were in favour of the ancient order of things. Among these the most forward was a small body of artillery. had anticipated the revolution at that place. Meantime Bahia.

67 than that of the Cortes at Lisbon. The troops found it necessary to publish a declaration. they were placed in confinement for three days. along with them. and are said to have insulted several persons. solemnly took the oath to adhere to the constitution a measure which gave universal satisfaction. and on the *7th of March he published a proclamation announcing his resolution. particularly the members of the council which existed immediately before thé revolution and in order to save three of them from the fury of the mob. and there. in Recife. and he resolved to take thé opportunity of the assembling of thé electors on the 21 st of April. An intimation of what had taken place at Bahia was immediately forwarded to Luiz do Rego at Pernambuco. with a proclamation tending to exculpate them from au criminal charges. denying that they had any factious views when they assembled on the 26th of February. and alleging that they appeared as citizens anxious for the rights of the whole community. who assembled the magistrates. several of the towns in the Comarca of Ilheos also took the oaths to maintain the constitution. which. and explaining the motives oftheir arrest. in hopes of relief from the vexations it had so long suffered under. The King meanwhile had resolved on returning to Lisbon.INTRODUCTION. however. together with an order for such deputies as should be elected by the time of his departure. to go with him to attend the Cortes. Every thing now appeared to proceed in quiet. the troops. About the same time. and promising to find means of conveying the rest when they should be ready. But the agitation of the capital was by no means at an end. and then liberated. and the people. and it appeared evidently that the whole country was equally desirous of a change. on the 3d of March. in order to K 2 . The preparations for His Majesty's departure went on. Disputes arose concerning the election of deputies to the cortes. to submit to them the plan for the government of Brazil which he had laid down. to choose the deputies to the Cortes. The people assembled in different places. ended in adopting the method laid down in the Spanish constitution.

But the members of that assembly met again on the 22d. who. receive . insisting on the adoption of the entire Thé decree of the assembly received the Spanish constitution. as well as the others who had crowded thither. it might be. Thé attack itself. signature of thé King. These electors were assembled in thé their sanction. many more were wounded and The the whole city was filled with an indescribable consternation. on this as on other occasions. that any man could wantonly have so cruelly irritated the people at thé This very time when so much depended on their tranquillity. and sent a body of soldiers to intimidate the assembly. was imputed to thé Conde dos Arcos by some. in order to stop the exportation of the quantity of wealth known to be on board of them. Some went so far as to propose an examination of thé vessels. and thither a great concourse of people had flocked.68 INTRODUCTION. The result of that meeting was a deputation sent to the king. were assembled. Unhappily. to express their opinion on so important a subject. some purely from curiosity. has well merited the title of perpétuai defender of Brazil. has always been attributed to the Prince Don Pedro. given hastily in a moment of alarm. caused the soldiers to nre into the exchange. for it is impossible to think. according as passion or party directed the suspicion thé truth is. imagining they had a right. unwise and cruel attack. never known or never acknowledged. with less pure motives. for an instant. where the unarmed and innocent electors. some from a desire. to other individuals by others. an order proceeding from some quarter. that His Majesty revoked his royal consent to the act passed on the 21st. sudden stop that was put to this strange. andproceeded to propose to stop the ships prepared for the King's return to Portugal. that it seems to have been the result of ill-understood orders. exchange. and the meeting at length assumed so alarming an aspect. perhaps unjustly. About thirty persons were killed. but all were there on the ~aith ofthe royal invitation given through the judge of the district. a handsome new building on the shore. many of whomhad no legal title to be present.

in the present circumstances. Minister of Interior. Conda da Louça. and as a royal boon on leaving thé army. that ail should from this time understand what are the objects of public administration which 1 have principally in view. without feelings of regret. until Portugal shall form a constitution. as 1 judge it right. during the storm in which most of his brother riionarchs had suffered. And in case of theprince's death. That very day he made over the government of that country to the Prince. however. as it sets forth his intentions. 1 shall give literally: Inhabitants of Brazil The necessity of paying attention to the general interests of the nation befbre every other. if not affection. as well as other burdens on thé prince's revenue. seems to have quickened the King's resolution to leave Brazil. forces my august father to leave you. Brigadier Canler. thé regency to remain in the hands of the Princess Maria Leopoldina. promising a great increase of pay to ail.INTRODUCTION. and obedience to thé Prince Regent. The ministers who advised this step. which. 69 shocking event. and that the Brazilian officers should be put on the same footing as those of the Portuguese army. with a council to be composed of The Conde dos Arcos. The Prince also addressed the Brazilians on assuming thé government by a proclamation. Prime Minister. The treasury was left empty at the King's departure. And. 1 lose no time! in . and to intrust me with the care ofthe public happiness of Brazil. yet increase of pay beyond ail precedent was promised. a farewell to the inhabitMajesty published ants of Rio and it cannot be imagined that he could leave the place which to him had been a haven of safety. The next day thé King publicly addressed thé troops. acted cruelly towards the government they left behind. and confirm it. Minister of War. recommending to them fidelity to thé crown and constitution. His on thé same day.

attention. had disclaimed the superiority of the government at Rio. opposition to the quibbles by which they are discredited and weakened. the royal family embarked. and above al! the ministry well knew. that strict respect for the laws. It is computed that fifty millions of crusadoes. 1 shall not cease to encourage whatever may favour these copious sources of national riches. from the revolution in February. which now demands the most especial attention of the government. Pemambuco. But this great re-emigration produced evils of no common magnitude in Brazil. occupied thé following day. will be the objects of my first 1. And in order that the commerce and agriculture of Brazil may be in a prosperous state. and had owned no other than that of the Cortes at Lisbon." Thé ceremonies of taking leave. and diametrically opposed to thé system of liberality. and But these provinces. were carried out of the country by the Portuguese returning to Lisbon. and many others whose fortunes were entirely attached to thé court. witliout which it will be impossible to use liberal means for the public good. Public education. and with it many of the Portuguese nobles who had followed their king into exile. that they Hence had refused to remit any portion of the revenue to Rio. destructive of ail order. . and persuade you to adopt antisocial principles. declaring. which from this moment it is my intention to follow. even at the time of granting thé bills. Inhabitants of Brazil ail these intentions will be frustrated if certain evil-minded persons should accomplish their fatal views.~70 INTRODUCTION. Maranham. constant vigilance over thé administration of thé same. 1 shall pay equal attention to thé interesting subject bf reform. will be provided for by every means in my power. On the 24th. It will be highly agreeable to me to anticipate ail such benefits of the constitution as shall be compatible with obedience to the laws. at least. A great proportion of specie had been taken up in exchange for government bills on the treasuries of Bahia.

. The Prince who remained at thé head of the government was deservedly popular among the Brazilians. But the question of the independence of Brazil had now come to be publicly agitated. was stopped. Something was done towards improving the condition of the barracks. and several works of public utility were destroyed by this great and sudden drain and thereby much that had been begun after the arrival of the court. was done by the Prince for the advantage of the people. But as soon as it was possible. This is highly honourable. but that they were not of a more fierce and fatal tendency. Books were allowed to be imported duty free. and every thing that could be effected under the circumstances. that he was acknowledged the debts obliged to delay or modify the increase of military pay promised on the KIng's departure. thé evil spread far and wide. a circumstance that occasioned much disquiet The funds for carrying on several branches of in several provinces. hospitals. and out of it arose several others. not only among the natives It was of little avail that the Prince but the foreign merchants. Tl arose commercial distress of every description. the treasury was left so poor. Colonies that had been invited to settle with the most liberal promises perished for want of the necessary support in the beginning of their career. and to preserve or promote public tranquillity. The great duties on salt conveyed into the interior. and which it was hoped would have been of the greatest benefit to the country. and thé wonder is. and as long-standing government debts had been also paid by thèse bills which were ail dishonoured. with a separate supreme jurisdiction civil and criminal under the Prince ? or was it to return to the abject It was of little avail at the time. His first care was to examine into and redress causes of grievances particularly those arising from arbitrary imprisonment and vexatious methods of collecting taxes. notwithstandinT the total change of government.INTRODUCTION. and schools. not that disturbances in varions quarters took place an. which are still going on. industry. his royal highness's government began payments by instalments. were remitted.er the departure of the King. Was it to be still part of the Portuguese monarchy.

until the constitution of thé cortes should arrive from Lisbon. he touched at Bahia on his way home.72 INTRODUCTION. and so did those who dreaded the final séparation of Brazil from thé mother country. they also published an exhortation to tranquillity and obedience. and by demands increasing daily on aU sides. him permission to land and he had the mortifipreiudiced by letters from Rio. That same night both the Portuguese and should be known. distressed as thé government was by an empty treasury. Yet his misconduct. on publishing an invitation to ail and statistical persons to send in plans and projects for improvements. which should deliberate to be adopted. state in which it had been since its discovery. subject to ai! thevexatious delays occasioned by distant tribunals. jealous otaU. or were there to be several uncjnnected provinces. and of a wish to reduce Brazil once more to thé state in which it had been befbre 1808. cation of being On his arrival at Lisbon. seems to have been an error in judgment. on thé l~th of June. each with its suprême government. Thé people. but particularly of thé ministers. tower of Belem. he suffered a short imprisonand where he had been beloved. and who looked forward to a federal state. by appeals beyond sea. accountable oniy to the king and cortes at Lisbon ? Those who had republican views. if it amounted to aH he was charged ment in the with. the junta of government there. for they argued that the separate provinces might be easily controlled. When . was held as a ~estivaL Yet. and ail that renders thé state of a colony irksome or degrading ? Then if independent so far. and patient waiting till the event of thé deliberation of the cortes. notices concerning the country. favoured thé latter views. now to be joined by their own deputies. and on thé appointment of a provisional insisted on thé best measures of government junta. They on his dismissal. in that very city where he had governed with honour. but that Brazil united would overmatch any force that Portugal could send against it. should a hostile struggle between them ever take place. that. thé day of his dismissal. accused tlie Conde dos Arcos of treachery. refused treated as a criminal. was it to form one Idngdom whose capital should be at Rio. it was impossible to remove at and thé new junta was so well aware once all causes of discontent of this. and the fifth of June.

when they were stopped by the good sense. professing only to recognise the governtnent of Lisbon. But présence of mind of their captain. violent jealousies had arisen between them. They took advantage of the occasion furnished by the assembling of the militia. Thé régiment. to ruie and to satisfy them. and it required ail the authority and ail the On the morning of the popularity of the Prince to restore order.'and recommended to them as citizens. accusing him of withho~ding the pay thé measures promised by the King. At St. to preserve the subordination of the troops they commanded. and were proceeding to threaten the municipal govemment of the city. to such a degree. L . Catherine's. indeed. José Joaquim though thé ferment was soothed for the time. it continued to agitate not only the troops. when thé constitution was proclaimed. 17th His Royal Highness called together the officers of both nations. and in a short speech he ordered them as soldiers.INTRODUCTION. the troops refused to acknowledge the Prince. yet the refusing to admit a new governor who had but the political been sent. Villa Rica. 73 Brazilian troops were under arms in the city. and declared they would not lay them down until they received the pay demanded. though were less violent. that the magistrates and principal inhabitants thought it necessary to take some steps at once. but agitations at St. however. was decidedly an act of insubordination serious nature. and union among those troops. which. and that they were to trust to that for the redress of their grievances. Meanwhile the more distant provinces had acknowledged the constitution. Paul's were not only of a more had more important results than those of any other province. bidding them remember that they had sworn to support the constitution. and dos Santos. but the people. took up arms on thé 3d of June. authority of the cortes. The ostensible cause of the first public ferment in that city was thé discontent of the Caçadores at not receiving the promised augmentation of pay. it was not then in the power of the Prince to bestow on them. and had sworn to support thé But Maranham in its public acts took no notice whatever of the At Prince.

The Rev. where the camara held its sittings. Viva o Principe Régente. The great bell of thé camara then tolled out. Meantime the standard of the camara had been displayed at one of the windows. in the square before thé town-house. Daniel Pedro Muller.Pt'0!)M:'OK6~ gfU~'MMeM~ S<PaM~. putation was sent to his own dwelling. one by one. and addressed the people in a short. to form the provisional junta. calculated to give them courage. beginning with Joaô Carlos Augusto de Oyenhausen. Francisco Ignacio. and. to bring him to the townhouse. and at thé same time to inspire peace and aU good and orderly feeling. José Bonifacio appeared at another window.74 INTRODUCTION. was a native of the country. Dr. Martin Francisco de Andrada. on account of a festival on thé 21st. Joao Ferreiro da Oliviero Bueno. and fought in Europe. Francisco de Paulo Oliviera. with shouts of Viva el Re. should be appointed président. cheers. Antonio Lecto Perreiro da Gama Lobo. after having studied. and that José Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva.* The troops and people then marched in an orderly manner . Antonio Maria Quertim. they placed them on thé moming of the 28d. Nicolao Perreira de Campos Noguerros. and there thé magistrates were placed in sight of thé people. This truly patriotic citizen and accomplished scholar. He then named. the people flocked to the square. Miguel José de Oliviero Pinto. As soon as he was named. Manoel Rodriguez Jordao." They then demanded a provisional junta to be appointed for the government of the province. Viva o Constituiçao. but energetic speech. a detravelled. Lazaro José Gonçalez. and had now been residing in it some years. keeping them together. the members proposed by the chief citizens. W The Archpriest Felisberto Gomes Jardin. Andre da Sylva Gomez. to continue Each name was received with general of arms in the province. .

Paul's are rich. Nothing could hâve been so important to -the interest of the Prince at that time. Others.INTRODUCTION. The Paunstas are among the most hardy. and two hundred and forty taken prisoners after which. so rich as to yield 93 per cent. and the Prince Regent. and resolved to maintain the constitution. both in the houses and thé ships in thé harbour. Some armed vessels were. Thé next three months were spent almost entirely in establishing in the different capitals. assembled before the government house. and. The mines of St. upon swearing to maintain the constitution. had been restrained by theirgovernors from doing so. 75 to the house of José Bonifacio. to install him formally as president. spontaneous]y adopted that measure. the port of Santos presented a different scene The first battalion of the Caçadores during the first days of June. until the Prince's edicts of L 2 . accusing the governor and the camara of withholding their pay. and thence to the cathedral where a Te Deum was sung. and a detachment of militia from St. as well as every other species of Brazilian produce. thé national hymn was and from that moment ail remained quiet in the sung repeatedly city. At night the theatre was illuminated as for a gala. while it is totally independent of external supplies. is safe from thé attacks of any foreign power. generous. Iron. not only in the precious. plenty Agriculture is attended to. seized and imprisoned them. in order to force them to give the money Several they demanded. murders were committed during the insurrection. such as Pernambuco. Unfortunately. provisional juntas Many ofthe captaincies had. The manufactures of that province are far before any others in Brazil. the peace continued. Fifty of thé insurgents were killed. and coal abound. Paul's. Corn and cattle are there. but in the useful metals. and enlightened of the Brazilians. and various robberies. however. for whom they expressed unbounded attachment. every thing returned to a state of tranquillity and as the most conciliatory measures were adopted towards the people. and the city by its distance from thé sea. Their country is in the happiest climate. speedily despatched from Rio.

and the consideration that it had been thé asylum of thé government during the stormy days of the revolutionary war. What 1 have ventured to write is. the journal of what passed while 1 was in Braxil would be scarcely intelligible. It was ~bndiy hoped. récent. 1 trust. timorous. on the 2lst of September. in tact. thé importance of the country. and that it might have retained its separate courts. These edicts were followed by another of the 19th of September. but as an equal part of the nation. and uncertain. civil and criminal. imperfect. and though by law free. 1821. directing thejuntas to communicate directly with thé cortes at Lisbon and thé whole attention of the government was now directed to preserve tranquillity until the arrival of instructions from the cortes concerning the form of government to be adopted. as to venture to write it much. owing to the circumstances of the times. correct as to facts and dates it is merely intended as an introduction. yet.76 INTRODUCTION. because we are too near the time of action to know the motives and springs that guided the actors and much. partly because 1 have not so correct a knowledge of it. without which. and ail thé consequent advantages of a prompt administration of the laws. Much that might be interesting 1 have omitted. on our arrival in that country. that the presence of Brazilian deputies. generally speaking. reached them. Such was the state of Brazil. would have induced the cortes to have considered it no longer as a colony. because neither my sex nor situation permitted me to inform myself more especially concerning the political events in a country where the periodical publications are few. the 21 st of August. . to that effect.

and regretted much that it was too late in the day to go in very near it. Wp passed it on thé side where the town founded by Don Henry of Portugal. for South America. to proceed to Dublin..J0URNAL.-we After touching at the Doris. with colours half-mast high. on account of the death of Queen Caroline. and revisiting aU the wonders ofthe break-water watering place. were driven back to Falmouth by a heavy gale of wind. we nnally left thé channel. we sailed afresh. is situated. a 42 gun frigate. . and on the 18th about noon came in sight of Porto Santo. when. and new Plymouth. who at that moment went on sailed in board the Royal George yacht. 1821. Aï about six o'clock in the evening of the 31st of July. but when off Ushant. There we remained till the 1Ith of August. on the first discovery of the island. George IV. after having saluted His Majesty.

Surely the few years added to my age have not done this ? May 1 not rather hope. every house was thé same. far tresher How'rs. which. the joyous eagerness with which 1 feasted my eyes upon the first foreign country 1 had ever approached. When we Porto Santo. thé time we anchored. thé church and convent are very conspicuous. and whose associations are an poetry. either in thé scène or in me. 1 was disappointed at the caimness of my own ieelings. looking at thèse distant islands with as little emotion as if 1 had passed a headiand in the channel. Well do 1 remember." ROCERS. and the Desertas. Biest with far greener shades. was particularly beautiful. the curiosity to see every stone and tree of the new land. The land is high and rocky. that 1 ran to my cabin and sought out a sketch 1 had made in 1809. wa~ed by thy gentle ga!e. while a ~ew rough voices from thé shore and the neighbouring ships chaunted thé Ave Maria< Early in thé morning of thé 19th. that having seen lands whose monuments are all history. extensive woods a considerable quantity ofwine is made . To view thé fairy haunts of long lost hours. and anchored in Funchal passed roads. being a little manufactured at Funchal. Now 1 look on them tamely. and more discriminating eye ? One object never that océan where the Almighty Classes himself in tempaus or over which the gentie wings of peace seem to brood. Sweet Memory.hère. The pests. Every point of thé hill." feeling that there was a change. and again Nossa Senhora da Monte. we took a large party of the . passes for true Madeira. or at best only as parts of the lovely landscape. 1 have a higher taste. and higher up on the land. but near thé town there is a good deal of verdure. with her brilliant white towers shining from on high through the evening cioud. just at sunset. when 1 first saw Funchal tweh'e years ago. which kept r~y spirits in a kind of happy fever. 1 compared it with the town. As usual in Portuguese colonial towns. seemed to sanctify thé scène. was so strong. which. Oft up thé stream of time t turn my sail. however.78 JOURNAL.

The boys. tell us we aM nearing the tropics. and. are again pretty thick. Mixed with that splendid shrub. The evening was fine. We spent a very happy day at the hospitable country house of Mr. Thé woods. however. euphorbia. and press. prickly pear. and some inferior mahogany among it is used for furniture.uounted as before. banana. together with several gentlemen who had joined us at Mr. or compact basalt of wbich the whole island seems to be Purchas. aloes. who like Bowles. The sea with thé Desertas bounded thé below us prospect lay the roadstead and shipping. and rode up to thé little parish church. and our cavalcade to thé town at night was delightful. completed the scène. called Nossa Senhora da Monte. and the we embarked in two shore boats at the customstar-light lovely house gate. very common thé iuehsia is the usual hedge. the voices of the muleteers answering each other. We mounted the boys on mules. ~g midshipmen on shore to enjoy the young pleasure of walking on a foreign land. generally mistaken for a convent. To them it was new :o see the palm. together with the maize. of Madeira by the Englishman Masham and his covery dying mistress. says. the town and gardens. and cactus. My maid and 1 went in a bad sort of palankeen. the woods having taken fire burned so fiercely that the inhabitants were forced out to sea to eseapc from tlie flames. a strange . sunounded by vineyards. believes the story ofthe discomposed.'s. which are the worst 1 have seen however. blue hydrangea. thac shortiy after that event. tuough convenient for thcse roads. the cyand the yucca. . serve for the coarser fences and thèse strange vegetables. Wardrope. while the pine and chesnut clothe the !nHs. together with innumerable lizards and insects. W. after being duly hailed by thé guard-boat. or encouraging their beasts with a kind of rude song. and the hill clothed with vineyards and trees of every climate. sugarcane. the view made up for the difficulty of getting to it.MADEIRA. enjoyed thé of riding home by novelty torch-light and as we wound down thé hill. The In thé gardens we found a large pine is too soft for most purposes. which deck the ashy tufa.

dedicated to St. A small chapel. carronade. 20th. craving to distinguish itself even by disgusting peculiarities. Of late years superstition has been used as an instrument of no small power in revolutions of every kind. and there is a silver rail of some value. and the walls were raised to at least two-thirds of . but so it is and the Indian fakir who fastens a real skull round his neck. the ugliness of which had shocked us when here formerly. thé Roman pilgrim who hangs a model of one to his rosary. occasioned the failure of the vineyards. richly carved. Sebastian. we reached the ship in very good time. machine mounting one old rusty 6lb. and entered the cathedral with some ]fëelings of reverence. The ceiling is of cedar. and some curious exotic trees placed there with'great success. where ail articles of daily consumption were to be sold. had been removed by the Portuguese government in order to erect a marketplace. Men. Even here it has played its part. This innovation was of course di~greeable to the people. or spiritual vanity. are one and ail acted upon either by the same real superstition. 1 cannot imagine how such fantastic horrors can ever have been sanctified. we naturally enquired for the chapel of skulls. and children worked ail night. and reminds me of some of the old churches at Venice. Sebastian begun. some of their leading orators accused the marketplace of having. and on the night ofthe revolution.women. and were not sorry to find that that hideous monument of bad taste is Mailing fast to ruin. who founded and endowed the college adjoining. and the friar who decks his oratory with a thousand of them. Near the church a public garden has lately been formed. in November last. for a part of it at least was built by Don Henry of Portugal. a small tax being levied on the holders of stands. which present a style half Gothic half Saracenic. In rambling about thé town. and threatened the ruin of thé island. Thé it was down in a few seconds. by rudely thrusting out St. Sebastian. market-place was instantly devoted and a chapel to St.80 JOURNAL. The interior of the church is in some parts gau~y. We walked a good deal about the town.

government. were presented and many. 1821. . intelligence agriculture. Thus situated. of thé grievances were redressed. were ail sent from Lisbon. and every species of cultivation. or at least much lightened. however. and similar topics some humorous pieces in prose and verse poems on several occ<MM~ and. manufactures. under the name of PATRIOTAFuNCHALENSE. so necessary for travelling these mountain roads after sunset. but that of thé grape. at the end of the month. and no subscription adequate to the hire of workmen to complete it has yet been raised so that the new St. a table of thé receipts and expenditures of government. the first newspaper. The grievances of the inhabitants of Made:ra were severe. discountenanced. ppeared. The voluntary labourers worked no more. and commerce. which is now set up in Funchal and on the 2d of July.81 the intended height but day brought weariness. arisen from the revolution of November. It a contained a well written patriotic préface and thé first article is a declaration of the rights of citizens. as adopted by thé Cortes for thé basis of the constitution to be formed for its government. and of thé pretensions of thé Portuguese nation. The paper has continued to be published twice a week it contains a few political addresses and discourses ail foreign some tolerable papers on distilling. and sent to serve in the armies of Europe or Brazil: scarcely any article. manufactures. M MADEIRA. Other and better consequences have. or however coarse. made of twisted grass and resin. was permitted to be manufactured the very torches. its religion. and the officiating priest performs his masses with no other canopy than the heavens. The sons of thé best families were seized arbitrarily. Among the advertisements 1 observe one infbrmiug thé public where leeches may be bought at about two shillings and sixpence a piece. and perhaps the morning breeze chilled the fever of enthusiasm. and royal family. every class joined heart and hand in thé revolution deputies were sent to the Certes petitions respecting the state of agriculture. but the promoters of the revolution sent to England for one.therehad never been aprinting-press in Madeira. perhaps most. Sebastian's stands roofless. however necessary. Till the year 1821.

23d. the moonlight scenery of a frigate in full sail. to the maddest combinations of horror every romantic feeling called forth. situations from almost deathlike calm. and that of his gallant death. Though the humourous songs were applauded suniciently. lying in the finest climate in the world.gentil MADEtRA. There are certainly enough anglicisms in thé paper. danger. and her march upon the deep. to point out the probable country of some of the writers and there are.the evening watch. and soon lost sight of the Fillia dooceano Doundoso campoflor. to parody the words of Shakspeare. far from the land of Wolfe's birth.82 JOURNAL.– We sailed yesterday from Funchal. and the chorus to the Death of Wolfe was swelled by many voices. and exciting love of country and ofglory by the very sound ofhis name. on the those who give. and easy of access to foreigners.baming ." Thé charms ofnight in a southern climate have been dwelt upon by travelled poets (for 1 call Madame de Stael's writings poetry). and likely to be useful to the island. Oh. Man. and even travelled prose writers. and every power ofheart and intellect exercised. by increasing the Hst of patriotic sailors' songs. At night.weak as he is. some traces of the residence of British troops in the colony but on the whole. listening to the sea songs with which the crew beguile . yet the plaintive and pathetic seemed the favourites. has fostered those feelhome upon thé ings and energies which hâve placed Britain's mountain wave. beauspoken of tifui and fertile. 1 hear thé articles on the making of wines and brandies very highly Madeira. as might be looked for. who shall say that fame is not a it blesses him who earns. the paper is creditable to the editors. and It is twice blessed real good Here. wide ocean. 1 thought it curious to observe this first dawning of literature and interest in politics in this little island. 1 sat a long time on thé deck. Well may ~e be caUed a benefactor to his country who. his story was raising and swelling the hearts of rough men." DjNtz. The life of a seaman is the essence of poetry. but Lord Byron alone has sketched with knowledge and with love. new combinations. change. ought not to be a mere half civilised colony.

and woods. as the bottom is very rocky. has deposited a bed of black mud. We landed at the Puerto di Oratava.TENERIFFE. the bay or rather roadstead of Oratava. with from one to three fathoms water. As W3 drew near the coast. excepting where a pretty wide river. and again seeing that miracle of his invention. the second lieutenant. rolls a considerable body of water to the sea in the rainy season. whose cold blue colour formed a strong contrast to thé glowing red and yellow which autumn had already spread on the lower grounds. The road is rough. There are many rocks in the bay. and paved with blocks of porous lava rains have long ago destroyed it. at one of which is.-I two of the young midshipmen. and now entirely veiled by them. and scattered towns. we ail began our journey towards the hill. We anchored in forty fathoms water with our chain-cable. for the purpose of riding to the Villa di Oratava. and feeling. ail dépend 25th. and on whom heart. like thé ~ightest feather from the while he can do nothing but resign himself to the seabird's wing will of Him who alone can stay the proud wavcs. the very difficult landing-place. went ashore with Mr. and occasions a heavy surf: 1 took my own saddle ashore and being mounted on a fine mule. surrounded by a singular mixture of rocks. several miles from the villa it'is defended by some small batteries. though now dry. M 2 . and renders the anchorage uncom~brtable. intellect. which seemed to separate it from the peak. and. and 26th. 83 thé elements. the tall ship he sails in. started forth at once from beneath the mists. -Nothing can be finer than the approach to Tenerin~ especially on such a day as this the peak now appearing through the floating clouds.Dance. which is situated where the ancient Guanche capital stood. The Chinerfe of the Guanches. but has evidently once been made with but the winter some pains. sheltered by a low reef of rocks that runs iar out. The swell constantly setting in is very great. -tossed to and fro. and it does not seem to be any body's business to put it iri repair. within them from nine to ten. which.

To a stranger the sight ofthe long walls of black porous lava. Wheat. favourite food. Franqui's garden. and consequently ~roducing a Thé fishery employs from forty-five to fifty vessels monthly crop. maize. being planted every month. that 1 was surprised to learn that we had been passing through corn iand the harvest was over. while thé clustering vine and broadspreading gourd. used nearly as the Scotch peasants use their oatmeal. built terracewise to support the vegetable mould. a thing brings in new plants. a few oats. ~11grow freely here. Humboldt has celebrated this . the sago-palm. and perthe very establishment of such haps naturalises them. potatoes. potatoes are the monly eut in slices and toasted. As we ascended towards the villa the prospect improved the vineyards appeared in greatest beauty. platanus. but the walls cannot be called ugly. of from seventy to ninety tons' burden. however. and went to the house of Senor Don Antonio de Monteverde. from the island of Teneriffe alone the fish are taken on the coast of Africa. and every thing glowing with life. and caravansas. which last is suffered to grow cold. every other crop still standing in the luxuriant vaHeys. climb and find support on them these. is very striking. and salted here. The first quarter of a mile on either hand presented a scene so black and stony. it repays the labour and expense of cultivation. having been for some time entirely neglected. and were replaced by field and garden enclosures. together with salt fish. as well as the flowers and vegetables of the north of Europe. we arrived at the villa about noon. or porridge. or maize flour. The produce here is scanty but being so near the We saw the port. The potatoe is always in season. barley. and the stubble burned on the ground. botanical gardon so much praised by Humboldt. soon disappeared. Here. and tamarind. After a pleasant but hot ride. and then most comAfter the maize. the famous Dragon Tree. to see one of the wonders of thé island. flourish so well as to promise to add permanently to the riches of this rich island. brose. the rocky clin~ of the mountains ciothed with wood. disorder. but it is in sad However.84 JOURNAL. The food of the common people consists chiefly of Polenta. in cakes. who accompanied us to M.


and as much care is taken of the venerable 1 sat down vegetable as will ensure it for at least another century. In July. a daughter. who was still living.–About the year 1*760. was born.TENERIFFE. one of whom is her husband's father. which a little ski!! in language and a little adorning with sentiment might convert into a modern novel. Galway the following history of the family ofits owner. the only many- . it is now a noble ruin. introducing and treating her as his heiress. brought with him his daughter. the date of the misfortune marked on it. was only a civil contract. some disgust. regularly receiving the proceeds from his estates in Teneriffe. This marriage. made over his estates in trust to his brother.' No sooner. 85 tree in its vigour. Meantime the court receives the rents the garden. is running wild. She appeared to be received as such By his family and at his death he appointed trustwbrthy guardians to her and her estates. before it attained its full size. than his brother claimed his property. It may hâve been in its prime for centuries before and scarcely less than a thousand years must have elapsed. Thé dragon tree is thé slowest of growth among vegetables it seems atso to be slowest in decay. Excepting the dragon trees at Madeira. such being then thé law of France. to make a sketch of it and while 1 was drawing.thé Marquis Franqui. and the house is deserted. 1819. and thé suit is still pending. could hâve Ko claim on his estates. he married and his only child. however. one half of its enormous crown fell the wound is plaistered up. and upon emigrated to France. He therefor e commence d a lawsuit against ber and her guardians. the chiefornament ofthe town. during the early period of the revolution. however. leamed from Mr. and that the daughter consequently. But neither the validity of the union nor the legitimacy of the child was ever questioned and the Marquis Franqui returning to his native country. where he remained until 1810. as an iHegitunate child. of In the 15th century. that Oratava had attained thé height and size which it boasted till 1819. and with a woman divorced from another. Meantime. was the Marquis dead. alleging that the church had never sanctioned the Marquis's marriage.

and we began our journey down thé hill. conducted to a table spread in the gallery that surrounds the open court in the middle of the house. sweetmeats. and all was over and quiet. probable from Upper Egypt. the latter of whom It was. read their orders. the cation from either court or cortes. and made a bonnre next day the forms of law and justice were declared to be changed. yet have not one newspaper. As we rode along. and great checks are put on the profession of new members. both of which are The only printing press now vacant. we were ferred some of her own national airs. where late travellers mention this palm. the tribunals proceeded accordingly. however. played a long and difficult piece of music most excellently. like thé adansonia in Salsette. we were most kindly received by his wife and daughter. The Canary Islands boast of two bishoprics. with a leaf like that of the paimetto but thé tufts of thé dragon tree resemble the yucca in growth. till finding and wines. the only one now on thé island. The recent law passed by thé Spanish Cortes for the suppression of religious houses. the inhabitants had known from authentic though not official autborlty of what had taken place in the mother country. headed palm 1 had seen before was that at Mazagong in Bombay. we observed a large Dominican convent. has beeri strictly enforced hère. magistrates assembled the people. a good deal in thé style of those of Madeira. having ërst looked into thé churches. which were pressed upon us most hospitably it time to return. is reported to have been carried thither by a pilgrim from Africa. English. It is crowned. and covered with fruits. and took their oaths to support the certes.86 JOURNAL. The palm tree at Mazagong. three weeks before they received any notifiWhen notice did arrive. the ladies both embraced me. On our return from the garden to Don Anton io's house. however. but finer. has been so long in disuse that there is nobody who can work ït in . in compliment to us. No more than one convent of each denomination is allowed to subsist. As to the revolution here. though we should have preAAer the music. the people shouted. wbich are spacious and handsome.

vineyards. we arrived lady. Shortly aiter we at Mr. it is said to be traced in the high cheek-bones. and slender hands and feet which m a few districts seem to indicate a different race of men. with no small delight. In the hedges. if there are. Thé fields. lavender. and orchards we had seen from the former road we now passed through and as it was aj~a. which were growing among prickly pear and other tropical plants. where there were rue. prickly pear. It has not been cold long enough to be disguised by végétation and though on one side the vine is beginning to clothe its rugged surface. and belonging to a service that may not swerve from the strictest obedience. narrow chins. commanding a charming view. 1 regret that 1 had not time to see more of the people and the country but not being traveiïers from curiosity. As 1 had seen in some old Scotch houses. 87 1 could not iearn that there are any manufactures in thé country. We passed a heap of black ashes. and spurge but not a blade of grass had survived the summer's drought. the best bed-chamberservedas. and from the front drawing-room there is an opening to a pleasant terrace. ready to receive us. gathered fine ripe black-berries.TENERIFFE. not much darker than the natives of the south of Europe and if there be a mixture of Guanche blood. which anywhere but at the base of thé peak would be called a respectable mountain. we saw the peasants in their best attire. but the dressing-room is apart. the dry bed of a winter torrent. 1 conclude they must be in thé neighbourhood Oratava appears to be the district of of Laguna or Santa Cruz. the boys. yet the greater part is frightfully barren. we entered a ravine. and found his passed it. Teneriffe. a Spaniard of Irish extraction. We returned to the port by a longer road than that by which we left it. hypericum. corn and wine. Halfway down the hill. and their little mud huts cleanly swept and garnished. They seem gentle and lively. Galway's garden-house. we dared not even think of a farther excursion. Our dinner was a mixture of English and Spanish cookery and customs the Spanish part consisted of part of a Darter. a very .

white. On shore. however. came on board. owing to the great swell. Mr. the lights of the ports and villa. so did not come. Ail the common garden fruits of Europe flourish here but This island. The ice is procured from a large cavern near thé cone of the peak. evidently belongs to a state that bas once been great but is now too poor or too weak to foster its foreign Some fine houses begun are in an unfinished state. was fine. and appear to have been so for years others. the part 1 have seen. but resembling a salmon in taste. and pimento some excellent stews. It was sunset befor e we reached the boats that were to conveyus to the ship and we had some difficulty both in getting off and in going alongside of the frigate. and the fires of the charcoal burners shining from amidst the dark hanging iorests of pine.88 JOURNAL. and the wines. but she sent me some of thé beads found in the sepulchres of the Guanches they are of hard baked clay. are the neat English country-houses. To-day. Neither the pine-apple nor water-melon grow in Teneriffe. but abundance of the latter are brought from Grand Canary. or at least too little attention is paid to horticulture. both Spanish and English. garlic. Mrs. with sauce made of small lobsters. the growth of the island. which. but the swell was so great. fine fish. some of our new friends. The night.are neither rebuilt nor repaired and the only things like present prosperity. and ices were delicious. and mixtures of vegetables and quails roasted in vine leaves the rest were aiï English. Humboldt. though Mailing. and thé scene enlivened by the lights in the fishare used to ing boats. vinegar. that only one escaped sea-sickness. . and those of the limekiins in thé direction of Laand there being not a guna. 2*7th August. whose bas conjectured imagination was naturally full of South America. possessions. oil. Galway was fearful of suffering. attract the fish. like those in the Mediterranean. it is almost full of the &nest ice ail the year round. the outline of the peak was well defined on the deep blue of the nocturnal sky. appeared like a brilliant illumination cioud.

supposed to be the Fortunate Islands of the ancients. on that account. the shepherds of Mesopotamia. were discovered accidentally in 1405. and thejournals of some of his friends who had travelled. ïike the Bramins of the Ganges. and they closely resemble some of the many kinds of beads with which the Bramins have counted their muntras time immemorial. Thé Canary Islands. appears. took possession of them for Spain. Betancour. their sepulchres were carefully concealed by the natives now. because the modern monk does the same. who possessed them by turns. and consequent change of religion and habits. and before sun-set saw Palma and Gomera. which he has carefully related they are such as to make me regret that he has not recorded more. a Frenchman. have rendered them careless of them. for their wars ended in nothing less. much blood and treasure to conquer the country and exterminate the people. intermarriage with their conquerors. generally speaking. 28th. Purchas complains that he could not obtain the reading of some travels by an Englishman who had visited the Peak thé good pHgrim's curiosity had been strongly excited by the particulars he had learnt from books. are rather supposed. but the natives were brave. really forgotten. than allowed to tell them with their orisons. or ploughing a new field. and N . too common to deserve the notice of a philosophical traveller and therefore the Guanche shepherds. or goatherd kings.TENERIFFE. They are not unlike thé beads Belzoni found in the mummy pits in Egypt. This morning left the still vext" bay of Oratava. to have recorded the anna~s of their reigns with clay beads. The Oriental custom of dropping a bead for every prayer having been adopted by the Christians of the west. Thé Guanche mummies are now of very rare occurrence. like the polished Peruvians. and only discovered accidentally in planting a new vineyard. and it cost both the Spaniards and Portuguese. and still continuing in Roman Catholic countries. or the anchorets of Palestine and Egypt. 89 that they might have been used for the same purpose as the Peruvian quipos. and they are. During the early times of the Spanish government of the island. but they are inconveniently large for that use.

and ail agreed that we never saw so hardlooking and inaccessible a place. our school-master. Thé nying-nsh are become very numerous. the school. industry. it enjoyed from having been considered as the most western land in the world until the discovery of America. besides a very beautiful purple sea-snail. the shell is very beautifully tinted with purple. 1 presume. Our days pass swiftly. Our school for the ship's boys is now fairly established. that 1 cannot see more. and does Mr. the old first meridian which honour. Thé boys have his presence. and there is a spongy substance attached to the fish which 1 thought assisted it to swim it is larger in bulk than the whole fish. Happily they are ail probut if G– should disappoint us. not only as a check to idleness or noise. A fine yellow locust and a swallow flew on board and as we believe ourselves to be four hundred miles from the nearest land. a very remarkable white beard. because busily. This fish has four horns. He is most anxious to make them fit to be officers and seamen in their profession. and one village perched upon a hill. Sept. beingkept in thé fore-cabin under thecaptain's eye. great crédit that for the midshipmen is going on very well. 29th. We brought with us from Oratava one of the finest goats 1 ever saw 1 presume she was a descendant of thé original flock which thé supreme deity ofthe Guanches created to be the property of the kings alone: she is brown. and the largest udder 1 ever saw.90 JOURNAL. and good men and gentlemen both at sea and on shore. with very long twisted horns. Cape Blanco. Hyslop. but as an encouragement to industry. The Peak of Tenerinë still visible above the clouds. We were very close to it. We saw some fine woods. Passed the island of Hierro or Ferro. 1 never will believe in mising youthful talent. a few scattered houses. One of them gave out fully a quarter of an ounce of purple fluid from the lower part of the fish. Ist. The regular business of the ship. or goodness more. . at least 1500 feet above us. like a snaH. we cannot enough admire thé structure of the wings that have borne them so far. and whole fleets ofmedusae have passed us some we have picked up.

-history.THE VOYAGE. keep up a perpétua! and dépendance curiosity but 1 suspect that if we knew the progress of her oper ations. It is a strange thing that in sea voyages. in voyages. some poetry. their motives. that them. as if chance were fitter « atibn. seen. England. &c. Rome. study of history and modern languages. 9~ astronomical observations. fill our time completely. Lord Bacon says. in order that we pass safely through their vicissitudes. thé history of the building of a theatre might vie in interest with that of a sea voyage. his lordship has only. as cities. are now read. are read countries and deeper interest than the liveliest tour through civilised Chiloe continues to populous cities that Byron's passage through excite the most profound sympathy while Moore's lively view of seldom or languidly society and manners in France or Italy. Observations on the works of man. in part. as well as we do those of an architect or brickor a dwelling-house layer. their daily portionings of food and water. and discoveries French and English Delolme. and endeavour to make their history a part of our experience. and Paley. may be omitted. for we know their authors. Hence it is. but in land travel. particularly that of Greece. and nothing permitted to pass without observation. or perhaps observed before we can only spoken. and can have recourse to them. The uncertainty. where there is nothing to be seen but sky and sea. that the commonest details ofthe early navigators." However. Sea and sky must be know the laws by which their great changes or chances are regulated. We have only three years to work in and as thé business of their life N2 .men should make diaries. and their history. wherein so much is to be observed. whenever we please but the great we must humbly mark operations of nature are so above us. for the most to be registered than observpart they omit it. The books we intend our boys to read are. their sun-rise and with a sun-set. for once. with the concluding chapter of Blackstone on the history of the law and the constitution of England and afterwards the first volume of Blackstone. courts. the mystery of nature. and general IIterature. Bacon's Essays. and ~-aMce an outline of general history.

Sullivan. and duty as officers. Amphitrite. commanded by Captain T.92 JOURNAL. Perhaps they may be right. the hearts of all beat thé same way yet 1 would not have them too often. Sub Shérif Barber. Ware. makes Jack a dull bgy. W. with thanks for permission to keep it. Thompson. White. and the limbs in another. is to learn their profession. in crossing the Equinoctial. AU work and no play. if not opposite directions but on a festival. J. Thé sons of Neptune. forecastle. 5th. Triton. instead ofpermitting this day of misrule. W. ibrecastle." But to our letters. Amphitrite's Son. High Sheriff. 1 find that some captains hâve begun to give money at the next port. gunner's mate. We have begun to look forward to that festival of the seamen. when we hope the characters will meet your Honour's approbation. The head in one class. 1 know not whence the custom is derived. 2d captain main-top. which will appear in the margin. Barber's Mates. .Knight. the crossing thé line. captain fbrecastie.. J. Triton's Horse. G. Neptune. including mathematics. C. Sinclair. Smith. theory and practice of seamauship. return their most gratemi thanks for his kind condescension for granting them the favour that has been allowed to them from time immemorial. and perhaps in time it may be forgotten but will it be better that it should be so ? It is thé sailors' only festival and 1 like a festival it gives the heart room to play. "W. work every day.-this is ail we dare propose. for If every day were playing holiday. Thomas Clark. Forster. J. Brisbane (negro). nautical astronomy. quarter-master. with ail the technicalities belonging to it. To-day a letter. Michael Jaque. J. on our Old Father Neptune's dominions. containing a sketch of the intended festival. J. of His Majesty's ship Doris.was sent into the cabin. 1 shall copy it with its answer. and in divers. To sport would be as tedious as to work >$ the converse of the proverb. algebra. but the Arabs observe it with cérémonies not very unlike those practised by our own sailors.

Footman. Judge Advocate. J. 1 received your letter with the ÏIst of characters that are to appear train on our crossing the line." It would be worth while to enquire into the origin of the merrymaking on crossing the line. Eight Sea-horses.CROSSING THE LINE. as if there had once been a sacrincc accompanying the festival. Clerk. 5th. have it. &c. To Britain's Sons. of which 1 cominFatherNeptune's pletely approve. an astronomical people. say. GH. M. 1821." Answer. Botde-holder. BMTTON'S SONS. honoured Captain. . Such. W. THOS. Clark. they set on'fire some combustible matter or other. Like us. Chief Constable. Satan. H.Speed. So we have given you as good a relation abiïities afford us and. J. S. and believe as possibly our weak believe us when we can afford. S. Williams. and your us yours. Lundy. J. As the Arabs. G–– in propleasure 1 can feel in the command of this ship. boatswain's mate. 93 "J. Bird. and let it Hoat away. and to assure you. Doris. is their practice. captain fore-top. we wish you every happiness this life honoured lady entirely included. Believe me your sincere friend. Painter. "J.Gaggin. "J. 1 have to thankyou for your kind wishes both for and myself. 1 have been assured by several gentleman well acquainted with the Arab traders in the Eastern sea. at Sea. Coachman. Williamson. W. Nine assistants.Leath. Doris. &c. &c. it has probably some reference to their now-forgotten worship of the heavenly bodies. Postilion. but they add some food to it. at least. that the greatest Mrs. will be moting the happiness and comibrt of the whole of Britain's sons on board the Doris. W. M. Duncan. Sept.

and begged to shorten sail. and was seen no more till 8o'clock this morning. our Saturnalian festival took place. G.94 JOURNAL.1VI. anu Neptune What ship ?" « Doris. but it was not so brilliant as 1 remember to have seen it near tl same latitùde. About six o'clock P. fully as picturesque as any antique triumphal or the nne forms of some of the actors struck me religious ceremony 1 never saw marble more beautiful than some of the exceedingly. . and driven by a sea god: the train followed in the persons of the lawyers." Where irom?" WhiteA man of war's cruize. two degrees higher than that Last night at 8 P. The whole pageant was well dressed. Neptune with trident and crown." Where bound ?" Triton mounted upon a sea-horse. Amphitrite by his side. and barbers. and who were consequently to be initiated into the Triton having thus executed his mysteries of the Water God. but having their arms and shoulders bare. then a company of sea-gods or constables dressed in oakum and swabs. From world to world our steady course we keep. admirably represented. Mid the mute nations of the purple deep. when Neptune being announced." One night we observed that luminous appearance of the sea so often described." Upon which hall. to-day. appeared as bearer of a letter containing the names of all who had not yet crossed the line. First came Triton mounted as before. we crossed the line of the atmosphere. 18th. going in procession. the officer of the watch was informed that there was a boat with lights alongside. rode off. M. and their sort at their feet." hailed from the fore part of thé rigging. and painters. yesterday. We have done nothing but sail on with very variable weather. The next morning we found the temperature of the sea. appeared in a car drawn by eight sea-horses. for the last thirteen days. Swift as the winds along the waters sweep. « Who commands?" « Captain T. excepting the paint which bedaubed them. The captain immediately went on deck. accordingly. the captain went on deck to receive him. commission. at the surface.

every body was at his duty. was necessary to admit thé new comers to the good graces of their watery father'. a conference with the captain. who crossed the line. 95 backs and shoulders displayed and the singular clothing to imitate fishes instead of legs. proceeded to duck each other unmercifully. a solitary bird sinking with heat. carried one back for centuries." Jaques le Maire. and such as are absolutely necessary to look after the ship. 8th Has this any thing in July. officers and all. or a fine paid. and be6)rethemast&rthesaitors. 1712. to be led after one another to the main mummery and monkey mast. common with the ceremony of crossing thé line ? . which they had ail adopted. mentions in his Journal. When it wasno longer to be doubted that we were to the southward of the Une. are of course held sacred so that some order is still preserved. and the ship restored to her wonted good order. to thé time when all this was religion. and written of.B~?v&. the decks were dried. March 5th. all ceased: by noon. to which the god and goddess vied with each other in devotion. 20th. It seemed really that madness ruled the hour but at the appointed moment. apparently interminable. The officer of the watch. glassy dull sea: sails Happing. or a shark rising Jazily to catch a bait or. After the progress round the decks. The whole of our gunroom officers dine with us. have been talked of. says. The long tiresome calms. and a libation in the form of a glass of brandy. all the rest of the ship's company. and seaweed skirts. the merriment began. halfpasteleven. but always in vain. where they are made to swear on a sea chart that they will do by others as is done then they pay to save being by them.CROSSING THE LINE. and that only by staying in my cabin. for the captains themselves are not quite spared. at best. and while he was superintending the business. Mock-shaving. and you conjure up a wide. quartermasters. None but women escaped. the first who sailed round Cape Horn. a calm warm night~ with a soft moonlight silverFrezier. the 6)olish ceremony practised by ail nations was not omitted. to ropes stretched fore and aft on the second deck for the officers. and the beautiful moonlight nights near thé equator. 1615. according to the laws and statutes of navigation wetted. sentries. till we know all about them. they are let loose. Mention but passing the line. and after much tricks. and we flatter ourselves that we shall end the day as happily as we have begun it. baptizing the sailors when he arrived at thé . The persons to be so served are seized by the wrists.

September 21st.* The weather is very squally. water with fire In ruin reconciled. but though we have nred more than one gun for a pilot. such as Milton talks of: Eitber tropienow the clouds 'Gan thunder.96 JOURNAL. insensible of the rocks that may lurk below. The other night we had one. of which. prefer the breezes and thunder-storms. the horrible is superadded. with nothing to intercept its boit. But our's was not the beau idéal of crossing the line we had fresh breezes in the day." 1 never see a thunder-storm vision of Ezeldel at sea. and 1 really. after trying them both. Cabral first took possession of the country which he called that Ro~ Cross. Where angels tremble while they gaze. the capital of Pernambuco. and fish more nimble than sharks. and rendering the beholders. At length we are in sight of the coast of Brazil. and he must be more or less than man that does not at least take thought during its continuance. on the ocean. who ought to be lovers if they are not. and there is a heavy swell we are anchored about eight miles from Olinda. but rush'd abroad From thé four hinges of tlie worid. nor slept the winds Withm their stoney caves. none seems to be coming off. in fifteen fathoms water. but it reminds me of the The sapphire blaze. we met a due proportion. sublime among the mountains but here. for thé crown of Portugal. which here is low and green. however. and those very vigorous." It is awful and grand every where fearful in the plain. Amerigo Vespucci 1504. and thunder and lightning at night saw few tropie birds. in 1500. or even sun-fish. and iell On the vext wilderness. Friday. about two degrees to the northward of the point first discovered by Vincente Pinzon. on account of the wood . and both ends of heav'n From many a horrid rift abortive poured Fierce rain with lightning mixt. ing over the treaclierous deep. 1 had once been in a tropical calm. called it Brazil.

On the 29th ofAugust.–Atnineo'dock the commodore of this place. the governor's aide-de-camp.1821. and we nnd here a very heavy swell. which recent events had increased in no small degree.~eya!B~o act until the capital of the pro~è" ~< ~3 i iF . one of thé principal places in this captaincy. who gave us the following account of thé present state of Pernambuco Besides the disposition to revolution. and had forcibly entered the town-hcuse. found the place in a state of siege. having been sent on shore with official letters to the governor and thé acting English consul. Dance. and brought back with him Colonel Patronhe.PERNAMBUCO. there was. . Mr. a jealousy between tb~ Portuguese and Brazilians. about 600 men of the militia and other native forces had taken possession of the Villa of Goyana. which we were aware had long existed in every part of Brazil. in eight fathoms water.S'ep~M&er 22. The roadstead is quite open. It is not wonderful that our guns were neither answered nor noticed last night. They proceeded to elect a temporary provisional government ibr (. which is about three miles from the town. and the ship was guîded by the latter to the anchorage. where they had declared thé government of Luiz do Rego to be at an end. 97 ~~a~MCo. whose office is a combination of port-admiral and commissioner. came on board with the harbour-master. also.

and salt fish but thé besiegers prevent all fresh provisions from coming in. self at the siege of St. and tolerable vegetables from the . and attached to the royal cause. and so indeed did the day. who. and all food scarce and dear. have packed it up. of the regiment of Caçadores bas left him to join the patriots. if 1 mistake not. and last night they had attacked the two main points of Olinda. but 1 could not go on. and seven wounded. 23d. and formed the most efficient corps in the attack last night. in four different places. tolerably armed and The town is pretty well supplied with mandioc flour. He served long with the English army in Portugal and Spain. have left them. Luiz do Rego is a soldier. called. for the most part. and among them several companies of the Caçadores who had deserted from Luiz do Rego with these troops. such as they are. sleep. shore we have excellent oranges. and have taken refuge with The latter. they had collected forces of every kind. and remain altogether at their counting-houses in the port every thing. more feared than loved. AU shops are shut. to the north. country houses in the neighbourhood. The towns-people have been formed into a militia. repulsed by the royal troops.98 JOURNAL. at least. Many messages have passed between us and the land. jerked beef. They were. under the governor. Sebastian's. with the loss of fourteen killed and thirty-five prisoners. Many persons with their wives and familles have left their homes in the outskirts of the town. in the English. and lodged it in the houses of the English merchants. however. and Affogados to the south. Great part especially among the soldiers. they had marched towards Pernambuco. trained.sitios. whither also they had conveyed several stands of arms. in plate or jewels. while the royalistshad two killed.–Thé night passed quietly. vince should be in a condition to establish a constitutional junta and in order to accelerate that event. is alarm and uncertainty. and. and. Most people who have property of value. This morning the alarm of the town's people was increased by finding several armed men concealed in the belfreys of the churches. distinguished himHe is rather a severe man. in short.

We felt glad that the strict rules of service prevented the captain from giving any such order to the master of the It would be at once a breach of that neutrality we profess packet. under the influence of strong fëeling themselves. request that the English packet might put into Lisbon with the Govemment despatches. canoës. Mr. Accordingly. the 24<Col. The jangada resembles nothing 1 have ever seen before six or eight logs are made fast together by two transverse beams at one end there is a raised seat. in order to avoid the Recife cruizer. and paddling. to Monday. and carries cargoes of cotton or other goods. or if we would assist them so apt are men. that 1 question much whether they believed in the strict neutrality we profess. Dance. or an upright pole is fixed in one of the logs. that have been sailing.PERNAMBUCO. to ascertain if we were really English if we had corne. The colonel. for they are fumished with a sort of rudder. in which the hardy Brazilian sailor ventures to sea. catamarans and jangadas. and rowing round the ship. and have been quite enough amused in observing the curious little boats. another bench at the foot of a mast. and therefore resolved to go ashore. adverting to the town being in a state of siege. the waves constantly washing over it. and the uncertainty of the next attack as to time and place. and a large triangular sail of cotton cloth completes the jangada. hundreds of miles in safety. in my opinion. an aiding of thé worst cause. on which a man places himselfto steer. holds clothes and provisions. as was repôrted. which was looking out for straggling boats or vessels of any description belonging to the patriots. to observe. or. without betraying any particular anxiety. sometimes the seat is large enough to admit of two sitters. letters and despatches. however. Patronhe arrived early this morning. o 2 . They left us. to doubt of perfect indifference in others. 99 town. to assist the royalists. and made a very circuitous passage home. in case of necessity. About three o'clock a large canoe with ~wo patriot officers came along side. immense for the size of the raft. and. advised me strongly to stay altogether on board but 1 had never seen a town in a state of siege. to which these things are suspended.

approached the sandy beach between Recife that 1 thought we were going to land there when coming abreast of a tower os a rock. and. It is a singular spot. under Maurice of Nassau. on a beautiful spot. under Duarte Coelho Pedreiro. is now generally applied to the capital. about 1530 or 1540. 2nd. churches. had we not been prepared for it. a fine river. where are the castles of defence. live among their gardens. and thought 1 was pretty well But no previous knowledge could do prepared for Pernambuco. or the Reef of Pemambuco. where the richer merchants. and where convents. We and Olinda so nearly. and the dock-yard. that very extraordinary away the wonder with which one must enter From the ship. and the traders Sant Antonio. where moderate. and divided into as many parts Recife. divided by salt water creeks and the mouth of two fresh water rivers. the two principal churches.100 JOURNAL. combine to charm the eye but the approach to itby sea must always have been difficult. which is anchored three miles from the port. 1 had perpetually breaking. and Boa Vista. and thick wood. and by them called Maurice Town. Grey and Langford. it is situated upon several sand banks. one for the white and one for the black population. built hy the Dutch. which was founded by thé Portuguese. town. if not dangerous: and. was commissioned to accompany me and took two midshipmen. well fitted for trade ·. which consists of two parts. the city of Olinda. the town of Recife de Pernambuco. but abrupt hills. or more idle inhabitants. where are thé government house. give an air of importance to the very neat town around AU this 1 knew before 1 landed. we see that vessels lie within a reef on which the sea is within that reef. we . Ist. but till 1 was actually thé swell going not the least idea of the nature of the harbour ashore would have seemed tremendous. which is that of the captainship. also to call on Madame do Rego. them. connected by three bridges. being the only officer on board who speaks either Portuguese or French. where the sea was breaking violently. and the bishop's palace. The name of Pernambuco. properly so called. and made our passage of three miles a very long one. as its name implies.

would have enabled the Doris to have entered. and as deep into the rock as our hammers will break. and is perpendicular within. sixteen feet water. so that ships of considerable burden lie here. is said to be coral but it is so coated with barnacle and limpet above barnacle and limpet. and continues. as if in a mill-pond. a few inequalities at the top must formerly have annoyed the harbour in high tides or strong winds. but his removal from the government prevented his doing so. that shoots through it into the ocean it then retowards the south. interruptediy. in ordinary tides. There is a bar at the entrance of thé harbour. to a great depth on the outside. The appears. The reef is certainly one of the wonders of the world it is scarcely sixteen feet broad at top. under the governor. and the harbour safe at all times. and found ourselves within a marvellous natural break-water. and indeed always must. over which there is.and runs on to Cape St. there would be no room to turn about if she wished to go out again. It extends from a good way to the northward of Paraiba to Olinda. but we ourselves were sailing along smoothly and calmly. but Count Maurice remedied this. The rock of which the reef is formed.* His Majesty's brig Alacrity lay some time within the reef. by laying huge blocks of granite into the faulty places. and saw the spray. though. and has thus rendered the top level. A small fort n~ar the entrance defends it. and two feet more water on the bar.PERNAMBUCO. 101 tumed short round. to many fathoms. Here and there. The Count had intended to build warehouses along the reef. . so narrow and sudden is the pasIn 1816. as far as 1 have seen. and then rises abruptly at Recife. and there the vessels often moor. where it is interrupted by the bold granite head. the harbour was cleared and deepened. Monte Negro. under water. where it sinks. Augustine. and particularly the bar. It slopes off more rapidly than the Plymouth breakwater. breadth of the harbour here between the reef and the main land varies from a few fathoms to three quarters ofa mile the water is deep close to the rock. heard the surf dashing without. that 1 can see nothing but thé remainder of these shells for many feet down.

that excites a sort of sympathetic curiosity On going up stairs as to their possible and immediate destination. and has but just corne to the house in Sant Antonio. with a square in front. assuring them of safety and protection of provisions within the town and encouraging and asserting that there were plenty them in the name of the king and certes. a light-house is in a fair way of being soon sage. who could not corne to receive us. who apologised for the governor. we found almost as much confusion for the governor has hitherto lived in the very out-skirts of the town. in case of accident. and partly to secure his family.102 JOURNAL. until we came to one of the wide creeks. with the town on one side. . and these are the only two buildings on this extraordinary line of rock. to defend the city against the insurgents. of which Luiz do Rego was the head they were drawing up an address to the inhabitants of Recife.* "Thé colonel conducted us to the government house. and the reef on the other. We landed pretty near the bridge. and a tower. over which the Dutch built a fine stone bridge. and were received by Colonel Patronhe. which was formerly the Jesùits* college. finished. as he was in the council room. and white the land low and sandy. We were a a good deal struck with the beauty of the scene the buildings are pretty large. at the very extremity of the reef. Near it. and an air of bustle and importance among the soldiers.. and ready to mount at a moment's warning every thing on the aler t guns in front with lighted matches by them. now in decay. as thé besiegers' out-posts are very near his The council orjunta of provisional government consisted of ten members. and we entered what had evidently been a splendid hall. yet the arches still serve to support light wooden galleries on each side ofit. spotted with bright A few years ago a green tufts of grass. and the houses and gateways are still standing at either end. We rowed up the harbour among vessels of all nations. partly to be in the centre of business. violent flood nearly destroyed the greater part of the centre of the bridge. a very handsome building. The gilding and painting still remained on some parts of the ceiling and walls but now it is occupied by horses standing ready saddled soldiers armed. and adorned with palm-trees. exulting in the advantage gained in the night. who were of course branded with the names of enemies to the kbg and country.

by informing me that her mother. Luiz do Regowas not the first governor of Pernambuco who had been shot at. 103 1 found Madame do Rego an agreeable. while walking through the town with a friend. to confine Recife to its own parish. and all are white-washed. The streets are paved partly with blueish pebbles from the beach. 1 was surprised to former residence. and declared Recife a town. Nothing could be kinder and more flattering than her manner. The Ouvidor was one of the conspirators. . the Viscondeça do Rio Seco. The assassin fired twice I~uiz do Rego received several shots and slugs in his body. the perpetrator was seized more than once by some of the bye-standers but as often.* Having paid our visit. the kitchen being universally at the top. we proceeded to walk about the town. San Antonio da Recife. He appeared 111. After sitting some little time. and stables the floor above is generally and the dwellingappropriated to counting-houses and ware-rooms house still higher. At the time the crime was committed.PERNAMBUCO. when Sebastian de Castro. rather pretty woman. extending only to the Affogados on one side. but the most severe wound was in his left arm. built of a whitish stone. was an Irish woman. or lodging for the negroes. this unchristian action. a baker's basket was pushed in between him and whoever seized him he threw away his pistols and escaped. It bas since been ascertained. refreshments were brought in. The object of the people of Olinda and ofthe nssasa share m sin's party was. partiy with red or grey granite. the Olindrians shot him on his walk The bishop had to Boa Vista. with door-posts and window-frames ofbrown stone. and speaking English like a native: for this she accounted. but both are now nearly well. the governor himself a fine military-looking man. and one of them is very handsome. In 17JO. The houses are three or four stories high. that the instigator of thé crime was a certain Ouvidor (judge) whom he had displaced shortly after he assumed the government. had erected a pillar. he received some months -ago. His friend's life was for some time despaired of. and shortly after. being appeared still suffering from thé effects of a wound. in conformity to his orders from Lisbon. and that of General do Rego's two daughters. and Fort Brun on thë other. The ground floor consists of shops. in four places. by which means the lower part of the house is kept cool. whose air and manner are those of really well-bred women.

because thé receding tide would have left it dry in the creek where we landed we left it on one hand. when the land breeze fails. as we intended one was open. and as they all Brazilians take the town expect to be plundered should the country as soldiers.104 JOURNAL. As we were to pass thé eight. and the strong gatewasy at each end A little fort which defends the entrance to Recife . Nothing can be prettier siegers should get possession of Boa of its kind than the fresh green landscape. were particularly Dutch founders of Recife. as many of them are from Europe. we found that it had been eut through the middle. and It is very nearly surrounded that is the point most easily defended. in vain did we look for shops not 280 paces long. most of which have gardens. In this quarter. strongly built. preserves a temperature. and winding through it. with water. and walked through Sant Antonio towards Boa Vista. the streets being very narrow. and close together. and. but the constant sea-breeze. at the the guards are more numerous ponte dos tres pontes*. stone bridge on our way back to the boat. and at the heads of the bridges two. the chief riches of the place are lodged. with lighted matches by them. The hot time of day is from to ten. which sets in here so near the equator under which it is every day at ten o'clock. They form the militia. and The verdure is deprivate houses. they are most zealous in their attendance At each end of every street we found a light gun. with its broad river hand from the bridge. and slowly-flowing water. the convents. in case the bepassable by means of two planks easily Vista. which is seen on each the white buildings of the treasury and mint. 1 doubt not that the flat mealightful to an English eye and attractive to the dows. and is only now withdrawn. next to Recife. 350 paces long. and at each post we were challenged by the guard. find it so possible to walk out without inconvenience from thé heat. at all times possible to take exercise. At thé end of the stone bridge. When we came to the wooden bridge. which was ordered to meet us at the point of Recife. connecting it with Sant Antonio. the houses are high. the shopkeepers being all on military duty. by force. and strict. We walked back by the stone bridge.

We had hardly gone fifty paces into Recife. and coffee. who had brought provisions into the town some days ago." that nothing in our power should be considered too little. because the 1 do long to walk or country-house is within reach of the patriots. but it is a precarious crop. The party we met formed a very picturesque r . boys consequent upon scanty food and long confinement in unwholesome places. 1 must content myself with what is within the Unes. bacon and sweet-meats. hides and tallow also at times. or wild country of the interior. that can tend to abolish or to alleviate slavery. They bring corn and pulse. were sitting and lying about among the filthiest animais in the streets.. returning home to the Certam. require the warmer. brought from the Certam. and thus render that part of thé town secure. the only English lady in the town. nearer the coast. they are nothing compared to the staggering It was thinly stocked. 1 went on shore to-day to spend a few days with Miss S. ride out to the tempting green hills beyond the town but as that cannot be. To-day. The sight sent us home to the ship with the hear~-ache and resolution. owing to the circumsight ofa slave-market. These Certanejos are a hardy. to the sea-coast. as we were coming in from Boa Vista. mostly agriculturists. Yet about fifty young and girls. and that is guarded by two considerable forts. except by the sand bank communicating with Olinda. She is now living in her brother's town-house. richer lands. Cotton is. when we were absolutely sickened by the first sight of a slave-market. 105 of thé bridge might secure time to demolish it entirely. or too great. we met a family of Certanejos. It was the first time either thé boys or 1 had been in a and. cotton. howslave-country ever strong and poignant the feelings may be at home. depending entirely on the quantity of rain in the season and it sometimes does not rain in the Certam for two years. where the office and warehouses are.PERNAMBUCO. which form the staple exports of Pernambuco. when imagination pictures slivery. But the sugar. 2*7~. active set of men. with all the appearance of disease and famine creatures. stances of the town which cause most of the owners of new slaves to keep them closely shut up in the depôts. however. "not loud but deep.

as the amigos M~'esos were our passport. the silk-cotton tree*. to one of thé outposts The at Mondego. are what they chiefly take in to elegance. She was mounted behind thé principal man. shaded us. and other factured articles. smoking distinguished by a pair of green baize trowsers. laden with household goods andother things in exchange for their provisions: manucloths. which was formerly the governor's résidence. both woollen and cotton. called sitios. barter though 1 saw some fur nitur e. or because of the peculiar sweetness and freshness of evening after the sultry know not. others riding and carrying thé children the procession being closed as he went along. tamarind. 1 was vexed that thé woman of the party wore a dress evidently of French fashion: it spoiled the unity of the groupe. harshiy and unmusically enough. and a thousand elegant shrubs adorned the garden walls. whether it was because we had been so many weeks on board ship. of which their groupe. the men clad in leather from head to foot. therewas no moon. Aiter of men. Ja~M~'K. In the evening we rode out. by Bombex pentandrium. coarse crockery. and have something of the same effect the small round hat is in the form of Mercury's petasus and thé shoes and gaiters of the greater number are excellently adapted to defend the The colour of all this legs and feet in riding through the thickets. We were very sorry when obliged to return home but the sun was gone. We rode out of the town by some pretty country-houses. 1 an hour in the open air so much. and we got to Recife just the evening hymn was singing. and by a very stout good-looking man.106 JOURNAL. giving repose and heaith after the fiery day. on one of the small active horses of the country several sumpter horses followed. some walking and keeping pacewith the amble of the beasts. especially knives. we were challengedat every station but the words. is a fine tan brown. with pretensions the horses came a groupe among thé: stun' of the family 1 met. . and without horse-exercise. but 1 never enjoyed tropical day we had just passed. and the palm. As we came back. as the clothing light jerkin and close pantaloons are fitted as closely on the Egina marbles. and we were afraid that thé guards at the various posts of defence might stop us. It is impossible to describe thé fresh delicious feel of such an evening.


a little poultry. and twisting her arms cruelly while the poor creature Good God! that screamedin agony. were open. for sale. gg~. Near the house there are two or three depôts of slaves. such a practice as that of slavery. in search of infantile amusement. by their. two miles from the out-posts.sympathyhe excites. these poor chiidren. S. show that they seldom get a sumciency.projecting bones and hollow cheeks. milk is to bè had. This morhing before break&st. by the same privilege with his master. while -the recollection of their own country.'s house. and a few pigs.~or rather fiend. t saw an infant of about two years old. that a purchaser is hot easily found. that even the vegetables from thé gentlemen's No private gardens. money also is so scarce.PERNAMBUCO. and of the stave-market. beating a young negress. Provisions are now so scarGe thatno bit of animal food-ever seasons thé paste of mandîoc flour. the same Deity. and thé cakes of mandioc baked with cocoa natjuice. r 2 . looking frorn the balcony of Mr. because they feed in the streets where every thing is thrown. in all the poor créatures are seen at different corners Hstlesshess of despair and if an infant attempts to crawl from among them. I walked to-day to the market-place. too dear for the common people tôanbrd asumciencyievep of them. and of the slave-ship. ail young. and thé very slave felt that he was addressing. are detained. It is an evening 1 can never forget. and one pang is added to Scores of these slavery thé unavailing wish of finding a master! of the streets. 1 saw a white woman. and where they and the dogs are the only ~cavengers. till our gentlemen interfered. disgusting. where there is but little beefscarce and dear. thé altars illuminated. should exist. Arethepatriotswrong? They have put arms into thé hands of the new negroes. The blockade is so strict. bread of American flour is at least twice as dear as in England. such a tranic. which is the sustenance 'of slaves: and even of this. is ireshintheirmemory. in one. 107 negroes and mulattoes in thé streets but yet every thing that unites The church doors men in one common sentiment is interesting. Now. no mùtton. a look of pity is all the.

dressed. Fir e-wood is extravagantly high. a long oil-skin cloak. with a small drum-shaped black cap on the very top of a stiff pale head. furnish forth either a black or a white gentleman. or on days of ceremony one of cloth. The negroes keep the markets a few on their own account. When they are bought. and the shutting up of all slaves. armed in a suitable manner. and a pistol in the other. party was indeed dressed en militaire. They wear their aboriginal dress. which mantle are the mark of freedom. The new negroes. When they walk out they wear either a cloak or this cloak is often of the gayest colours shoes also. Calling at the palace this forenoon. men and women. made by a kind of supplementary militia to enforce the closing of all shopdoors. who are going over to the patriots daily.arrows. Gold chains for the neck and arms. a linen jacket and trowsers. which he carried upright. i~nd gold ear-rings. and are now employed in regular turn of duty with the royal troops. the rear being brought up by a most singular figure. more on that of their masters. . wear a kind of R'ock which leaves the bosom much exposed. hâve nothing but a cloth round their loins. in a sally through the streets. but black. charcoal scarce. with a drawn sword in one hand. and a straw hat.108 JOURNAL. The women. with a flower in the hair. Yesterday the motley head-dresses of the Portuguese inhabitants were seen to great advantage. and the men at least trowsers. it is usual to give the women a shift and petticoat. The dress of the free negroes is like that of the creole Portuguese. we learned that a hundred Indians are expected in the town. are to be seen of every hue. on an alarm that the enemy The officer leading the was attacking the town to thé southward. We are told their ideas of government consist in bows. and. and in his left hand a huge Toledo The militia are better ready drawn. and are armed with slings. complete a Pernambucan woman's dress. but this is very often omitted. by way of assistance to the garrison. Then followed a company that Falstaff would hardly have enlisted. in-doors. with such caps and hats as became the variety of trades to which the wearers belonged.

even the factitious splendour caused by the ecclesiastical courts and inhabitants is no more. or rather of its remains. Olinda is placed on a fëw small hills. which connects it with Recife. 20. 1 was surprised at thé extreme beauty of Olinda. sufficiently strong when their situation is consider ed on one side a furious surf breaking at their base. t This was the Jesuits' college father Nobrega. or thé gigantic arms of the wide spreading silk-cotton tree. many are like those of the eastern world many are quite new to me. so that they cannot be commanded. whose sides are in some directions broken down. one is very splendid with thick leaves and purple bell-shaped flowers. which he plundered. The very college where the youths received some sort of education. and his companion Viera read lectures on rhetoric. Brandy is the bribe for which they will do any thing a dram of that liquor and a handful of mandioc flour being all the food they require when they corne down to thé port. during his The beach is defended by two stay at Recife. for it is now in a melancholy state of ruin. This is the isthmus fortified with a palisade. . Here at eighteen years' old the cetebrated composed those commentaries on some of thé classics. AU thé richer inhabitants have long settled in the lower town. The revenues of the bishopric being now claimed by the crown. is nearly ruined t. we borrowed some from our English and French friends. and rode to Olinda by tite long sandy isthmus. castles.PERNAMBUCO. coeval with the land itself: tufts of slender palms. and which were unfortunately lost in the founded under the administration of thé admirable De Gram. This evening. so as to present thé most abrupt and picturThese are embosomed in dark woods that seem esque rock-scenery. and thé monasteries suppressed for the most part. and there is scarcely a house of any size standing. course of the civil wars. rise from out the l'est in thé near See Introduction. on the other a deep estuary and flat ground beyond. however imperfect. hère and there the broad head of an ancient mango. The sand is partially covered by shrubs. by Sir John Lancaster. p. as there are no horses to be hired here. 109 believing that implicit obedience is due both to king and priests.

which corne under thé dam called the Varadouro. without farther We saw seven-and-twenty of these little boats laden. and where indeed a strong guard is peculiarly necessary. except here and there where a dôme is adorned with porcelain tiles of white and blue. and are filled from twenty-three trouble. though not elegant architecture. paddle down the creek with the tide towards the town. with reddish tiles. are placed in stations which a Claude or a. A single oar used rather as rudder than paddle guides the tank to the middle of the stream. long before we reached even the first of the two . It is from this dam that aïl the good water used in Récite is daily conveyed in water-canoes. circumscribed our ride we had intended to return by the inland road. the convents. where it floats to its destination. the smoke from one of the outposts caught our sight. at least. and their arms piled by them they were just shadowed by taU trees behind. led so as to fill thé canoes at once. looking across the woody bason round which the hills are grouped. ever. and eat. drink. A dam is built and on the across with flood-gates which are occasionally opened dam there is a very pretty open arcade. The soldiers were standing or lying around. between whose trunks the scattered rays of the setting sun shed such a partial light as Salvator These same soldiers. therefore we were obliged to return by the way we came. the cathedral. Just as we reached the highest point of the town. and break the Une of forest amidst these.110 JOURNAL. some on lawns that slope gently to the sea-shore their colour is grey or pale yellow. Poussin might have chosen for them some stand on the steep sides of rocks. where the neighbouring inhabitants were accustomed in peaceable times to go in the evening. The sun was low. but were not allowed to pass into it. as part. and the churches of noble. howRosa himself would not hâve disdained. lies without the posts. and dance. ground. At the spot where the présent guard is placed. which was formerly the port of Olinda. pipes. thé bishop's palace. the river Bibiriba falls into the sestuary.

The feast of St. where it is just possible the surf may bear him away. have only thé resources of science and literature against their passions and vices. of whom we had not yet seen one walking in the streets. Men eut off by vows like those of the Roman clergy. There is not one bookcollege seller in Pernambuco. from the active charities of social life. clergy of the country what indeed is truth. 1 think the edict desiripg them to keep within their convent walls. is in consequence of their being among the fomentors of the The appropriation of so much of the church spirit of independence. The dogs had already begun their work of abomination. The favourite dress seems to be black. 1 saw one drag the arm of a negro from beneath the few inches of sand. with a mantle of lace or gauze. He is tied to a pole. with white shoes and white or coloured ribbons and flowers in the hair. It is on this beach that the measure of the insults dealt to the poor negroes is filled. The and library of Olinda are in decay. that thé drawing of so much treasure from the country to support Lisbon. is a rational ground of complaint. is said. carried out in the evening and dropped upon the beach. to thé people. These things sent us home sad and spiritless. MIchaeFs bas drawn out the Portuguese gentlewomen. revenue by thé court of Lisbon is of course unpopular among the and it is not difficult for them to represent. where beneath high-water mark they hoe a little sand over him but to the new negro even this mark of humanity is denied. We have seen a few priests too for the first time. here the very names of literature and science are almost unknown. 29th. and the population of its different parishes amounts to 70. that the morals of the clergy here are most depraved. which can neither It govem nor protect them now. his &IIow-sIaves lay him on a plank. either black or white. carry him to the beach.PERNAM8UCO. This is probably true. 111 castles on our way back to the fort. of which 1 have not been able to procure the first number. When the negro dies. notwithstanding the agreeable scenes we had been riding among. which his master had caused to be thrown over his remains. was set up in .000 souls A tolerably well written newspaper.

from the governor downwards. and that often a courtship is carried on in this way. and the swearing of the governor. partly European. under the title of ing motto from Camoens o JOURNAL. into the highest spirits so that for once we see Pernambuco active. without consulting any thing but pecuniary convenience. Tras a manhaserenae claridade. arrived. but 1do not believe there was any-loss on either side. bas put the inhabitants. without the parties having ever heard each other's voices. companied us to dine at the governor's. &c.-Last night thepatriottroops Olinda ~br ibur hours." with the follow- Depois da procellosa sombrae sibilante Nocturna vento. 1 am sorry to say that this only paper bas been discontinued for the two last months. while the elders of families were engaged in the streets with the new-comers. tempestade. with troops from Bahia. The reinforcement of 350 men. partly Bahian. and cheerful. not a little pleased to have some to relieve them in their (tonstant watch and ward. as it seems. and having no longer time to superintend attacked the line of defence at 30th. This day several of the officers and midshipmen of the Doris acfour o'cïock. Among other things which 1 learned by Jookingcn. the general mode is for parents to settle their children's nuptials. government. to adhere to the constitution as established by the Cortes. the Don Pedro. become a secretary of the press. at half-past Not only has this paper been continued since. the editor having. However. and a marriage settled. This morning a Portuguese frigate. Men and women are ~ut in their gayest habits. Esperançade porto e salvamiente alluding to the arrivai of the news of the révolution in Portugal on the 26th of that month. was that thé young Pernambucans are as dexterous in the use of signs as the Turkish lovers themselves. magistrates. Aurora Pernambucana. and alive. . and the military are running and riding in ail directions.112 March. but others are now published in Recife.

in compliment to the English. and wine. Besides our European dessert of fruit. the company went on board ship. very little roasted. table. and adjourned to the other. The dessert was served on another table. and the captaincy When we all rose at once from table some of of Pernambuco. formed part ofit. the King of France Luis do Rego. which Madame do Rego told me should have been spread in a separate apartment. rice boiled with oil and sweet herbs. The company rose from the dining. We had some excellent music. and with this dish. pies. and tarts. that they have not one yet fitted up for the purpose. were dressed in a peculiar manner poultry and other things in the French fashion. Lainé. together with her excellency's jewels and other precious things. the very pleasing and gentlemanlike Q Freneh consul. His excellency took one end of the table. with many of whom 1 am acquainted she had a thousand enquiries to make about England. a comfortable apartment. They apologised for having so little plate.PERNAMBUCO.theKing of Portugal. a dish was handed round of boiled lean beef. cakes. and fish of various kinds. and there were several good singers and players on the piano. furnished with blue satin damask. and Madame do Rego. He seemed happy to talk of his old English and friends of the Peninsula. Roast beef was presented. Salads. all thé puddings. but they have so recently taken possession of their house. polished evening than 1 had expected to pass in Pernambuco. and several ladies and gentlemen of thé city. It was a more pleasant. and there was a profusion of sugar-plums of every kind. but most adjourned to the drawingroom. &c. whither she is very anxious to go. The governor and his guests proposed many toasts alternately-TheKing of England. was présent . and an aide-de-camp the other 1 was seated between M. where we were joined by thé French naval officers of His Most Christian Ma}esty's ship Sappho. It was decorated with flowers. especially now m a state of siege. Mr. slices of fat salt pork. cookery was a mixture of Portuguese and French. 113 Our welcome was most cordial.the navy of England. Madame do Rego has an admirable voice. The After the soup. and sausages. but their handsome services were packed up in an English store-house.

Since writing my Journal. i. 1 have seen thé officiai account of this attack on the Villa of the Affagados.114 JOURNAL. so disturbed by these civil broils. nothing occurred worth noting. we had the consul and British merchants on board to dinner. such assistance having been offered. Cottar. Graham. and accordingly we ail went on shore immediately after breakfàt.er which Capt. . 1 obtained leave to accompany the messengers. that as their avowed object was thé dismissal of L. and'of procuring the tranquillity ofthe province. with an intention of returning to dine at Mr. by throwing a bridge over a branch of the Capabaribe. It was a well planned expedition. thé governor's principal aide-de-camp. and assure them that the troops brought by the frigate shall be employed only in the defence of Recife. do Rego. vokingly enough. aH interference was refused. saying. and. at the head of his troops. the frigate was there. that thé Don Pedro is arrived. They tell thé patriots also. to return to thé town. Having learned that the patriots have refused to aHow the linen belonging to the ship. French. so 1 did not see the govemor. with Col. and had besides sent to the Cortes to beg they would appoint a successor. that they are sure of assistance from the French and English frigates then there. rode with us to the out-posts. to meet Luis do Rego's family. It waa place. but a strict neutrality had been enjoined by'the government. which had been sent to the country to be washed. or and of course protection for English property being the purpose for which Portuguese. and to learn the countersigns an. asked. Our party consisted of Stewards. on thé ground of the English and French property in the Now 1 know that no such assistance was offered by the English n'igate. and remonstrate against this very inconvenient mode of annoying the port. he was ready to withdraw himself. and the day passed as such days usually do. the provisional junta of Pemambuco had addressed that of the patriots of Goyana. that he had twice offered the council of Recife. They also intimate. by the veteran soldiers of Do Rego. and no more was offered than ~c~oKaJ protection to either English. and allow him to retire that his motive for this was the desire of peace. The same morning. march out to meet them nor did 1 hear the national hymn sung by the regiments as they filed along on their return from a successful sally. where we left them. Our first business was to procure passports. that of thé Ist ofOctober. proWednesday. Yesterday. e. but the raw troops were easily driven out of the villa of which they had already possessed themselves. 3d October.to do so. offering peace. thé patriots chose that very night to make an attack upon the out-post of the Affogadas. 1 went on board on Monday. was understood by ali parties. it was determined that we should send to their head-quarters.

but we rode too fast to stay to coHect plants and 1 could only promise myself. where arms piled at the door. and took leave of our friends. but is only navigable to about six miles from the sea. Dance. and a sort of ragged guard. and is surrounded by cocoa-nut and tamarind trees. both gay and sweet. on account of rapids and falls in the upper part. at a country-house on a rising ground. where we left the last post of the royalists. and myself time we had had as opportunity of passing the lines. consisting of a The Capabaribe has a course of about fifty leagues. which by the by is very nt for rice ground. but its colour bright purple. and the water beautifully clear*: its banks are studded with country-houses. it has two mouths. 115 M. After riding across the marsh. china-rose. we came to the main stream of the Capabaribe. and it is only approachable by the roads and causeways the banks thrown up across these. too. Q2 . white. at some future time. Chor. Pernambuco is not a walled town. were full of colour. one at Recife. blue. whieh is flooded at high water. and many others. are covered with all splendid creeping plants the common and winged passion-flower. and well we might the scencry was fresh and lovely. are such as might stop the Brazilian cavalry for a few minutes. and the other at Os Affogados. The ditches. Mr. The hedges on each side of the road are woven of palm-leaves. jasmine. to gather one that appeared like a bog bean. and we felt like school-boys who had stolen beyond bounds. and where not quite new. who had accompanied us so far. a deep. we came to the first post of the patriots. and the day as fine as possible.PERNAMBUCO. who bave taken refuge in Recife. but broad rapid rivers and aestusries surround it. Caumont. About two miles from Do Rego's last outpost. for present defence. bearing the letter. Glennie as my cavalier. broad. Braz. and which extends nearly to the Bibiribi. and adorned with groves and gardons. At the edge of the swamp there is a wooden palisade. and very rapid river its sides are steep. to act as interpreter. and yellow clematis. or afford cover for musketry but their best defence is the swamp at the mouth of the Capabaribe. for the present abandoned by their owners. It was the first my cousin Mr.

being on foot. rode with us. formed a beautiful fore-ground to the very fine forest-trees that cover the plains. so that it was such a picture as the early Spaniards might have drawn of their Eldorado. each has its little grove of At one of these little homesteads. and ripe oranges and citrons. we found mango and orange-trees. After riding a few miles. we found he was not a. and two or three of doubtfui colour with sticks. and there our foot guide left us. threatened to shoot us if we attempted to ride faster than he walked. we came suddenly to the foot of an abrupt hill. a Brazilian with a blunderbuss. and clothe the sides of the low hills in the neighbourhood of Pernambuco. swords pistols. we came to a steep yellow sandstone bank. After a few minutes parley. There we were met by a small military party. in not joining the people of the province in throwing off the dominion of his master. of the Brazilian Caçadores. Here and there a little space is cleared for the growth of mandioc. and entertained us by calling Luis do Rego a tyrant. In a few seconds. Thé slow pace at which we advanced gave us leisure to remark the beauties of a Brazilian spring. with birds still gayer hovering over them.116 JOURNAL. &c. established where four roads meet. sweet smelling flowers. which. merry-looking negro with a fowling-piece. Round the guard-house a number of negro girls. Gay plants. and open on the . than invited us to ride up. for the most part. and the edges of their baskets. and. rather ordered. which at this season is perfectly green thé wooden buts of thé cultivators are generally on the road-side. with garlands of the scarlet althœa their light blue or white cloaks were thrown gracefully across their dusky shoulders. after a parley with our guide.. so we rode on under the direction of the old Brazilian with his blunderbuss. with broad flat baskets on their heads. a pretty large guard-house. and attributing the siege of Pernambuco entirely to the governor's obstinacy.uthorised to receive our letter. told us an officer was to be found. on whose sides there were scattered groups of the most magnificent trees 1 ever beheld. shaded on one side by tall trees. who. were selling fruit and cold water they had decked their woolly hair. and white jackets. and a gentlemanlike young officer.

from the sallow European to the ebony African. over which there is a white stone bridge of several arches at one end. more like a palace. Not above two hundred had the arms or accoutrements of soldiers but there were dresses and weapons of every kind. 117 other to a lake surrounded by woody hills. 1 was sorry 1 had no means of sketching any part of the beautMul landscape. with my cousin in the court. and in the act of descending. leather. part of the guard turned back with us. speaking tolerable French. In a few minutes. cloth. a bustle and animation that seldom happen to adorn so fine a scene. Military honours were paid us by these ragged regiments. in short. Dance and Mr. These were deputies from Paraiba on their way to propose terms to Luis do Rego they had just left the head-quarters of the besieging army. was not permitted. we found about a bundred men. where the provisional government of Goyana is stationéd. Our guide soon returned with eighteen or twenty mounted soldiers. in splendid military habits. now displayed a broad river. Caumont dismounted. Having reached the top of the hill. and were accompanied by a guard of honour after exchanging civilities. came and told me the ~orerM- . on the most distant of wbich. awaiting us and there we were detained till our guide rode forward to ask leave to bring us to head-quarters. and we soon cantered down the hill towards the main body of the troops. several were dressed. others in the plain costume of the landed proprietors. On the top of the bank. and the deputies went on their way. and every tint of colour in their faces. besides the striking features 1 have mentioned before. a large house. and linen short jackets and long Scotch plaids. where Mr. whose appearance was rather wild than military the guard presented arms as we parted from them. little man. but strangely dressed. and 1 determined to await the issue of their conference. a smart This. and. one of the foremost of whom bore a white banner. toïeraMy well armed. which. the white buildings of Olinda sparkled like snow.PERNAMBUCO. with its arches and corridors. and the encampment of the army and the horse picquets. however. and we were conducted to the palace square. was a group of forty horsemen.

on the centre of which 1 was placed. and on each of these sat one of the members of the junta of the provisional government. the secretary read it aloud. accordingly assisted me to dismount. and the Pernambucans in particular. who told me he was secretary to government. and then 1 found that 1 was'indeed to be confr onted with the whole strength of the provisional government. placed in a semicircle fronting the sofa. Dance sat the little secretary. but 1 heard imperfectly. and the little man. Instead of taking any notice of its contents. and endeavoured to decline the honour. and Broderod. and forget most of them some wore handsome military coats. that we got up with dimculty. as the occasion may require. the names of Albuquerque. with Mr. indicated. They politely told me they would not read thé letter while 1 was waiting below. the secretary began a long discourse. others the humbler dress of fa . there was an old black hair sofa. as the form of the windows and carving of the panels on which there were traces of colour and gilding. 1 suspected a mistake of thé word go?Me~ desired my company. that had once been handsome. but Luis do Rego might be . who act the To each part of senators or generals. but as soon as we were seated. The haU was filled with men and horses. they had formed thé present respectable government. without intending the least detriment to the rights of the king. vernment for governor. setting forth the injustice of the Portuguese governor and government towards Brazil in general. pointing to thejunta. as they marched under the royal flag of Portugal. by Mr. Dance on one side. The stairs were so crowded.'mers. that in order to resist that injustice. and Mr. At the end ofa long dirty room. That surely they could not be called rebels. Glennie on the other. excepting a corner which served as an hospital for those wounded in the late skirmishes. Cavalcante. of these 1 was introduced. struck me. in old-fashioned high-backed chairs the rest of the n~rniturc of thé room coiisisted of nine seats of different sizes and forms. but no denial could be taken.118 JOURNAL. the groans of the latter mingling uncouthly with the soldiers' cheerful noisy voices. and next to him our interpreter. like a barrack stable. and showed me thé way to the palace.

had they found in their prince a deiender and protector. The first object has been secured to them by their constitutional empercr. 1 do not mean to speak disrespectfully of thé popular meetings of Brazil. in proportion as he has donc his military t 1 have since 1 regret exceedingly that 1 was then so ignorant of the language. town they agreed that their price should not exceed ten. who repeated every word to the respectable junta. the last is growing up under his government time only can perfect it. national independence and civil liberty under reformed laws. tearned that there were many causes of particular grievance in this province. not unlike what one imagines of thé Barraca meetings of those ill-guided. the speech reminded me of some of the best written of the Carbonari addresses of Italy and there was something in the air. which the secretary addressed to us on that head. Pernambuco. And 1 must not omit to mention. much of of government it was lost upon me. and very variously were they shaped. they had all in view the best objects. This is the mouth of a small stream on the northside of Olinda. misused people. The junta was extremely anxious to learn if there was a probability of England's acknowledging the independence of Brazil. and scene. of the Introduction. or if she took part at all in the struggle and many were thé questions. He then went on* into a long harangue upon the general principles but as 1 understood little of the language.* We then talked a great deal in French to the secretary. and another for supplying the ship with fresh We had been' paying forty dollars per bullock in the provisions. They are of course violent in their language concerning Luis do Rego. if we sent boats to the Rio Doce. At Rio Doce. Brito Freire and Pedro Jaques landed to assistVieyrr in the recovery of See p. . and at length got him to attend to a proposai for releasing our linen. if its popular meetings had possessed the mild cbaracter of those of Brazil. as well as on my companîons but 1 have n& doubt that it served to impress the respectable junta with a higher idea of their secretary's understanding and éloquence altogether.PERNAMBUCO. 25. and still happier. 119 reasonably stigmatised as such. or Paratije t for them. that they offered to allow us to take off fresh provisions for our English or French friends in the town. Happy would it have been for Italy. manner. for he had fired on that banner.

having received a note from the secretary. he was sorry we did not know his name. that in case he should ever have it in his power to show him kindness. poured into it it was then handed to me to By this time the guard begin.'s till two hours after sunset. while 1 was with my two companions. the band played the national hymn. of me. Captain Graham had insisted on their dining. after the party had waited till six o'clock. and. and so we mounted among those wild-looking men. ordering the officers at their advanced posts to offer no hindrance to the passing of any thing belonging to His British But we were not suffered to depart withMajesty's frigate. he had not the least fear concerning me. who had been our companion on the latter part of the ride to head-quarters. when we found that. and that as to me. but this. in that strange. and a bottle of wine. patriots detained his lieutenant. he might do so. A pleasant chat on the adventures of . rose to go. and offered to send a party of Caçadores in search. and all fourteen received it in turn. with about half as much water. out a hearty invitation to sup and spend the night and a stirrupcup (a huge glass) was brought. just as the evening mist began to veH thé lower ]and. Doris. yet lovely landscape. that the sun was getting very low. The governor was uneasy. back almost to the town lines and when we told this to the governor. of was refused the captain assuring his excellency. was drawn out. and the jarring of private interests in the disposai and fulniment of office. he would take him back with his own men. We were accompanied by the same officer. because they have not to feel the hindrances of action. in keeping them at bay with his handful of men and like all oppositions they can afford to reason upon general principles. and had been remarking for some time. that if the course. S. and the horses eager to return but we did not reach Mr. duty. to which we all listened bare-headed. therefore.120 JOURNAL. 1 was sitting opposite to one of the windows of the council-room. Our journey home was much more rapid than our journey out. as he kindly said. The evening was cool. and the bright red evening sun to gild the topmost branches of the forest.

and they were.. was to me a most agreeable one. but the want of them did not appear to incomThe easternmost ofSouthAmerica. Madame do Rego. however. pressed to dine with the commander of the post. 6~Thé frigate got under weigh to take a cruize. on their departure. and conducted them to the tary place of meeting with the chiefs. a hearty supper. The diningroom was a long hut. Saturday. The officers and men were most kindly received. 4th. on Wednesday. In the centre. and leave the boats A guard of honour and grappled at some distance from the beach. which the patriots forced upon them. 121 our ride. It bastwoHtdeharbours. and a little concert closed the day.Biddle and Glennie. Friday. to Rio Doce. one of her daughters. upon the whole. as it appeared to be only for the purpose of obtaining money. no notice was taken of it. built of wood and plaited palm leaves.PERNAMBUCO. on board. Thursday. and bas a celebrated chapelto our Lady of Nazareth.for sm&H land vessels.-Received Miss S. and several gentlemen. which. were given the spoons and forks. also. Messrs. They were.. caused by the heavy swell at the anchorage. and the rest of the çompany stood during the meaL To the strangers. higMy charmed with their visit. Dance with a party went for possible find a quieter anchorage. The few chairs the place afforded were appropriated to the strangers. more provisions. by a patriot detachment but. The surf at the landing place was so high. 5th. being on shore surveying. one launch and the second cutter went to Rio Doce to receive bullocks and other provisions. as on the former day. were detained as prisoners for a few hours. Most of the party were sea-sick. spread with a clean and very handsome cloth. particularly with the fireworks with which we saluted the ladies. and returned with many presents of fresh stock and vegetables. and if Mr. military band attended them. which they gladly did. was a long table. each of whichîs de&ndedby a smallfort. A miliband attended them on landing. that they were obliged to get into canoes. who had never been on board a British frigate before. from the rolling of the ship. R . According to the agreement made with the patriot officers. moreover. near Cabo de Sant Augustin*. and done by some subaltern.

dressed with oil. and touched by all hands. a beautiful green large red love-apple. was served.without regard to neatness or order. paroquet. broth. scarcely to be distinguished. garlic. and then helping himself to the fish. and slaves to carry the English through the surf to the canoës. set our officers the example of eating that substitute for wheaten bread. a slave handed round a silver basin. from the broad-leaved myrtie the berry is as large as a filbert.122 JOURNAL. On their return. Two principal messes occupied the centre of the table. when the guard and band attended the officers to the boats. mixed together. with water and towels. the tamest. which was eut up in convenient pieces. and sparkling eye. either in flower or leaf. --We continued to cruize opposite to Olinda and Récife. eels fried with sweet herbs. loveliest thing. and dipping his morsel into his basin. However. and for the rest every man put his hand in the dish. for they talk incessantly. the pitanga. after which a number of toasts were given. a berry of which an excellent preserve is made it grows upon a beautiful shrub. To each person a small basin of good beef mode the Brazilians. dipped it into the brose. by sailing round the English bank. shellfish stewed Into these also each man put his hand indiscriminately. and pimento. 7~. and eat it with his fingers. After dinner. AU the parrot tribe in Brazil is beautiful but neither paiTots nor parroquets talk well. and of swallowing. which conveyed them to the boats. Each person began by stirring a quantity of the flour into his broth. 1 saw for the first time. Around the two principal dishes. a platter. no slave ship cornes from Africa without a grey parrot or two so that in the towns they are almostas numerous as the native birds. and the entertainment concluded with vivas. . 1 ever saw. and alarmed some of our friends on shore.* Sunday. one. raw and the other a pile of fish. were others of a most savoury nature. also. till it acquired the consistence of brose. Dance brought me. and divided and coloured like the Mr. all manner of messes. bien dorée. and much more noisy. a thing hitherto believed impossible. wliere the builoeks were ready to embark. for so large a ship. and others of the same kind. with lus emerald coat. with wine and pimento. containing a quantity of mandioc flour.

in great periection Fruit-trees also thrive very well. Meantime the boys and 1 had full leisure to examine the island. and then carried me to the beach. and on the other hand. Tuesday. barnacles. melons R 2 and gourds. and leave Luis do Rego at the head of the military department. limpets. entered into with the patriots. which lies a good way up the harbour. The sailors pushed me over one flat bank in the gig. cashew nuts. granates. These last are very extensive and as they secure a supply of fish at times when the rough seas of the outer roads prevent the canoes from going out. It is perfectly flat and covered with white sand the shore scattered with fragments of shells and coral. As we sailed along the rock. and take an equal share in the administration.were deputed to take charge of a large party of midshipmen. yet containing a fish not unlike the latter in appearance. we observed that it is covered with echini. We had not exactly calculated the effect of the tide so far up the harbour as Cocoa-nut Island. The garden produces European as well as Brazilian vegetables. and the former in flavour. pome- . polypii. These pacifie measures were brought about by the Paraiban deputies whom we met on Wednesday. where they might approach with our provisions. they have answered extremely well to the speculator. &c. consequently we got aground in the outer channel. by which their deputiés are to be in the council. and within the reef of Pernambuco. guavas. who had not been able before to take a run on shore. went in search of a deeper passage. 9~. until the arrivai of the next despatches from Lisbon. –Mr. papaws. Mr. excepting where the present occupant has cleared space for a market-garden and fishponds. and the officers and boats with the crews. As its name imports. and crusted with white bivalves less than oysters or cockles. Dance.PERNAMBUCO. In the cuts for the fishponds 1 AU the orange and lemon tribe. Glennie. they are to withdraw the investing troops. thé midshipmen waded. on anchoring. and I. that terms have been ~OM<~<M~. 123 8~We find to-day. to spend the day on Cocoa-nut Island. at a considerable distance from the shore. it is one grove of cocoa-nut trees.



observed below thé sand, a rich black earth, full of decayed vegetables, whîch probably renders this apparently sandy land, so fertile. The ponds were half covered with the white water-lily, and some other Thé whole island abounds in gay aquatic plants of the country. where the humming-bird, here called shrubs and gaudy flowers the &<~a~o~or kiss-flower, with his sapphire wings and ruby crest, hovers continually, and the painted butterflies vie with him and his flowers in tints and beauty. The very reptiles are beautiful here. The snake and the lizard are singularly so, at least in colour. We found a very large rough caterpillar, each hair or prickle of which is divided into nve or six branches; the rings ofits bodyare scarlet,yellow, and brown and the country people believe that it hurts the udders of cows, and prevents their giving milk, if it does not actually suck them. They are therefore very unpopular hère, because the whole island that is not garden-ground is pasture, and supplies a great deal of the milk for thé market of Recife. While we were endeavouring to forget our hunger by examining the island, and drinking cocoa-nut juice, and wondering at many an ordinary thing, though new to young untravelled eyes, and such were those of most of the party, our boats were taking a circuitous track, and at length at ten o'clock landed our provisions, when we made a hearty breakfast, sitting on a sail spread under the palm shade. The elder boys with their guns, then accompanied Mr. Dance and the captain of a merchant vessel, who volunteered to act as Cicerone, to shoot and the younger ones staid with me to collect flowers, gather vegetables, and with the assistance of the boats' crews, to superintend the preparations for dinner. At four o'clock the sportsmen returned, bringing red-crested woodpeckers, finches of various hues, hummingbirds, black and yellow pies, and others of gay plumage and delicate A merrier party certainly never met, shape, quite new to us all. but the best of the expedition was to corne. The tide was now favourable and we determined to do a spirited thing, and instead
The Madagascar perriwinkle is the most common, many parasitic plants, and almost all the papilionaceous and the bell-shaped creepers the passion flowers also are common.



of going all the way down thé harbour, which would have kept us. out beyond the time allowed us, we ran through a passage in the reef called Mother Cary's passage, because few things but the birds think of swimming there. The merchant-boat went first, our gig next, and as 1 sat in the stern of the large boat that was to follow, it was beautiful, but something fearful, to see them dash through that boiling surf between the rocks and rise over the wave secure beyond it, nor was the sensation less mixed when we followed. There is at all times something triumphant in the sensation of sailing over the waters but when they are roughened by storms, or rendered fearful by rocks or shoals, the triumph approaches to the sublime, and in it there is a secret dread, though not of ocean, and a raising of the soul to him who made thé ocean, and gave man mind to master it. 1 am not ashamed to own, that as 1 looked round on my young sit still and say nothing," and charge, when Mr. Dance whispered then stepping to the bow of the boat called aloud to the helmsman, 1 had a moment, though but a moment, of exquisite steady But we were through in an instant, and soon alongside of anxiety. the frigate, where we were praised for doing what few had done before, and having shown the possibility of doing that safely, which at some future time it might be of importance to know could be done at all. 10/A. We went on shore early for the first time since ?~?~0~, the armistice. The guns are removed from the streets and a few of the shops are re-opened the negroes are no longer confined within their broad hats and ample doors, and the priests have reappeared cloaks give them an importance among the crowd, which now is busy and active, and seemingly intent on redeeming the time lost to trade by the siege. 1 was struck by the gréât preponderance of the black population. By the last census, the population of Pemambuco, including Olinda was seventy thousand, of which not above one third are white: thé rest are mulatto or negro. The mulattoes are, generally speaking, more active, more industrious, and more lively than either of the other classes. They have amassed great fortunes, in many



instances, and are far from being backward in promoting the cause of independence in Brazil. Few even of the free negroes have become very rich. A free negro, when his shop or garden bas repaid his care, by clothing him and his wife each in a handsome black dress, with necklace and armlets for the lady, and knee and shoe buckles of gold, to set off his own silk stockings, seldom toils much more, but is quite contented with daily food. Many, of all colours, when they can afford to purchase a negro, sit down exempt from further care.' They make the negro work for them, or beg for them, and so as they may eat their bread in quiet, care little how it is obtained. Thé European Portuguese, are extremely anxious to avoid intermarriage with born Brazilians, and prefer giving their daughters and fortunes to the meanest clerk of European birth, rather than to the richest and most meritorious Brazilian. They have become aware of the prodigious inconvenience, if not evil, they have brought on themselves by the impotation of Africans, and now no doubt, look forward with dread to the event. of a revolution, which will free their slaves from their authority, and, by declaring them ail men alike, will authorise them to resent,the injuries they have so long and patiently borne. As every thing seems quietly settled between the 11~. T%Mr~6M~, royalist and patriot chiefs, we are preparing to take leave of Pemambuco, and it is not without regret, for we have been kindly treated by the Portuguese, and hospitably received by our own countrymen. We went on shore to provide necessaries and comforts for our farther voyage. Among the latter 1 bought some excellent sweetmeats which are made in the interior, and brought to market in neat little It is astonishing wooden kegs, each containing six or eight pounds. to see the weight brought from two and three hundred mHes*distance, The by the small and slight but very swift horses of the country. baggage horses are not shod any more than those for riding the .1 '1 where the more delicate '1.1 the The convents
are made particularly are, generally speaking, places Those 1 bought were of Guava, cashew apple, citron, and lime. good. They go by the general came of Doce. preserves The cashew



latter are almost universaHy trained to a kind of running pace, easy in itself, but not very agreeable at first, to those accustomed to English horses. To-day 1 saw and tasted the jerked beef, charqui, of Spanish South America. It appears, when hanging in baies at the shop-doors, like bundies of thick ragged leather. It is prepared by cutting the flesh in wide strips, clean off the bones, slightly salting, pressing, and drying in the air. In this state it might well havé served for saddle-cloths to the Buccaneers, as tradition says they dressed their meat under their saddles. However that may be, the beef is good. Here the common mode of using it is to eut it in small squares, and boil it in the mandioc pottage, which is the principal food of the poorer inhabitants and the slaves. After 1 had ended my marketing, 1 went to call on a Portuguese family, and as it was the first private Portuguese house 1 had been in, 1 was curious to notice the difference between it and the English houses here. The building and général disposition of the apartments are the same, and the drawingroom only differed in being better furnished, and with every article English, even to a handsome piano of Broadwood's but the diningroom was completely foreign the floor was covered with painted cloth, and the walls hung round with English prints and Chinese pictures, without distinction of subject or size. At one end of the room was a long table, covered with a glass case, enclosing a large piece ofreligious wax-work the whole pr~epMï, ministering angels, three kings, and ail, with moss, artificial flowers, sheHs and beads, smothered in gauze and tiffany, bespangled with gold and silver, San Antonio and St. Christopher being in attendance on the right and left the rest of the furniture consisted of ordinary chairs and tables, and a kind of beaufet or sideboard from the ceiling, nine bird-cages were hanging, each with its little inhabitant; canaries, grey finches with a note almost as In larger fine, and the beautiful widow-bird, were the &vourites. cages in a passage room, there were more parrots and paroquets than 1 should hâve thought agreeable in one house but they are well-bred We were no sooner seated in birds, and seldom scream all together.



the diningroom, than biscuit, cake, wine, and liqueurs, were handed a glass of water was then round, the latter in diminutive tumblers ofïered to each, and we were pressed to taste it, as being the very best in Recife; it proceeds from a spring in the garden of the convent of Jerusalem, two miles from town, and thé only conduit from that spring leads to the garden of a sister convent here. From the lady, 1 learned, that the porousjars for cooling water, that we find here, are ail made in thé neighbourhood of Bahia, there being no manufactory here, except a few coarse cottons for clothing for the slaves. The air and manners of the family we visited, though neither English nor French, were perfectly well bred, and the dress pretty much that of civilised Europe, only that the men wore cotton jackets instead of cloth coats, and were without neck-cloths when they go out of doors, however, they dress like Englishmen. Returning from our visit, we met a monk, carried out to be buried by several of his brethren, with candie, book, and bell, and all the solemnities which human feeling has invented to solace its own fears and griefs, under the pretence of honouring the dead, and to which the Romish church has in such cases as these, added all her 1 could not help contrasting it with the burials on the pageantry. beach of Olinda, and smiling at the vanities that attach themselves even to corruption. But man, vain man, plays such fantastic tricks before high heaven, as make the angels weep." But our horses were awaiting us, and we Ieft our indignation and our pity for the follies of some, and the miseries of others, to enjoy, for the first time since the posts were free, the country air. When we went to Bibiriba, soldiers stopped us to question at every turn piles of arms, and horses ready accoutred at the- door of every considerable residence, showed that military posts had taken place of the pleasures of the country-houses, and accounted for the solitariness of the roads. Now the scene is changed the paths are crowded with negroes, young and old, in their picturesque, though gaudy dresses, with baskets of fruit, fish, and other provisions, on their heads little carts, of which we had not before seen one, begin



to appear, and the fine oxen which draw them ibrm no bàd contrast to the hal~starved bullocks of the town. 'Twas a cool evening, and the sun was just low enough to gild the edges of the palms and other tall trees, which shot up with their deep black shadows into the thin pure light, making an effect, that even Titian's landscape Our ride extended to Mr. S.'s countrypencil has not reached. house, which is, 1 believe, on the same plan with all the others hereabouts, and which 1 can only compare to an Oriental bungalow one story very commodiously laid out, a veranda surrounding it, and standing in thé midst of a little {~ ~~ck, part of which is garden ground, and part pasture, generàuy hedged with limes and roses, and shaded with fruit trees, is the general description of the country sitios about Pernambuco; the difference arising from the taste of the inhabitant, or the situation of the ground, being allowed for. The low rent of these pleasant little gardens is surpri~'ng but it arises in great measure from the indolence and consequent poverty of the holders of original grants of land hère as~ long as their negroes and estates maintained them, they paid no attention to the particular parts that, being near the town, might have been at all times productive. Now, that sugar and cotton are no longer in such demand, nearly half the fazendas or factories are ruined, and such is become the indolent temper of the people, that rather than seek to redeem their estates, they will take the smallest annuity for a portion. On our way to the sitio, we stopped at a kind of pubHc-house or venta it is like an English huckster's, and contains a little of every thing, cloth and candles, fruit and lard, wine and pimento, which are retailed at no very extravagant profit to the poor the draught wine is really good, being port of excellent quality, without the quantity of brandy which thé English market requires. By the time we repassed it on our way home, many a negro w~ spending his day's savings, and becoming as happy as wine could make him and many a traveller was regaling himself with bread, garlic, and salt, and preparing to spread his mat, and lie down in thé open air for thé night. Night within the tropics is always a gayer and more peopled s



~ime than with us thé heat of the day detains many within doors ait day, and evening and night become thé favourite hours for walking. ~s w~ returned through Boa Vista we passed many groups enjoying Hke ourselves thé pleasant air, and gazing idly on the renections of ~e white houses and waving trees in thé water while the fire nies nittingn'om bushto bush, seemed like fragments of stars corne down to adorn the moonlight. There Thé Prince Royal of Portugal's birth-day. JRW~, l~A. is a tevee at the palace. Thé company bow first to thé governor, whîch is placed in the middle of the then to thePrmce'spicture, or a~dience-rootn, to reçoive its due honours and then the beja MMïMO, kiss hands, takes place. The forts and ships saluted weof course did the saïne and the people all dressed and went to mass, as on a One thing contributed, however, in no small degree to the holiday. enjoyment of the day. The troops, which lately arrived from Bahia, Their whole behaviour had been re-embarked -in order to return. disorderly, and their drunkenness and riot, during the ten days they were here, had quite disgusted the people while the disposition they maniiested to join the patriots, had rendered them but suspicious àuxiliaries to the governor. Saturday, IS~A. 1 took leave of my amiable friends at the palace. Madame do Rego gave me several specimens of amethyst, and thé stone called minha nove (like aqua marine), and also a fine piece of She told me that Luiz do Rego had sent gold ore of the province. home many fine minerais from the captaincy, and also some fossils. She described some enormous bones, which may havebelonged to the elephant or the mammoth, found at no great distance from Recife in digging a well, and, as far as 1 could understand, in such soil as 1 had observed lay under the sand in Cocoa-nut Island. A great dinner was given to-day, by the merchants, to the captain and officers. The governor, and other persons of dignity in the town, met them 1 am told it was a very handsome dinner, that there was
of Priaca, about eight leagues N.E. of the villa of The. Sugar-loaf Hill, in the ridge western declivity, where enormous bones have been found and Penedo, bas a lake on its C%or. ~Y/~7. on the north side there Is a fearful cavern.

the captain-general had embarked on board a French ship for Europe. Through these we soon made our way and reached the. We leave Pernambuco. and then we took leave of Pernambuco. S. where 1 have once more taken possession of my cabin. had repented Rego of that recal. Before Nov. where most of the company visited me after tea. and sent them towards Rio Janeiro. with sailors going up and down preparing for us.ship. it will be in vain for other governors to attempt it. heightened and set off the sparkling ofthe breakers that dashed against the outer fort. 1821. that are bound to support her in her weakness. forbid them to land. and that nothing could excèed thé 1 had remained friendly politeness of the governor and his party. and put it in order for sea.and lighthouse. 18th of the same year. the harbour and the shipping doubled by the clear reflection in the still water.* We left Pernambuco on the 14th Oct. at Mr. But by the time they arrived.'s. and had countermanded it. our boats lying in the clear moonshine beneath it. and had at least the enjoyment of novelty.PERNAMBUCO. the Cortes of Libbon had recalled Luiz do and all the European troops. after provisioning the ships with the troops. where we had received much kindness. and the junta. particulady so long as the state of the mother country is such as that she can neither fight with nor for her colonies and while she considers them only as taxable parts of her states. 131 plenty of every kind of wine. S 2 . Where the firmness and conduct of Do Rego have failed to hold the captaincy in obédience. The scene at our emOur friends went with us to thejetty. with a firm persuasion that this part of Brazil at least will never again tamely submit to Portugal. and sent reinforcements. and barking was very pretty.

the green of the sloping banks being often interruLpted by bright white patches. The street into which we proceeded through the arsenal gate. until the political state bf Brazil is a little more settled. on the invitation of Mr. opposite to the town of St. and Tuesday. A city. and beyond the city. They are hilly and very woody. my eyes opened on one of the finest scenes they ever beheld. or rather dock-yard. with its promontories and islands. Early in the day we moved our anchorage closer in-shore and then. coasted along within sight of the shores of Brazil. altogether finish this charming picture then the fresh sea-breeze gives spirit to enjoy it. we anchored in the bay of Ail Saints. the bust~ ofshipping. however. yet tending the same way. 1*7~This morning. We landed at the arsenal. Monday. the British consul. at day-break. reaches along to the outer point of land on which the picturesque church and convent of Sant Antonio da Barre is placed. . The first object we saw.fine 58-gun frigate on the stocks. is placed along the ridge and on thé declivity of a very high and steep hiH the richest vegetation breaks through the white houses at intervals. commonly called Bahia. and soon Ail Sunday. notwithstanding its tropical climate. The tracery of forts. Salvador. Every thing is visibly either suspended or on the decline. and there will probably be no improvement. In the evening of Tuesday the 16th. magnificent in appearance from the sea. We got under weigh after breakfast. we went ashore to spend the day with him. Oct. Here and there the bright red soil shows itself in harmony with the tiling of the houses. though not quite so unquiet as at Pernambuco. There is nothing besides thé new ship. Pennell. which seem to be of sand. the model of which 1 hear connoisseurs praise as beautiful. hills melting in the distance. t~e~Mes~a~.132 JOURNAL. <S'M?M~M~ 14<A. and some handsome pieces of old brass cannon. It was quite ~dark before we got in. we lost'sight of Pernambuco. where there is nothing of the neatness observable in such establishments at home. worth looking at. We find things here. so that we lost the first entrance-view of that magnificent harbour but the scattered lights show us the great extent and high situation of thé town. and thé very form of the bay. was a.

along the walls. The buildings are high. negroes plaiting hats or mats. It is extremely narrow. pigs. every thing is thrown there from the different stalls. on account of the steepness of the ascenc. the filthiest place 1 ever was in. 133 forms. curtains. and found them. generally of moreen.BAHIA. ol! and sugar cakes. street are the warehouses and counting-houses both native and foreign. venders of sausages. but neither so handsome nor so airy as those of Pemambuco. without and as the gutter runs in the middle of the partition or distinction street. They consist of a cane arm-chair. with a foot-board and a canopy covered with leather. as the streets leading out of thé filthy lower town do not admit of the use of wheeled carriages. yet all the working artificers bring their benches. without any exception. at least commodious. (a kind of sedan chair. caderas. are fruit-sellers. as well as from the windows and there the animais live and feed In this of the merchants. we hired caderas. and poultry. if not comfortable. at this place. changing occasionally from right to len. the breadth of the whole lower town of Bahia. and is. When Frezier travelled. or open at and the whole is slung by the top to a single pole. fried fish. black-puddings. a cotton hammock with a canopy was used . It was raining when we landed thereibie.) with their bearers. dogs. and tools into the street in the interstices between them. by pleasure which two negroes carry it at a quick pace upon their shoulders. with gilt bordering and lined with cotton or linen. are contrived to draw round.

together with the Donatory Coutinho. Caramuru fûllowed in the direction his wife pointed out he discovered. To winnow fragrance round the smiling land. and is in the suburb Vittoria. who had accompanied him to France. and gently sloping lawns. His house. generally opening to the sea or the lake behind the town. have a freshness and amenity that 1 scarcely remember seeing before. As we ascended from the street. da Graça. which occupies the greater part of a long narrow ridge extending be~ 'veen it and the town is from the town towards Sant Antonio Fort Pedro. S. on Itaparica. accordingly. to show us some of the surrounding country before dinner. We saw but little of the upper city. we accepted MissPenneH's kind offer. the wood. about We found the Consul and his the beginning of the last century. 1 bededicated to N. Coutinho was put to death but. built and dedicated the church. da Graça and according to the directions his wife had received from thé vision. by the Dutch. being beloved by the natives. and believing it to be a real European female. originally of mud. Catherine Paraguaza. was spared. in one of the huts. His wife. flowers and fruits mingle their while sweets even down to the water's edge. is a little way out of town. the steep banks. to Christian worship by a native Brazilian. 1 think. There is something in the landscape here peculiarly agreeable. and a house by it. When the famous Caramuru was wrecked. and hc returned to his old settlement of Villa Velha. on the recovery of Bahia from the Dutch. but that little was handsome. and bestowed it. S. daughter ready to receive us at their very pleasant garden-house. Seaborn gales their gelid wings expand. like those of all the British merchants.134 JOURNAL. an image of N." Eager to seize the opportunity of w alking out after our voyage. The verdure. Caramuru. every step brought us in sight of some beautiful scene. in our way to the consul's. lieve. It was faced with stone. which HferaHy overhangs the bay. built. saw an apparition in the camp of the Indians. and accompanied her as far as the church It was the first offering of piety. generally terminated by the bay and shipping. .


the others are different from thosé'described by him. we waited in a passage while thé servants ran to open thé doors and windows ofthe sitting-rooms. it was hard!y&Ir to take a stranger to. 13~ oh thé Bénédictines.clad. Mr. the bay. As they wear nor bodice. besides its owh leàves. through landséape 2%M~t~. easity takes root in other trees. the bouses. ) Air-ptant or Tillandsia. and scarcely The gamela. In thé nrstpïace. through which eme~ged bn clear lawns. . like thébanyan. formed part of the scene. PenneU bas most kindly given our young men a generaMnvitation to his house~ and accordingly. adomed. stabling tlie are narrow and dàrk and. and we had a party in. and gardens were seen and from every emiçountry-hpuses. the figure becomes sïmost indëcently neitberstay slovenly. As it is not their custom to visit or be visited in the ibrenoon. or the lake. after very early youth and this is thé more disgusung.BAHIA. see them. when some of tlie ladtesplayedquadnI!es. builtof&tone. of which there are several sorts. sprïnHedwîthpalm &rms. at more than pne house. that 1 wished for a poet or a painter at every step~ Sometimes we went through thick wild wood into bushy hollows then trees. Miss PenneU in a tpurofvisitstpber jp%~a!y. to thé swinging air planta and thé trequent tower of church and mohastery soften and improve the features-of the country. T!teT!Uands!aLinguIatais the' largest. for the most part. with numberless parasite plants. but soon after was out be&rebrëakûtst. my curiosity. Here and there the huge gamela tree* stands like a tower. serves besides for troughs of various kinds. at-least. to-day several of them dined with him. nence. wear no neck-handkerchiefs.19~laccompanied Portuguese friends. was gratiëed. and together in thé sâme manaër. -in their own apartments. It was at first of mud.t8~Wèrode so fine. thé sea. as they are very thinly. However.the evening. whb were enjoying their When tbey appearéd 1 couid uiidress.whHeothersdanced. and tocaïi their mistresses. and are much more beautiful. from thé stin* cactus. and its branches meet1t It is the tree of which the canoes of Brazil are made. scarcety beHeve that one half were gentlewomen. and agrees with Jaquin's plate. are disgustinglydirty: thé lowerstOty staircases usually consists of cellsibr the slaves.

There is usually a sofa at each end of the room. ill combed. Another house belonging to one of the judges was also clean. and other provisions. Between the two sets of seats is a space. though the mhabitant was neither richer nor of higher rank. And yet they did not lack conversation the principal topic. or at least amuse ourselves with what was passing in the street. in this hot climate. and assembling the iamiiy was over. to go to the balconies of the windows and enjoy the view and the breeze. Some houses. Glass chandeliers were suspended from the roof. their manner of talking on the latter subject is as disgusting as their dress. or knotted unbecomingly. and to the right and left a long file of chairs. however. or still worse. and of a more stately appearance than the rest. A good deal of handsome china was displayed round the room but the jars. We were every where invited. 1 think. and the whole person having an unwashed appearance. that is. seemed to forni an inseparable part of the walls. near the skin. handsome mirrors were intermixed with the prints and pictures. as well as the chairs and tables. the servants had to remove dishes of sugar. . 1 am told. which had been left in the best rooms to dry. without any white linen. to say thé truth. any sleeves. however. which. in a morning 1 am told they are different after dinner. 1 saw either a guitar or piano. besides. decorate the walls pretty generally and there are. was praise of the beauty of Bahia dress. it is unpleasant to see dark cottons and stuffs. Hair black. one. was papered. which look as if they never could be moved out of their place. and generally both. 1 think belonging to a captain of the navy. Indian and French the lady too was neatly dressed in a French wrapper. in two or three instances. When at any of the houses the bustle of opening the cobwebbed windows. crucifixes and other things of the kind. and dishevelled. children. made up the rest and. Then. the floors laid with mat. is often used for dancing and. en papillote. the latter the worst daubs 1 ever saw. and diseases. after sitting a few moments on the sofa. mandioc. Prints and pictures. and the tables ornamented with pretty porcelain. are more neatly arranged.136 JOURNAL. in every house.



1 did not see They marry very early, and soon lose their bloom. one tolerably pretty woman to-day. But then who is there that can bear so total a disgulse as filth and untidiness spread over a woman? 20~. As the charts of this coast hitherto published <S'a~My~a~, are very incorrect, thé captain asked permission from govemment to sound and survey the bay it is refused on the ground of policy as if it could be policy to keep hidden rocks and shoals, for one's own as well as other people's ships. 1 walked through the greater part of the town. The tower part extends much farther than 1 could see the day 1 ianded It contains a few churches, one of which, belonging to the monastery of A conc~~o, is very handsome, but thé smell within is disgusting; the flooring is laid in squares with stone, and within each square there is a panelling of wood of about nine feet by six under each panel is a vault, into which the dead are thrown naked, until they reach a certain number, when with a little quicklime thrown in, thé wood is fastened down, and then another square is opened, and so on in rotation. From that church, passing the arsenal gâte, we went along the low street, and found it widen considerably at three quarters of a mile beyond there are the markets, which seem to be admirably supplied, especially with fish. There also is the slave market, a sight 1 have not yet learned to see without shame and Indignation~: beyond are a set of arcades, where goldsmiths, jewellers, and haberdashers display their small wares, and there are the best-looking shops; but there is a want of neatness, of that art of making things look well, that invites a buyer in England and France. One bookseller's shop,
~Tto would believe it? there are shops full of those poor Frezier says of Bahia, wretches, who are exposed there stark naked and bought like cattle, over whom the buyers have the same power; so that upon slight disgust they may kill them, ahnost withoMt fear of punishment, or at least treat them as cruelly as they please. 1 -know not hôw such barbarity can be reconciled to the maxims of religion, which makes them members of the same body with the whites, when they have been baptized, and raises Most ~fig~. them to the dignity of the sons of God–aN sons o~ 1 here make this comparison, because the Portuguese are Christians who make a outward show of religion." ~o~g~ /o the &M/~ Sea. great T



where books are extravagantly dear, exists in the low town, and one other in the ascent to the upper. Theupper town is most beautifully situated on the ridge between the sea and the fresh water lake, and from its height, and thé gréât slope of most of the streets, it is incomparabiy cleaner than the port: The cathedral dedicated to St. Salvador is a handsome building, and stands on one side of a square, where the palace, prison, and other public buildings are placed. The finest of these, the Jesuits' college, the marble columns of which came from Europe ready eut, is now converted into a barrack. The most useful is the hospital of Nossa Senhora da Misericordia~, founded by Juan de Matinhos, whose statue in white marble, with a wig like Sir Cloudesley Shovel's in Westminster Abbey, stands at the first landing-place, and is the ugliest piece of carving 1 ever saw. This hospital, besides its use as a refuge for the sick, of whom there are generally about 120, maintains 50 young girls of decent parentage, to whom a suitable education is given, and a dowry of 200 crowns bestowed on them when they marry. t The building of the Misericordia is a fair specimen of thé style of the convents, rather handsome than public buildings, and more noble houses, It surrounds a large area, subdivided into smaller courts elegant. the staircase is of marbre, inlaid with coloured stucco, and the sides are lined with tiles of porcelain, so as to form arabesques, often of very pretty design. This is both a cool and a cleanly lining to a wall, The principal rooms are also decorated particularly for an hospital. in the same manner and many of thé fronts and cupolas of the churches are covered with similar tiles, the effect of which is often exceedingly agreeable, when seen among the trees and plainer buildings of the city. The chapel belonging to the hospital is handsome, a little gaudy, however. Thé ceiling is respectably painted, and was
Part of the funds for supporting this and other hospitals is derived from lotteries. See advertisements in the different Bahia newspapers. Joao de Matos Aguiar, commonly called Joao de Matinhos, from his diminutive size, was the founder of this Recolhimento. He bequeathed 800,000 crusadoes for the retired women, 400,000 for the patients, one to each on leaving the hospital, and éOO.OOO,dowry to 38 girls every year, at the period ofthe foundation, 1716.



probably the work of an amateur monk of the seventeenth century. The treatment of thé sick is humane, and they are well provided with food and other necessaries; but the médical practice,though much of late years, is not the most enlightened. improved There is a great deal of jealousy- of foreigners in the present government, hence 1 was not able to enter many of the public buildings. The government treasury was one 1 was desirous to see, but there were objections. The treasury here was formerly considered as subordinate to that of Rio de Janeiro, and accordingly paid a of its receipts to bills drawn monthly by the treasurer in the portion capital, upon this, and those of the other provinces. But since the révolution of the lOth of February, the provisional government bas taken upon itself to refuse payment, on the grounds that it is entirely of Rio, until the pleasure of the certes at Lisbon shall independent be known. The revenue is derived from direct taxes on land and provisions, excise upon exports and imports, and harbour dues. Land is subjectto a fax ofone-tenth ofthe whole of its produce, and sin.ce the révolution, church lands are under the same law, and the clergy are paid by the government. The taxes on provisions are annually farmed out to thé higbest bidder: they are imposed on beef, fresh fish, farinha, and ve~etabïes. Each parish has its separate farmer, who pays the amount of his contract into the treasury, and then makes the most he can of his dues. The import and export duties are paid at the custom-house, between which and the treasury a monthly settlement takes place. The port dues fer foreign ships are 2000 reals per day, a trifle for the light house, and rather heavy charges for entering, clearing, &c. and Brazilian ships pay no anchorage, but are Portuguese subject to a tonnage. We ended our perambulation of the town, by going to the opéra The theatre is placed on the highest part of the city, at night.
It was begun by the Conde da Ponte, and nnished by the Coude dos Arcos aiter the arrivai ofthe king in Brazil. It was opened May 13th, 1812.

T 2



and the platform before it commands the finest view imaginable. It is a handsome building, and very commodious, both to spectators Within it is very large and well laid out, but dirty and and actors. The actors are very bad as such, in great want of fresh painting. and little better as singers but the orchestra is very tolerable. The piece was a very ill-acted tragedy, founded on Voltaire's Mahomed. thé Portuguese ladies and gentlemen During the representation, seemed determined to forget the stage altogether, and to laugh, eat When the musicians, sweetmeats, and drink coffee, as if at home. however, began to play the overture to the ballet, every eye and voice was directed to the stage, and a ic-'d call far the national hymn followed, and not till it had been played again and again, was the ballet suffered to proceed. During the bustle occasioned by this, a captain in the army was arrested and hurried out of the pit some say for picking pockets, others for using intemperate language on politics, when the national hymn was called for. Meantime one of the midshipmen of our party had his sword stolen, adroitly enough, from the corner of -the box, yet we perceived nobody enter so that we conclude a gentleman in regimentals in thé next box thought it would suit him, and so buckled it on to go home with. The police here is in a wretched state. The use of the dagger is so frequent, that the secret murders generally average two hundred yearly, between the upper and lower towns. To this evil the darkness and steepness of the streets mainly contribute, by furnishing alThe nominal intendente da policia is also most a certainty ofescape. the supreme judge in criminal cases. No law, however, bas as yet determined the limits or scope, either of his power, or that of the lieutenant-colonel of police, who calls upon a féw soldiers from any of the garrisons whenever he has to act, and who appoints military patroles also from among the soldiers on duty. It often happons that persons accused before this formidable officer are seized and to a trial a maliimprisoned for years, without ever being brought cious information, whether true or false, subjects a man's private house to be broken open by the colonel and his gang and if the master escapes imprisonment it is well, though the house scarcely



evet escapes pillage. In cases of riot and quarrels in the street, the colonel generally orders thé soldiers to fall on with canes, and beat people into their sensés. Such being the state of the police, it is, perhaps, more wonderful that murders are so few, than that they are so many. Where there is little or no public justice, private revenge will take its place. tothe English chapel, and were well pleased <SMM~<2I~Wewent with the decent manner in which the service was performed. The Rev. Robert Synge is chaplain, a man of cheerful convivial manners, yet exceedingly attentive both as chaplain, and as guardian of his The chapel and clergymen are supported by poorer countrymen. thé contribution fund, as are also the hospital for English sailors and others, and its surgeon, Mr. Dundas both thé hospital and chapel are under the same roo~ 1 was surprised, perhaps unreasonably, to hear Mr. Synge pray for Don John of Portugal, Sovereign of thèse realms, by whose gracious permission we are enabled to meet and worship God accord'ng to our conscience," or words to that effect. We were not so polite in Rome, 1 remember, as to pray for His Holiness, though it would have been but reasonable. Returning from chapel, we saw gréât part of the troops drawn up in inspecting order, on the littlegreen between Buenos Ayres (the name of the hospital) and Fort Pedro. Every Portuguese is, it seems, by birth a soïdier; and nothing exempts a man from military duty, but his holding a place under government. There are six corps of militia in the city of Bahia Ist, one company of mounted gentlemen, forming the government guard of honour; 2d, one squadron of flying artillery 3d and 4th, two régiments of whites, almost aH 5th, one régiment of mulatoes and 6th, one of free tradespeople blacks, amounting altogether to 4000 men, well armed and equipped; but the black régiment is unquestionably the best trained, and most serviceable, as a light infantry corps. The régiments of country militia, as those of Cachoera, Piaja, &c. are much stronger, and with those of the city, amount to about 15,000 men. The officers are chosen from among the most respectable families, and with the exception of the majors and adjutants, who are of the line, receive no pay.



The troops of the capital are generally reviewed or inspected on Sundays, and sometimes the regular Portuguese are reviewed with them. There is always something gay and inspiriting in martial sounds and martial sights and the fine weather, gay landscape, and above all, the idea that in a day or two, nay, this very night, thèse same soldiers might be called into action, did not render the scene less interesting. Thé native artillery have long garrisoned some of the forts. It appears that the royal troops of Portugal have claimed some superiority, and and so there is a above ail, have demanded their guns and ammunition dispute, in which the royalists and independents take part, and every but both parties seem so willing to be day hostilities are expected bloodshed. peaceable, that 1 trust the matter will end without evening there was aIargeparty,bothPortuguëse ~fbM~sy22~This andEnglish, at the consul's. In the well-dressed women 1 saw to-night, 1 had great difficulty in recognising the slatterns of the other mornFrench fashion corset, ing. The senhoras were all dressed after the fichu, garniture, all was proper, and even élégant, and there was a Our English ladies, though quite of the great display of jewels. second rate of even colonial gentility, however, bore away the prizé of beauty and grâce for after al), the clothes, however elegant, that are not worn habitually, can only embarrass and cramp thé native she who would movements and, as Mademoiselle Clairon remarks, act a gentlewoman in public, must be one in private life." The Portuguese men have all a mean look none appear to have any education beyond counting-house forms, and their whole time in the latter, thé is, 1 believe, spent between trade and gambling Before that happy ladies partake largely after they are married. period, when there is no evening dance, they surround the card tables, and with eager eyes follow the game, and long for the time 1 scarcely wonder at this propenwhen they too may mingle in it. sity.. Without education, and consequently without the resources of mind, and in a climate where exercise out of doors is all but impossible, a stimulus must be had and gambling, from the sage to the savage, has always been resorted to, to quicken the current of life. On the present occasion, we feared the young people would have



been disappointed of their dance, because the fiddlers, after waiting some time, went away,. as they alleged, because they had not their tea early enough however, some of the ladies volunteered to play the piano, and the ball lasted till past midnight. 1 rode with Mr. Dance and Mr. Ricken along the Tuesday, 23~ banks of the lake, decidedly the most beautiful scenery in this beautiful country and then through wUd groves, where ail the splendours of Brazilian animal and vegetable life were displayed. The gaudy plumage of the birds, the brilliant hues of the insects, the size, and shape, and colour, and fragrance, of the flowers and shrubs, seen mostly for the first -time, enchanted us, and rendered our little joumey to the great pepper gardens, whither we were going, delightM. Every hedge is at this season gay with coffee blossom, but it is too early in the year for the pepper or the cotton to be in beauty. It is not many years since Francisco da Cunha and Menezes sent the pepper plant from Goa for these gardens, which were afterwards enlarged by him, when he became govemor of Bahia. Plants were sent from hence to Pernambuco, which have succeeded in the botanical garden. From the pepper gardens we rode on to a convent at the farther extremity of the town, and overlooking both the bays, above and It is called below the peninsula of Bon fin, or N. S. da Monserrat the Soledad, and the nuns are famous for their delicate sweetmeats, and for the manufacture of artificial flowers, formed of the feathers 1 admired the white of the many-coloured birds of their country. water-lily most, though the pomegranate flower, the carnation, and the rose are imitated with the greatest exactness. The price of aH is exorbitant but the convents having lost much of these things their property since the revolution, the nuns are fain to make up by the produce of this petty industry, for the privations imposed on them by the réduction of their rents. Mr. Pennell, his daughter, and a few -Wednesda,y, October 24~. other friends, joined us in an expedition to Itaparica*, a large island
JR<~o' is the Indian name the Portuguese termination, Rica, indicates the fertility of the island. On this island Francesco Pereira Coût' the first donatory, was killed by

on which stands Nazareth da Farinha. There is no town on Itaparica but there is a villa. in place and rank. not uncbmmon to give a slave his freedom. in the family ties and charities they are not forbidden to enjoy.144 JOURNAL. at best. A few days ago. in general are better off than the slaves of masters whosè condition is nearer to their own. that forms the western side of the Bay of AU Saints. and each room appeared to hold a family. when he is too old or too infirm to work that is. or even dominion of another. or village. and not far from the habitation of the adventurer Caramura. thé greater the the less our actions are inspected and conIIberty we enjoy and the fainter that cruel comparison becomes betwixt trouled our own subjection. and found them cleaner and more comfortable than 1 expected each contains four or five rooms. 1 went into several of the huts. There are also a great many fazendas. to turn him out of doors to beg or starve. they found a poor negro woman lying in a dying state. or Filisberti. He had founded his city near the watering place called Villa Velha. when the Jesuits founded an Aldea. These out-of-door slaves. may beconsidered as so many hamlets. because. the comforts of slaves must be precarious. belonging to the fazenda or factory of Aseoli. and collected and humanised some of the natives. both ofwhom were partners in Jerome Buonaparte's commercial establishment here. and the freedom. to a little jetty. and also the mouth of the river. so called from the abundance of that article which it produces. The distance from the city to the nearest landing place on the island is five miles and a half. Each sugar farm. . with a fort on the Punto de Itaparica. The more the master is removed from us. belonging to ~he great ingenhos. by what is now the fort of Gamboa. or ingenho. The first Christian settlement formed here was in 1561. which. We put in between two ledges of rock. which commands the passage between it and the main land. has its little community of slaves around it and in their huts something like thé blessings of freedom are enjoyed. which our boats' crews rowed in less than two hours. as the fazendas are oftener called here. and there are reefs of coral rocks on different parts of its coast. with their establishment of slaves and cattle. A shoal runs off from it a long way to sea. as a party of gentlemen were returning from a ptc nic." Here it is But. by thé the savages.

where she died in two days.those in the city. and that at other seasons they are as fat and cheerful as. 26th. where Coutinho. rather than maintain a useless Cato. by an edict of thé Emperor Claudius was Ukewise fbrbid to kill aMy ~sc. when it was the professed maxim of the elder slaves for any price. or sick slaves. The poor creature." –ZK~coMf~M o/e ~a~MMï. thé nrst founder of the colony of Bahia. The English gentlemen applied to their Portuguese compan~ons to speak to her. to sett his superannuated burden. 1 am told. the horses for the cavalry regiments were procured hère. We may imagine what others would practise. useless. and pleasing. was wrecked and afterwards murdered by the natives. though in humbler style but it is fresh and green. However.~ thin. 27th. are also from the island. ~M-rc~or old age or Mc~~M. 'tis only a black let us ride on. When the English fleet and army stopped here. was carried to the English hosHer diseases were age and pital. and we were in consequence four hours in re* turning home. we re-embarked to return but the tide was unfavourable we drifted among the rocks. and 1 should say over-worked but. This island used ta furnish the neighbourhood with horses. and walking about till we were tired. and as they see their little lot the lot of all. passed in pleasant enough intercourse with our Thé to starve. there is nothing remarkable in Itaparica but its fertility the landscape is the same in character with that of Bahia. which is saying a great deal. had his liberty given him. on the way to the Cape of Good Hope. but the greater part of Sugar is the principal product of Itaparica the poultry. Thé slaves 1 saw here working in the distillery." and so they did without further notice. aud whoeverrecovered. consumed in Bahia. there seems to have been pretty common in Rome. who was a dismissed slave.BAHIA. After dining in a palm-grove. Oh. and comfort her. as thinking she would understand them better. but they said. appear hunger. that it is only in the distilling months that they appear so. after exposed. They hâve a little church and burying-ground here. vegetables. and fruit. 145 side of the road. and lime is made hère in considerable quantities from thé madrepores and corals found on the beach. jPMN~oMMM's ~ne~ u . in an island of the Tyber. 28th. being so where it custom of exposing old. are more contented than 1 thought a slave could be.

had they been erected. rums. cottons. Pennell had kindly fixed to-day for giving us a Sunday 28tla. In the province of Esperitu Santo. party in the country. Mr. The millions of ants. &c. without reckoning thé smugglers in that Une. There are eighteen English mercantile houses established at Bahia. The gardens are laid out in alleys. or rather canal. However that may be. It is the fashion to pave the courts of the country-houses here with dark pebbles. made up for whatever we might have thought romantic in the tents. and neatness in itself and garden. bas induced the inhabitants to weave not only enough coarse cotton eloths for home consumption. tobaccos. till they are strong enough to recover if attacked by . and a mistake as to the practicability of landing on part of the beach beyond the light-house. our party was a pleasant one. occasioned a variety of adventures and accidents. something in the oriental taste. though neither of us were well enough to go much on shore. cotton sail-cloth is made but the chief trade of this place is ~opM~. for Hamburgh to a great extent. where beauty of situation. and to form in the pavement a sort of mosaic with milk-white shells. Instead of the tents. which often in thé course of a single night leave the best-clothed orangetree bare both of leaves and flowers. Lately. we made use of a country-house called thé Roça. in exchange for sugars. which supplies manufactured goods and salt. is quite dependent on commerce. to go and assist in putting up tents. but even to become an article of trade with the other captaincies. two French. therefore our friends came to us.146 JOURNAL. and accordingly some of our young people were. sea of the province of Minas Geraes. on English account. and two German. sugars hâve been shipped. countrymen. but a miscalculation of tide and time. in which there is water. render it necessary to surround each tree with a little stucco wall. The English trade is principally carried on with Liverpool. by its neglect of manufacwoollen-cloths. very little coffee. and 1 believe part of the returns are in German or Prussian The province of Bahia. and molasses. This year no less than seventy-six slave-ships have sailed. But the distance from the tures. without which 1 hâve always heard no fête champêtre could be perfëct.

repugnant to every wholesome feeling. and adorned himself with bones and feathers here. 147 the ants. and the Europeans. on account of what has been. when they do. so evidently foreign to the climate. In the East. and porcelain flowerpots. show too plainly that they are intruders. and rose. that made me almost think myself in the But there is a newness in every thing here. it is on Portuguese seldom dine with each other some great occasion." nor enjoying the scent of oleander. imagination is at liberty to expatiate on past grandeur. and equal his indecency as to religion hence to sober people who have seen through the EuThé ropean revolutions. every shrub of value. jasmine. In the garden at Roça. was so ienced. and they outgo his doctrines on politics. wears an air of newness. that more than common talent and desire of knowledge Is requisite to attain any therefore the clever men are acute. and their African slaves. and some lively conversable women but none of either sex that at all reminded me of the weHHere the state of general educated men and women of Europe. However. fountain and fresh shade. Monuments of art and of science meet us at every step here. Of the Portuguese society here 1 know so very little.BAHIA. although they are adopted. feeling themselves so much above their fellow-citizens. a want of interest East. to justify a splendid feast they meet every evening either at thé play. that it would be presumptuous to give an opinion of it. and politeness. tuberose. and water channets. and sometimes a little vain. and all those grave thoughts did not prevent us from delighting in the fair prospect of HiM and valley. their discourses are sometimes disgusting. not native children ofthe soil. and the portion of book-learning is small. that is most sensibly felt. nature herself. every thing. we can only go back to the naked savage who devoured his prisoner. ever to be in harmony with the scene. wisdom. education is so low. either for fruit or beauty. Of those who read on political subjects. Roça is beautiful. 1 have met with two or three well-informed men of the world. At most. or in private houses. and there were seats. and in the last case u 2 . most are disciples of Voltaire.

whose thoughts are expect. 1 dare say there are many who could have told me these things. stewed caravansas and this is likewise the principal food of the lower classes even of the In the fruit season. for the flesh. and equally sure that 1 asked information of ail 1 met with. society Good eating and is at a low. and they are roofed with round red tiles. with a room or two above by way of a look-out house. 1 believe. and fowl are good fruits and vegetables various and excellent. eat a sort of porridge of mandioc meal with small squares of jerked beef stirred into it. They are all where the noor is not laid with wood. or. Their slaves. not one could tell meeven the situation of the fine red clay. six to nine inches square. hospitable and sociable among each other. Salvador's. The English society is just such as one may A few merchants. however. and bread of the finest. and covered and lined either with cocoa-leaf mats. and three in thickness. engrossed by sugars and cottons. But a woman is not.148 JOURNAL. and some of the men gamble as much as thé Portuguese. as their greatest luxury. pôttery. not of the first order. . but 1 am sure none did tell me. for the English are all served by slaves. is used. quarried on the beach of Victoria. of thé* plants around his own door. with branches of trees wattled between. and of ail N of one knew the name matters of general science or information. free inhabitants. a fine red. white-washed brick. are. Upon the whole. pumpkins. The houses aregenerally of one story high. 1 was completely out of patience with these 1 was perhaps unjust to my countrymen incurions money-makers. nearly take place are formed of upright poles. fish.jackfruit. to the utter exclusion of all public matters that do not bear directly on their private trade. or of brick. good drinking they contnve to have. gamble very deeply. They often dine together the ladies love music and dancing.here is made: in short. cocoa-nut. stone. indeed. very low scale here among thé English. of the mandioc. not one is acquainted with thé country ten miles beyond St. considered as privileged The English to know any thing by these commercial personages. The huts of the poor and melons. of which the only manufacture. or clay the roofs Thé better houses are built either of a fine blue are also thatched.

The first provisional junta bas lost several of its members. that instead of redressing the evils they before endured. that the ship should return to her station opposite to the town. and into which thé river or creek of Nazareth. so that the city is ill Such supplied. Thé party opposing this junta talk loudly of independence. Early this morning. seem to be about to come. and shall endeavour to land on the Ilha do Medo. 2d November. the junta has increased them by several arbitrary acts and assert that one of the members who has a gréât grazing estate. and that therefore it was advisable. We also wish to examine the harbour within the Amil or passage between the two islands. Saturday. has procured a monopoly. two of them being gone as delegates to Lisbon. 3~~vb~0ur plan ofproceeding farther up the harbour is suspended for the present. we learned that troops were assemfrom all quarters. and it is intended to take her up still higher. . They also complain bitterly. the frigate has been moved up thé harbour as far as Bom Fim.BAHIA. yielded to the temptations of some worthless persons in the town. Portuguese to a crisis. by which no man can supply the market with beef without his permission. and others being absent on account of ill health or disgust. 1 am glad of the opportunity of seeing more of this beautiful bay. 149 Under thé house is generally a sort of cellar. where the first adventurers from Europe underwent hardship that appear hardly credible in our modern days. Several of our people having ~W~. who induce sailors to desert in order that they themselves may profit by the premium given for the discovery of deserters. and having consequently swam on shore. which supplies Bahia with great part of the mandioc fiour consumed therc. and wish at least one-half of thé members of the provisional government to be native Brazilians. or the point of Itaparica. for thé bling protection of the British property and the persons of the merchants. m which the slaves live and reallyl have sometimes wondered that human beings could exist in such.runs. The disputes between the European and the Brazilians in the city.

not permitted to have any communication with their families others. a Brazilian. her sister. it Notwithstanding appears most likely that the chiefs of the opposite parties will agree to await the decision of the cortes at Lisbon. for the purSome of these përsons are pose of transporting them to Lisbon. Sunday. but they naturally prefer staying to the last with their fathers and husbands. though born in Portugal. however. On looking out at daylight this morning. however. bas ail his property and connections in Mr. The extreme inconvenience of having thé supreme courts of justice so far distant as Lisbon must be more and more The defelt as the country Increases in population and riches. the means to conciliate. and it There bas already been some skirappears now to be at its height. and Captain Graham bas agreed upon certain signais with the consul. and at least a temporary peace will succeed to this little disturbance. hâve the town and the palace. November 4th. next to impossible that things should remain as they are. . two of my acquaintance. Colonel Salvador and Mr. mishing. I went on shore to see if Miss Penneii. or any of our other friends would come on board. thé governor. These are not more favoured. are allowed to carry them with them. some on board the Don Pedro. puties to the cortes are too far removed from their constituents to be guided in their deliberations or votes by them and the establishColonel Salvador. in case of increased danger to his family.150 JOURNAL. England. and the wreck of the junta. we saw artillery planted. with respect to their grievances. thé warlike movements of these last two days. The governor. had been long in BrazM he served with credit in the peninsula. and have put them. We have sent on shore to offer shelter to the ladies. The Brazilian artillery occupies Fort San Pedro. 1 hear there have been only three men killèd. some on board transports in the bay. Soares. It appears. indeed. bas arrested severaI. 1 think seventeen persons. a ground of complaint will always excite popular indignation. in an arbitrary manner among these. in which. Soares. and troops drawn up on the platform opposite to the opera house.

if not of civil war. 6th March do. Of others. with a bare chance of surviving their confinement. when the ships are chased. 29th June from Molendo. from resisting these things. and 1 find in the list of ships entered during three months of this year. headed up in casks and thrown overboard.BAHÏA. The other day 1 took up some old Bahia newspapers. . But where the trade is once admitted. thus accidentalîy. armed as they are. numbers of the Idade d'Ouro. must be a cause of internai disorder. 151 ment of so many juntas of government. Alive.. each only accountable to the cortes. which has forced both jMoMe~ 5~. Dead. 30th May do. and to desist for the present from all farther hostility. that prevents the Brazilians. The governor. She belongs to the African station. 26thJune 31g 378 293 357 233 1574 180 61 10 102 21 1 374 So that of the cargoes of these nve ships reckoned. 25th March. continues his arIt is curious how ancient authority awes men bitrary arrestations. with do. stowed in boxes when a ship was searched. and came to Brazil about soma prize business connected with the slave trade. Captain Finlaison teHs me tales that make my blood run cold. of horrors committed in the French slave ships especially. A day of heavy tropical rain. no wonder thé heart becomes callous to the individual sufferings of thé slaves. for surely it is the accustomed obedience to the name of the king. and the dread of the name of rébellion. 1 1 1 1 1 slave ship from Moyanbique. Of young negresses. more than one in five had died on the passage It seems the English ships of war on the African coast are ~Howed to hire free blacks to make up their complements when deficient. parties on shore to house their guns. however. do. 7~~da~bpea!&~6~Thé Morgiana. at no distant time. came in from Rio de Janeiro. Captain Finlaison.

Apparendy it had not been premeditated. for six.so that Colonel Macgregor There Thé negroes of the Cru nation come to Sierra Leone irom a great distance. . for the parties were fighting with sticks and stones. who with her husband. it is said. carrying. for at least twice that time. The combatants would not allôw any offiçer inPortuguese regimentals to pass. They are paid and victual1ed like our own seamen. the heaviest showers 1 remember to have seen. and in going to and nevertheiess from the ship. ~!yc?M& 9.–Wewent y~~o~. and drink an immoderate quantity of wine for thé honour of their country. to eat a very good dinner. They are understood to have spoken in favour of the independence of Brazil. some of Tuesday. that occurredclose to their house. that thé governor anperspnssu~pejctedofjavouringindependence. just as they were setting off. continues to arrest shore. me in visits on Shejoined Colonel Macgregor. sometimes for a year or two. for ten days past. twenty-eight gentlemen. who have been taken up without any ostensible reason. if she attempted tô get under weigh with the state prisoners on board. and sailed early this morning. à lively intelligent Spaniard. they receive regular discharges and certificates. The Brazilians' who occupy the forts of San Pedro and Santa Maria. and then return to work. Macgregor. had threafened to nre on thé Don Pedro. on board' Morgiana to calt on ~Vbf~M&~S. and hire themselves out for any kind of labour. We have had. Several of our officers went on shore to dine with the gentlemen of the English club. When their engagements on board men of war are fulfilled. owing to a skirmish between thePortuguese andBrazilians. Nevertheless during the night she bent her sails.152 JOURNAL. They have then earned enough to go home and hve like idle gentlemen. where thé j~nly news is. are several now onboard the Morgiana. and they are found most useful hands. eight. is apassenger. two of whom are petty officers. who meet once a month. Macgregor they were a Iittle late. as well as swords and fire-arms. or ten months. among thé rest Colonel and Mrs. Mrs. November 13. we have generally been wet through some of our friends ventured on board to-day to dine with us.

Graham taken suddenly and alarmingly ill. Yesterday 1 was so unweU as to put on a blister for cough and pain in my side. he fancied the rest were going to seize him. Our corporal. the ship's company has been remarkably healthy. waiting for one of his companions who was within.BAHIA. and the murderer seeing him there. and rushed furiously out of the The young man who was killed was standing at the outer room. to be in a sad disorderly state: besides our two however. ]6~Captain Towards evening he became bet~er. that Captain Finlaison is so hated here. and the death of the unfortunate man is attributed to that cause but ~t The town. It is said. 153 was obliged to go back and change his dress before he could corne. who was passing by. He had been drinking in the inner room of a venda with some sailors. on shore. and of course attempted to seize him. and to apply through the British consul to thé police x . saw the deed. and three Brazilian soldiers and their corporal were found murdered last night. and therefore stabbed him to the heart. when he drew his knife to intimidate them. that none of his people are safe. Captain Grâham had sent one of his officers to act for him on thé occasion. and was able to attend to a most painful business. 1 know not with what truth. and the corporal of marines belonging to the ship severely It appears that neither of these men had so wounded. imagined he also wisbed to stop him. 16~ Several of our young people and 1 myself hâve begun to feel the bad effects of exposing ourselves too much to the sun and the raîn. and several of the others have slight degrees of fever. Last night a man belonging to the Morgiana was killed. much as seen the murderer before. a Brazilian officer was dangerously wounded in the dark. on account of his activity against the slave trade. Ail this appears to proceed more from a want of police than any other cause. appears men. door. and in thé attempt received a severe wound. and having quarrelled with one of them. appears to have been the result of a drunken quarrel. But generally speaking. Friday.

and the greatest sorrow was expressed by the junta for the accident. on his honour. Yesterday the ship's pinnace. my cousin Glennie. producing a painful sensitiveness to the slightest incident. the merchant ships them on board a Portuguese East Indiaman. Those used in Brazil all corne from the East Indies is enormous. or a girandole. when manufactured goods are unsaleable here. also assured Mr. the active military police. whose feast is on the 8th of December. Cachoeira. too handsome for Brazilian purchasers. commanding the Doris. The annual expense bf rockets. about nfty miles from Bahia. November 18~. though they had some very bad weather however. and gets in return nreworks. is a good town. which never fail to pay well. Thé magistrate assured him that he had laid his communication before thé provisional government.154 JOURNAL. But the three Sundays previous to it the church and convent are adorned. and the shipping in the harbour nre saiooes at sunrise. the lieutenant of Madera. But it was not done while we remained in Brazil. and at sunset. 1 have seen a set of cut-glass sent to Calcutta for the purpose. Perreira. The political state of Bahia shortly afterwards would scarcely leave leisure for such a matter. stating the circumstance and also that the prisoner was taken. . where Mr. They had gone to examine the river of Cachoeira. which 1 insisted on their taking. and China. sibly worse The disorders of this climate are sadly enfeebling. and came back highly delighted with their trip. ever since sunrise. Francisco Jose Perreira. Our invalids have been sadly disturbed by the rockets which have been fired. at noon. for redress. cloaks. sermons are preached. that the assassin should be brought to trial. and young Grey. with tarpaulines. they attack both mind and body. from the church of our Lady of Conception~. since he exerted himself to attend to this painful business. and it is probable not at all. One of the two parishes of the lower town. contributions are made. they managed so well as to have returned in good health. rockets are nred. which had been absent five days with the master. and that the punishment directed by law should be Colonel inflicted. Pennell accordingly wrote to Mr. He himself is senmagistrate. and other nreworks. returned. Sometimes. and a blanket or two.

t contained i 1088hearths x 2 . chiefly cotton and tobacco. The river is not navimore than two miles above thé town it there narrows and begable comes interrupted by rocks and rapids. Its parish church is dedicated to our Lady of the Rosary. The streets are well paved. at the command of their keeper. Pocr wretches couid they foresee the slave-market. But that blindness to the future kindly given. and were evëry where received with great hospitality. they are singing one of their country songs. and there is a wooden bridge across it. but agreeable. It has two convents. aud thé separations jf friends and relations that will take place there. 155 there is one English merchant résident. for it is thé place where thé produce. It is now in the museum of Lisbon. there is an insulated conical hill. an hospital. a slave ship discharging her cargo. Our exploring party landed on several of the islands. They have left thé ship. on which there are very extensive sugar-works. exceptingmysel~ are better. About five miles from Cachoeira. and tiled the country is nat. and so. 1 am sure to see something This very moment. four chapels. their singing would be a wailing cry. by the river Paraguazu. stone bridges over the small rivers Pitanga and Caquende. weighing upwards of fifty-two arobas. It is populous~ and busy. and delighted with the beauty and fertility of the country. and the labour of the mines. with another blister on. Near this place a piece of native copper was found. and three. is collected. 1 can do little but write. 22~At length all the invalids. and the sugar-works. of a very considerable district. and the houses built of stone. and they see they will be on the dry land. a fountain. in a strange land. in order to be shipped for Bahia. and thé slaves are singing as they go ashore. but. There are wharfs on both sides of the river. on their way up the river. called that of Conception. and the mardi up the country. whence there often proceed noises like explosions. These noises are considered in this country as indicative of thé existence of metals." allows them a few hours of sad In 1804.BAHIA. It is divided intô two unequal parts. there is disagreeable. or look from the cabin windows and when 1 do look.

begets a similarity of habits. in a distant country. Within the last year. nephew to the admirai of that name who was at Trafalgar. To-day the Antigone French frigate. in spite of all treaties to the contrary but the system of false papers is so cunningly and generally carried on. 1 am happy to say. and like each other more than any other two nations and yet they seem like two great heads of parties. is well satisfied. as if there were no cause of opposition but theirs. however. commanded by Captain Villeneuve. than any 1 have ever seen. . Yet. porters. Others may account for the fact. and must bring in a certain sum each night and these are the boatmen. and ideas so 1 suppose we have grown alike by fighting. 24~. manners. Many Brazilian Portuguese have no occupation whatever they lay out a sum of money in slaves which slaves are ordered out every day. and the other nations take the French and English sides. chairmen. stronger race. if one cargo in three arrives safe and eight or nine successful voyages make a fortune. This is the principal slave port in Brazil and the enjoyment. and who thus support their masters.156 JOURNAL. Whenever France and England are not at war. and are all the more likely to fight again. render it a matter of hazard to detain them. whence she will return to thé coast of Africa. One of the provisional junta of government is the greatest slave merchant here. negroes appear to me to be of a finer. came in. and it is well known that many of them will slave to the northward of the Une. Fréquent intercourse of any kind. that detection is far from easy and the difficulties that lie in the way of condemning any slave ship. 1 am satisfied that it is so and that whenever we meet a Frenchman in time of peace. it is something akin to the pleasure of seeing a countryman and it is particularly the case with French naval men. the French and English certainly seek each other. Yesterday the Morgiana sailed for Pernambuco. An owner. and weavers of mats and hats that are to be hired in thé streets and markets. seventy-six ships have sailed from this port for the coast of Africa. the Bahia press has lately actually printed a pamphlet against the slave trade. even that of war.

Those who had been at Cachoeira chose that it should be in that direction while such as had been confined to the neighbourhood of the city pitched on different sitios. we amused ourselves with conjecturing the possible situation ofRobinsonCrusoe's plantation in the bay of A!I Saints. attention but health is so indifferent. especially Portuguese. 1 have taken leave quite safe. that placards are stuck up about thé city threatening all Europeans. shall be massacred. of many hospitable persons who have shown us much. because reports. indicate something of the spirit of the times.BAHIA. we sailed out ofthebay. 1 should not bave gone ashore again however. and we are in the act of getting under weigh. December 8~This place is now so quiet that the merchants feel and therefore we are leaving Bahia. 1 listen to these things. who do not leave the place before the 24th ofDecember. 15'7 There is a report. but 1 believe not well founded. it is all done. all or any of which might have answered the purpose. that one is not aware of the poetical cast 9~As . excepting in the Pilgrim's Progress. The language is so homely. even when &Ise. that but for the sake of that my civility which 1 felt due to them. There is a charm in Defbe's works that one hardiy nnds.

. and measuring the distances of thé planets. and the embodied visions of Michael Angelo because they have their basis and their home in the heart. which. and understanding of man. are directed. There is a deep With a little attention. in a very delicate state ofhealth. most profitable fishery might be established here. But we are once more upon the océan. true in the right sense ofthe word truth? True as thé lofty créations of Milton.. and our young people are again observing the stars. and lay-to all night. of the thoughts and both together form such a reality. we found soundings. are the wanderings of Christiana and Mercy. at the distance of three leagues. a passage between them and the mainland. by W. and actions. that the parable and the romance alike remain fixed on thé mind like truth. Then. And what is truth? Surely not the mère outward acts ofv~gar life but rather the moral and intellectual perceptions by whieh our judgment. that we might ascertain the exact position of those dangerous shoals. The banks extend very far out to thé eastward. and motives. appeared like one long rugged island to the westward. and soul. and the sufferings of the shipwrecked mariner. W. and two smaller very low to the east. bearing N.158 JOURNAL. which indicated the neigh12~Yesterdav bourhood of the Abrolhos. 1 grieve that one of the most promising of them is now an inmate in my cabin.

whom he betrayed. That island. green banks. called Villegagnon. which surpasses each in its different way. the Hon. however. and with whom 1 had spent many happy hours in early life. and became an easy conquest to Mem de Sa. December 15~ 1821. each of which 1 thought perfect in their beauty. The pleasure such meetings give is ofthe purest and wholesomest nature. and higher up the harbour. about two miles from the entrance of the harbour. and Trincomalee.-combine to render Rio de Janeiro the most enchanting scene that imagination can conceive. Capt. by his means.-I had the pleasure of seeing on board Mr. the pleasure of receiving a kind letter from him. however small. formed the settlement. It quiets the passions by its own tranquillity and. Naples. under the patronage of Coligny. he began to persecute them also the colony iëll into decay. which soon became so rainy. rocks of clustered coiumns. the Portuguese captain-general of Brazil. and he had left me a copy of the great Spanish dictionary. admirai had intended it as a refuge for the persecuted Huguaot~ but when V illegagnon had. 16th. bright flowery islands. 1~9 TKo Janeiro. p. thé Firth of Forth. all must yield to this. We moved from this station to one more commodious nearer the town. May. .RIO DE JANEIRO. that 1 gave up aIl hopes of getting ashore. Nothing that 1 hâve ever seen is comparable in beauty to this bay. 1 was really disappointed to find that my excellent friend. was the site of the first colony founded by the Frenchman VilleThe gagnon. 1 had. makes us almost forget those harsher emotions which See Introduction. who has long been a resident in Brazil. Lony mountains. We anchored first close to a small island. in recalling all the innocent and amiable feelings of youth. towards the afternoon. Nobody that has always lived at home. Sunday. ail mixed with white buildings each little eminence crowned with its church or fort ships at anchor or in motion and innumerable boats flitting about in such a delicious climate. had left the station with his frigate before we arrived. S. Bombay harbour. W. Saturday. luxuriant wood. 15. can tell the value of a kindness like this in a foreign land.

Cunningham. The wheaten bread used in Rio is chieny made of American flour. prawns. Paul's. and in the southern provinces. and the operation of interest. particularly the acting consul-general. near the town that from a distance has the advantage of sugar cane. produce wheat but in the high lands of St. and no person may even kill an animal for his own use withcut permission paid for from that person consequently. but it is extremely good oysters. moderate exercise. called the procured Catete. -Dec€Mt&e?' 18~. and the Minas Geraes. To this house 1 have brought my poor suffering midshipman. a good deal is cultivated. he supplies the market as he pleases. as we take bread with This was no longer the case at my second visit Lu Rio. 1 a comfortable house in one of the suburbs of Rio. will restore him.–By the assistance of some friends ashore. but the usual mode of eating it is dry when at the tables of thé rich. that it can hardly he used even for soup meat.* The beef is so bad. We have been visited by several persons. and a milk diet. The great article of food here is the mandioc meal. exceedingly good. who aU appear hospitable and kind. and his lady. or farinha. nor those to the north. considering the abundance that there is on the whole coast. as there is no competition. Fish is not so plentiful as it ought to be. intercourse with the world. and with great success. we have. . from the name of a little river which runs through it into the sea. '7<A. and every thing eatable was much improved. Col. Langford and trust that free air. but very bad there is a monopolist butcher. or sunëring have raised. passion. generally speaking. but not cheap fruit is very good and cheap butcher's meat cheap. it is made into thin broad cakes as a delicacy. and crabs are as good as in any part of the world. and is. Neither the captaincy of Rio. ~MoK~cty. We find vegetables and poultry very good. three days out of four and that supplied to the ships is at least as bad mutton is scarce and bad pork very good and fine it is fed principally on mandioc and maize. 1 have begun house-keeping on shore.160 JOURNAL. it is used with every dish of which they eat.

the feijoam or dry kidneybean. though the greater number are black. and a full-plaited mantle tied over one shoulder. Thé quantity for each horse per day costs about eightpence. like the Hindoos and some wear an ugly European frock. hedges of acacia and mimosa fence the gardens of plantains. being much hardier. and no meal is complète without it: next to màndioc. and pimento. with a full petticoat. Mules are generally used for carriages. and 1 have borrowed one for mysetf These animais are rather pretty at Rio.-I walked by the side of Langford's horse up one of the little valleys at the foot of the Corcorado it is called the Laran)eiros. Y . from the most delicate preserves and candies to the coarsest preparations of treacle. is a favourite dress. are swallowed wholesale. bread. Round the washerwoman's plain. but most frequently stewed with a small bit of pork. ît bas every fbrm–porridge.RIO DE JANEIRO. garlic. and passed under the opposite arm. sweetmeats of every description. salt. and his maize necessary as much more. a little green plain stretches itself on either hand. dressed in every possible way. with a most ungraceful sort of bib tied before them. brose. Some wrap a long cloth round them. and affords a tempting spot to groups of washerwomen of all hues. through which the rivulet runs over its stony bed. . from the numerous orange trees which grow on each side of the little stream that beautifies and fertilises it. or Guinea grass. and they add not a little to the picturesque effect of thé scène they generally wear a red or white handkerchief round the head. We have hired a horse for our invalid. and more capable of bearing the summer heat. and the flower is a large loose pannicle. 161 thé poor.DcceM&e~ 19th. and thrives prodigiousiy it is cultivated by planting the joints the stem and leaves are as large as those of barley it grows sometimes to the height of six or seven feet. from thé noble to the slave. but far from strong they are fed on maize and capim. The common horses here seil for from twenty to one hundred dollars the fine Buenos Ayres horses fetch a much higher priée. which was introduced of late years into Brazil. is the favourite food and for dainties. Just at the entrance to that valley.

these gardens there are occasionally fountains and seats under the trees. one of thé commissioners of Friday. we set off soon after day-light . between straight alleys of limes. of Europe there is generally a court. banana. bread-fruit (now nearly naturalised here. till the whole is one thicket of beauty and invalid or myself enjoyed fragrance. and these particularly rich in splendid creeping flowers and shrubs are mingled with the orange and lemon blossoms. The flowers ~ower-plots. Sometimes the garden is immediately close to the house. or the habitations of the slaves they have all a gateway. In town. and 1 should think all sickness must disappear. large and handsome. Hayne. having proposed a party and to see the botanic gardens. filled with In aloes and tuberoses. forming places of no undelightful rest in this hot climate. ther large nor magnificent and hâve often a handsome flight of steps up to the dwelling-house of the master. but they assimilate well with thé of the parterres of Europe grow by the side of the gayer plants and shrubs of the country. shaded by the orange. 1 scarcely know whether my the morning most. on one side of which is the dwelling-house. and in the suburbs this is generally the case. A few more such.) and the palms. Mr. Thèse gardens are rather like oriental climate. and here and there a statue intermixed. December 20~. and the jasmine and rose from the East. December 21~. and the others are formed by the offices and garden. whatevér the house may be and that gateway generally leads to at Brazil is least one walk where every kind of flower is cultivated. and other fruits which surround every villa and beyond these. and his sister. very few houses have the luxury of a garden at ail. over whosc heads the African melia waves its lilac blossoms and on the raised water channels.162 JOURNAL. beneath which are either store-houses. the coffee plantations extend far up thé mountain. whose picturesque head closes thé scène. thé slave trade commission. china vases are placed. Spent in paying and receiving visits in the neighThe houses are built a good deal like those of the south bourhood. Thé countryhouses here are neibut they are decorated with verandas. oranges.


and clove. a villa or twô on the sloping banks by the fr uit gardens. grow as well as in their native soil. we drove through a beautiful lane to the Lake of Rodrigo de Freitas: it is nearlycircular. and about five miles in it is surrounded by mountains and forests. I particularly remarked the jumbo malacca. but that the leaves though firm are not fragrant. n'om China.RIO DE JANEIRO. except circumference where a short sandy bar affords an occasional outlet to the sea. of that of the sycamore. and its beauty is increased by the numerous and pretty countryhouses which now surround it. when the lake rises so high as to threaten inconvenience to the surroundIt is impossible to conceive any thing richer than ing plantations. Beyond thé bay. Nothing can be more thriving than the whole of the plants. but as the weather is now hot. This garden was destined by the King for the cultivation of thé oriental spices and n'uits. it might be. and larger than the walnut. now naturalised here. camphor. We were to breakfast at the gardens. from India. brought from Bencoolen originally. These have ail grown up since the arrivai of the court from Lisbon before that time. and àbove aJI. Thé nut is as good as the filbert. They are laid out in convenient squares. the alleys being planted on either side with a very quick-growing nut tree. The cinnamon. nutmeg. with. which he obtained. and thé longona (~Mp~o~a ~OM~OMa). 163 drove to their house on the bay of Boto Fogo. rich as it is in natural beauty. together with several families accustomed to its culture. The timber also is useful. and not unlike the shape. and vields abundance of oil the leaf is about the size. and its height and beauty distinguish it from all others. The bread-û-uit produces its fruit in perfection. The quick growth of this tree is unexampled among timber trees. The hedges between thé compartments are of a shrub which 1 should hâve taken &)r myrt~e. of the tea plant. this lovely spot was .a dark kind of Y2 . the végétation down to the very water's edge around thé Iake. we resolved first to walk round them.only inhabited*by a few fishermen and gipsies. and such of the oriental fruits as have been brought here ripen as well as in India. perhaps the most beautiful spot in the neighbourhood of Rio.

164 JOURNAL. the mother church this or N. da Cabe~a is . when they visited the gardens. built a small house there. and christenings. with three or four rooms. kitchen. and the licences granted for mai-nages. The stream that waters thé garden nows through a loveiy valley. to accommodate the royal party. After waiting with our agreeable and well-informed friends till the sea-breeze set in. when the political state of the country shall be quiet enough to permit attention to these things. Our breakfast was prewe had a charming pared in the veranda of that house. On a little eminence in the midst of these stands the chapel of Our Lady. S. the indigenous plants. The owners of estates have generally burials. His Majesty John VI. with three little islands that lie off the Iake and in the foreground a small chapel* and village. at the extremity of a little smooth green plain. but being feartul of too where the royal powder-mills are situated much exertion for Langford we put off visiting them to another day. and retumed to the garden gate to breakfast. which is the parish church of a large district. we returned part of the way along the Iake. and our pic-nic was spread in the ample veranda of his parsonage. and pantry. the ocean. Hait a dozen small cottages in the field behind contain thé heaithy-looking negroes who are employed in his coffee-grounds. Thé Padre Manoel Gomez received us very kindly. where daily mass is performed for the benefit 1 am not sure whether Dedicated to St. However. and then ascended to the parsonage of Nossa Senhora da Cabeça. so much bas been done sa to give reasonable hopes of farther improvement. with the mountains and woods. where we were joined by several other persons who had corne to dine there with us. John Baptist. and a swarm of children of every shade. from whence view of the iaiœ. 1 was disappointed to find no collection of lechee from China. between black and white. the same clergyman officiates in both. It is exceedingly small but serves as the place where the st~rameuts are administered. of private chapels. Behind the veranda three small rooms served for sieeping-room.

But here vegetation is so luxuriant. that even thé pruned anJ grafted tree springs up like the native of the forest. and forming. which inerease the simple luxuries of the Padre's table. the oldest inhabitants of Brazil praised most what came from afar while ~c all gave the preference to the productions of the country. compared with the small quantity ofapples and peaches. lemons. and delicate. As is usual on such occasions. Nor is it without its inhabitants. amidtite storm Evanishing . in a thousand little cascades.– You seize the flower. and other tall shrubs.RIO DE JANEIRO. thé bloom is shed Or like the snew-faUs in thé river. that they form in appearance rather a variety in the woods. then lost for ever. we all felt sorry when it was time to separate but Burns has made ail the reflections one can make on breaking up a pleasant party Pteasuresaretikepopp!esspread. light. As every body WM determined to be pleascd. He tells me the crawnsh in his stream are better than the any in the neighbourhood water itself is pure. where we exp&ct to see thé labour of man encroachinf in some degree on the wild beauties of nature. so blended were the productions of every climate that we could scarcely have pronounced in what part of the world we were. and we returned to the veranda to dîne. Or like thé rambow's fleeting form. reminded us of it. had not the profusion of ananas and plantains. leaping from rock to rock. A moment white. About a stone's throw behind the chapel. which might be looked for so near a large city. than that mixture of cultiv ated with wild ground. delightful baths. here and there. At length all our friends had assembled. 165 their own people so that the parish church is only applied to on the above-mentioned occasions. 1 was soon drawn away from the table by thé beauty of the prospect. To judge by the materials of the feast. Thé coffee plantations are the only cultivated grounds hereabouts. a clear rivulet runs rapidly down the mountain. which 1 endeavoured to sketch. and they are so thickly set with orange trees.

and 1 my Rio caleche or sege. by his tales. and shows his wounds. and Fruit and flowers attracted most of us carried home something. No man can tether time or tide The hour approaches. and Miss Hayne their pretty commodious but ugly curricle. The midshipmen have made friends with some of them. and shouts his wild song. and sold. His tribe. it seems. Since the jaunt to the botanical gardens. The Portuguese and Brazilian ladies are decidedly superior in appearance to those of Bahia they ïqok of higher caste perhaps thé residence of the court for so many years has polished them. Cunningham their comfortable English chariot. was at war with a neighbouring king. Mr. very heavy. 1 have been for an hour to-night at a very a respectable English different scene. This is probably the story of many but our friend tous it with action and emphasis. and look at the beautiful views of the neighbourhood. his dances. and he went out to fight when quite a boy. . and a magnificent butterfly. some of our invalids have been gaining ground others who were well have become invalids. but well enough adapted to the rough roads between the garden and the town.166 JOURNAL Or like the borealis race. and after he bas sold his master's fruit. That flit ere you can point their place. was taken prisoner." And so we did. must ride. One of them bas become quite a friend in the house. and his songs. are certainly the negroes. and 1 have done nothing but ride about or talk with them. and get of whom the most a little better acquainted with the inhabitants amusing. and 1 a most inadequate sketch of the scene from the Padre's house. and each took his or her several conveyance. Langford got a number of diamond beetles. B merchant. so far as 1 have yet seen. Colonel and Mrs. earns a small gratuity ~br himself. and dances his war dance. till the savage slave becomes almost a sublime object. some. The gentlemen all rode. December 2"dth. who carry about thé fruit and vegetables for sale. We walked down to the foot of the hill. a bail given by Mr.-a carriage.

We then came to the hill called the Gloria. and by animais drinking. after passing the beach of the Gloria. by the Conde de Lavradio).l. da Gloria. and the spaces between are filled with shops. and small houses inhabited by the families of the shopkeepers in town. S. in their rank of life. benches are placed. on which there are constantly seated new negroes for sale. and entered the new part of that town through the arches of thé great This supplies aqueduct built in 1*7]8 by thé viceroy Albuquerque. would require Miss Austin's pen to make them interesting. and wooded and studded with countryhouses. The fountain of the Marecas is opposite to the public gardens. besides the spouts for water for the inhabitants.RIO DE JANEIRO. what can 1 say ? They are very like all one sees at home. However. on the eminence immediately overlooking the sea. to me they are goodhumoured. The third is a very handsome one. and the ladies. 1822. we turned to the left. in the palace square . The hill is green. near thé convent of Sant Antonio it has twelve mouths. our road lay through the suburb of the Catete for about haïf a mile. just where a most copious stream issues from an aqueduct (built. and therefore pleasing. hospitable. fountain . and brings health and refreshment to this part of the town from the neighbouring mountains.–1 went to town for the first time. from thé name ofthe church dedicated to N. Farther on. as they appear to make no pretensions to any thing but what they are. with their water-barrels. 1 think. Just beyond are troughs of granité. M)M~. and near thé new barracks and. 167 1 cannot say the men partake of thé advantage but 1 cannot yet speak Portuguese well enough to dare to pronounce what either men or women really are. there aretwo troughs always full for the anunals. where a crowd of washerwomen are constantly employed and over against these. four copious fountains. It is nearly insulated and the road passes Jhetween it and another still higlier. inhabitants of Rio is 1 "o thé from this Carioca. very good persons doubtless. As to the English. Some handsome houses are situated on either hand. The largest is the Carioca*. 31~ Dec.Thé nickname of"11. and is most picturesque in itself it is c<~(StantIy surrounded by slaves.

This part of the palace occupies one side of a handsome square the palace itself fills up another. the public are admitted to study from nine till one o'clock in the forenoon. Adjoining to this chapel is the church and convent of the Car melites. dom been more gratified with the music of the evening service. 1 did. the only one 1 saw to-day.168 JOURNAL. and the fourth. The public buildings at Even the churches Rio have nothing very remarkable about them. a third has private houses. which forms part of the palace. which is a prettier thing than church-yards usually are. and have selthat would not disgrace Italy. the blocks of which are bolted with copper. which is connected with the palace. The first the church dedicated to and eldest parish is that of St. and the cemetery of the Carmelite church. and by it a young cypress tree ai! around there are flowers. besides the fish-market the sea. present no architectural beauty. Sebastian whom is the royal chapel. and is supported on two ranges of arches across the valley between two of the five hills of the city. not see. supplied from the aqueduct of Albuquerque and altogether the appearance of the palace square is exWe went thence into a street behind it.where OurLady is covering with her c!oak the Queen Dona Maria. There are seven parish churches. and owe the good effect they have in the general view to their size and situation. and within which is the royal library of 70. except holidays. and sweet herbs. on their arrivai in Brazil. richly gilt. The aqueduct is of brick. built unifbrmiy and the fourth is open to with the palace. and saw tremely handsome.000 volumes. In the centre of a small quadrangle there is a cross. It is handsome within. The water-edge is faced with a handsome granite pier and In the centre of steps. and numerous chapels dependent on each.1tar-piece. and from four o'clock till sunset. but 1 cannot praise that of the a. containing roses and . and porcelain vases. whose passion and talent for music are hereditary. called the Mouro. where on all days. thé pier there is a fountain. the front of the senate-house. and the pictures on the ceiling are far from contemptible. This the chapel owes to the residence of the royal family. The choir is served in a manner 1 attended at vespers. and all the royal family.


each being numbered. There are two very handsome squares. places for the dead. the up on two sides. the remains are collected in urns or othcr réceptacles. being wider than that pf the Corso at Rome. and. if the dead has a friend who for others. besides that of the palace. few jecting roofs. who are walled up there with quick-lime at a certain period. and could not even persuade myself to look at the new fountain which is supplied by a new aqueduct. to which one or two bear a resemblance in their general air. The city of Rio is more like an European city than either Bahia or the houses are three or four stories high. to which the theatre. nearly a league. 169 aloes placed on little pedestals and on a broad low wall that surrounds the square. and tolerably handsome. and placed in a building appropriated for them. where they must infect the air. and new and wide streets But 1was too tired with going are stretching out in every direction. or where the friend pleases otherwise they go to the common réceptacle. but unnnished. some handsome barracks and fine houses. with proPernambucr Thé streets are narrow. wholesomest way of disposing of the dead and. about in thé heat of the day to do more than take a cursory view of these things. Campo de Santa Anna. But there seems to me so little feeling in thus getting rid at once ofthe remains of that which has once been dear to us. that 1 went away in disgust.RIO DE JANEIRO. for merly the Roça. the totally by the addition of more quick-lime. give a very noble appearance. is now that of the Constituçao. wishes it. and especially on days of festivals. even to the sense. behind which the hills and mountains tower The other. 1 doubt not. One. yeiïow. is exceedingly extensive Two of the principal streets run across it. is better than the horrid burials at Bahia. and perish This is. when the windows and balconies are decorated with crimson. from the sea-side to the extremity of thé new town. the bones and ashes are removed to make room At the time of removal. 1 looked at nrst in vain for graves at length 1 observed on these low walls. or green damask hangings. and on the higher ones in the outer These are the circle. !t is t713 feet square . indications of arches.

common person. and at thé striking figure. would have called on us. Ey this time 1 perceived coming on. chairs. scanty diet. milk. There is such a demand for them. one of the Emperor Napoleon's One morning last week. saying that we were strangers. signifying that his master's servants. Count Hogendorp. that they find full employment. his servant to bring breakfast ail thé produce of his own farm and. with two of our young midshipmen. whether free blacks or slaves. with a manner that showed him to be no dentally. Thé negroes. 1 went to pay a second visit to an Tuesday. where he passes most of the day. but for his infirmities. one then the slave-trade comes in all passes the street of thé Vallongo On either hand are magazines of new its horrors before one's eyes.170 JOURNAL. and tables he then ordered we had coffee. we saw the showers . said he had heard of us and. illustrious exile. and remind one here as little as possible of their sad condition. but not too thin his grey eyes sparkle with intelligence. even in exile. and asked him if 1 had guessed rightly. He answered. unless. yes and added a few words. carried that with them which distinmen. guished them from other The Count is the wreck of a once handsome man he has not lost his martial air he is tall. and taking shelter it was Count Hogendorp. There is in thé city an air of bustle and activity quite agreeable to our European eyes yet thé Portuguese all take their siesta after dinner. and fresh butter. and which is furnished with sofas. calledherep~ces. and his pure and forcible language is still conveyed in a clear well-toned voice. to all thé miseries of a new negro's life. and there the wretched creatures are subject slaves. high on the side ofthe Corcovado. 1822. He insisted on our dismounting. we came to a pleasant-looking cotdoor we saw a very tage. as we sat. and the lash. and of course good pay. indeed. and on being told them. JaMMary Is~. look cheerful and happy at their labour. He ushered us into a spacious veranda. and had corne there acciHe instantly. as a shower was with him. though a little the worse for age. brutal examination. to whom 1 instantly apologized for intruding on his grounds. welcomed us asked our names. riding mènerais my first had been accidental.


with a capricious taste. 1 should have said unaccountable. remind one of z 2 . which leads the eye to the The General entered ~ranHy into conversation. and kept his court at Wilna. which iasted nearly an hour. he was employed by the States. he entered the French service with the rank of full colonel. spoke almost incessantly of his imperial master. in every attitude of glee. He was always a great favourite with Napoleon. successively. besides much general kindness. us across the valley. During his residence in Java. consisting of only three rooms. Early in life the Count had entered thé army. and had learned English. with the greatest economy. Holiand. shown me a letter written to him by the emperor's own hand. 1 believe. into exile but that not being allowed. and as envoy to one ofthe German courts. and. under Frederick of Prussia. had he not for him is excessive. and some maps and prints. Hogendorp was entrusted with the government of Polaud. where he public He would fain have attended thé emperor was lieutenant governor. while resting and Most of these particulars sheltered from the rain. as governor of the eastern part of Java. to whom his honesty and disinteresteàness in money matters seem to have been valuable. some assistance from the prince. where.RIO DE JANEIRO 171 passing by and under. in proportion as these The Count's aSëction qualities were scarce among his followers. are painted black. a solàier of fbrtune. during breakfast. he lives chiefly on the produce ofhis little farm. His last service was performed in the defence of Hamburgh. and on that sombre ground. learnt from himself. who has great respect for him. skeletons of the natural size. he came hither. On his return to his native country. During the disastrous expedition to Russia.the walls of which. two or three casts from antique bas reliefs. in which. besides thé véranda his study. which he spoke well. indicate the retirement ofa gentleman. and bay below. which is small indeed. on the death of his child. his bedroom. He then showed me his house. On the annexation of Holland to France. there is even a touch of tendemess 1 had not looked for. where a few books. and while the shower lasted. he had visited many of the English settlements on the main land of India.

every thing good may be hoped and then the Count told me he was engaged in writing his memoirs. and therefore bade him adieu. This evening 1 paid him another visit. his fruits and his flowers. On returning to the house. led us round his garden. and only blamed thé people. Napoléon had left him by his will five thousand pounds sterling. The General. helps out his slender income. extolled the climate. from which. written with fidelity. at least as agreeable as cherry brandy which it resembles. and paid him such attention as his statc requhed or admitted o(. as he loves to be called. . and will furnish an interesting chapter In thé 1 was sorry to see thé old gentleman suHering history of Napoléon.* Count Hogendorp died while 1 was in Chiic. with prudence. teliing me he 1 have no doubt they will be meant to publish them in England. for thé neglect and want of industry. he introduced to me his old Prussian servant. after the tashion of Java. but was afraid some alarm might be tek at home concerning us. Holbein's Dance of Death and a third room occupied by barrels of orange wine. member with particular pleasure. of which he showed me a part. which wastes half the advantages God has given them. of thé natives of the eastem islands. h:s tx~ty was found to be the English burial-ground. and had given'orders concerning his ~unerat but it was found at his dcath that he was a protestant. and jars of liqueur made of thé grumaxama. together with his coffee. and his negroes. the Emperor Don Pedro sent to lection of his old master. whom he freed on purchasing them he bas induced thé woman to wear a nose jewel. buttheold man did not live to know this proof ofthe recolAs he appro~ )ed his end. We had a good deal of conversation concerning the state of this country. which he seems to re1 was sorry to leave the count. thé produce of his farm and the sale of which. who has seen many a campaign witb him. and found him resting after dinner in his veranda. a good deal and his age and infirmities seem to threaten a speedy termination to his active life. and one of the protestant consuts therefore caused him to be properly interred in On undressing him aiter death. and displayed with even fondness.172 JOURNAL. 1 never saw thé count after thé tattooed like those IstofJanuary. him such assistance.

as it is the benefit night of a favourite musician. among thé younger ones. France. and begin his education. The evening's amusements consisted of a very stupid Portuguese comedy. and especially fbrbidden to carry any guards with him. It was opened on the 12th of market. and proceed to travel incognito through This message excited the most lively Spain. that the unseen part of the theatre is comibrtable for thé actors. dressers. indignation not only in His Royal Highness. some of our officers think it as large as thé Hay1 differ from them. The Brazilians regard this step as preUminary to removing n'om this country the courts of justice. but October. and some grace. he wasted a great deal of fine playing on some very ugly music. thé Prince Don Pedro's birth-day. To-day we left thé house on shore. 173 The only variety in my quiet life since the J<mMar?/8<~ 1822. The theatre is very handsome in size and proportion. and England. and a good deal of beauty. relieved between the acts by scenes from an opera of Rossini's by RosqueUas. whom 1 begin to understand pretty well. after which. Having settled every body comfortably. ~~Me~ay. as it should seem. 1813. but in thé Braziliaiis from one end of the kingdom to thé other. and not a little card-playing. RosqueUas. and being thus bid to go home. Thé Prince is willing to obey thé orders of his father and the cortes. but the machinery and decorations are deficient. The boxes are commodious. J~KMa~9~To-day is expected to be a day of much importance to the future fate of Brazil. with ail our invalids much better. We had some good music. whose name is known on both sides of thé Atlantic. and are again at home on board the Doris. and 1 hear. There 1 saw abundance of jewels on the heads and necks of the elderly Portuguese ladies. that he should ibrthwith repair to Europe. But 1 must go back to thé arrivai of a message from thé cortes at Lisbon. lest they might have contracted toc much attachment for his person. at the same time he cannot but feel as a man the want of decency of the message. and there was a great deal of dancing. &c.RIO DE JANEIRO. nrst. 1 went ashore to the opera. was afforded by a large and pleasant party at Miss Hayne's. intimating to the Prince their pleasure. .

when a noble indignation nred our hearts because we saw impressed on it a system of anarchy and slavery. the deputies of Portugal were bound to agreb that. that. Paul's as ~bilows Sm. as for those in Portuguese resident in that kingdom the other three parts of the world. by the 21st article of the basis of the constitution. tearing from the bosom of the great family of Brazil the only common father who remained to us. But thé second. the constitution made at Lisbon could then be obligatory on thé and. inspired us They aim at no less than disuniting us. in order to travel tKCOgK~o with horror. in the address sent to the Prince. They deceive we trust in God. before we received thf pxtracrdinary gazette of the 1 Ith instant. and soremoving causes to Lisbon.1~4 JOURNAL. after they had deprived Brazil of thé beneficent founder of the kingdcm. which we approve and swear to because it is founded on universal and public right. which have for fourteen years been held here. Your Royal Highness's august sire. legislate concerning the most sacred interest of each province. France.) from St. and If. The feelings of the people are sufficiently shown. will give us courage. and in short. weakening us. (24th of December.: How dare those deputies of Portugal. We had already written to Your Royal Highness. it should only be binding when their legitimate representatives should have declared such to be their will. by the last courier and ~e had hardly fixed our eyes on the first decree of the Cortes concerning the organization of the governments of the provinces of Brazil. leaving us like misérable orphans. Spain. without waiting tbr those of Brazil. a few days ago. by which means. a dégradation they are by no means inclined to submit to. and England. who is the avenger of injustice He themselves wisdom. and of the entire kingdom ? How dare they split it . in conformity to which Your Royal Highness is to oniy through go back to Portugal. Brazil would be again reduced to the condition of a dependent colony instead of enjoying equal rights and privileges with the mother country.

granted by Your Royal Highness's august father. the board of commerce. each insulated. the deputy of the Cortes. in which. and such is the vast and rich kingdom of Brazil dividing it into misérable fragments. the court of exchequer. were expressed and declared the conditions on which a nation might wish to constitute itself a body politic and that the end of that constitution. and so many other recent establishments. which promised such future advantage ? Where now shall the wretched people resort in behalf of their civil and "judicial interests? Must they now again. by vain words and hollow professions. is the general good of each individual. . attack the general good of the principal part of the same. Pereira do Carmo. 175 into detached portions. the board of conscience. Your Royal Highness will observe that. But the enemies of order in the Cortes of Lisbon deccive themselves if they imagine that they can thus. after being for twelve years accustomed to judgment ai hand. but deceitml expressions of reciprocal equality and 1 mture happiness In the session of the 6th of August last. and to annihilate by a stroke of the pen. and. go and suner. across two thousand leagues of ocean. if the kingdom of Ireland. attempting to tear from its bosom the representative of the executive power. delude the good sense of the worthy Portuguese of both worids. the court of requests. and wnhout leaving a common centre of strength and union ? How dare they rob Your Royal Highness of the lieutenancy. (and he spoke the truth. all the tribunals and establishments necessary to its existence and future prosperity ? This unheard-of despotism. where the sighs of the oppressed lose all life and all hope ? Who would credit it. without waiting for the conclusion of this solemn national compact.) that the constitution was the social compact. who is to enter into that social compact. was certainly not merited by the good and generous Brazil. How then dares a mere fraction of the great Portuguese nation.RIO DE JANEIRO. like petty colonists. in a word. this horrible political perjury. said. the delàys and chicanery of the tribunals of Lisbon. after so many bland. the King ? How dare they deprive Brazil of the privy council.

which makes part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain. how can it enter the head of any one who is not either proibundiy ignorant. not oniy for the sake of our general good. like raging tigers. were to obey the absurd and indecent decree of the 29th of September. but even for the sake of the future prosperity and independence of Portugal itseï~ If Your Royal Highness. besides that it Is Innniteiy smaH compared to the vast kingdom of Brazil. should remain without a centre of « activity. you would also have to answer before heaven for the rivers of blood which would assuredly inundate Brazil on account of your absence: because its inhabitants. would surely remember the supine sloth in which the ancient despotism kept them buried. and respect to delay your retum to Europe. to defend the state against any unforeseen attack of external enemies. and is separated from England but by a narrow arm of the sea. We therefore entreat Your Royal Highness with the greatest ferveur. to pretend. tutors and spies: We entreat you to connde boïdiy in the love . whatever may be thé projects of the constituent Cortes. Your Royal Highness must remain in Brazil. so as that they may operate with celerity and effect. who are honest. or against internai disorders and factions. particularly the Paulistas. yet possesses a governor-general or viceroy. or the reciprocal union of the provinces Yes. and who pride themselves on being men. by becoming the slave of a small number of factious men. that the vast kingdom of Brazil. in the world. tenderness. should ever consent to such absurdity and such despotism. which is passed in a few hours. which might threaten public safety. or rashly inconsiderate. and without a representative of the executive power and equally without a power to direct our troops. besides losing. which is not to be believed. august Sir. <' where they wish to make you travel as a pupil surrounded by. the dignity of a man and of a prince. Yes. and in which a new constitutional Machiavelism aims even now to retain them.176 JOURNAL. who represents the executive power of the King of the United Kingdom. august Sir It is impossible that the inhabitants of Brazil.

Président. with the affection and attention. Joao Ferreira de Oleveira Bueno. AA . André da Silva Gomes. Paul's. Manoel Rodrigues Jordaen. and for the magistracy of this capital. and that His Royal Highness hoped from the wisdom of the Cortes that they would take measures for thé good and prosperity of Brazil. who will as soon as possible present to Your Highness our ardent desires and firm resolutions and deign to receive them. which your Paulistas deserve from you. and especially of your Paulistas. there is a wish among The Prince answered this on the 4th of January. Secretary. by assuring the Paulistas that he had transmitted the letter to Lisbon." This letter to the Prince expresses thé sentiments of all the southern part of Brazil. Antonio Maria Quartini. and to listen to them. and to a certain degree those of the northern captaincies also. 177 and fidelity of your Brazilians. Secretary. From the Government House of St. rather than lose the adored Prince iMwhom they have placed their well-founded hopes of national happiness and honour. Antonio Leite Pereira de Gama Lobo. Francisco de Paulo e Oliveira. Martim Francisco de Andrada. Daniel Pedro Muller. and to sacrifice their fortunes. The latter are certainly as averse as the former to thé removal of the courts of justice to Lisbon. 1821. Lazaro Jose Gonçalves. Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e Sylva. May God preser ve Your Royal Highness's august person many years.RIO DE JANEIRO. Président. Let Your Royal Highness wait at least for the deputies « named by this province. V. but they would prefer a more northern city for the capital while here. Secretary. 24th Dec. John Carlos Augusto de Oeyenhausen. who are all ready to shed thé last drop of their blood. Francisco Ignacio de Souza Guimaies. Miguel José de Oliveria Pinto.

it is pendence of this country. and its neighbourhood to thé mines. Thé Brazilians are earnest in their hopes that he may stay. on the event of the day. The day as usual. feared that there will be much disturbance. Paul's. was ended at the opera. being obliged to do his duty.178 JOURNAL. handed about the theatre was the following by Bernardo Carvalho. Yesterday there was a meeting of the camara of Rio and after a short consultation the members went in procession. They were received with enthusiasm by the people. which is in the centre of the house. and obey the mandate of the Cortes. the national hymn was sung. at least until one of equal force shall arrive. accompanied by a great concourse of people. but 1 unfortunately could not get ashore however some The Prince and of the officers went. to the Prince. on account of its safety. he would remain. Princess appeared in full dress in the king's box. where the greatest proportion of the riches. and for the good of all. and an earnest entreaty that he would remain among his faithful people. which were answered by the discharge of artillery. and replied. The officers of the Lisbon troops talk loudly of his détermination. that since it appeared to be the wish of all. with a strong remonstrance against his leaving thé country. fearing that their persons and property will not be safe. and every mark of public rejoicing. The house was illuminated. 1 believe for the purpose of requesting this ship to remain. if not a civil war. Our English merchants are calling meetings. and every body looks a little anxious. and there are even some that look forward to his declaring openly for the indeWhatever his resolution may be. or at least the most applauded. His Royal Highness received them graciousiy. This declaration was received with shouts of enthusiasm. and between the acts of the play the people called on several of their favourite orators to address the Prince and people. and some of their addresses were printed and the best. industry. and population of His Royal Highness bas not yet expressed his Brazil is situated. 10~. This call was obeyed by several speakers. on any occasion of public interest. It is now oniy necessary to exhort you to UNION and TRAN- . a considerable number of persons to remove the capital to St.

To-day you assume the true attitude of free men. Be your attributes frankness and loyalty Let the conjustice. loves you. . Perhaps even Europe. The steps you are about to take. submit to reason. might produce the greatest crimes. and to overthrow the trophies you have just raised to glory and to national honour.RIO DE JANEIRO. multifbrm flattery. for ever from Brazil. To-day you burst thé bonds which threatened you with suffocation. life. and the hero of the 26th February may become the hero of the 9th January. anxiousiy and on tip-toe. hypocrisy of double face. everything. But yet ail is not done. Feltow citizens UNIONand TRANQUILLITY. Yield to the gentle exhortation of your august Prince but in return say and VïciLANCE. Portuguese Citizeus You have a Prince who speaks to you with kindness of your own work who invites you to rally with him round the who recommends to you that moral force which constitution. reposes her hope and VIGILANCE. Referring to a speech of the Prince on determining AA 2 to stay in Brazil. may place you in the temple of memory. muttering furies. The same enthusiasm. Fuml your duties. Unité yourself with a people which which offers you fortune. unworthy of the distinctions which adorn them. Sire. fixed on you. attend to viperous tongue. embraces justice and is identified with reason. and which contain the whole pliilosophy of politics. discord with her Listen to truth. without strength you cannot command TpA~ûuiLUTY. Energy to promote good. to him Sire! ENERGY The whole world has now its eyes Vigilance to prevent evil. Perhaps you may influence the. and which can alone accomplish the great work we have begun. and still endeavour to sow division. he giddiness T of party is unworthy of free men.destinies of the whole world. Intrigue and discord. perhaps even now meditate fresh plans. 179 ouiLLiTY Expressions truly sublime. Glory is not incomupon you PRINCE ENERGY patible with youth. ill directed. Without UNIONyou cannot be strong. or confound you among the number of weak princes. Prince « how sweet is it to behold the cordial expansion of the feeling of men but how distressing to witness the wlthermg in the bud free of hopes so justly founded Banish.

The truth is now. for their milk and water ténor. without one word that might not be published on every church wall. and so making him obey the Cortes and both parties are so violent. so they are like fairy fire-castles lights of thé city and villages. They talk of carry ing the P'ince by main force to Lisbon. and the scattered traced in light. 1do not trouble myseifR~w about their official reports. To-day our friends thé merchants are under fresh alarm. hopes. and we will follow your precept. ifit happens. and have made a formâl request to the captain to stay.180 JOURNAL. which 1 perceive are large sheets of paper. The language of thé Portuguese officers is most violent." &c. went off in the utmost harmony.' A priest. So shall you be the image of the divinity among us -so will you fulfil our ENERGY and VIGILANCE." although they are too much afraid of committing themselves to say why. was called on to speak was sung again and again. and in the town. . who were observed to be chiefly surrounded And everything by Brazilian officers. but which 1 consider as absurd and mischievous. With that petty spirit whichpassesfor diplomatic. Youare answerable for evil. stances make us so. that there might be some cause of fear. Nothing can be more beautiful of the kind than such an illumiThe numerous torts at the entrance to nation seen from the ship. who kiss the chains of ignominy. one of the favourites of the people. the Prince and Princess. Ruie over free hearts. circumsaying what they are afraid of. connect them by a hundred little brilliant chains.insteadof Sir. Seek not to reign over slaves. in the city.ontheisiands. which was brilliantly illuminated. if they would openly express it. were again ]oudly cheered. that they in spite of the Brazilians Composed by the Prince. &c.the deputy-consul andmerchants. as much as to say. and The national hymn repeatedly.. we are afraid. because they tend to excite distrust and alarm where no danger is. only say. and we hope you will stay till. and large seals. UNIONand TRANQUILLITY. stitution be the pole-star to direct you without it there can be no happiness for you nor for us. have each their walls theharbour.

it is said. There is a great deal of uneasiness to-day. who. that he could not corne. and they are particularly incensed that thé choice of a successor should fall on General Curado. which was close to theirs but. 1 hear the troops will not consent to his removal. 1 went ashore last night to thé opera. to thé annoyance of the Brazilians. It is said. will be called from St. however slight the share they had in them. as it was again a gala night. and were with difficulty reduced to such order as to promise tolerable tranquillity for the day Bacon. 1 had. that his remonstrance to the Prince against his remaining here has been ungentlemanlike and indécent. of hearing their national hymn. Thé Viscondeça do Rio Seco kindly invited me to her box. on which the Portuguese officers of every rank are apt to pride themselves hère. who has commanded with distinction In ail the campaigns on the southern frontier. Yesterday thé military commission for the government of the army here was broke up. and hoped to have witnessed the reception of the Prince and Princess. Essay on 2)M~MK~!OM and <S~K?</C~'07~. and minister of war. or to obey another commander. has demanded and received his discharge. . and of seeing the ladies better dressed than 1 had yet had occasion to do.RIO DE JANEIRO. Paul's to succeed Avilez. 12~. H~. and vowed not to part with him. The double guard was withdrawn. In that fight tbere will doubtless be danger to but why not say so ? why not say such is the case? foreign property However. however. He is a veteran. and the play went on. notice arrived that the Prince was so busy writing to Lisbon. the pleasure of seeing the theatre illuminated. The Portuguese General Avilez made his appearance at the barracks of the European soldiers to take leave of them they were under arms to receive him. perhaps untruly. the wisest of the sons of men in modern times has long set in thé second place those who could not anbrd to be open ago and candid in matters of business so I may leave them alone. and Curada appointed commander-inchief. 181 will probably fight. General Avilez. after waiting some time. a Brazilian. The Portuguese commander-in-chief of the troops. and his actions are better known among his countrymen than those distant battles in Europe.

where everything wore At the same time.18~ JOURNAL. back to their barracks. having given such orders as were necessary. but from the circumstances of the them. By the time thé opera was over the streets were sufficiently clear to permit every one to go home in safety. The opera-house was again brilliantly lighted. but that they refused to go saying. no doubt. no longer ago than last week. had marched up to the Castie-liill. returned to the box. The field-pieces belonging to the Brazilians. and had been received as well as on thé ninth. commanding the principal streets in thé town. these circumstances having reached thé house. which had remainedin the town after the 26thofFebruary. and threatened to sack the town. that he had already given orders to send the riotous soldiers. who had been quarrelling with the blacks. Thé coolness and prewhen he had no doubt all would be quiet. assured them that there was nothing serious. the Prince sent to the Portuguese barracks for thé guard oflast night. report of the appearance of determined mutiny. It is said. and going with thé Princess. to the number ofseven hundred. at the botanical gardens. had been sent to the usual station of the artillery. a. Meantime the Portuguese troops. so they ente. the Prince was calied out of his box. and informed that bodies of from twenty to thirty of the Portuguese soldiers were parading the streets. that as His Royal Highness was so partial to the Brazilians. as he meant to do. he addressed the people. because the guard of honour at the operahouse had been for thé two last evenings composed of Brazilians. The Prince and Princess were there. that as it had been understood that they had expressed some jealousy. by their presence in the street. and had taken with them four pieces of artillery. day it is not improbable. sence ofmind of the Prince.-tained no fear of at least. then near her confinement. he had better continue to be guarded by 1 am not sure this is true. breaking windows and insulting passengers in their way from barrack to barrack. but remain till the end of the piece. at about eleven o'clock. when. . to the front. preserved thé city from much confusion and misery. and entreated them not to leave the theatre and increase the tumult. thé spectators began to rise for the purpose of going home when the Prince.

But they were disappointed in their expectation of being joined by that part of thé Portuguese fbrce which was stationed at San Cristovao. His Royal Highness wished to have put them instantly on board of transports. but eager for action and though deficient in discipline. not only ready. however. the Brazilians were not idle. he found himselfat the head of a body of four thousand men. Every horse and mule in the town was<pressed. and they were convinced that it would be an easy matter to starve them. They therefore prepared to obey an order which the Prince communicated to them early in the day. but the port admirai reported that there was neither shipping nor provision ready for the purpose and therefore they are to be quartered at Praya Grande. At length. 1 went ashore with an officer as early as 1 could. this morning (12th). and it was much too hot to walk.RIO DE JANEIRO. In conséquence. and other Brazilian troops. as well as to the head-quarters of The Prince was most active so that by four o'clock thé artillery. however. to remove from the city tb Praya Grande. While the Portuguese were taking up their new and threatening position. it was sometime before 1 could get a chaise to convey me there. 1 procured one. by means of the immense superiority of numbers in the Campo. This amounted to about 500 men who said thé King had left them to attend on the person of the Prince. i83 artiHery. until such shall be provided. on the other side of the harbour.but 1believe1 am nearlyright. and they had nothing to do with anything else a declaration that was looked on with suspicion by the Brazilians. chiefly for the purpose of seeing the troops in the Campo de Santa Anna. The Portuguese had by no means expected such promptness and decision. to be conveyed to Lisbon. of the press of horses and mules. and determined to 1 amnotsure of thecorrectness f thesenumbers. formidable from their numbers and determination. o . only conditioning to carry their arms with them. and expresses despatched to all the militia régiments. in the Campo de Santa Anna. they had besides not taken provision to the hill.

however. both within and without thé circle. Within the enclosure where the artillery was placed. she had them all packed to her estate in the country in small parcels. active. of evil from the liberation of the prisoners by the Brazilians during the night. that there are some fears that the Portuguese will seize thé forts on the other sidè. of the reinforcements daily expected from Lisbon. looked healthy. intending to escape with them herself in disguise to us. Having comforted my good friend as well as 1 could. and found the Brazilians housed for the most part in The men. it might be tancy. all was gravity and thé soldiers on the alert. listening to his political discussions. Everything. . but 1 believe the apprehension to be ill founded. We found her in a Brazilian dishabille. .184 JOURNAL. We promised her. The scene in the Campo presented all manner of varieties. call on the Viscondeça of Rio Seco in my way. and determined to guard their rights and their homes. we went on to the Campo. in case of a serious attack on thé city and she had left a quanof thé house to octity of valuable plate exposed in different parts cupy thé soldiers on their first entrance. indeed. be disastrous. and looking harassed and anxious. and had then hurried home to prcvide fo the her family she had despatched safety of her family and her jewels for the jewels. though slight. an orator was stationed with his group of auditors around him. to offer her refuge in the frigate. but they gave me the idea of men resolute in their purpose. that on her making a signal from her house. and says. and thé officers in business-like attention of the preceding night.or sending a mesShe appears very apprehensive sage. looks better now and we assured her we had seen the first part of one of the Lisbon regiments ready to embark as we landed. She had remained in the theatre as long as the Prince last night. or patriotic harangues. and full of spirit their horses were the best 1 have seen in the country and. and the cirgroups. some unfinished buildings. she should have protection. and hold them till the arrivai This would. canvassing the events cumstances of thé day and here and there.

amid the loud huzzas of the people and on reaching the stairs. The shopkeepers are all employed as militia: they are walking about with bands and belts of raw hides over their ordiThe heavy step of thé Portuguese infantry bas earned for them thé Eickname of Pedechumbo. and still better as the day wore away. to negroes. merely longing for action. to those who. The inhabitants generally. exhausted with travel and watching.RIO DE JANEIRO. On our return to the ship. we were stopped for some time in the palace square. for 1 staid sometime. In all directions. In one corner. in solemn dread of what the event might be. negroes were coming. and asses. and not long unfrequently to Brazilians and. about to sail for the Praya Grande. but especially the foreign merchants. a group of soldiers. and every body looks anxious. many of all lying down from sheer fatigue. to feel assured that ail was to pass without bloodshed. their arrogance bas been disgusting to both prince and people. for many weeks past. lay asleep in another. B B . or whole companies. are well pleased to see the Lisbon troops dismissed for they have been most tyrannicaMy brutal to strangers. or leaden foot.~ Thé appearance of the city is melancholy enough the shops are shut up. a circle of black boys were gambling in short. where we were to embark. now applied to all partisans of Portugal. 1 had of the people in the Campo. we found the last of one regiment. or bearing on their heads cool drink and sweetmeats for the men. 185 In the open part of the Campo were straggling soldiers. filled up the interval with what 1 was well pleased with the view might make it pass most lightly. beyond the two or three persons killed accidentally during the night. so that the city may sleep in security to-night. all ways of beguiling the time while waiting for a great event might be seen from those who silently and patiently expected the hour. mules. escaped from the heated crowd of the enclosure horses. laden with capim or maize for the horses. guards are parading the streets. and thé first of another. by a great concourse of people assembled to witness the entrance of the first Brazilian guard into the palace. while the last Portuguese guard marched out.

Paul's.~ This joumey was very disastrous. as licensing desertion.–and advisable to take refuge with us. the day after tothen if morrow. 1 do not know on what authority. they any thing occurs to render it will know who they are to come amongst. Some persons have sent some of their valuables on board the frigate. from the army of the King and Cortes whatever they may call it. We have determined to have a bail on board. is necessarily a great deal of anxiety among all classes of persons. The Prince is granting discharges instead of the Portuguese regiments. arrived to know if the Prince and Princess. were all in good order. a country estate. now to the crown.186 JOURNAL. fourteen leagues on the road wards St. and for the cause of that independit ence which is now so inevitable. yet ship must observe the strictest neutrality between that we are ready at once to receive and protect the Princess and children. formerly belonging toto the Jesuits. The Princess and children are gone to Santa Cruz. that though thé protected on board. and also. as it caused the death of the infant Prince. . 1 saw nobody at all out of doors. we see 13~Every thing seems quiet to-day. but their arms and ammunition and excepting these and the English. the parties. could be received and The answer. as usual toare open. From the ship Yet there the rest of thé troops going over to the Praya Grande. who wish to remain in Brazil This is stigmatised by the Portuguese of returning to Europe. that the only question is whether shall be obtained with or without bloodshed. of course. for safety and a message. the Brazilians the better for them. and family. nary clothes. is. that the people may get acquainted with us. 1 am convinced that the measure tends to thé present tranquillity of the capital. whenever he has reason to apprehend personal is therefore ready. and business going on 14~Theshops to both officers and men day. 1 hope danger. thé Prince himseIK My cabin The more they can trust to they will not be ibrced to come afloat.

that 1 could have wished to put off the dance. and all the amiable feelings of youth and and if among it a little elderly gaiety mingles. as in talent. for my part. The Prince goes on discharging the soldiers. the young people enjoyed it much. I.RIO DE JANEIRO. and curiosity. and we had a number of pretty and agreeable women. The Httle warlike world within. perhaps because 1 never excelled in it but yet. English and a great deal of dancing. 1 should say that Cowper had described him. According to the opinion entertained of him by the people here. 1 had commissioned the Viscondeça do Rio Seco and some other ladies to bring their Portuguese friends. but the perfect 1'7<Nothing quiet of the town. when he wrote BB 2 . furnish forth combinations in which poetry and romance delight. and several gentlemanlike men. and hope." 15~. 19~. rather reverence the youth of heart which lives through the cares and vexations of this life. 1 never loved dancing myself. Paul's. and which one must be stoical indeed to contemplate without emotion. and excites nature a smile. and can mingle in. 1 should have done so also. remarkable yesterday or to-day. in addition to our English friends. but that Captain Graham was sunering with the gout so severely. and hearts not the less happy for the little anxious palpitations that arise now and then. which they did. There are happy faces. all dressed with evergreens and Sowers. This day the new ministers arrived from St. waving over the heads of gay girls and their smiling partners. a ball-room is to me a delightful place. the hilarity of youth. 187 Our bau went off very well we had more foreigners than and as there was excellent music from the opera-orchestra. Thé well-reeved guns and netted canopy. the chiefofwhom in station. is Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva. A dance on ship-board is always agreeable and picturesque there is something in the very contrast afforded by the furniture of the deck of a ship ofwar to the company and occupation of a bail that is striking. without disturbing.

during the time of the French. as it was feared the Portuguese. and the esteem in which they are held. by which they and the veteran General Corado arrived. and Italy. One of his brothers. and had become acquainted several among the most distinguished characters in England. and had contracted a particular esteem for Alfieri. with which he returned to Brazil in 1819. than thé mère pleasure of visiting different parts of the world and 1 ain told. and courage to redress her wrongs. add weight not only to their own interest. He had been sent early from Brazil to study at Coimbra. Martin Francisco. The guards and patroles were doubled along the road. he there entered the regular army for after bearing arms against Massena. . and their family. But his whole time in Europe was not with spent in warfare he had travelled. and lets him fall Just in the niche he was ordained to fill. 1 find that at the end of the war he had the rank of lieutenant-colonel. but to the government which employs them. understanding. their character. To thé deliverer of an mjured land He gives a tongue to enlarge upon. a heart To feel. temper. he could not find means but upon the first rising of the to return to his native country people in the districts round Oporto and Coimbra. is possessed of scarcely less talent than himself.188 JOURNAL. who since thé 12th have been completely distinct from the Brazilians. where he lay sick at the time of the King's departure from Lisbon and afterwards. France. However. Great offices will hâve And God gives to every man Great talents. When he returned to Lisbon. might have impeded their progress. every thing was perfectly tranquil. That lift him into life. taste. The virtue. 1 believe. that he has particularly attended to those branches of science which may improve the agriculture and the mining of Brazil. and afterwards served in the campaign against Soult. in their successM resistance to Junot. he put himself at the head of the students of the university. Thé be useful object of his travels was rather to see and learn what might to his own country.

or perhaps only enjoying a cool seat in the back of their shop. and the price of the labour. such as saddlers. he is coolly desired to get it for himself. and therefore we are to return thither to protect our friends in case of need. The Aurora arrived from Pernambuco and Bahia. This happened several times during the . and lay down the money. Jolly Tars. and their goods are exposed in hanging trames at each side of the shop-door or window.RIO DE JANEIRO. and other ornaments. they will often say they have not the article enquired for. with their English inscriptions. crosses. Thegoldsmiths all live in one street. hardware from Birmingham. there are more haberdashery. crapes. The latter bave a great many shops of mercery. 1 went ashore to shop with Glennie. at both which places it appears that every thing is But as quiet. and if the customer persists and points it out in the shop. But any thing bought by retail in an English or French shop is. the English are apprehensive of some disturbance. but above all. and stores. 189 20~. very dear. The workmanship of their chains. and millinery. charged over the weight of the metal. 21~. called by their name Rua dos Ourives. vie with those ofGreenwich or Dept~brd. thé meeting of the camara of Bahia is to take place early next month. as now is not unfrequently the case. in the fashion of two centuries back. not unlike what we call in England an Italian warehouse. is exquisite. crockery. than French. moderate. Red Lions. If they are engaged. in the Brazilian shops besides silks. usually speaking. Most of the strcets are lined with English goods at every door the words London SMpc~Me meet the eye printed cottons. and other articles from China. or reading a newspaper. There are a good many English shops. for eatables and drinkables but thé English here generally sell their goods wholesale to native or French retailers. and plenty of English pot-houses. for the purpose of chusing a new provisional government. whose Union Jacks. and but few of either. rather than rise to fëtch it. For taiiors. There are English bakers* shops ofboth nations. buttons. 1 think. broad cloths. in talking politics. lam amused at the apparent apathy of the Brazilian shopkeepers. are to be had little dearer than at home.



course of our search for some tools for turning to-day along the Rua Direita, where every second house is a hardware shop, furnished from Sheffield and Birmingham. 22~. The Princess's birthday was celebrated by firing of cannon, a review, and a drawing-room. Capt. Prescott, of the Aurora, and Capt. Graham, attended it. It seems the Prince took little or no notice of them, or any of the English. 1 think it probable that thé Brazilians are jealous of us, on account of our long alliance with and besides, they may take the converse of the maxim, Portugal those that are not against us are for us and think because we are not for them, we are against chem.* 24th. We sailed at dayïiglit for Bahia. It was one of the finest mornings of this fine climate, and the remarkable land behind the Sugar-loaf was seen to its best advantage in the early light. The extreme beauty of this country is such, that it is impossible not to talk and think of it for ever not a turn but presents some scene both beautiful and new and if a mountainous and picturesque country have really the power of attaching its inhabitants, above ait others, thé Fluminenses ought to be as great patriots as any in the world. After a fortnight's sail, thé two first daysof February 8th, Bahia. which were calm, followed by a gale of wind, which lasted nearly three days, we anchored to-day in the bay of Ail Saints, wbich we found looking as gaily beautiful as ever. Thé election of the new and provisional government took place yesterday, quite peaceably of the seven members of the junta, only one is a native of Portugal. 1 remark, that the language of the writers of gazettes hère is much bolder than at Rio and 1 think that there is here a truly republican spirit among a very considerable number of persons whether it extends throughout the province Icannotjudge but 1 am assured that a desire for independence, and a resolution to possess it, is universal.
1 hâve since learned that some very warm expressions of personal regard and sympathy used by an English officer (not, however, belonging either to the Aurora or Doris) to a Portuguese, with whom hehad but a slight acquaintance, on occasion of his embarking for Praya Grande, had led the Portuguese to believe that it meant something more, and This at least was that, in case of need, the English would join with the Portuguese. in thé town, and very naturally accounts for the jealousy enteftained against us. whispered



10~. We went ashore yesterday. The advance of the season bas ripened the oranges and msngoes since we left Bahia, and bas increased the number of insects, so that the nights are no longer silent. The hissing, chirping, and buzzing of crickets, beetles, and grasshoppers, continue from sunset to sunrise and all day long the trees and flowers are surrounded by myriads of brilliant wings. The most destructive insects are the ants, and every variety of them that can hurt vegetable life is to be found here. Some form nests, like huge hanging cones, among the branches of the trees, to whîch a covered gallery of clay from the ground may be traced along the trunk: others surround the trunks and larger branches with their nests 1 bave seen in a single night the many more live under ground. most nourishing orange-tree stripped of every leaf by this mischievous creature. 16~. We sailed from Bahia, finding every thing, to all appearance, quiet* and no apprehension being entertaîned by the English, a bail at the consul's, another at Mrs. N.'s, and a third at Mrs. R.'s, at each of which, as many of our young men as could get ashore were présent, made them very happy, and we had some very pleasant rides into the country. 1 had intended, if possible, visiting a huge mass, said to be so similar to the meteoric stones that have fallen in difterent parts of the world as to induce a belief that it is also one of them, although it weighs many tons, and 1 hoped to get a piece of it but 1 find it is near Nazareth de Farinha, on the other side of the bay, and too far off for this present visit to Bahia. The first time we were at Bahia, 1 could not even learn where it was, so incurious are my country men here about what brings no profit. 24th. Rio de JccM~'o.–Nothing remarkable occurred on our passage here from Bahia. The school-room proceeds exceedingly well, both with the master and thé scholars; and as we are all in tolerable health, we look forward with no small pleasure to our voyage to Chile, for whîch we are preparing.
Very shortly after we sailed, 1 believe within a day or two, those disturbances out at Bahia, which lasted until the 2d of July, 1823. 0 broke



During our absence, thé Prince Don Pedro has been very active, and has dismissed ail the Portuguese troops. On thé ships being provided to transport them to Europe, they refused to embark, on which His Royal Highness caused a heavy frigate to anchor opposite to their quarters, and went on board himself the night before the morning appointed by him for their sailing. The steam-vessel attended for the purpose of towing the transports, in case of necessity and several gun-vessels were stationed so as to command the barracks of the refractory regiments, while a body of Brazilian soldiers was stationed in the neighbourhood. The Prince was, during the greater part of the night, in his barge, going from vessel to vessel, and disposing every thing to make good his threat, that if the Portuguese were not all on board by eight o'clock thé ne-t morning, he would give them such a breakfast of Brazilian balls as should make them glad to leave the country. This he had been provoked to say, by a message from the officers and men, insolently delivered that very night, desiring more time to prepare for their voyage. Seeing His Royal in earnest, which they could hardly be brought to believe Highness he was, they thought it most prudent to do as they were bid and accordingly embarked, to the no small joy of the Brazilians, who had long cordially hated them. The weather is now excessively hot, the Friday, ~arc~ Ist. thermometer being seldom under 88°, and we have had it on board at 92° Fahrenheit. Capt. Graham has had a slight attack of gout, for which reason 1 have not been ashore since our return from Bahia but as he is a little better to-day he has insisted on my accompanying a party of our young men in an expedition up the harbour to see a country estate and factory. At one o'clock, our friend, Mr. N. called for us, with a large boat of the country, which is better for the purpose than our ship's boats. These vessels have a standing awning, and two very large triangular salis they are managed according to their size, by four, six, eight, or more negroes, besides thé man at the heim when rowing, the rowers rise at every stroke, and then throw themselves



back on their seats. 1 think 1 hâve heard that within the memory of now in the navy it was the fashion to row the admiral's persons barges so in England. Thé boatmen are hère universaHy some negroes free, and owners of their boats others slaves, who are obliged to take home a daily fixed sum to their masters, who often, pass a life of total indolence, being fed in this way by their slaves. The place we were going to is Nossa Senhora da Luz, about twelve miles from Rio, up the harbour, near the mouth of the river Guaxindiba, which river rises in the hills of Taypu and though its straight course is only five miles, its windings would measure ° twenty or more it is navigable, and its banks are astonishingly fertile. The evening was charming, and we sailedpast many a smiling island and gay wooded promontory, where gardens and countryhouses are thickly scattered, and whence provisions in innumerable boats and canoes cross the bay every morning for the Our city. first view of N. S. da Luz presented. such a high red bank, half covered with grass and trees, overhanging the water in the evening sun, as Cuyp would have chosen for a landscape and just as 1 was wishing for something to animate it, the oxen belonging to the &ctory came down to drink and cool themselves in the bay, and completed the scène. The cattle here are large and well-shaped, something like our own Lancashire breed, and mottled in colour, though mostly red. On doubling the point of the bank, we came upon a small white church, with some venerable trees near it; beyond that was the house, with a long veranda, supported by white columns and still farther on, the sugar-house, and thé pottery and brick-work. We landed close to thé house but as the beach is shallow and muddv, we were carried ashore by negroes. Nothing can be finer than the From the veranda, besides thé picturesque and doscenery here. mestic fore-ground, we see thé bay, dotted with rocky islands one of these, called Itaoca, is remarkable as having. in thé opinion ofthe Indians, been the residence of some divine person: it is connected with the traditions concerning their benefactor, Zome, who taught them the use of thé mandioc, and whom the first missionaries here c c



It consists of one contrived to convert into St. Thomas the apostle. immense stone cleft throughout, and a little earth and sand gathered round it, on which are trees and shrubs of the freshest verdure some of thé other islets are bare, and some again have houses and villages on them thé whole scène is terminated by the Organ Mountains, whose spiry and fantastic summits attracting thé passing clouds, secure an everlasting variety to the eye. We found, that owing to our neglect in not sending beforehand to announce our visit, neither the master of the house nor his housekeeper were at home however, Mr. N. being an old friend, went into the poultry yard, and ordered thence an excellent supper and while it was preparing, we went to look at the pottery, which is only for thé coarsest red ware. Thé wheel used here is the clumsiest and rudest 1 ever saw, and the potter is obliged to sit sideways by it. The clay, both for the pottery and the bricks, is dug on the spot it is coarse and red it is tempered by the trampling of mules but all that we use spades and shovels for is done by the bare hands of thé negroes: the furnaces for baking the bricks and jars are partly Leaving the pottery, scooped out of the hill, and faced with brick. we climbed thé hill that marks the first approach to N. S. da Luz and on the way up its steep and rugged side, our dogs disturbed a flock of sheep, as picturesque and as ragged as Paul Potter himself could have desired they had been lying round the root of a huge old acacia, decorated with innumerable parasite plants, some ofwhieh cling like ivy to the trunk, and others climbing to the topmost boughs, fall thence in grey silky garlands, or, like the tillandsia, adorn them with hundreds of pink and white flowers among these, many an ant and bee had fixed his nest, and every thing was teeming with life and beauty. Thé moon was up long before we returned from our ramble, and Had the Neapolitan ambassador, who long before our host arrived. told George the Third that the moon of his country was worth the sun of England, ever been in Brazil, 1 could almost forgive the The clear mild light playing on such scenery, and the hyperbole.


195 a day of all but intolerable of pleasure in this climate as they loaded the boats to the morning's land-breeze,

cool refreshing breeze of evening, after heat, render the night indeed the season nor were the rude songs of the negroes, be ready to sail down the harbour with

unpleasing. it As we were looking over the bay, a larger boat appeared neared the shore and our host, Mr. Lewis P., who superintends the fazenda, landed, and kindly received our apology for coming without previous notice. The visit had long been talked of; but now our time at Rio was likely to be so short, that had we not come He led the way to the garto-day, we might not have come at ail. den, where we passed the time till supper was ready. The midshipmen found more oranges, and better than they had yet met with, and did full justice tothem. The fruit and vegetables of Europe and America, of the temperate and torrid zones, meet here nor are their nowers forgotten over against the little parterre, an orange and a tamarind tree shade a pleasant bench close to which, in something of oriental taste, the white stucco wall of the well is raised and crowned with flower-pots, filled with roses and sweet herbs. 2~1 rose at daylight, and rode with Mr. N. through the estate, while Mr. Dance, my cousin Glennie, and the two boys, went to shoot in the marsh by the river side. Every turn in our ride brought a new and varied landscape into view beneath, the sugar-cane in luxuriant growth above, the ripening orange and the palm around and scattered through the plain enlivened by the windings of the Guazindiba, thé lime, the guava, and a thousand odorous and splendid shrubs, beautified the path. But all is new here. The long lines of fazenda houses, that now and then take from the solitariness of nature, suggest no association with any advance either of old or present time, in the arts that civilise or that ennoble man. The rudest manufactures, carried on by~African slaves, one half of whom are newly imported, (that is, are still smarting under the separation from all that endears the home, even of a savage,) are all the approâches to improvement and though c c 2



nature is at least as fine as in India or in Italy, the want of some reference to man, as an intellectual md moral being, robs it of half its charms. However, 1 returned well pleased from 'my ride, and found my young sportsmen not less pleased with their morning's ramble. Not, indeed, that they had shot snipes, as they intended, but they had gotten a huge lizard (Lacerta Marmorata), of a kind land-crab (Rurithey had not seen before. They had seen the large a sort of pelican, cola), and they had brought down a boatswain bird, (Pelicanus Lencocephalus), which they proposed to stuff. Aceordingly after breakfast, as the weather was too hot to walk farther, the bird and the lizard were both skinned, the guns were cleaned, and 1 made a sketch of the landscape.. In the evening 1 took a long walk to a point of view whence the whole bay with the city in the distance is distinctiy seen, and on the way stopped at a cottage, where Mr. P. who is, literally, here king, priest, and prophet," had some enquiry to make, concerning these were two negroes, who have thé health of the indwellers usefuL 1 grown old in the service of the estate, and are no longer have seen examples of such being frced, that is, turned out of doors to starve. Here they would be entitled, by thé ruies of the estate, if not by law, to corne every day for the same allowance as the working live in a but, and negroes but they do not choose it. They indeed but they maintain themselves by on the ground of their master so dear is the feeling of rearing a few fowls, and making baskets independence, even in old age, sickness, and slavery. 1 went out before breakfast, with a negro carpenter <S'MM~,3d. for my guide. This man, with little instruction, has learned his art so as to be not only a good carpenter and joiner, but also a very tolerable cabinet-maker, and in other respects displays a quickness of understanding which gives no countenance to the pretended inferi1 was much pleased with thé observations ority of negro intellect. he made on many things which 1 remarked as new, and with the of ail country works. After perfect understanding he seemed to have breakfast, 1 attended the weekly n'uster of all the negroes of the

and then bowed to Mr. It must diminish the evils of slavery to one. Mr. They are the best artificers and artists. saying. and succeed in what they undertake accordingly. either Father. and dried beef. It seems he is a mulatto boatman. and shi~s and skirts to the women. whose wife had desired it might be sent to her to make ready for him Some enquiries which Mr. give me blessing. Ail decorative painting. induced me to ask his history. from causes not difficult to be imagined. and inlaying is done by them in short. kissed a hand. P. He tells me that the creole negroes and mulattoes are far superior in industry to the Portuguese and Brazilians who. the tyranny of mastership in the other. clean shirts and trowsers were given the men. or his work and each received a portion of snuff or tobacco." or Be they praised. 197 fazenda. on account of the absence of his neighbour. thé most trusty servant on the estate. his family. besides doing his duty to his master. some questions were asked conceming himself. One man asked for two portions. is one of the few persons whom 1 have met conversant among slaves. because he is industrious enough to hâve earned a good deal of private property." This is the custom in old establishments it is and evening. a fixed measure of each to every person. made about by the time he returned. either Bless you." or The names of Jesus and Mary be praised and were answered accordingly. according to his taste. P. In his youth. and he is not now . this person. and seems to acknowledge a kind of repeated morning relationship between master and slave. carving. they excel in all ingenious mechanical arts. kidney-beans. Each. It consisted of farinha. as he or she came in. P. of very coarse white cotton. In the afternoon 1 attended Mr. and rich. who appears to have made them an object of rational and humane attention. are far the most part indolent and ignorant. to acknowledge thus a common superior Master on whom they both depend. As each slave passed in review. P. to see the negroes receive their daily allowance of food.RIO DE JANEIRO. The orchestra of the opera-house is composed of at least one-third of mulattoes. if he had one. The negroes and mulattoes have strong motives to exertion of every kind.

And cast a gleam over the tufted grove.-of which the night and the scene had made me dreani but the voice of the slaves on this their night of holiday. Hke him. on thé estate but he did not marry her till he had earned money enough to purchase her. beguiling their cares with uncouth airs. 1 wish 1 had the talent of novel writing. with Henry Lawes's notes. he has become rich enough to purchase himself. in order that their children. born. as Miltons echo. Had they children. singing. as that for thc Pleiades . A superstitious veneration for that beautiful planet is said to be pretty general in savage Africa. would have made. leaving all the grand and gloomy heauty of a departed thunder-storm in a mountainous country. he had become attached to a creole negress. played on rude African instruments. his services being too valuable to lose. and boisterous wind. sharp rain. indeed. threatened the fazenda with a night of terror. for the saké of this slave's story but my writing. they might and there is nothing to prevent the inherit thé mother's property father's making over all he earns to her. will revert to the master. old. notwithstanding his promise to remain on the these people have no children estate and work. and thé night seemed. goes no ~arther than sketching from nature. Unfortunately therefore on their death their property. like my drawing. now considerable. from the contrast with the last few hours. and dancing to the moonlight. as the woman is free. even lovelier than the last. 1 immediately went to the huts of the married slaves." 1 heard the sounds of music not such. Taking one of my ship-mates with me. had But it passed away. might be born free. and 1 make better artists welcome to use the subject. if they had any. Then just as the Sable clouds Turned forth their silver lining on the night. where all merrymakings are held and found parties playing. even at the high price which such a-slave might fetch but his master will not sell him his freedom.198 JOURNAL. The evening was very storm y deep clouds had covered the Organ Mountains and vivid lightning. Since that time. when the moon broke through the clouds.

Another of the same class is played with a bow it has but one string. This broad end is played with the Ait these are thumbs. four or five feet long. of different lengths. As for the instruments. and the string is struck with a short stick. Each nation ofnegroes has its own peculiar instrument. they are the most inartificial things that ever gave out musical sounds yet they have not an unpleasing effect. the instrument being held with both hands. printed at Rome. The simplest of these stringed instruments. are attached. or thé tunes of the gourmis. now abolished. and sometimes fighting. 1722. the drummer lays his instrument on the ground and gets astride on it. The small marimba has a very sweet tone. to whom his people are obedient. and with great nicety. a small hollow gourd. dance to the moon in memory of their homes. and the king of the whole was seated This festival is during thé day in the centre of the square under a huge state umbrella. are placed. but. as 1 am no musician. closed at one end with wood. in which to Holy King David. so as that both ends vibrate on the board. In playing these. On a nat piece of sonorous wood a little bridge is fastened and to this small slips of iron. The mouth ofthe gourd must be placed on the naked skin of the side so that the ribs of the player form the sounding. and covered with skin at the other. when he beats time with his hands to his own songs. like the old man's psaltery in the Dance of Death. in thé Campo de Sta. and there are two strings. about nine inches long. one end being broader and more elevated than thé other. and dedicated place in the Jesuit Bonnanis' G~'n~/o The great marimba consists of a large wooden frame. with the mouth upwards across these open ends are laid pieces of sonorous wood. tuned in a peculiar manner. gipsy monarchy. but is fretted with the fingers. have found A ~-MOM!co. A king of each tribe is annually elected. 1 cannot explain their methods. though baptized. One is simply composed of a crooked stick. and two kinds of marimba. A second has more thé appearance of a guitar the hollow gourd is covered with skin it has a bridge. something in the way of the Before 1806 thé election took place with gréât ceremony and feasting. besides. and a single string ofbrass wire. which being struck with another The whole is suspended yield a pleasant sound. especiaïïy the marimba*. round the neck.RIO DE JANEIRO. a number of hollow canes. board. Au these are caUed Gourmis. Anna. drums made of the hollow trunks of trees. which its exiles have introduced hère. 199 was among the Indians of Brazil and probably the slaves. it is played with the finger. like the wooden armonicas of Malacca. There were. .

Captain Graham not feeling well enough to leave the ship. Nor gossip's tale. 1 wish it were possible that we should introduce into our ships the oven on~the lower deck. Ail the urbanity of Frenchmen. either in the dock-yard at home. we are scarcely in à state to attend importance. Stanhope. free disposai of our time. one of our midshipmen. through the archipelago of beautiful islands on thé eastem and 1 had thé pleasure to find the Captain side of thé harbour really better. for comfort. sailed from Rio. For why ? There was but one great rule for all To wit. nor ancient maiden's gaH. The ship itself.. who is dangerously ill. is a model of all that can be done. to visit the French Com1 have seldom been better modore Roussin on board the Amazone. or by officers afloat. Her captain." We returned to thé ship by a different way from that by which we went. when 1 saw thé boats ready to convey us from N. that each shoutd work his own desire. bringing no news of Indeed. health. a kind host. Nor saintly spleen. The Superb arrived from Valparaiso. The captains of thé other French ships were there. if she had." There freedom reigned without the least a!!ov. which gives fresh bread twice a week for the whole . And with envenomed tongue our pleasures pall. to repleased. 6~His Ma~esty's ship. '7~.200 JOURNAL. every part of which we saw. g~. however. and cleanliness. da Luz. though still with tender feet. joined with the delightful frankness of the profession. and no business but such as might where every man beseem the individuals of this castle of indolence. 1 went with Captain Prescott of the Aurora. is a superior man and many ships of every and any nation might be visited before his equal would be met with. assured us we were welcome. ceive us. 4~I was very sorry indeed this morning at sunrise. durst murmur at our joy. Capt. where we had enjoyed our three days as much as possible a cheerful party. Slaney. to it we have sat up all night with B. strolled off his own glad way. and is well as a man of war. S.

though not yet able to go on deck. not only for the saké of thé bread. weather we shall find on going round Cape Horn. and Captain Graham very uneasy. but the heating it must air and ventilate thé sbip. he therefore undertook to nurse the invalid for me. will do us aiï good. 1 found B. 201 shîp*s company. 13~In addition to our other troubles. Yesterday afternoon the mercury in the barometer sunk DD . in full hope that the cool 10~. 1 have not been in bed ~br three nights my invalids are in that state. dangerously ill. arrived off the harbour. that night watching is necessary for them. and the fine climate of Chile.VOYAGE ROUND CAPE HORN. 9~Thé Portuguese squadron from Lisbon. the first lieutenant is taken dangerously ill but Captain Graham appears better. preparatory to our sailing for Valparaiso. Troops are sent to reinforce the garrisons in the forts. 16~. 1 retumed late. and took leave of many. Captaîn Graham beîng too unwell to venture eut ofthe ship himself. We sailed at daylight from Rio. 1 received many persons on board. at the entrance and the ships are forbidden to enter. 1 was on shore all day on business. but promised victuals and water to carry them to Lisbon. with a rem~rcement of troops.

we supposed some land must be near. Seeing two penguins to-day. and of the It seemed tame animais becoming wild. Sir John Hawkins's maiden land. barometer 29–08 very heavy swell. though the thermometer is at 56". 4*7"at noon. town left standing as it was. The cold is sensibly increased. barometer 30-2. Latitude 46" 25' S. is getting better. 1 do not know any thing that gratifies the imagination. We have removed the dead-lights from the cabin windows. and the thermometer is at 68". wind succeeded. by all its inhabitants at once. and the barometer rising once 1 have iain more the mercury stands at 30 inches and two-ténths. The weather very cold. in a very short space of time a whole inch. latitude. like a realisation of the Arabian tale of the half-marble prince.202 JOURNAL. 24~. longitude 52" 40~ W. down at four o'ciock these two mornings. Thé cold weather seems to have a good effect on our invalids. 18th. We are in 36" 55~ S. The young people again at school. and we have many sick. in latitude 42" S. and we were glad to light a fire in the cabin. 1'7~Wind and sea abated. and rose again as before on the 21st. The barometer ~ell suddenly. Glennie having kindly relieved my watching at that hour. -Latitude 50" 30~ thermometer 44" morning and evening. B. and we had a gale of wind. Some lunars taken. and in real interest comes near the discovery of the lost Greenland settlements. Every thing better. had something romantic. It blew the thermometer fell to 58°. There are hard many albatrosses and stormy petrels about the ship. Great numbers of the Cape pigeon about the ship. W. 1 am sorry we have passed so far out of sight of the Falkland The idea of seeing a Islands. Fahrenheits thermometer often stood at92~ in Rio harbour it is now 68°. On the 19<~ and 20th the mercury in the barometer sunk gradually from 30 to 29-02. and a strong S.. but found no bottom with 100 fathoms line. more than the situations and incidents that by bringing distant . 22d.

the breakfast-table is suddenly stripped of half its load. that the sublime ments. whither the çoal-scuttle and its contents had adjourned the instant before then succeed the school-room distresses of capsized ink-stands. If 1 look abroad. of cushions and clothes. over us. As to the marble cities of Moorish Africa. in all bis honour. which is lodged in the lee scuppers. their ways. as it were. that 1 felt. that one of thé seven sleepers to have done. broken slates.VOYAGE ROUND CAPE HORN. we shall find but probable a reason for their existence as reported. and dignity.. 1 see the grandest and most sublime object in nature. -the ocean raging in its might. and in wrestling thus with the ele1 forget what writer it is who observes. Strong south-westèrly gales and heavy sea. wbo went to purchase bread with money five centuries old. we are sailing towards frozen regions. and pina dense.. too during the prevalence of that wind at Malta. Sometimes. where avarice' self bas been forced to give up half-formed settlements by thé severity of the climate. when we consider their exposure to the sirocco. grey. but laugh. tado are our companions. with no companion but my guide at Pompeii. Just as our friends in England are looking forward to spring. wrestling with and commanding it: then 1 look within. and becoming so intimate with the ancients. longitude 51° W. 1 ~m sure they approach very nearly at sea. and powers of mind and body. one cannot choose. and read Dolomieu's Experiments on the Atmosphere. 203 periods of time together. round my little home in the cabin. yet there is a pleasure in stemming the apparently irresistibie waves. in spite of all usual précautions. We are in the midst of a dark boisterous sea. stormy petrel. cold sky. 8~Latitude 51 ~8' S. and in spite of the inconveniences they bring with them. when 1 went home to Naples. and its English travellers. and lost DD2 . and its lazaroni. Thé albatross. and every roH of the ship causes accidents irresistibly ludicrous. places them. and manners. at once within our 1 remember some years ago spending a whole day own reach. torn books. and the ridtcuious border on each other. thermometer 41°. its gay light days and early flowers. and man. as 1 suppose.

when it disappeared. We have made with dreadnought gloves for the men at the wheel of canvass. when in the act of reprimanding the carelessness wbich subjects the slates and books to these untoward chances.. Clarke. longitude 56" 11' W..51' 30~Latitude at 30" this morning. longitude 59" W. but abundantly laughable. had two ribs broken by a fall on deck and Sinclair. was taken ill after being an hour at the wheel. and longitude W. There are flocks of very smaU birds about the ship.204 JOURNAL. as-it happened just now. It remained a long time stationary the clouds. A violent gale of wind from the the only thing like a hard gale since we left England. about an hour before sunrise. one of thé quarter-masters. so soon after leaving Rio in the hottest part of thé year. and re-appeared between them about 10° high. At one o'clock this momat seven it rose ing the mercury in the barometer sunk to 28–09 of The thermometer is at 38<~ Fahrenheit.* 11 ~7' 69" Frezier mentions seeing such a meteor in 1712. lined and for the people at night. 28~Latitude 55° 26" S.. the thermometer at . 56<* S. in latitude 57° 30' S. places not to mention the loss of many a painful calculation. This is hard upon the men. a bright meteor was seen in the south-west.. and we have seen a great many whales. if the schoolmaster is induced to measure his length on the deck. It was first taken for the signal lanterns of a large ship then the officer of the watch thought it was a Mue in the light. and a heavy sea. and other evils exquisite in their kind. and we again to 29–01. south-west 1 had breakfast spread on the cabin deck. Yesterday morning. and 32<~ noon. and we made no doubt of its being Sir T. with dreadnought ice forms in every linings. . Captain Graham and the first lieutenant still both very ill. Thé snow and hail squaHs are very severe fold of the sails. waistbands of canvass. have had squaMs of snow and sleet. Hardy then it was lost behind Creole. as it was not possible to secure any thing on a table. especially. a very strong man.

" 1 was glad to-day. Glaciaïis. blue. sometimes bravely mounts the very top of the wave. to see the bright. Parry's approach to the north pôle. principally petrels the P. and the pilot to the helm. spreading with ample waves curled with snowy tops. and sometimes quietly subsides with it. and four kinds of pétrel the penguin comes near us shoals of porpoises are constantly flitting by." No one can imagine. amid the salt waves. the weather much more mild and moderate. is the least the P. 1 never see these things but 1 think ofThomson's description of Sir Hugh Willoughby's attempt to discover the northwest passage. The poets have scandalised both thé arctic and antarctic regions as Ableakexpanse. or Mother Cary's chicken. Our young men have caught a number of birds. Pelagica. 205 lst.VOYAGE ROUND CAPE HORN. is most beautiful whenbrought on board: 1 cannot enough admire the délicate beauty of the snow-white plumage. while the ship. on Capt. . or wrestling on the water. like them. in the sunshine it is many days since we have seen the sun. Each full exerted at his several task. With the thermometer not lower than 30°. or~ yet. the more life we have found on the waters.cheerless nd DOtd 9. that it was dimcult to work them. Yesterday the sea was covered with albatrosses. we feel the cold excessive. he found. or mimer. thé solitude teeming with life. a Shagg'do'er withwavyrocks. and thé white birds flying and chattering. and the farther south we have sailed. but still boisterous sea. and whales for ever rising to the surface and blowing along-side of the ship.-Latitude 57° 46'. Pintado is gayest on the water. but thé P. Froze into statues to the cordage glued The sailor. unwet and unsoiled. when He with his hapless crew. and occupy our business in the great waters. These are the things we behold who go down to the sea in ships. Yesterday morning the main rigging was cased in ice and the ropes were so frozen after thé sleet in the night. when the dead-lights were removed.

which Glennie calculated to be 410 feet high. have on each side large air-vessels adapted for floating them in the air. For some few days the violent motion of the ship.* It appeared like a moderately high conical hill. We passed another on the 8tb. that of the air 38". the exhilaration of spirits produced by a dry clear day of sunshine at sea. an iceberg was reported on April 2~. has rendered writing and drawing irksome for. 1 went on deck for the first time since we left Rio to see it.-for think that. and ink. sea-birds. who has not felt. been two small pebbles.–1 find there is reason to officers since. and we. we saw land on the 8th. that we find so far from any land. Our paper. there have on them. as it is the school-room. or on thé water they are placed below the wings." Nevertheless we are not idle. when the ice was nearest. A few minutes after noon. gizzard. thé lee-bow. The temperature of the water was 36~ of Fahrenheit's thermometer. and the liver. As the cabin has always a good fire in it. and looked very white upon the bleak grey sky it might be about twelve miles from us. after a week of rain and snow. and entrails rest In each gizzard of those we have yet opened. We have found more vegetable than animal food in their stomachs. Roll up anddownour ships. marked in thé old charts. occasioned by the heavv sea. as Lord Dorset's song has it. pens. it was near enough for us to see the waves break on iL In conversing on this subject with the at the time 1 was indeed unable to think of tt. it is the general rendezvous for invalids and the midshipmen In one corne in and out as they please. of unequal size. As 1 had never seen one. corner Glennie has his apparatus for skinning and dissecting the birds we take and we have constantly occasion to admire the beautiful These huge contrivances of nature in providing for her creatures. . instead of an iceberg. It was seen in the latitude and longitude of an island visited by Drake.at sea.206 JOURNAL. and the gizzard is very rough within.

1 had continued to write my Journal regularly but though nearly two years are since 1 wrote it. never left the bed-side and. But 1 had comfort too. Kift." . 1 found sympathy and brotherly help &om some and 1 was not insensible to the affectionate behaviour of boys.-though. and a widow. first lieutenant. the whole business of the ship devolved on him. did all that friends-could do. two passed midshipmen. was never absent where kindness could be shown. and 1 slept long and rested but 1 awoke to the consciousness ofbeing alone. on my part.found time to be near his friends death-bed.–To-day we made the coast of Chile. as the midshipmen were called. Dance. the second from the illness of the lieutenànt. Loudon and Mr. AU was then over. my cousin Mr. 1 regularly undressed and went to bed for thé first time since 1 left Rio de Janeiro. But what could any human kindness do for me? My comfort must come from him who in his own time will wipe off all tears from our faces. Many things very painful occurred. with half the globe between me and my kindred. Glennie. On the night of the ninth of April. And 1 had thé comfort to feel that no stranger hand had closed his eyes. whether at noon or midnight. 1 cannot bring myself to past copy it from the 3d of it became a register of acute April suffering and. whîch aggravated the wretchedness of those wretched hours. and. or smoothed his pillow. 207 20~ ~p~ 1828. when my strength failed. and Mr. Blatchly. the surgeon and assistant surgeon. Mr. Mr.VOYAGE ROUND CAPE HORN. of alternate hopes and fears through days and nights of darkness and storms.


and only recognisaMeby and thé Prince was ordered home in a the authorities in Portugal 1 have mentioned in my Journal peremptory and Jndecent manner. whose acts were to be totally independent on each other.209 SECOND VISIT TO BRAZIL. it will be necessary to give a short account of the principal events which took place during that year. the object. to be persuaded that Brazil. resolution became known to thé provinces. was at any time competent to throw off all subjection to the mother country. wbich had always had a government independent of the rest of Brazil. No notice whatever was taken of his despatches and the government at Lisbon continued to legislate for Brazil as if it were a settlement on the coast of savage Africa. united. BEFORE 1 begin the Journal of my Second Visit to Brazil. E E . and which changed the government of the country. addresses and deputations poured in on all sides from every town and captaincy. therefore. became to divid&it. from which 1 was absent a year and three days. Thé Prince Regent bad in vain sent the most pressing representations in favour of Brazil to the Cortes. and the resolution His As soon as this Royal Highness had adopted of staying in Brazil. by which each captaincy should be ruled by a junta. during their résidence in it. excepting the city of Bahia and the province of Maranliam. the reception those orders had met with. The ministers who had served Don John had seen enough of the country. Accordingly a scheme for thé government of Brazil was framed.

) Thé day was one of those Brazilian rainy days. on his way to Villa Rica. they met with no support. and on the 26th or 27th of March he left Rio for that purpose. the object of all which was to prevent the carrying away the Prince by force. when the Brazilians were defeated with some loss. sufficiently strong to overpower them and besides. Thé cenotaph raised in the church was surrounded by one of the most striking is. troops to be assembled and joined with those which accompanied him. his office in February and shortly afterwards the first actual warfare between the Portuguese and Brazilians began in the city of St. St. On the 25th of May following a solemn mass was performed for the souls of those who had fallen on both sides. to put themselves at the disposai of the Prince. Paul's and the Mines. supported by a captain of He immediately caused some one of the regiments of Caçadores." (" He quha dies for his cuntre Sal herbyrit intil hewyn be. Etemal glory to thoseinscriptions. the province of St. 1821. at the expense of the Bahians resident at Rio. as His Royal Highthey. coming but the Prince and Princess were the first . to say he was able to enter by force. the conspirators discovered that the Prince was. indeed. when it shoold seem another déluge was at the ceremony.* Meantime. until he arrived at the last stage.had hoped. leaving the executive government in the hands of the minister Jose Bonefacio." says Barbour. but had rather come Several messages passed among them as a friend and protector. in Latin and Portuguese who give their bl~od for their country. Paul's had made and early in February 1100 every exertion to raise and arm troops men marched towards Rio. It was now thought advisable that thé Prince should visit thé two most important provinces. from the magistrates or people. in the church of San Francesco de Paulo. and then remained where he was. on the 6th of the month. His Royal Highness was received every where with enthusiasm. and sent to the camara of the town.210 REVOLUTION In December. Some recruits for thé seamen and marine corps were raised. the capital of thé province of Minas Geraes there he received intelligence of a party raised to oppose bis entrance by the Juiz de Fora. and a naval academy established. Salvador. the King had appointed General Madeira Hë entered on governor of Bahia and commander of the troops.

the senate popular and people bestowed on him the title of Perpétuai Defender of Brazil. was Such commanders either by sea or land as obeyed highly indecent. clare their independence. with respect to the Prince.ANDPERPETUAL The impossibility of continuing united to Portugal had become Ail the southern provinces were eager to dedaily more apparent. 1 rely entirely on you. EE 2 . Do you dépend on me. and remained eleven days at Villa Rica. entered Villa Rica on the 9th of April. and on the magistrates and people attending to compliment him.PRINCE OFTHE KINGDOM BRAZIL. and proprovince. as nrmiy as those of St. King John's birth-day. and the province of Bahia was equally inclined to freedom although the city was full of Portuguese troops under Madeira. PauFs and Rio. which began to be loosened on the 24th of August in Porto. Thé Constitutionai Our Religion Ail honest men The Mineros King The next day the Prince held a general court. ceed constitutionally. therefore. The Cortes seemed resolved on bringing matters to extremities the language used in their sessions. Let not yourselves be deluded by those who seek thé ruin of your province. are now bursting in this Be free.-dependencies had long manifested a similar feeling. where he was received in the most flattering manner. Viva. DEFENDER OF REGENT. Pernambuco and its. Viva.OF BRAZIL. and receiving constant reinfbrcements and supplies from~Lisbon. The only punishment inflicted on the conspirators. and thencefor ward his style was. be constitutional Unite with me. 2U ness. was suspension from their offices and this royal visit attached this province to him. and where he became daily more and on the 13th of May. Viva. and of thé whole nation. CoNSTiTUTMNAL. Viva. He returned to Rio de Janiero on the 25th. he addressed them thus Brave Mineros The shackles of despotism.

town of Cachoiera. shortly began to boil sea-water in sugar-coppers. and request assistance. Down with the Brazilian In the months of June and July. large and populous. indeed. and sent to Rio de Janeiro to represent their situation to the Prince. and they decreed that the whole means of government should be employed to enforce obedience. where. collecting all the salt-petre in (seven pence).212 REVOLUTION him. in Cachoiera. who assembled there. so that the quantity at first sold for ten pataccas (eighteen shillings) fell to seven vintems The same apothecary. under pain of submitting to the future disposition of the Cortes. being cleaned and bushed by . and a fortunate discovery of some hundred barrels smuggled into Itaparica by some English. and expel the Portuguese from their capital. to make salt. applied himself to making of gunpowder. They began to form regular troops but though they were abundantly supplied with beef and other provisions. An apotbecary~ raw hides supplied the place of almost every thing. went so far as to cry. on one occasion. were declared traitors. and soon reduced the price of that article. thèse for the purpose of balancing some part of the rnachinery were at once sent to Cachoeira. indeed. unless by force. and intimately connected with the hardy inhabitants of the Certam. he quickly ~buud one most formidable. no lead fbr baïï for their muskets and matchlocks lead. was of essential use to them. But they had the no cannon. their friends within the city contrived to smuggle to them and their guns were supplied in the In each engenho. they were in want of arms and am munition. soon became the headresolved to quarters of crowds of patriots. the neighbourhood. as if it had been possessed by an The enemy and. Madeira began to make sallies into the country around Bahia. and he was ordered home anew. The Brazilian members did indeed remonstrate and protest formally and thé specbut they were over-ruled against these proceedings tators in the galleries. and a quantity of gun-Iocks. there was an old gun or two following manner. They were also in great distress for salt to -preserve their provisions and as to accoutrements. within four months.

500 pistols. by whîch the independence of Brazil was openly asserted. together with the ple no longer hesitated. the inhabitants-shall retire to the interior. His Royal Highness. shall fortify their against thé strangers of. senate. That all governors.000 cartridges. who had marched a body of troops to the assistance of thé patriots of Cachoiera. calling together a of members representative and legislative assembly. On the same day. and a most harassing warfare was commenced against the Portuguese in St. the grounds ofits daims of clearly stated. with ail their moveables. as well as The Prince and peonotice of the decrees of the Cortes at Lisbon. If they force a landing in any weak point. but they had hardly had time to exult in their arrivai. 500 cutlasses. and 260 mens 2000pikes. 3d. 500 carbines. the Prince. Reports to be forthwith made of the state ports in Brazil. Salvador these last had received a reinfbrcement of seven hundred men on the 8th of August. containing the following articles :–Ist. Meantime. issued proclamations on the 3d of June. six neld-peces. they shall be repulsed by force 4th. and to let the shores. This last decree had been anticipated by the Pernambucans. a decree was put forth to resist the hostilities of AU troops sent by Portugal. to be composed from every province and town. shall départ dience. &c. That in case of disobehaving received supplies. for that end. they shall remain on board their ships. 2'70. and the militia shall make war as guérillas 5th. to meet in the city of Rio and on the first of August he published that noble manifesto. news of these transactions arrived at Rio. shall any country whatever. from the Ainazons to the Plata. and shall not communicate with the shore but. &c. without leave obtained from be accounted enemies 2d. they were rendered serviceable and thé patriots ventured to take the field against Madeira's parties. 21~ an ingenious blacksmith. even before the arrivai of any assistance from Rio. the ports. 6th. and the people exhorted to let no voice but that honour be heard among them. resound with no cry but that of independence.OF BRAZIL. . If they come in peace. when a squadron from Rio Janeiro disembarked at Alagoas 5000 guns.

At length. was soon occupied by the Brazilians and Madeira had only his supplies from seaward. and a great concourse of people attending. on the 12th ofOctober. or to dislodge the enemy from his strong-hold in Bahia. of a short time spent in the service of and settled in Braxil where. communication with Nazareth on one of the rivers of the Reconcave. from Buenos Ayres and America. as usual. unless he could by force dislodge the BraziHans from their quarters on that island. were instantly einployed. but pardoned on condition of living in Cayenne. so it encouraged thé Brazihans. he was dismissed military irregularity. which is most fertile. but from the opposite island of Itaparica. with the exception Bolivar. This event seemed to give new spirit to thé war of Bahia as it exasperated the Portuguese. sent one in the Spanish war. who soon joined the patriots.214 REVOLUTION chiefly officers. however. assembled in thé great square of Santa Anna. the birth-day of the Prince. if possible. and furnishes abundance of farinha. having stretched a line of troops across the peninsula on which the town is placed. the Prince was suddenly ha~ïed Emperor of Brazil. and all exertions were made to repair such of the ships left behind by King John as would bear the repairs. if they wished to preserve the kingdom from thé farther attacks of Portugal. the agents of the government in England were employed to engage officers and men some were collected on the spot others. under Brigadier-general Lebatu*. and thus eut it off from provisions on that side but the sea being still open. such as Captain David Jewet. This . For some gentleman was an officer under Napoleon. and fixed his head-quarters at Cachoiera. and procuring information for thé French government. the troops being. Accordingly. supplies were abundant. resolved. not only from abroad. however. and the kingdom changed in style and title. now Madeira. That fertile district. for ever abjured. or connection with Portugal. He left that country. The cabinet of Rio became sensible that it was necessary to provide a naval force. to gain a assured of independence. he had lived quietly and respectably till the present juncture. and au dependence on.

and two other brigs of war they were to land half on one side and half on the other of the little peninsula forming the Punto. and did little damage. to attempt to of the IIha do Medo. For this purpose 1500 men were embarked on board the Promtadao. which commands the Funil. or gain possession passage between the mainland and Itaparica leading to Nazareth. The Brazilian soldiers now crowded to the wharfs. and were concealed among the bushes ashore. and thé shot. and arrived off the public square. 1823. as the provisions in the town diminished. and they were obliged to wait for the tide. Meantime the land side of the city had been harassed by continuai attacks. while the Brazilians. and deliberately fired on the Lusitanians as they passed. and the troops worn out with constant watching for the Of her. only struck the quays. which the troops were to attack while the brigs fired on the fort. see more in the Journal . but their boats grounded. mob but the tide was low. usually aUowing for a contrary wind but these vessels were two days in reaching it.0F BRAZÏL. on which there is a small fort and town. Another expédition. and thence commenced so brisk a nre on the enemy. the possession of which was becoming daily more important.* The most considerable expedition sent by Madeira from Bahia was to the Punto de Itaparica. thou~h he lost many. 215 hundred men of the Caçadores~ under Colonel Russel. who are excellent marksmen. for the spirit of pa~ triotism hadnotconnneditseiftothemen. without the loss of a man. by which time the Brazilians had thrown up heaps of sand behind which they lay concealed. In this action Dona Maria de Jesus distinguished herself. and committed great slaughter. This action. instead of reaching the people. picked them off at leisure. that thé commander of the vessel retreated hastily without killing a man. equally unfortunate. though they had several wounded. just as it was filled with The guns began to play on the people proclaiming the Emperor. The passage from Bahia to this point is of six or seven hours at most. if it may be called so. took place on thé 2d of January. was sent with a large gun-vessel to Cachoeira. and lasted from noon till sunset.

and causing their trumpets to sound to charge in the night. along with Lord Cochrane. between two and three leagues from the city. The finances began to assume a flourishing aspect large subscriptions flowed in from all quarters for thé equipment of a fleet and an invitation had been sent to Lord Cochrane to command it. and by the time the enemy could reach thé spot they were fled. and the Brazilians took up new positions close to the city gates. that all the foreign merchants who had families. and beating marches. was solemnly crowned in the chapel of the palace. The Emperor had accepted the most moderate income that ever crowned in order to spare his people. such. Such was the state of things when 1 arrived for the second time in Brazil. attended business of every kind encouraged improvements in every department. On the 18th of November. Ail thé country-houses were abandoned. when a severe action took place. and Brazil had begun to assume a most nourishing aspect. who. that the whole ofsouthern Brazil presented one scene ofjoy. on the Ist of December. 1823. bitants were decorating their town with triumphal arches for the coronation of their Emperor. The heaviest contributions were levîed on all natives and fbreigners. were beloved. however. which serves as thé cathedral and it is no exaggeration to say. on thé ~th of March. Thé ministers. and the misery of a siège was coming upon thé city. and both claimed the victory but as the Lusitanians retired to thé town. 1822. 11 ~'1 "1 a thousand Less than twenty pounds sterling year. and was met by the BraziHans at Pirata. The inhaRio de Janeiro presented a very different spectacle. and the people crowded into the town. no less than the monarch. Madeira made a sortie. thc advantage must undoubtedly have been on the Meantime the scarcity of fresh provisions was side of the latter. He visited head was contented withal his dock-yards and arsenals himself.216 REVOLUTION Brazilians were continually riding about in the woods. and who could by any means remove. did so. . with some loss on both sides.

RIO DE JANEIRO. had returned from Alagoas. and 1 cannot get ashore either to provide lodgings for myself and my invalid*. from the Doris~ having broken ablood-vessel.Rio. Allen. 1823. with a neet of transports. 217 MorcA 13<A. on the ground of having formerly visited the place. It appears that last night only His Imperial Majesty's ships Unaô. On board the Col. and immediately began to enquirè of him concerning the news of . and a considerable naval My cousin Mr. the captain of the ship showed him into the cabin. where they had landed reinforcements for General Labatu whose head-quarters are at Cachoeira. or to assist my friends in any way. and who is investing the city of Bahia closely. F F . and Liberal.) Nitherohy. One of the most windy and rainy days that 1 ever remember seeing in Brazil so that the beautiful landscape of the harbour is entirely lost to the strangers from Chile. (now Piranga. And first he mentioned the coronàtion of the Emperor. Glennie invalided. at anchor in Rio de Janeiro. When the officer of the visiting boat came on board. and left him with me. besides 2000 seamen which occasionally do duty ashore. 1 found he spoke English. and then the war at Bahia on which 1 questioned him very closely. General Madeira has a strong force of Portuguese soldiers.

22. and came out of dock yesterday she is said to sail well. the able seamen's monthly pay was raised to 10 mil. jumped over the side to be the first. Restauraçam. bounty. Conceiçam. the port-captain. and anchor where he pleased without ceremony.. Thé bounty was also increased. to able-bodied seamen. 80 rees per day. 4 mil. ISthof ordinary. Shortly afterwards a farther advance was made. 56. San Domingo. had been left bi the King in want of thorough repair this she has had. from whom we learned something more of the state of His Imperial Majesty's fleet. 4 mil. –Promptidao. t8. 26. and petty officers received extra pay. 8 mil. 1 lb. and shortly afterwards Captain Taylor of the Nitherohy.~-mc~ Merchant Vessels. to landsmen. A store-ship. . that of ordinaries to 8 mil. 500 rees to rees to ordinary seamen. but not commissioned. bounty. and 3 mil. -This very day. well found. and calling to the captain to do as he would. The Pedro Primeiro. if possible. The pay in Bellard's foreign regiment. is a corvette. 24. 800 rees to others. for merly the Martim Freitas. Did 1 come from Chile ? Did I know Lord Cochrane ? was he coming to Rio ? for all eyes were turned towards him. The Caroline is a fine frigate. Calypso. me~. to dread is the want of men. March. When he found that His Lordship was actually on board. The Nitherohy wants copper. 10 de Fevréiro.–Regeneraçao. 20 guns. and clothing. 18. Nearly the same scene was acted over when Perez. force. but a heavy sailer. sterling. Pedro Pr imeiro is as follows To able-bodied seamen 8 mil. which they had not hitherto done. and entreated to kiss his hands then snatched his hat. and is commanded by Captain Jewitt. The Unaô is a very fine ship. San Guaiter.) 24 oz. (both together 6~. 28.* But it appears. 800 man the 8 mil. the officer began to question me in my turn.Bisai-i-a. for want of men. 22.t. 8. Active. bread. and in good repair. Constituiçam.t Portuguese sailors are worse than Corvette. and the Maria da Gloria. 22. Smack Emilia. Captain Beaurepair. 16. Brig Audaz. 6 mil.218 JOURNAL. 80 guns. came on board and in a few minutes Captain GarçaÔ of thé Liberal came to pay his respects. to convey to the Emperor the joyful intelligence. Don Joam Sesto. he flew to his cabin door. is commanded by a French The great dlinculty the navy here bas officer. 40 rees stranger money. 8. Having told me so much. a fine corvette. 29. The adveitisement of February for seamen to t The pay of seamen is but scanty. Monthly-pay. that the seamen are on the point of mutining for want of pay.

and a daughter of that of Austria. Thé Emperor is fond of the navy. 1 went early ashore to prepare for leaving the brig. Some more solid works have been executed. 1 ob15~. the prôner place for gossip. Their Majesties appear by all accounts to be highly popular. They are of course only temporary. May came on board. to prevent thé news of Lord Cochrane's arrivai from reaching Bahia. ventures to stand forth in the cause of freedom or independence and a son of the house of Braganza. leading the way to the independence of this great empire. An embargo has been laid on all vessels to-day. designed in extremely good taste. 219 none. is shut. and the Empress generally accompanies him. so 1 retumed to thé brig. and the streets new paved. He is often in the dock-yards by daylight. placed. and very active in looking into every department. Their youth. and French. His Lordship and Captain Crosbie. cannot but excite the love as well as the admiration of their fortunate subjects.March 14~. tiH 1 can get He also gives us good accounts of the government. their spirit. Mr. the singular situation in which they are It is seldom that a hereditary prince.RIO DE JANEIRO. and the opera. English. and 1 went ashore to see ifl could find any of my old friends. aU thé forts and other public works visibly improved. and Americans are very scarçe. under which the Emperor had passed on the day ofcoronation. because it is Lent. who had conie in from San Cristovaô to meet him at the palace in town. Another day of such heavy rain. or hear any news but ail the EngHsh were gone to their country-houses. but then well pleased with their reception. aqueducts repaired. &c. few Brazilians are sailors at all. FF 2 . that 1 have no chance of landing my invalid. and told me 1 might have Sir T. did not return till late. ana found Lord Cochrane ready to go ashore to wait on the Emperor. served two of the arches. Hardy's house for a few days. are ail interesting. There is besides every where an air of business. who went with him. one for myself its finances. and well executed. since I last saw Rio new R)untains opeaed. The weather cleared up in the aftemoon.

English officers is only equal to that of England. be living on board that dirty little brig in which we arrived. spirits. after a time. however. Of course. and have succeeded. terms he could never accept. It was a fine evening. but. 1 have a note from him announcing that he hoists his flag at four o'clock this afternoon. and sent him to bed in pretty good to be pretty miserable myself. so am not sure 1 suppose. and the little voyage in the boat to Botafogo seemed to do Glennie good but we had the mortification to find that neither the provisions 1 had bought in the town had arrived. on board the Pedro Primeiro. in receiving and returning the visits of my old acquaintance. to lean to.' 1 hear there is nothing yet settled about Lord Cochrane's comThe world says that he was asked to serve under two mand. or he would notstill about this. they. these are Portuguese admirais and for Portuguese pay. and still more foolish to be vexed at the perfect indifference with which they saw me am once more without any one go both perhaps natural enough. to convey me with my cousin and my goods of His I~rdship's high Much was said among the English as well as Brazilians that his pay and that of the 1 have reason to think (not from his information) terms. have business and pleasure before them. So nor the servant one of my friends had promised to procure me. 1 have we were alone and supperless. and in being very unwell. for a house. 1 carried Glennie ashore in the afternoon. difficulties ~ere in the way of Lord Cochrane's 21~Whatever command. rank for rank. they are over. 1 have not seen him. 1 had from the huckster's shop in the neighbourhood a tolerable tea to give my invalid.220 JOURNAL. and so. and took time afterwards These past days 1 have employed in looking about jMarcA 20~. .* Beaver kindly 22~. thank God. and was foolish enough to feel very sorry to leavc my fellow-passengers. learned so much in my wanderings as not to be dependent. not helpless. I. Captain Bourchier of His Majesty's ship lent me his boat to-day. and alone in the world with my melancholy charge. it is true.


that the ship Lady Cochrane will sail in. 28~This friends. It is almost surrounded by the sea. bringing no good news of any kind. Monday. Yesterday thé Pedro Primeiro dropped down thé harbour. Her cabins are be&utiMly ntted up with handsome wood and green morocco cushions. We found that the Emperor and Empress had been on board at day-light. must touch in this port however. who are hurrying every thing to get to sea as quickly as possible as it is of the utmost conséquence to. the Empress said. and 1 try to comfort Lord Cochrane as to thé nrst piece of intelligence. It is pleasant to me on many accounts it is cool. we shall be perfectly quiet here. Captain Brown. as she was still taking in stores. both to me and to my Friday." The Pedro Primeiro is a nnë two-deeker. May's. which breaks against the wall and not being near any road. Captain Cape Horn twice before he sees them Brown gives a most formidable account of a Portugues fleet bound for Bahia. She has a most beautiful gun-deck. In the first place. ~arcA 31~. 1 trust he is mistaken in the last. of the probability. On someofthePortuguese officers complaining that the EngHsh sailors had been drunk the day before. by suggestions.. &c. which he met on this side of the line. 'tis thé custom of the North. and receiving men. so that they will have to perform the rough passage round aud in thé next. Lord Cochrane suffers extrême distress on learning tbat Lady Cochrane and her infant daughter are on their way to Chile. and not very far from the house the government has-given as a temporary residence to Lord Cochrane. arrived to-day from England. <SB<fMr~a~29~H!s Ma~esty's ship Tartar. 221 to my cottage on the Gloria hill. free Bahia of thé enemy. if not certaihty. where brave men corne irom. Oh. without a poop. his natural anxiety is not to be overcome. but 1 could not see her to advantage. and to-day 1 went with Lord Cochrane on board of her. has been a busy week. Thé sailors are under my protection 1 spread my mantle oyer them. and 1 am told the Emperor takes great pride .RIO DE JANEIRO. close to Mr. as far as Boa Viage. and there is a shady walk for the sick.

. and sail. and three lieutenants who came with us from Chile are appointed to her. 'Tis a sort of historical portrait. and thé fort began to salute. But all this is nothing to the evil attending the having Portuguese among the crews. in her. Thé Nitherohy sails to-morrow to join Lord Cochrane off Bahia. tbat the cartridges are still flannel and 1 fear that the ships are not so well found as 1 wish them great part of the canvass and cordage have been seventeen years in store. with three mortars on board. two 10. had expected the Admirai to breakfast with me. like Kenilworth. statesman. 1 find. and accompanied him out of the harbour as far as the light-house. Captain Crosbie commands her.-Nothing ofany note or variety bas taken place during these 1 write and read. and the rest of the court serve for the black boy and parrot in costume while the story of Peveril is nothing more than the carved-work frieze of the very pleasant apartment he bas been placed in. so that he could'not leave them. and buSbon. and the Liberal got under weigh but just as the little squadron came abreast of Santa Cruz. Glennie is gaining ground him. 1 have had the pleasure of reading Peveril of the Peak within these few days. but. The morning was dull and grey when the Pedro Primeiro. and one 13-mch." is the principal figure Charles II. where the Duke of Buckingham. and. came in and brought the news of the war between France and Spain. 1 afterwards learned that the Emperor and Empress were on board. the Maria da Gloria. and the packet from England. partly rotten. he who In one revolving moon Was hero. 10th. with made up here in canvass. and a bright yellow flood of light descended behind the ships to the sea. the sun broke from behind a cloud. 1 saw the ship get under weigh. not surprise. the Unaô. 'Tis not natural they should fight against their countrymen. fiddler. 14~Thé Fly sloop of war. 1 should fear. and attend to ten days. where they seemed to swim in a sea of glory and that was thé last sight 1 had of my kind friend. April lst.I to my great disappointment.222 JOURNAL.

1 say because 1 am convinced that every week and month passed happily. but natural but now that they are independent. as Portugal is considered to be implicated in the disputes in Europe and then. which. interesting hère. bas suffered some loss in an action with thé Portuguese however. Rodriguez. 1 feel so very lonely. and being used to constant intercourse with an intelligent inmate. which is represented as very great. the part EngJand may take. to sail in His Majesty's ship Beaver. The Imperial General Lecor. with a convoy of transports. of course. those principles should have time and peace to grow. while they had to amend the abuses of their old government. They will but increase the distress of the garrison. that he bas determined on joining the Commodore at Bahia and this day he left me.RIO DE JANEIRO. in the. as they have brought no provisions. contain the principles of freedom and greatness. 15th. After having had him to attend to for six months. also gives intelligence that the head of the Buenos Ayrian government. is of infinite consequence both to the present and future wellbeing of the Spanish colonies. an attempt was made by one of the exchiefs to subvert his government happily. that 1 believe 1 must leave off some of my sedentary. frequent changes were unavoidable. The same vessel that brought the news from Lecor. and to suit themselves to the genius of the people. We learn that the ships seen by the Tartar were only a frigate. 25~A French brig of war came in to-day from Bahia. without change. on board of which was a reinforcement for Madeira of 1500 men. and how that may affect this country.south. habits. having taken the field against some Indian tribes. it is not considerable enough to give any serious uneasiness. . 223 This news is. and visit a little among my neighbours.-Glennie bas been gaining so much strength lately. is a subject of anxious speculation. who have lately committed great ravages in his territories. and that they have constitutions. if not perfect. without success. While they had still to struggle for their independence. The more domestic news is not quite agreeable.

the ladies sitting all together in a formal circle. But we ail sat and took our refreshments at leisure. Soon after ail the company was assembled. with gold mouldings. sings with taste. many of whom sang extremely well but when it came to Dona Rosa's turn. and received a good deal of information on subjects that only women attend to. may boast of one of thé finest families in the world. progress in English. the wife of Senhor Luis Jose de Carvalho e Mello. or nieces of the lady of the house. 1 was ready to exclaim with ComusCan any mortal mixture of earth's mould Breathe such divine enchanting ravishment?" This man is brother to the instructor of Catalani. and every But thé best decoration. 28~I spent the day with Miss Hayne. and bas made no small She knows the literature of her own country. and could scarcely afford time to recognise their passing acquaintance. instead of standing with cups in our hands.224 JOURNAL. the prething corresponds. and cakes. We then adjourned to the music-room. The walls are decorated with French papers in compartments. was this night. the Baronesa de Campos. whose mother. very handsomely built and richïy furnished. She speaks and writes French well. on broad silver salvers. the gentlemen walking about generally in other rooms. and elbowing our way through crowds of persons. Several of her cousins and aunts speak French fluently so that 1 had the pleasure of conversing freely with them. and was conducted pretty much as in England the servants handing round tea. draws correctiy. most of them sisters. where the music-master* attended to accompany the ladies. . Dona CarIota. who all look as if they were bound on some particular business. and dances gracefully. sence of a number of the handsomest women 1 have seen in Brazil. The daughter of the house. is distinguished here by talent and cultivation beyond her fellows. on her birth-day. The family were at their country-house at Botafogo and a most excellent house it is. or cousins. and accompanied her in thé evening to compliment Dona Ana. coffee. the ceremony of tea-drinking commenced.

or even the waiting-maid of every young woman. and 1 began to fear.. G. a certain portion of every class of society is ïess moral than the rest? In some countries immorality is more refined indeed. of their masters. who is supposed to be well brought up. An Englishman who has been in this country many years. and who was not sorry at its conclusion ? the dancing commenced. 225 The music ended. not here though I do not deny that such things are done in Rio. began to give me such a picture of the private morals in Brazil. as was beginning to darken their countenances and to dim their eyes. are slaves. they are stripped apparently of half their vice. But. as well as I. view of the subject has opened my eyes on many points. and of good character and morals. or the governess. remember that with us. that women. even the unmarried. on which 1 have hitherto been wondering ignorantly. very few English. and this of their families. He looked slowly round thé room. Mrs. These are aH checks on conduct. and offered to wager. there is the nurse of the family.) that there were in that room not less than ten ladies. that in aU great cities. and that the married and unmarried who bas long were alike and referred me to my jtriend M been here. are less pure here than in Europe. But suppose the <act. No. and then those who like myself were not dancers sat by to gossip. when luckily he went a step too far. But here the and form a guardianship only inferior to a mother's.RIO DE JANEIRO. and well-bred Brazilians. and knows the people weU. (thé true English way of amrming. GG . and when manners lose their grossness. There were several very pleasant French naval oflicers here to1 conversed with some sensible night. and a few. seeing me full ofadmiration of the beautiful and gay créatures before me. when 1 left my younger friends dancing at midnight. do not you know. each provided with her note to slip into the hand of her gallant. therefore naturally the enemies servants and ready and willing to deceive them. in your country and in mine as well as in this. besides the mother. by assisting in the corruption Here then is another curse of slavery. but he said. so that 1 was scarcely aware of the lateness of thé hour.

and producing more general relations in the country. as we were only three persons. and who hoped to succeed her rival as the wife of the man she loved but he has not married again. and found that thé English packet ~0~. just as the mother advanced carriage. seems to narrow all these. and on returning at night. and fountains. 1 ner might have been English or French . she was shot from the veranda of her own house. The dinner was small. but which do not assort ill with the silken hangings and gilt mouldings of thé rooms. the jealousy of a woman. and that fear caused her death. dinusing property. Another conjecture is. When mere children. a variety of small birds. who cannot sleep if they are not both in the room with her. and cellently dressed. so that His t ordship must be there long ere this time she brings retoo strong for the Cortes ports that the i'oyalist party are becoming at Lisbon. with rather more china and French docks than we should think of displaying.226 JOURNAL. Her house is really a its grotto magnificent one it bas its ball-room. and its music-room. AU search for the murderer was vain but conjecture points to two possible causes of the crime. She fell in with Lord Cochrane's squadron near Bahia. While at the bail. both for iamily and public use. the girls have ever since lived with their grandmother. aunts with their nephews. and to withdraw all the affections into too close and selfish a circle. but exSoup of wild-fowl. However it was. The iamily -attachments hère are quite beautiful they are as close and as intimate as those of clanship in Scotland but they have their inconveniences. they had accompanied their mother to some from the gala. I went early to town. in the constant intermarriages between near relations. who it seems had been injured. instead of widening connections. sweetmeats of the country. One. 1 spent the day with Madame do Rio Seco. so that marriages. that she was acquainted with some political secrets. as uncles with their nieces. besides extremely handsome apartments of every kind. were rarities to me the rest of the dinit was served in plate. had arrived. the tragic story of two lovely girls was told me. to hoard weaith. &c.

If a general calls his soldiers brave before thé battle. 1 forced myself to smile to them. but which 1 will not write. by GG 2 . as to lose the shame of it. 1 have this day seen the Val Longo it is the slaveMay 1~. it becomes a point of honour to prove so. We know well enough the weak parts of Vice human nature if they are treated tenderly. than make them so familiar with thé least of their failings. men may be flattered into virtue.RIO DE JANEIRO. apparently not above fifteen years old. because 1 think it neither honest nor womanly to take the protection of the laws and the feelings of a foreign country. And were it in my power. and kissed my hand to them. and some much under. but weakness and folly should meet In a society rising like this. attracted their attention they touched one another. stood near them. and a group of boys and girls. At one house thé half-doors were shut. and jumped about and danced. As 1 approached them. market of Rio. and though certainly more disposed to weep. were leaning over the hatches. to be sure that all saw me. and gazing into the street with wondering faces. Poor things 1 would not. indeed may require the lash. their heads shaved. Almost every house in this very long street is a depôt for slaves. On passing by the doors this evening. 1 had rather persuade the Brazilians that they have every virtue under heaven. In some places the poor creatures were lying on mats. 1 am persuaded that with indulgence. They were evidently quite new negroes. shorten their moments of glee. it appears that something about me. in their own African dialect with great eagerness. 1 saw in most of them long benches placed near thé walls. they may mend. with all which they seemed delighted. Dutems would have given any priée to enrich the souvenirs of the coy<~CMrqui se repose withal. if 1 could. and look cheerfully. and record the foibles of its inhabitants so as to give others the opportunity of laughing at them. on which rows of young creatures were sitting. evidently too sick to sit up. and the marks of recent itch upon their skins. and then chat1 went and tered. as if returning my civiiities. their bodies emaciated. 227 heard a great many anecdotes to-day of a great many persons of all degrees. for which M.

Since1returnedto England. to those who buy. slaves are the worst and most expensive servants.eraH. not only to themselves but to their families and their posterity. and one proof of it is this. January February March April May June August September October November December 2914 1926 3170 1448 1281 680 2578 685 1337 2567 2634 21. 1neednot addonewordon this part of the subject. Angola December. and implore them to think of the evils slavery brings. Angola Angola Angola Quilumana Muzambique 2%~Mty.1 have seenthe accountof the proceedings Joshua of Steelein Barba Joes. and to those who sel]. Muzambique Muzambique Ambuehe Cabinda Cabinda Luanda Benguela 483 337 352 409 348 549 396 2914 193 342 514 277 600 1926 Angola Quilumana Cabinda Cabinda 4. The small patch that each is allowed to cultivate for his own use on many estates generally yields at least twice as much in proportion as the land of the master.228 JOURNAL. Cabinda Cabinda Cabinda Muzambique Muzambique Marck. Oe<o~ ~M' t~t/KM~.30 280 387 451 1448 342 361 831 225 122 1281 680 1 Angola Angola Benguela 452 375 510 1337 ~y. 516 -<g!M< Angola 523 Luanda ~14 j Angola 309 Luanda 460 Angola 394 Luanda 734 Muzambique Luanda 304 Muzambique 330 Luanda 227 Cabinda 562 339 2634 Benguela 2578 311 385 342 257 260 291 287 345 433 259 3170 September.199 June. 1821. 1 have hitherto endeavoured. but 1present the readerwiththe twofollowing statements f custom-housentriesat Rioforthe years o e 1821and 1822. awakening them to a sense of the sad things of slavery but. 1 think. Quilumana Quilumana Quilumana Quilumana Quilumana Quilumana Quilumana Angola Angola Angola -A7<wcM~ Ambuiz Benguela Angola Angola Angola Quilumana 220 390 579 544 388 446 '2567 ABSTRACTOF1821. though fewer hours of labour are bestowed upôn it. 685 Angola . if 1 could. not only to thé negroes but to themselves. 1 would appeal to their masters. June. An.

it will be hardly possible for meto do so. 1 am told. La Susse.P~ Cabinda 417 1 June Cabinda 499 Luanda 561 "-y ~Ptem~r 425 Benguela ° ~902 November 1~ December Z~cem~r. Quilumana 417 Quilumana 459 Angola 144 Angola 305 Cabinda 278 Cabinda 2347 r 323 203 519 418 291 377 2131 September. 229 without success. Angola Angola Cabinda Benguela Benguela 572 534 466 524 298 2394 jFMn«My. convince me that the importation must be very great. 1 fear.RIO DE JANEIRO. Luanda Benguela Cabinda Cabinda 467 fi 428 434 337 1666 ABSTRAcrOF 1822. for the purpose of going 1888..g 455 Muzambique 305 Angola 354 Angola 371 Angola 4401 Oe<o~.-Early called on me to take me in his boat to town. about one in five. on account of the distance of some of the ports but 1 will not rest till 1 procure at least a statement of the number entered at the custom-house here during the last two years. 436 Cabinda 432 446 Cabinda 533 420 302 Angola 4273 Angola 761 390 Benguela March. ~. The ordinary proportion of deaths on the passage is. May 3d. 74-4. this morning the French naval captain. mg Cabinda 667 Cabinda 400 504 Quilumana 487 Cabinda Quilumana 427 406 Quilumana 691 Angola 452 Muzambique p. Luanda 514 Cabinda 534 450 Quilumana ––° 1498 2394 1666 1902 1*98 1498 24. indeed. Muzambique Muzambique Muzambique Muzambique Angola Angola Angola Quilumana Quilumana Benguela 421 May. Cabinda Cabinda Cabinda Cabinda Muzambique Mozambique ~t/. 419 Angola 398 399 Benguela 388 520 7gg 406 400 406 June. and the multitudes that throng the slave-houses in this street.934 l . January February 1 March 23477 4273 4401 ~bMM&y. to procure a correct statement of the number of slaves imported into all Brazil. The number of ships from Africa that 1 see constantly entering the harbour. J~atM~.

most of the nobility. and . and all manner gilt harnesses. then the carriages of the nobility and other persons having the entrée. and thé procession was elosed by more troops. Many other gala carriages seemed as if they had on horizontal built in the age of Louis XIV. by-the-bye. and ail other kind of savage hangings. of yellow feathers. some very handsome Then there were splendid liveries. containing the might not mortify the poor Maria household. with kind of metal naments. of gaudiness. and. ail the gentlemen of the Assembly. My young as 1 begin to friend Dona Carlota improves on acquaintance. the ladies of honour. silver and silver and gilding.230 JOURNAL. dressed in gala dresses. to Senhor Luis Jose's house in the Rua do Ouvidor. very light. rich such being the express order of the Emperor. which 1 was well pleased to do. nobody driving more than a pair. evidently built in Europe. not without The houses were hung with aIl the damask and satin of every costored with ladies. and several regiments accompanied him. Such things mounted besides paint leathern bands. household. for The carriages displayed to-day would form a curious collection of a museum in London or Paris. waved our handkerchiefs. silver fellies to the wheels. 1 found it was expected should await its return. Some were the indescribable sort caleche used here and in the middle of these was a very gay pea-green silver or~ and silver chariot. First marched the soldiers. The crown was on Thé the great cape of state. some taste. to see the Emof the Constituent and Legislative peror go in state to the opening Ail the great officers of state. much wrapped up seated by him. was Empress. on account of a recent indisposition. and beàutiful embossed silver plates on the harness been the mules. we and diamonds in profusion their heads. lour that they could supply and the balconies with feathers whose bright eyes rain influence. in order that the then the royal carriages. The Emperor wore eight mules. silver where any of could be used. and as the royal carriages passed. and the young Princess Dona with da Gloria thé Emperor and Empress followed in a state-coach the front seat. and scattered flowers on that we When the procession had passed. over his green robes.

This necessary business. one of five members. bishop and grand chaplain. and thé reforms. our first ing Emperor. 1823. but there are history and general literature.th of that month. occupied the whole of the first and greater part of the second session towards the end of thé latter. and some consequent discussion. faithmtty and truly. 1823. Accordingly on the 17th of April. chiefly French. also the constitutional empire. 1 was introduced to several Portuguese authors and Don Carlota. to hold a scrntiny on The first act was to name two committees thé election of the deputies generaHy. at the window. had been published for the assembling or regulating the election of deputies from the provinces ofBrazu. . and to make indispensable and Apostottc religion. 231 venture to speak Portuguese. to entreat that he would honour the assembly with his presence at their first sitting as a Iegislative body. to His Imperial sent a deputation. and Manoel Jose de Sousa França secretary. their first meeting for the 17th. Maintaining always the Roman Cathoiic integrity and independence of the empire. to form a constituent assémbiy. convoked in order to irame a political and urgent constitution for the empire of Brazil. and his issue. The throne to be placed at one end of the hall. otherwise the chair to be in front of the throne. when our pleasant party dispersed. Early in April. the assembly having finished its preliminary sittings. headed by Jose Bonifacio. thé President shaM have his chair when the Emperor presides. the deputies. Various ordinances of thé Sd and 19th June and the 3d ofAugust. and proceeded to elect a temporary president and secretary. time saw a Brazilian private gentleman's library. was elected president. in number 52. and some English books. the greater number of those who could be collected in the present state of On the 14. 1823. 1 was taken into thé study. 1822. and for the first As he is a judge. and the other of three. the 20th and 22d February. 1 am becoming intimate with the elder part of the family. the form of the oath to be administered to the members. of course the greater part is law. was decided ï swear to fulfil. and of. and the dynasty of the Lord Don Peter. did me the favour to read some of Diniz's fine verses to We then returned to our station me. and saw the procession return in the order in whicb it came. the Emperor fixed the country had arrived in the capital. on the first step on thé right-hand side. when the Right Révérend Don Jose Caetano da Silva Coutinho. and to lend me his works. entered their house of assembly at nine o'clock in the morning.RIO DE JANEIRO. thé obligations of deputy to the General Constituent and 1 egisiative AssemMy of Brazil. Majesty. without admitting any other nation whatever Maintainto any bond of union or federation which might oppose that independence." Thé third session was occupied in regulating the forms of the assembly. to examine those of thé five. and he was pleased to name half past eleven o'ctock to-day for that purpose. who reads remarkably well. Yesterday.

from the bridge without the town by the street of St. or a minister commissioned by him.232 JOURNAL. and a gallery is open to strangers. Princess. and crown~ on his head. forms as to the reception of the Emperor. and conducted the Emperor. The 2d was appointed for a deputation to wait on the Emperor. and with his assistance to open the important business on which they had met. the people of Rio de Janeiro had strewed the way with evergreens. that it was spoken as freely as if it was the spontaneous effusion of the moment. to the throne. spoke as follows and it was remarked. our Empress. that so far from the speech having the air of a thing read from a paper or studied. I observe the Brazilians never say Emperor. and seldom name either. and on it the Gospel. the Princess. and then the lst of May was fixed on for the whole body of the members to go to the chapel royal. and the streets Do Ouvidor and Direita to the palace troops lined the whole space the houses were decorated. without some epithet of affection. it was not. and their ladies. with his the Empress. proper his great Some other places are appointed for ambassadors. therefore. officers may accompany him. Peter's. and received thé oaths of several of the deputies. This morning. being at thé same time placed in the tribune. a copy When the Emperor opens the assembly. ladies. and the bands of the different regiments relieved each other as their Imperial Majesties passed. with a small table. and flowers. to take their oaths. and inform him that they were ready to proceed on the 3d. the Campo de Santa Anna. a deputation from the assembly. of the constitution. or a regent. There was some mistake The crown is of a purple vetwt. it should have been wom during the but owing to the mistake alluded to. or misunderstanding about the iacE of wearing the crown at the opening of the assembly.went to thé door of the house to meet them. In the House of Assembly. and thé ministers may sit on his right. As soon as it was known that thé Imperial party had arrived. and on his right hand a tribune for the Empress. a throne had been prepared for the Emperor. and after hearing the mass of the Holy Ghost. separate from the table of the members. and excited a feeling as free in his favour. ceremony . The Emperor having deposited the crown and sceptre with the proper officer. but our Emperor. enriched with diamonds. sweet herbs. now Praça da Acclamaçao. As the crown is only a ceremonial badge of dignity. and a list of the members. the Theatre Square. were also settled.

would never consent (notwithstanding their "proclamation ofliberty. 1815 but Portugal burnéd with rage.. and to how low a state it had faUen. BrazH. How great is my delight. and trembled with fear. by another.) that the people of Brazil should enjoy a representation equal to what they themselves then possessed. or. 233 This is the greatest day that Brazil has ever seen a day on which. always frank in her mode of proceeding. and had suBëred all the evils arising from the destructive system then pursued. and little thinking she should be deceived. both before and after that measure echoed the cry for the constitution of Portugal. "thatis. Portugal was reduced. consulting together on its true Interests. by the convocation ofan assemblytp organise thé new kingdom. on account of the forces and ascendancy of the Portuguese which. They had miscalculated their plans for conquest. and mortified at having borne the yoke of iron so long. for the nrst time. it may show that it is an empire.exuited withpleasure when my Lord Don John VI. raised it to the dignity of a kingdom. my august father. iittieness. The delight which the inhabitants of~his vàst continent displayed on the occasion was unbounded but the pe~itic measure was not followed up. by his decree of the 16th of December. and from that miscalcuiation arises our good fortune. and a free empire. and on these founding a just and liberal constitution to govern them We ought long since to have enjoyed a national representation. Brazil. to behold real representatives from almost every one of its provinces. King of Portugal and Algarve. H H . which for upwards of three hundred years had borne the degrading name of a colony. perceiving clearly to what a degree of weàkness. "party. was unableto déclare them. perceiving them. as it ought to have bëen. fearing a séparation. and poverty.RIO DE JANEIRO. immediately on the proclamation of liberty in Portugal expecting that after this proof of confidence given to her pseudo brethren. But either the nation did not in time pereeiveits real interests. they would assist her to deliver herself from the vipers that were consuming her entrails.

Nevertheless. for they cannot maintain themselves there. to follow the infamous Cortes of Portugal. whieh Lisbon had sent for our protection but 1 took upon myself to protect this empiré. to subject themselves to a. and to procure that liberty which we desire and ought to enjoy but in vain shall we labour to procure it. the obstacles which. which was the first place to unité with Portugal. even for the very love of liberty. and they even made the sacrifice ofsubmitting to be insulted by the demagogue party which predominated in this hémisphère. who truly loved their country. and whîch continued to exist. in order to save the honour of Brazil. never intended. The Brazilians. if we permit to exist among us a party inimical to our true cause. We were so oppressed by thé European forces. before the 26th April. and whose views were to convert them at once from free men into vile slaves. opposed the liberties of Brazil. fearing that they should never enjoy a representative assembly oftheir own. being maintained by the European troops.234 JOURNAL. is on the point of being rased. imploring me to remain here. Paul's. and because she perceived too !ate the track she ought to have followed. and 1 refused to receive it. Scarcely were we well free from these enemies. however.constitution in which aU had not a voice. It ap- . and afterwards from all the otherjuntas ofgovernment and camaras. then from the camara of this capital. Pernambuco did the same. Such is the freedom Portugal sought to bestow on Brazil it was to be converted into slavery for us and would have ruined us totally if we had continued to execute her commands which we must have done. And Bahia. as a reward for her good faith. nrst from the junta ofgovernment of St. occupied only by them. that 1 was obliged to send them to the opposite shore of the Rio. to blockade them to force them to embark and pass the bar. but for the heroic remonstrances conveyed by pétitions. cansed the people. now sufïërs under a cruel war for those Vandals and her chief city.. Even this availed not. when in a few days arrived another expedition. 1821.

it was ready. as it is now. tell the people that I remain. as was my duty. which cost one-fburth of that of the King. and to maintain my household. 1 had scarcely pronounced the words.000 inilrees for the whole expenses of my household. then concealed. excepting the allowance of the Empress. in order to regulate its expenditure. still the revenue did not sumce but by changing some indi« v~duals not well anëcted to the cause of the empire.RIO DE JANEIRO. but oniy to that 2 HH . the rest in the Portuguese démocratie Cortes providing for ail thé departments. my august father. 1 know that this was my duty. when it shall be requisite. 1 could not be satisfied when 1 found that my expenses were so and theredisproportioned to the reduced receipts of the treasury "fbrel resolved to live as a private man. by such means as prudence dictated. though at the risk ofmy h& but as it was in defence of this empire. since unmasked. because till within four or five months they had been solely those of this province. But although the diminution was so considerable. or those employed in enëctive service. 1 examined into every department. The public treasury was in the very worst state. Not satisfied with thèse smaU savings in my household with which 1 commenced. On this account it was not possible to raise money for all that was necessary. my mucb-beloved and valued wife. one part among ourselves. ifl did not attend to the pétitions and 1 did attend to them. because they will be laid beibre you in proper time by the different officers of state. principally. as the receipts had been much reduced. and tocheck its abuses. which was assigned to her by her marriage contract. His disbursements exceeded four millions mine did not amount to one. receiving only 110. recommending to them at the same time union and ~a!M~M~ when 1 began to take mea~ures to put ourselves in a state to meet the attacks of our enemies. especiaily those of the treasury and foreign aiïairs. and which 1 shall not mention here. Asit is for the good of all. and. and the general happiness of the nation. and ever. as wehadah-eady too little to pay the public creditors. 235 peared to me that Brazil would be ruined. Yet.

and without credit. -as on the day of the departure of my august father. the freights of the ships on board of which the different expeditions sent back to Lisbon the purchase of several vessels the repair of were embarked others pay to civil and military officers who have arrived hère on service. for 1 lovejust liberty. neverH The expenditure hascertainly . that thé greater part of the creditors.–some from birth and principle. before thé departure of my august father. Among the extraordinary expenses are. cause. hâve been so far satisned. and they were not few. on account of the extraordinary expenses which should have been borne in common by all thé provinces.–to its credit so completely. they have been assisted with money. The public treasury. the 1 have caused. there only remained the sum of discount its bills. have been furnished for their décence with warhke stores. that it is ah-eady known in Europe and so much cash.236 JOURNAL. others from the intimate conviction that cause is that of reason. Don John VI. but from conviction. that no one can imagine that it can ever taU again into the wretched state to which it had been reduced. thé bank. which was on the point of losing its credit. moreover. was totaHy exhausted. besides those already in the part arsenals and. and thréatened bankruptcy every moment. or for trining sums.. has gained such credit. and who were continually betraying s us. because their nmds did not cover their necessary expenses. and to those expelled from the provinces for their private sufferings in the tumults there raised. but which fëtl solely upon this. great of which are newly purchased. as that their bouses have not sunered that the public servants have no arrears due any more than the military on actual service that the other provinces that have adhered to the holy not by force. the province now yieids from eleven to twelve millions its produce. of the infamous Portugueseparty. and 1 say it with pride. which. having been at most from six to seven. for others who loved Brazil with all their hearts. to re-establish twohundredcontosin money. In a word. been great but hitherto.

redoubts. there remain untouched. In the military arsenal they have wrôught diligently to prepare every thing necessary for the defence of the dinerent provinces and all. then '735. That in the Praça da Acclamaçaô is almost finished. ~WM jPars~s of the ~br<& to . a foreign regiment has been raised.000 milrees~br the purchase of ships of war indispensably necessary for the defence of the empire. and that ordered for the grenadiers will shortly be so.Mb~eM~eo. The barracks of the Carioca "forts. hâve received the assistance theyhave requested. and a battalion « ofartitlery of freed men. . nor discipline: with regard to arms. prepared. being already in obedience exemplary. which will shortly be completed.RIO DE JANEIRO.) entrenchments. and the other barracks are prepared. and sailed. because it is the chief spring of the state. men. are built. the sequestrated property of the absentées on account of political opinions the ]oan of 400. 237 theless. assistance to Bahia nrst 240 men. and batteries. abatis. As to military works. the walls of ail the fortresses have been These are formed in repaired. Besides these. it is now perfectly ready the men are increasing daily in and in discipline it will soon be perproportion to the population 1 have twice sent fëct. The army had neither arms. and which exists entire and the exchequer of the administration of diamonds. the gratuitous contributions. to oppose the approach of an enemy aiready ïanded. the different points nttest to oppose any enemy's force approaching by sea and in the dénies of the hills. In every department there was an urgent necessity for re&rm but in this of finance still more. (which would not be easy. fbrming a battalion called thé Emperor's Battalion which in eight days was chbsen. and some entirely new-constructed. The walls of the fortifications of this city wère totally ruihed and important wor~s necessary in thé they are now repaired arsenal itself have been finisbed.

and careening immense sums. which will soon be ready. 1 intend this year. if the calculation have given. ~< The fleet consisted only of the frigate Piranga. and Netherohy the corvettes Maria da Gloria and Libérât. and 1 expect six frigates of fifty guns. several new ones have been made. and we are The greater part of the aqueduct stHI continuing to embellish it. Now we have the ship of the line. 1 hope will be nnished this year. have been repaired. for the purchase ofwhîch orders and according to the information 1 have received. €aro!ina. and a great extent of roads bas been mended.–swaUowing lay down the keel of a fortyuseiully employed for the nation. repair besides several ships n ordinary. and com1 have already pletely formed for action. named the Massaio of the Caboclo under brigs ofwar. and others across. and much more which. have been built and many others. which might have been more vessels. rigging. much has been done. the Praça da Acclamaçaô has been re-built that large square has been drained of the marsh water.1 have . altogether.-to 1 have made. the orders 1 sun frigate which. manned and armed. then called the Union. Pedro Pr imeiro the 6-igates Piranga. where for thirteen years back nothing has been done but caulking. which. and has become an agréable walk. thé works are thefbHowing:–ail and others now actually employed have been repaired gun-boats. Besides what 1 have mentioned. only a hull and of a few other small and insignificant vessels. of Carioca and Maracanaô.238 JOURNAL. The police office in As to public works. and the measures 1 have taken do not fail. or in the middie of the next. of small size. the ships In the dock-yard. in the same place. not fitted the corvette Liberal. ready a corvette. and the Cacique and various schooners. Guarani ready. with paved paths on ail sides. and wiU be caiïed thé Campista. are numerous and important. which 1 need not name. in Alagoas. besides thenumerous bridges of wood and stone which have been renewed. given they will not cost above thirteen contos of rees.

which in April. The first time 1 visited the foundling hospital. Many works which are of less importance have been undertaken. but possesses upwards of 600. of which 1 will speak ~serïcoy~a. that it might the better answer the useful end which its worthy founders had in view. some were already in the public treasury. 1 found (and it . as far as 1 could but this will demand some peculiar provision of the legislature. and others were my private property. 1 have opened a Lancasterian school. and finished but 1 omit them. 1821. the funds for these works. begun. that 1 may not render my speech too long. owed 60 contos of rees. now is not only out of debt. with ail the rest adjoining. were properly fitted for their purpose. for the and having granted to the C~o purposes originally intended and the foundling hospital.RIO DE JANEIRO. It is now full of students. We have greatly increased the national the public typography have been put in order the museum repaired. so that it is nearly finished the streets of the city have been new-paved and in a very short time this house for the assembly. 239 not touched on.some of which were purchased. 1 have encouraged the public schools. and engardens riched with minerais and a gallery ofgood pictures. 1 found the college of San Joaquim. Every exertion has been made on the Caes da Praça de Commercio. which 1 have ordered to be placed there. a lottery for the better maintenance of those usemi institufions. employed as the hospital of the European troops. farther. 1 assigned a certain portion of the said lottery to the college of San Joaquim.000 crusadoes. In different departments we have made the following progress. which had been designed by its founders for the éducation of youth. besides licensing innumerable private schools and. What has been done is this In order to augment the public library 1 have bought a large collection of choice books 1 have augmented the numberof schools. aware of the benents of the method of mutual instruction. 1 caused it to be opened anew. and increased the salary of some of the masters.

of which 1 oniy because for they were taken to save Brazil. this prohave now spoken merit your particular attention. brave.) that this loyal. the Misericordia not knowing in Then by granting the lottery. chosen by thé people. and demxnd such things as should be conducive to the good of each of the respective Nor was this the only end and motive for which 1 provinces. and on thé AU these things of which 1 whole.-After vince was settled. no clothing 1 called for the register. no seems incredible) seven infants with only two wet-nurses beds.240 JOURNAL. thank God. by the degree of the 16th of February'of ]ast year. should be represented in a general constituent and législative assembly which. till now. much better management. grateful. and how much my cir« paternal heart desired (though at that time secretly. a fact what had become of them. and my counsellors of state It bas been very painful to me that. at the request of the people conveyed through their camaras. 1 convoked one. almost as many nurses as children. where there are upwards ofthirty beds. therefore. 1 wished particularly that thé called such a council together Brazilians might know my constitutional feelings. and found that in the thirteen years nearly 12. has been brought about in conséquence of the degree of thé 3d of June of the last year.000 children had been received. and important provisions made for thé rest. because « stances did not then permit me to manHest such wishes. being desirous that they should have some persons near me to represent them. 1felt it necessary to cali together a council of state and. and to be ibrced by circumstances to take upon myself to legislate on some points but my measures cannot appear to have arisen from ambition to legislate. and who might at the same time advise me. Brazil should not have enjoyed a national représentation. house proper for the establishment was built. but last scarcely 1000 were forthcoming. « could daim a part . How 1 delighted to govern to thé satisfaction ofthe people. and heroic nation. their procurators. composed of procurators-generai. arrogating to myself the whole power.

before any other place. 1 instantly repaired thither. and obliged the paciSe and gentle inhabitants to disobey me. it was necessary they should be proportionate. thé three powers then existed in fact and by right in the person of the supreme chief of the nation.RIO DE JANEIRO. and much the more as he was its perpétuai deiender. 1 took the measures that appeared to me to be necessary and there. It is true that some measures appeared extremely strong but as the péril was imminent. and nevp. When the people of thé rich and majestic province of~tMC~ were suffering under thé iron yoke of their mistaken govemors~ who disposed of it as they pleased. ~eccMse I knew the people loved ~Me.. 11 1 . 1 have not spared myself. than against the nation. as Brazil was totally independent of Portugal. and of the error in which they seemed desirous ofpersisting 1 pardoned them. however great.derived to the nation. if from it the smallest portion of happiness can be. Paul's. because the crime was more an offence against me. that 1 was first proclaimed Emperor. When a party of Portugucse and degenerate Brazilians attached to the Cortes of miserable.enough praised Amador Bueno de Rebeira. and entered the province fearlessly. our independence was declared. in the ever-memorable plain of Piranga. only attended by my servants 1 convicted the government and its creatures of the crime they had committed. and when others were necessary it had not yet met therefore. It was at the country seat of the most faithful. 241 when some of them were adopted the assembly had not been convoked. 1 marched thither. arose among thé brave people of the beautinu and delightful province of St. worn-out Portugal. nor will 1 ever spare toil. and the enemies who surrounded us were innumerable (and would to God they were not even now so many). as we were then united to Portugal.

but which 1 did not do on the remonstrance of my privy council. to mingle my Mood with that of those warriors who have so bravely fought for tbeir country. were worthy o~-BraA~ and o/'we. as I had intended. and sumcient strength to the executive power. the want of public spirit in some. by n'aming a wise. A constitution in which the limits of the three powers shall be well defined. if necessary. which The assembly is met to coMwill be the grand epocha of its history. in order to give true liberty to the people.242 JOURNAL. most solemnly ratify this promise. notwithstanding ail my repeated recommendations of speed. Thanks be to Providence. « At all hazards. and 1 trust you will assist me in fulfilling it. at that of life itself. just. and practicable constitution. the nation. My soul itself was grieved that 1 could not go to Bahia. journeys. especially in a country so new have retarded this much-wished and necessary meeting. 1 told the people on the Ist of T%<ï< M~A December. that we now see the nation represented Would to God it could have been so by such worthy deputies But the circumstances preceding the decree of the 3d of eariier June did not permit it and since that time. than all thé splendour 1 acquired by their spontaneous and unanimous acclamation of me as Emperor of this desirable empire. and the constitution. of DEFENDER this vast empire. not caprice if the constitution be general happiness.' 1 this day. and the inconveniences of long and extensive as BrazU. which can never be great not founded on solid grounds. and having solely in view thé dictated by reason. "~M~e~eMa~oM~~a~o~o!~o:ppïMc~~brMsa/ and most especially as ÏERPETUAL As CONSTITUTIONAL EMPEROR. the day when 1 was crowned and anointed. grounds which thé wisdom of ages has shown to be just. that . <' At length the great day for this vast empire has arisen. of the past year-PERPETUAL DEFENDER OFBRAZIL. That title engaged my heart more. in your presence. the great distance. 1 wiïl maintain the title that the people of this rich and vast empire honoured me « with on the 13th ofMay. y?~ sm'0~ 7 would defend the country.

243 they may never arrogate rights not their own but shall be so organised and iiarmonised. not only at home but among foreign nations and that its Pe~M~ Z~Mt~' should n2 . which will becorne the admiration of the Old and New World. a despotism of one. produced public happiness but after a licentious freedom. You are not ignorant of thém and 1 am sure. will characterise every one of the deputies who compose this illustrious assem1 trust. that it shail be impossible for them. and therefore impracticable. and independence of this empire. but shall every day jointly contribute to the general happiness of the state. even in the lapse of time.and suffering ail the horrors of anarchy. so that even our ehemies may imitate the sanctity and wisdom of its principles.RIO DE JANEIRO. after that of many and. whether royal. by a necessary consequence. my Imperial assent that it will be as wise and just as suited to the local situation and to the civilisation of the Brazilian peopie also that it may be praised among the nations. Spain. and at length practise them. that the constitution which you will frame will merit bly. or démocratie defeat anarchy and plant that tree of liberty under whose sLadow the honour. which have been sanctioned by experience. So illustrious and patriotic an assembly will have in view no object but to cause the empire to prosper. as they ought. we see that in some countries there has already taken place. aristocratie. « Witness those of France. to become inimical to each other. Ail the constitutions which hâve modelled themselves upon those ofl'791 and 1*792. have been shown by experience to be entirely theoretical and metaphysical. that firmness in those true constitutional views. and Portugal they have not. "But far from us be such melancholy reflections they darken the joy and exultation of this happy day. must grow. In short. a constitution which shall oppose insuperable barriers to despotism. and to fill it with happiness it will wish its Emperor to be respected. tranquillity. and in others there is on the point of doing so. the people are reduced to the wretched state of registering.



exactly fulfil his promise of the' first of last December, solemnly ratified to-day, in the presence of the nation legally represented." When the Emperor had done speaking, the bishop of the diocese, acting as president of the assembly, made a short answer of thanks, after which, the whole of the members, the praise, and promise spectators in the galleries, and the people without doors, cheered His Imperial Majesty enthusiastically, and the procession returned to San Cristovao in the order in which it came. The theatre of course concluded the ceremonies of the day and my friend, Madame do Rio Seco, having kindly offered me a seat in her box, 1 went thither, for thé first time since my return to Brazil. She was in high spirits, because that day the Emperor had conferred on her husband the order of the Cruzeiro; and therefore she went really in grand gala to the opera. Her diamonds worn that night may be valued at 150,0001. sterling, and many splendid jewels remained behind in the strong box. For my part, 1 had gone to town in my morning dress; therefore 1 sent to a milliner's, and bou~ht such a plain crape head-dress as the customs of the place and wrapping myself in my sbawï, acwarrant, in deep mourning companied my magnificent friend. The house appeared very splendressed, and the ladies one and all in did, being illuminated,and Some decorations have been added since diamonds and feathers. The last year, and an allegoricàl drop-scene bas been painted. Empress did not corne, on account of her recent illness but the Emperor was there, looking pale, and a little fatigued. He was reThe members of the assembly were ceived with rapturous àpplause. seated one-half on his right, and one-half on his left, in boxes handsomèly fitted up for them and as soon as they had all taken their places, a poem on the occasion was recitedby the Prima Donna, in which there were some good points, whiçh called forth great applause. 1 think it is Gresset who, in one of his odes Au Roi, says,
Le cri d'un peuple heureux est la seule éloquence Qui sait parler des rois."



1 cannot conAnd indeed this night that eloquence was powerful. ceive a situation more full ofinterest to both prince and people. There was nothing in the principal piece played to-night, for it was a clumsy translation of Lodoiska, without the songs. But the The Discovery of after-piece excited much émotion It was called Brazil." Cabral and his officers were represented as just landed and, according to they had discovered the natives of the country the custom of the Portuguese discoverers, they had set up their white flag, with the red holy cross upon it, whence they had first named the land. At thé foot of this emblem they kneeled in worship, and endeavoured to induce the wild Brazilians to join them in their sacred rites. These, on their part, tried to persuade Cabral to reverence the heavenly bodies, and dissension seemed about to trouble the union of the new friends, when by a clumsy enough machine, a little genius came down from above, and leaping from its car, displayed the new Imperial standard, inscribed Independencia o Morte. This was totally unexpected in the house, which, for an instant, seemed electrified into silence. 1 believe 1 clapped my hands first, but the burst of feeling that came from every part of thé house was long ere it subsided. Now 1 know nothing so overpowering, as that sort of unanimous expression of deep interest, from any large body of men. It overset me and when 1 ought to have been waving ïny handkerchief decorously from the great chamberlain's ~Tien the box, 1 was hiding my face with it, and weeping heartily. house was quiet again, 1 looked at Don Pedro hé had become very pale, and had drawn a chair close to his ôwn on the back of which he leancd, and was very grave to the end of the piece, having his hand before his eyes for some time and, indeed, his quick feelings could not hâve escaped what affected even strangers. At thé close of the pièce there were loud cries of Viva la Patria Viva a Emperatriz!" Vivaô os Deputados Viva o Emperador when Martim Francisco de all originating in the body ofthe house Andrada stepped to the front of one of the boxes of the Deputies, a cry that was and cried Viva o povo leal e fiel do Rio de Janiero



extremely well seconded, especially by the Emperor, and kindly and so this important day ended. taken by the people 1 rode to San Cristovaô, through a very May 6~To-day The palace, which once belonged to a convent, beautiful country. is placed upon a rising ground, and is built rather in the Moresco It bas a beautiful style, and coloured yellow with white mouldings. screen, a gateway of Portland stone, and the court is planted with weeping willows so that a group of great beauty is formed in the bosom of a valley, surrounded by high and picturesque mountains, The view irom the the chief of which is thé Beco do Perroquito. palace opens to part of the bay, over an agreeable plain nanked by fertile hills, one of which is crowned by the very handsome barracks 1 rode round by the back of that were once a Jesuit establishment. the palace to the farm, which appears to be in good order and the village of the slaves, with its little church, looks more comfortable than 1 could have believed it possible for a village of slaves to do. The Imperial family now live entirely here, and only go to town on formai business or occasions of state. have been too unwell to do any thing; and only May 12~1 write to-day to notice the arrival of the Jupiter frigate, with Lord Amherst on his way to India, and thé rumour that he bas some official character at this court. Amherst and suite went to court in such ceremony g~Lord as induces people to believe he really bas a diplomatie character hère. The Alacrity bas arrived from Valparaiso, and bas brought me some old letters from England that have helped my sickness to 'Tis after ail a sad thing to be alone and sick depress iny spirits. The Doris also is arrived from Bahia. She bas in a foreign land had no direct communication with Lord Cochrane's little squadron but it seems, that with his six ships, he keeps the enemy's fleet of fifteen sail in check. The town of Bahia is said to be in a dreadfui The slaves are daily dying in the state for want of provisions. streets. Some houses, after appearing shut up for some day4--have
Nearly 2000 feet high



been opened by the police officers, who have foùnd: thé masters escaped, and the slaves deadL–Twice a day thé gâtes have been opened to aïlow the women and children to leave thé town. Some of the officers of the Doris had the curiosity to attend on one of these occasions, and saw 500 persons, laden with as much furniture and ctothes.as in their weak hungry state they could carry, leave the city. The little fresh provision that finds its way into thé town is exorbitantty dear. General Madeira has proclaimed martial-law in thé place he has seized some corn and flour out of a neutral ship, and bas raised forced loans from all classes, both native and foreign. The ship has brought. two or three newspapers from. Bahia. As might be expected, they breathe thé most violent and inveterate spirit against the Imperial government, and every body employed by it caHingthé Emperor a Turidsh despote a sultan, &c., and José Boni~cio a tyrannie vizier. Lord Cochran<e, of course, does not escape; and to all old caJumnies against him, they now add dtàt he is a coward, for whieh agreeable compliments they are likely to pay dearly 1 should think. The Supplement to thé Idade d'Ouro of the 25th of: April gives lists of the two squadrons, drawn up &)r the purpose of inspiring confidence in the Portuguese, under-rating the force of Lord Cochrane's ships, and representing them as so ill manned,-although, according to them, the most oppressive measures were adopted to man them,as not to be able to face thé Portuguese. However, they have thought nt to call in all their vessels from thé Funil and other stations where they had their small ships placed, in order to reinforce their neet.~ They hâve published a circuïar letter,
d6rCMK<!K'<S~tp& Line~of-battteshipD.PedroI. 64-guns,reany, 44do. FrigateUmSo 36 do. Frigate Carolina 36 do. FrigàteSttecesso* 32 do. Corvette Maria da Gloria CoBvettCiI~eraI 22 do. do. 16 Schoo~erReal Nightingale Total250gans. There is besides one fire-ship and one gun-boat. Now J~?'oAy. 78guns 50 4438 32 22 16 20 300



them calling on all officers and crews to exert themselves, promismg the destruction of the Brazilian fleet. And, on the same day,the 24th of April, the Admiral Joaô Felix Pereira de Campos, under pretence of indisposition, turns over the command to another officer. These measures were adopted, in consequence of the news of Lord Cochrane's arrival in Brazil having been conveyed to General Madeira by HIs Britannic Majesty's ship Tartar, the only vessel that We are becoming sailed from Rio during the time of thé embargo. many rumours are very anxious indeed for news from His Lordship the afloat but as there has been no direct communication from squadron, they only increase the general anxiety. Soon after 1 arrived here, in March, or rather as soon May 17~ as my patient Glennie left me, 1 Mt that, as a stranger here, and situated as 1 am, 1 was peculiarly unprotected, and thereforè 1 spoke to the mirtister José Bonifacio, telling him my feelings and saying, that from the amiable character of the Empress, 1 should wish to be allowed to wait on her, and to consider her as protecting me while 1 remain in the empire. She accordingly promised to fix a day for me to see her; but a severe indisposition has hitherto confined her to her room. Now, Lady Amherst having requested to see Her Imperial
S~s Liiie-of-battle shin D. Joâo 6 Lme-of-battIeshipD.Joao6 FrigateConstituiçao Dita Perola Corvette Princeza Dita. Cah'pso Real ~M~~wt. C/' the for~K~c Guns. f Commandante Capitao de Fragata Joaquim Fra~a.ta. 74 74 j~d~Cunha. Fragata Joaquim Maria Bruno 50 t Capitao de jeMoracs. 4~4- Capitâo de Fragata José Joaquim d'Amorim. 28 Capitâo Tenente Francisco BorjaPereira de Sa. 22 Capitao Tenente Joaquim Antonio de Castro. 26 Capitao de Fragata JoaolgnaciodaSilveiraeMotta. 26 Capitâo de Fragata Miguel Gii de Noronha. 22 Capitâo Lieut. Isidoro Francisco Guimaraes. 20 Capitâo Tenente Joâo da Costa Carvalho. 26 lo o Lieut. Graduado Manoel de Jesus. 26 Lieut. Antonio Feliciano Rodrigues. 26 lo Tenente Graduado Flores. 8 2o Tenente Carvalho. 398 guns.

DitaRegeneraçao Dita Dez de Fevereiro Dita Activa Bria Audaz Corvette S. Gaulter Corvette Principe do Brazil Dita Restauraçao Sumaca Conceiçao Total



Majesty, the day after to-morrow is fixed on for the purpose; and 1 have an intimation that 1 shall be received on the same day, as the Empress wishes not to receive any other foreigner before me. This is polite, or rather it is more it is really kind. 1 was suffering exceedingly this morning, 1 resolved 19th.-Though nevertheless to attend the Empress at noon, at San Cristovaô. 1 was obliged to take a quantity of opium, to enable me to do so. However, 1 arrived at the appointed time and, as 1 had been desired to do, asked for the camarista môr, Jose Bonifacio's sister, and was shown into the presence-chamber, where 1 found that lady and Lady AmThe Empress entered herst, Miss Amherst, and Mrs. Chamberlain. in a handsome morning dress of purple satin, with white shortly after, ornaments, and looking extremely well. Mrs. Chamberlain presented and Her Imperial Majesty spoke for some Lady and Miss Amherst After which she motioned to me to go minutes with Her Ladyship. to her, which 1 did. She spoke to me most kindly and said, in a very flattering way, that she had long known me by name, and several other things that persons in her rank can make so agreeable and 1 left her with the most agreeable imby voice and manner pressions. She is extremely like several persons whom 1 have seen of the Austrian Imperial family, and has a remarkably sweet expression. The corridor through which 1 passed from the palace steps, and the presence-room, are both plain and handsome. As it might be caUed a private audience, there were neither guards, officers, nor attendants, excepting the camarista môr. The Emperor is at present at bis country-house of Santa Cruz so that San Cristovaô appeared like a private gentleman's seat, it was so still. Since the day 1 was at San Cristovaô, 1 have Saturday, June 7~ been confined to my room, and totally unable to exert myself, either mind or body, from severe indisposition. The Creole is corne in from Bahia, to get provisions, preparatory to going home. The Commodore bas offered me a passage in her, and bas written to that purpose but 1 am in no state to embark for a long voyage. The accounts from

A brig. As might have been expected. though favourable to the Imperial cause the misery. and she kindly caUed on me as she and a few minutes afterwards 1 received letters from the janded Admiral. Some of the sails and cordage. 12~. and various rumours attending those r eports they all turn out to have arisen from a rMsse de guerre of Madeira. At length we have true news both from and of Lord 14~. Bahia are sadder than ever as to the Bahians. 1 wrote to Lady Cochrane. excusing myself on account Cochrane. among the crews. a merchant ship bound to Valparaiso. were found almost unserviceable not adopted them ships were without locks. and commanding the channel behind Itaparica. and in the neighbourhood of all supplies of There is good and sheltered anchor~ge in from fresh necessaries. of the poor inhabitants is great indeed. Lord Cochrane had chosen as head-quarters for the squadron. if not mutiny.250 JOURNAL. . the harbour behind the Moro of San Paulo. and from some others in the squadron. and spreading that report to cover its real purpose. as the Portuguese had the cartridges were mostly made up in canvass but the real evil was the number of Portuguese. and also the Sesostris. who contrived to despatch a smaH vessel to a port on the coast ~br flour. which kept them in a continuai state of discontent. from the haste in which the squadron was equipped. she bas iearned where Lord Cochrane is. seven to twenty fathoms water. the ships had to encounter some dimculties at first. prize to the squadron. and i&thus spared the tedious voyage. on board of wh!ch were Lady Cochrane and her family going to Chile. arrived. We have been for three days kept in a state of agitation. which had been seventeen years the guns of some of the in store. Thank God. of iUness ~roni going to her. pretending that it was for Lord Cochrane. a country weU watered and wooded. about thirty miles south of Bahia. and her excellent husband much anxiety on her account. and on the whole it was well adapted As soon as it was known that His Lordship was off for its purpose. by putting in here. both men and officers. by reports that Bahia bas fallen.

cutting off the four sternmost ships and had the men done their duty. so that His Lordship re4th. five &igates. Lord ing up the powder. taking advantage of the absence of the fleet. wounding and killing many. Meantime the Brazilian Imperial force that was posted behind the city.. who had waited in vain at the place of rendezvous at sea for the two fire-ships. and spread itself along the shore north of the bay. and had taken refuge in the harbour turned to the Moro de San Paulo. and the fire vessel. yet the Admiral was disappointed. had fitted one of his small vessels. 251 Bahia. Captain Crosbie. Lord Cochrane. which was immediately to the windward of the Pedro. adOne ship of the Une. and a schooner. KK 2 . As to the crew of the Admiral's ship. with only the satisfaction of havmg driven the enemy from the open sea. He instantly ran through their line. Cochrane determined to attack the Portuguese again next day. a brig. The slow sailing of the Piranga and Netherohy kept them farther behind the Pedro than their brave commanders wished the others were forced to keep aloof. a bng. and with their drawn swords impeded the handThe squadrons separated after this. the schooner Real. the Portugnese squadron came out.RIO DE JANEIRO. and eleven others were wounded but no other damage was sustained by the Imperial squadron. nothing could have saved the ship they were first alongside of: but they fired too soon and though the fire did great execution. On the morning of the 5th. while that of the Europeans had suffered much both in crews and rigging. Lieutenant Shepherd. as a fire-ship. and consequently of the two thousand seamen who served the artillery ashore. Lord Cochrane looked in vain for the He had apparently been satisfied with the skirmish of the enemy. by the conviction that their crews could not be trusted against the Portuguese. five corvettes. and had intended to run into Bahia on the 4th of May when he fell in with the Portuguese fleet in number thirteen he having with him five ships. which he expected from Rio. both on board that ship and the Joam VI. it is said. two of the Portuguese marines went into the magazine passage.

who commands bis fleet. Madeira marched out to meet them. Heve. where they occurred. As far as thé government here could supply every thing to the mansquadron to insure its success. and well done. Lord Cochrane bas taken the officers and English seamen of the bas one Piranga and Nitherohy on board the Pedro. from the report of the officer who arrived in the prize. But the Emperor appreciates the brave man excites admiration. . for the twenty-four pounders of and bas placed guns along his gang-ways and we trust thé next news we have from him. If any thing can rouse me to health it surely ought to newspapers. which admitted of peculiar circumstances of the times That some things should have been imperfect was to no controul. a difficulty as soon as felt will be obviated. be news from England. we shall learn something favourable to the cause of independence. 1 bebas brought down some of the ill-affected Portuguese. made a spirited but ineffectual effort for the repeal of the foreign enlistment bill a most interesting subject in t~~ country and 1 see with pleasure a virtual acknowledgment from the English ministers of thé independence of Spanish America. and an action took place entirely in favour of the Imperialists and it is said that the KIng's fleet was recaUed in conséquence of this disaster. Lord Cochrane had no sooner returned so San Paulo than he made such provisions with regard to bis squadron. The Creole sailed 19th. Lord Althorp has. as he judged most The vessel that bas arrived here prudent for the public service. wbere their centre was quartered. be expected that so much should have been done. towards the town. AU. were owing to the and country. My health grows worse and worse. vanced from the sitio of Brotas. 1 see. it was done in the most liberal ner and the failures.252 JOURNAL. and while that is the case. ï have amused myself for two days with some English to-day. so that now he he bas exchanged the eighteen-pound ship he may depend on the Piranga. guns of the main-deck. have been dismissed from the Pedro Primero.

the ground-floor houses being often a little damp and to-day Captain Willis of the Brazen brought me in his boat to my new dwelling. gorge between thé Corcovado mouutain and the rocks belonging to what may be called the Sugar-Ioaf group. calling it Midsummer men. to ascertain the fate of their loves. Botafogo bay is certainly one of the most beautifui ocenes in the world but. its shores were little inhabited by the At thé farthest end there is a higher classes of society. he and Mr. They conform to thc religion of thé country in all outward things. whereon the maidens of Brazil practise some of thé same rites as those of Scotiand do at Hallowe'en. which leads to the Lagoa of Rodrigo Freites. June 26~. and preserve much of their peculiarity of appearance and character in this their trans-atlantic home. They burn nuts together they put their hands. For me 1 only wish for the MMccM drop of the Arab to fall this night. that was to chain the iavoured youth as he entered. having an upper story. Hind&Id. 1 think a kind of stone-crop. My friend. behind the door. which is considered as an advantage hère. and be relieved from my weary sickness. Colonel and Mrs. --This is the eve of St. May have pitched on a smaU house on Botafogo beach. but their conformity does not appear to have innuenced their moral habits. May. to have seen the maid-servants of a house in Berkshire place an herb. on a table. who bas attended me all this time with unvarying kindness. 253 22~. there bas long been a village inhabited by gipsies. Dr. Cunningham. so 1 might catch it. They employ . with the ietters of the and practise many a simple conjuration. John's. Just at its mouth. who have found their way hither. 1 think 1 recollect alphabet long ago. My good neighbours. try by their hospitality to prevent my feeling so much ~he loss of my friends Mr. and Mrs. and belong to the parish of which thé curate of Nossa Senhora da Monte is pastor. till of ]ate years. having advised change of air for me. Dickson. through which gorge a small rivulet of fine fresh water runs to the sea. who were every thing kind to me while at thé Gloria.RIO DE JANEIRO.

1 shall employ every means to fulfil both these duties. .254 JOURNAL. They retain their peculiar dialect but 1 have not been able. by His Lordship's for an attack by the preparations he is making in the Reconcave with fire-ships and gun-boats on thé town. of the squadron. is resolved He is pressed to the utmost by Lord Cochrane's to leave it. You have already seen me take such once before they alarmed you but you were afterwards Even in convinced that they portended nothing extraordinary. but it is case the sacrifice of equally my duty to prevent in an extreme « the troops that 1 command. Do not of foresight are suffer yourselves to be persuaded that measures « aiways followed by disasters. two days since from Bahia. therefore. that Madeira will abandon the place as soon as he can get shipping It is asserted even that he has together to embark the troops. is to make every sacrifice in order to save the city. and kept up on the coast. and by continuai alarms squadron. The fixed the day. to get sufficiently acquainted and climate judgment of the degree in which their change of country may have affected their original habits. which cuts off his provisions. His Majesty's ship Beaver arrived. for evacuating the place. It is expected. Some of them engage in trade. My duty as a soldier. that of San Pedro. and as governor. with them to form any per sonally. and are at their settlements the great horse-jockies of this part of Brazil. but tbilowing proclamation is certainly preparatory as thé time must depend on contingencies. to his doing so. own appearance from sea. It seems that Madeira. and part of their families is generally resident but the men rove about the country. because the means of subsistance fail us. and we cannot secure the entrance « of any provisions. and many are very rich. but still they are reputed thieves and cheats and to call a man Zingara (gipsy) is as mach as to call him knave. their slaves in fishing. and of yourselves. unable to hold the place any longer. it cannot be so certain Inhabitants of Bahia Thé crisis in which we find ourselves is perilous.

left without protectors. . On a rigorous search there were found in the city no duration. on board 3000 alquieres of farinha. One of them says. more than six weeks' provisions besides those necessary for the ships. Bahia. whose fathers being obliged to fly. he caused them to take thé oaths. ial-law. vessel entered Bahia. The editors of even the Portuguese newspapers use the strongest language. The fèw last days. 1823. SMt<HM~<o Civico of the 5th June. a prey to the These fears abated a little on the 2d of June. that the measures but it is necessary to 1 am now taking are purely precautionary communicate them to you. measures of precaution are daiïy because victory is not constant. we have witnessed in tins city a most dolenn spectacle. and of families. und reverses should be used provided against. and the General proceeded in his preparations for quitting Brazil. naming five persons to form a provisional government and though some of them were unwi!ling to accept of the office. that must touch the heart a panic terror has seized on ail men's even of the most insensible And then goes on to anticipate the horrors of a city minds. because if it happens that we must abandon the city. (Signed) IGNACM Head-quarters. if 1 had not forewarned you. He now allowed thé magistrates to resume their functions suspended by che declaration of mar. and produced a letter from the King.having and the spirits of thé troops were raised by a slight advantage But the relief WM of short obtained on the 3d over the patriots. This proclamation increased the general alarm to the highest pitch. many of' you will leave it also and 1 should be responsible to the nat! n and to the King. May 28. and enter directly on their functions. 255 the midst of formidable armies." &c. with their property." LUIZ MADEIRA DE MELLO. should be left like orphans. when a invaders.RIO DE JANEIRO. You may assure yourselves.

when.– « 'Tis Lord Cochrane's line-of-batexclaimed tle ship.1imagine. if 1 did ask. and alone." the Admiral. The Portuguese Admiral was ashore. the forts began to play. And there was as much consternation and as much bustle of preparation. are believed to be on board the British ships of war. and 1 am much séquences of his accident. the Pedro dropped out of the harbour with the tide. Madeira's preparations for his departure were accelerated by an attack made by Lord Cochrane on the night of the l~th of June. from the conyouth and strength prevent any serious apprehension is no public news. too Ul to care for any other. was heard. There A foreigner.alongside of thé Constituiçaô but the Admiral disdamed so small a prize. or I have abundant leisure to see the worth to the world of riches. entered the room. The daring of this attempt has filled the Portuguese with astonishment and dismay.* deal of sensation bas been excited to-day of l~Agood J~ rather a painful nature the Emperor has fallen from his horse. as it ought to be. receive an answer This is reported only. and very sick. nor should 1. however. . a shot dining with General Madeira What is it ?" exclaimed the latter to the messenger. but their neutral. 1 have never asked. who. the breeze that had broughthim in over thé tide failed. strictly is evidently towards the old government.256 JOURNAL. The general disposition among them about such things. and pushed on to the Joam VL had he reached her. and. as if the ileet of England had entered in a hostile manner. Impossible no large ship can have come up with the ebb tide. and all the cash that can be collected. The Pedro Primeiro was indeed close. The church plate. any Engtish oaicer conduct is. at ten o'clock at night. reluctantly. and'they are now most willing to abandon Bahia. a dead calm by this time every ship was in motion. and is otherwise much bruised. with only the Pedro Primeiro. in alarm. untouched by the enemy. in the very midst of our neet. he might have carried the whole he seemed on the point of doing squadron out with him but just as and it fell so. and has his broken two of his ribs.

was crowded with Besides that the peocarriages and horsemen. ple do love him. if they dwett on thé in-land. on the same errand. and th~nceibrth aU good arms thé green rose and gold badge. not conform to the laws of coa. his life is of the utmost importance to the very existence of Brazil as an independent nation at present. to enquire after His Imperial Majesty. as far as San Cristovaô. to enjoy the charms of nature. and now and then parties formed to dine out of doors in thé cool weather. 1 took a drive to-day and went. 257 the appearance of them. with ~f&y~~MCM o L L . an Imperial edict was published. and these ancient nobles are objects of jealousy to the new. in which. if subjects to wear on their J)~M engraved on it. but a good deal of quiet tea-drinking. so they suffer most nor are There is not much Normal visitour English one whit behind them. in number about a dozen. who have adopted Brazil. It is long since 1 hâve been able to go out among the beautiful scenery here. 13~1 have become acquainted with two or three pleasant Braziliaiis. who is recovering.-Once more 1 begin to feel better. on pain of loss of property. c3 ing among the English. and leave my name. but is still confined to the house. both as 1 went and returned. who infinitely surpass them in riches so that we hâve thé usual gossip and scandai of courts and cities.~ There are not above five Fidalgos of thé number. 1 think 1 am grown selfish 1 cannot interest myself in the little things of other people's lives as 1 used to do 1 require the strong stimulus of public interest to rouse my attention. desiring ail such as would the empire to quit it within two months. at any rate in peace. The road. they could neither relieve the head nor the heart of the suffering or the sorrowful.st. On the 9th of March. and to go out of doors a little. and within &ur. as the women are usually the most active.RIO DE JANEmO. AU sorts of people crowd daily to visit the Emperor. Ilth. and show and parade and to feel that if 1 had them all. For the first time for these many weeks. and one or two ofthe better kind of Portuguese.

and a great number of merchantmen. and jewels. which seemed sure of success. and ammunition. on the 20th*. . It is calculated that we should have been blown up if the fire had raged only three minutes longer and its extinction is chiefly to be ascribed to the presence of mind and personal exertion ofHis Lordship himself. and it was Lord Cochrane. with not more than a reasonable share of good or bad. having believed he was to sail on the 3d of July. were transhipped from the English vessels to his own. was so overheated by the Maze and his own exertions. or be hurt at the absurd stories they tell of me. and instruct themselves and families by reading and ail this much as it happens in Europe. they are all very civil to me and why should 1 see faults. church to luncheon and gossip some go afterwards to others play cards. some of whom were drowned. because they don't know me ? Besides. my countrywomen here are a discreet sober set of persons. However. "some careless c:' malignant person set nre to a cask of spirits. and stores thé plate. and some few stay at home. After Lord Cochrane's visit to Bahia on the night of the 12th of June. when. in pursuance of the plans announced in his proclamation of the 28th. had prepared all his ships of war. 14~Several prizes have arrived from the Moro of San Paulo. In short. They go pretty regularly to church on Sundays. which communicated to other casks. At length Bahia has fallen. money. 1 am grieved to add. with provisions. and created such terror. he had been employed for the eight ensuing days in maturing a plan for a farther attack. that more than a hundred persons jumped overboard. 'tis no great affront to be called wiser than one is. Madeira. served by a respectable clergyman thé opera. One of these vessels has brought news from thé Moro that 1 only half like. Extracted from a letter written to me on the 21st by a friend on board. or ride out with their husbands." 17~. for we have a very pretty promeet after testant chape] in Rio. as to be too ill this morning to leave his bed.258 JOURNAL. who.

Lord Cochrane. and tells in few words ail that can be said MY DEAK MADAM. This manœuvre was not considered by the English within the bay as decisive. and Pedro Primeiro) to the worid's end. The Piranga. because it had been practised daily for some time. 1 do not like to quote. thé Maria da G!oria vessels. it appears that there were many more. private letters but this is short. Ever beueve me your sincere and respectfiil friend. Eight miles north of Bahia. We shall follow (i. nor was a life lost a circumstance highiy honourable to all parties. immediately made signais to the Maria de Gloria and Nitherohy to join him with all despatch. 2a as23. with about 32 sail of transports and merch~ui. 259 intelligence to that effect. useless from her bad sailing. COCHRANE. are under sail. writes to me as follows. owing to the state of her copper. When the Piranga left the Moro. 13 in number. on the morning of the 2d. had been ordered to Rio and she and the Liberal." 1 learn from the officers of the ships arrived. even in my journal. but you must 1 have been grieved to learn your indisposition recover. amounting to at least eighty. had come alone in the Pedro Primeiro to look into the harbour. a reinforcement of men had arrived there for thé LI. His Lordship. when he saw the Portuguese squadron loose all their topsails and prepare to move. now that 1 tel! you we have starved the enemy out of and the men of Bahia. « 2d July. The forts were abandoned this morning war. but otherwise every thing was left in good order in thé town and on the marching in of the Brazilian troops not the smallest disorder took place. 1 say again expect good news. 2 . that the guns-were all spiked. Though the Admiral mentions only forty-five vessels. who took the opportunity of getting out with thé fleet. e. whose are the bearers of the official intelligence. 1823. who both arrived to-day.RIO DE JANEIRO. kindness is never-failing. however. and the magazines blown up in Port Pedro.

so as to reduce him to thé necessity of abandoning his city. Is It not enough for Lord Cochrane to have driven thé poor soldiers out ofBahia. Paul~. except among a class either secretly attached to. particularly election of certain memimprisoning persons who had opposed the bers of the assembly. without following to persecute them ?" &c. display thé picture of the monarch in his absence on occasions of ceremony. on various pretexts. against a fleet vessels of the best class far tess completely armed and manned. Emperor is not yet able to go. that yesterday the ministry ceased. to will appear instead. so rccently ibrmed. zealous servant. and the Emperor a ployment It !s rumoured that thé letter was written from St. an '1"'Ii unknown person presented a Ictter st the palace-door. of thé Andradas day. that Jose Bomfacio resigned his pmand Brazil bas lost an able minister. by the knowledge. and the Nitherohy was manning herself. that his life should not be saie if he did not deliver it into thé Ernperor's own hand. and contained at least 300 signatures of persons complaining of the Andradas' tyrannical conduct :n that province. and toid thé servant who received it. Portugal. t believe. This news is highiy acceptable hère. It is an old Portuguese custom. Thé letter was delivered accordingly.~g0 JOURNAL. but as thé and that ofthe Empress. The city has been thrown into considerable agitation to~g~. and preparing to Admiral follow him in a few hours. to eut off the provisions of the enemy. his picture. But the government knows that it was not an easy service to keep the sea with so small a squadron. where they had been kept away . These are murmuring. And others are affecting to despise what they call an easy service. repair to Rio. There are illuminations and a gala opera to-night. and saying. 1 believe on thé '116th. to from their families. and ordering others. and read upon which Hîs Imperial Majesty sent for Jose Bonitacio: they remained closeted for a length of time. and thé result of the conference was. It appears that a few days ago. or interested in.

on their part. 261 These things. proposed in an early sitting of the assembly. indeed. whose unimpeachable integrity at the head of the treasury it will not be easy to supply. reasonings. to join with the republicans to overthrow the Andradas Such is and they have succeeded. bas a decided plan. and they are not weak. but a well-wisher to Brazil may be permitted to desire that such able men had proved their innocence to his satisfaction.~ However that may be. attempt. The conjectures. The monarch who knows not this truth will precipitate his empire The action. however. and had retained their situations. Portuguese party. May 22. though small. However thé fact may be. and was negatived. Martim Francisco. the absolute expulsion from Brazii of all persons born in Portugal. of course. or which is ignorant of it. or. the resignation of Jose Bonifacio is certain and not less so that of his brother. the zeal ofthe minister may have carried him too ~r.RIO DE JANEIRO. on these subjects. and works accordingly and. that the are. their &M is said to have been brought about by an oddly enough. The government which does not guide itself by public opinion. are capable of a favourable interprétation i and. The most general idea is. in such stormy times. discussions in the assembly of thé 9th of May throw much light on this trans- . very various. the view taken of this business by many intelligent persons. are overpowered by a republican party in the assembly Andradas which. a élever man. is praiseworthy. must become the scourge of humanity. whose name will be remembered in the sittings of thé Lisbon Cortes as an advocate for Brazil. This evening the Emperor bas cireu!"ted the following address to his people Iti habitants of Brazil. to get rid of old monarchy men. and reports. Monis Tavares. the Emperor~s feeling to disclaim all tyranny or connivance at tyranny. some severity may have been necessary. The proposai gave rise to a warm This defeat was the signal for ail the discussion.

and the inviolaIf these have hitherto been bility of the home of every citizen.262 JOURNAL. 1 have Providence has granted to me the knowledge of this truth. they should IbHow it. hencefbrth they shall be religiously supported you shall live happy and safe in the bosoms of your families. it seldom appears to them. in a time like the present. . and 1 do act accordingly. Meantime. were exercised. as 1 on you. improper at all times. as the sun breaks through the darkest clouds. tbunded my system on it. it wàs because your Emperor knew not that such despotism and acts of arbitrary power. In vain shall will imprudent men try to belie my constitutional principles they aiways triumph. THE EMPEROR. bring the monarch and people more and stability of the together. « into a gulf of misfortunes. and whose character for integrity is scarcely lower than that of his predecessor. and Manoel Jacintho Noguerra de Gama is at the head of thé treasury a man so rich as to be above temptation. Although we have not yet a fixed constitution to govern ourselves by. are really conducive to the harmony whole political system. truth: if they do not seek it. which ought to be inviolable. and surrounded by your beloved children. Jose Joaquim Carneiro de Campos is prime minister. in the arms of your tender wives. vioiated. property. 1 have known it. built on reason. When once they know it. and to that system 1 will be faithful. and conBe assured that trary to the system we profess. which. each more terrible than the preceding. a Despotism and arbitrary acts are detested by me." The address has been well received and perhaps those incidents. and desRely upon me. we have at Ifast those foundations These are &)r one. It is but short time since that 1 gave you one among many other proofs of but monarchs rarely hear the We may ail be deceived this. the sacred rights of personal security. and you will see democracy potism annihilated by rational liberty.

with which he seemed much pleased. who bas one of the most intelligent faces 1 have seen.RIO DE JANEIRO. and to-day 1 resolved to carry it to her. especially the eldest. San CrîstavaÔ for the Empress. and talked to me a good while on a variety of subjects. prudence. 263 1 had for some time promised to paint a sketch of </M~ 28d. or rather might adorn the gardens of Armida. and very kindly of my late illness. br~ast-high. and on my way breakfasted at my good friend the Viscondeça do Rio Seco's 1 then proceeded-to the palace. he was in an undressed cotton jacket with his arm in a sling. and like Her Imperial Majesty. fit her for her high situation. having perceived me arrive from the window.fence. of myrtle and other evergreens. and accordingly 1 was ushered into the presence-chamber by the Viador Don Luiz da Ponte there 1 saw ministers and gênerais all in state. where were his piano. and went up first to enquire after the Emperor's health while 1 was writing my name. and is remarkable for its garden the outer hedge of which is like a fairy bower. politely sent to say he would see me. The Emperor was in a small inner room. Dona Maria da Gloria. he. it is not a little pleasing to me to meet so welleducated and well-bred a woman and 1 felt quite sorry to leave her without telling her so she is in all respects an amiable and respectable woman. both public and private. who are extremely fair. 1 made my courtesy and retired. and courage. On my way back to town 1 stopped at a country-house belonging to M. although thinner and paler than formerly: he sent for the little picture. . The Empress came in soon. &c. A. but 1 was asked to wait for her return from her walk and in the meantime 1 saw the young Princesses. do Rio Seco it is called Rio Comprido. 1 then went to the Empress's apartment she was out. justly commands the admiration and love of her family and subjects her personal accomplishments would adorn the station of a private gentlewoman her temper. So 1 went. No distressed person ever applies to her in vain and her conduct. his shooting apparatus. but looking well. and after speaking for some time very politely in French. Setting aside the consideration of her high rank.

at thé house of one or thé other. or a scarlet or purple creeper. is surmounted by arcades of ever-blowing roses among which a twines itself occasionally. thé new minister of finance. and met a number of the ladies of her family and among thé rest. that one knows not how the change might be made with adthe orchard. Aiter passing some hours there with my hospitable friends. Commodore Sir T. with truth. The Padre Jose. one of the most pleasing women 1 have seen in Brazil. delightfui and the whole is surrounded by beautiful views. The men converse apart till tea-time. as she considered the evening scarcely begun the family is so large. is also the overseer of the estate a combination of offices that 1 find is usual here. 1 returned home early. The officers of his own ship. between which the paths riching the ncwery comice of the pillars of entrance lie. 1 had the pleasure of complimenting Dona Carlota~ father. Our society at Botafogo is enlivened by thé arrival of ~M~ 25~. on having just received his commission as member of the assembly for Bahia. but gador França. are of course great acquisitions to my dull house. and spent an hour with my friend Dona Carlota de Carvalho e Mello. to join the ladies and it is dancing brings at least the younger part seldom that they separate before midnight. notwithstanding the entreaties of my young friend that 1 would stay. who is the chaplain. but then all is kept in such order. and the parties at Rio but 1 see little of them duller self. 1 returned to town. who occupées thé house of the disembarcheer&I and sociable himseit.264 JOURNAL. that. The house is low. and pleasant for the climate kitchen garden. and filled with such rich flowers and shrubs. offering nothing inviting except to the midshipmen of my . the wife of Manoel Jacintho. her aunt. and who is not only causes cheerfulness around him. enjessamine. Thé inner part one might indeed wish less stiff. Hardy. there is always a pleasant evening after which music or society. vantage. and those of the l'est of the squadron. now it is free 1 might. and grass fields behind. have complimented Bahia on so judicious a choice.

the fort being We remained isthmus that unites thé Sugarloaf with the mainland. we asked leave to go in. and went himself for the keys. which is reaUy fit for nothing but the riding of an invalid Itke myse!~ Ï gave 35 milrees. their courtesy. fort with great politeness. for the sake of exercise. we found it shut. M M . one might buy a very fine horse. The English packet arrived to-day news that thé royal party in Lisbon have overpowered that of the Cortes. on had been returning to the gate. that they think of proposing to refuse him thé command of thé army. so elated on thé occasion. 1 must say 1 have always expefrom the fidalgo who calls on me rienced the greatest politeness in full court costume. and treat tone of poliamicably. and that the keys So 1 had to go to the officer of the guard. without thinking of thé time till thé sun was fairly set and then. ships under the Brazilian nag. 265 1 have bought a small horse old ship. and be grateful for.Emperor. we shall see what will happen For this beast. to the peasant. There have been some a vote bas passed refusing disagreeable discussions in the assembly and it is said that the republican party is 'the veto to the. and brings August ls<. The general tics here is less pleasing than it has been. from the greatest to the meanest. It was the first time 1 had seen the little built quite along the bay Vermelha from the ]and side. or the common soldier. because it is hoped that the court may be more easily induced to and it is said that the acknowledge the independence of Brazil authorities In Madeira have already orders to receive. who understanding what had happened. 1 have had occasion to admire. carried to the governor. ] 823. a price for which. in Chile. and conducted us out of the Wherever 1 have met with Brazilians. and walked about admiring the views.RIO DE JANEIRO. who visit me very constantly. we entered. ordered the guard under arms. This intelligence is looked on as very important here. However. and sometimes accompany the boys on their to the Praya evening rides. which being granted. The Imperialists are of course when indignant at all this. Last night 1 went with two of them Vermelha and finding thé officer of the guard at the gate of the fort.

who sat Ail sorts of bread. were placed on a large table round thé young people assembled. The members speak standing in their places: they are something but they have no more dressed than the Gommons in England The President or Speaker is changed monthly. 6th. with which several of elegant china. milk-jugs. He is now so ten days to return thanks at the church of Santa Maria da Gloria. silver tea-pots. after which every body glass. the Diario da Assemblea.266 JOURNAL. not that 1 know there is any formai prohibition is considered as so impossible. scarcely larger in proportion House of Commons. just as it would be in England. particularly 1 take it very ill that ladies may not attend the sittings of the assembut the thing bly. ship Beaver. were handed with the tea and after it was removed. A large silver urn. when the Emperor will be well that he intends in strong enough to receive it. and 1 saw the artillery They are collecting there for that purpose whither 1 went to marching that way to-day while 1 was in town. 3~. with the assistance of her sister. with my iriendMr. which always assembles on Sundays to the old lady. peculiar costume. 1 am officially. the deputation of the assembly carries up the notice of the vote. Dance as acting captain the world says she takes some very important with the indedespatches relating to the commerce of England the world often tells what pendent provinces of La Plata but as is not true. and rusks at a distance. purchase some newspapers. buttered toast. The tea was made by one of the young ladies. H. M. It is provided with than that of the English agallery. and sugar-dishes. for strangers and the proceedings are published. 1 never trouble myself to ask about before me but sorry to see almost my last friend leave the station . and means on the same day to review the troops at San Cristovaô. and sent round the tea to us. 1 drank tea at the Baronesa de Campos' and met a large td pay their respects family party.of water. as it is said will be done next week. cakes. that 1 cannot go. and as what is true is never confessed by those who know these things. Sailed to-day. sweetmeats of took a every description were presented.

that there have been some military Notwithstanding the peculiar circumstances. seems to be a well-informed woman. to defend the Em1 believe peror from some indefinite oppression of the Assembly. with pleasant manners. and whence there are to be seen some of the most beautiful views here.in thé interest that 1 have and surely. C– that it is expected that women. should call on the consuls. Mrs. After 1 returned.. and produce a great deal of the excellent fruit called the Camand among the hills the small oppossum and the armadillo bucaa are frequently found. being convinced that their vote concerning the veto is impolitic and unjust. lately forced myself to take in the affairs of this. of my return to Rio. who is always anxious to do kind offices.RIO DE JANEIRO. 26'7 1 am now so used to losing.of this. a little fort that defends one of the small bays behind that ofVermelha. 8~ Thé discussions and vote concerning the Emperor's veto have excited a great commotion. have determined to cancel it and it is equally true. M M 2 . that 1 hope soon to grow callous to the pain such loss still gives. This morning Sir T. took no notice of my arrival. re1 was not aware. 1 tearnt afterwards. the human heart may unblamed busy itself. of words at least and the English &tchers and carriers of news have agreed that there will be some serious insurrection on the part of the soldiers. it is true that the Assembly itself. 1 am affected even to weakness by every little incident. both on my own account and that of the wife of thé British the invalid l'had with me. all who from any motive have ever acted or'&It kindly to me. The woods in the neighbourhood are very nne. consul. t can truly say. ceived the first visits in such cases. one way or another. It is in vain that 1 flatter myself that 1 have recovered the tone of my mind. having~ as weU as men. if 1 had carried me to call on Mrs. 1 should have called on She her before and therefore 1 am glad to do what is expected. country where the happiness of millions of its fellow-creatures is at stake. Hardy. 1 joined a party in a pleasant ride to the Cops Cabana. Chamberlain known her ideas on the subject of etiquette. and am obliged to take refuge from my private feelings.

in this vast empire. Thèse proclamations are agreeable and in facfare thé only channels through which taste of the people they can learn any thing of the disposition of the Emperor in thé To-day's is as &IIows present state of the country. whose language has been rather violent on the subject. clubs. derogatory to his dignity and rights. have also just committed an error. you a fresh assurance of my sentiments. the junta of gover nment and the civil and ecclesiastical authorities. Some ofthe munieipalities of the northern provinces have given instructions to their deputies.268 JOURNAL. from 1 hâve just any quarter. or rather aggravated. and crimes which suspensive) . received his proclamation on the occasion. Brazilians On not a ~ëw occasions have 1 laid open to you my mind and my heart on the first you will always find engraven constitutional mo1 am now desirous of giving narchy. 1 cannot think. which 1 doubt not will to the produce a good effect. In the city of Porto Alegre. the troops and the people. The Emperor appears too sincere in. whether exercised by one or by many. threatening them with the loss or diminution of powers which thé constituents neither have given nor have power to give. by solemn oath. and not less absurd is the pretending to give laws to those who are to make them. which they have confirmed. and of my detestation of despotism. is an absurdity. Troops which ought to obey the monarch authorities defining an article of holding a council incompétent the constitution. which is thé business of the General Constituent and Legislative AssemMy (and such is the veto. But that there are the slightest grounds for expecting any serious disturbance. Democracy in Brazil. whether absolute or are most scandalous absurdities. to encourage and any violent proceedings to overawe the Constituent Assembly at the same time he has too much spirit to submit to terms. on thé last your happiness. in which the spirit of democracy predominates. his desire to see the greatest possible prosperity in Brazil.

peror's recovery . The day on which the Pes de Chumbo predicted an insurrection has passed in perfect tranquillity. who seeks no légal powers nor will he ever suffer those to be usurped which belong to him'of right. prize to the squadron. While the company were ail on their knees. Listen not therefore to those who flatter the people. or to those who flatter the monarch they are equally base." 9~A August. Magalhaens. The times in which we live are full of melancholy warnings. and the proud floods of the Plata and the Amazons. and which are indispensable in order that you may be happy. went to the Gloria church to return thanks for the Emperor's recovery. Let us use the catastrophes of foreign nations as beacons. was struck with apoplexy. 12~This day. and of the household. Let us await reverently the of thé empire. Brazilians! confide in your Emperor and Perpétuai Defender. seek alike. or produced by base deceptions. and let us hope that it may be worthy constitution of us. and moved by personal and low interests and under the mask of liberality or that of servi!ity. excepting for one melancholy accident. and died. the Chamberlain. May the Supreme Disposer of the Universe grant us union and and the great work of our tranquillity. there have been illuminations and dressed operas on account of the Emand to-night a vessel. Their Imperial Majestiès. They were attended by the officers of state. strength and constancy liberty and independence will be àccomplished. arrived. as had been appointed. and as many officers of the different regiments as could attend. « THE EMPEROR. but for the consideration that they were suggested by ignorance. and just as the sacringbell announced the élévation of the Host. 269 would merit the severest punishment. and that this empire may fulfil the high destinies suited to its boundaries of the wide Atlantic.RIO DE JANEIRO. as well as yesterday and the day before. only to rear their proud and precarious fortunes on the ruins ~)f their country.

especially the butterflies. These are from I was shown some specimens of coal. and some very roe-deer*. most things: some of the latter specimens pleased me as well as the mines of St. of the arrival of many prizes bringing news of their wellbeing. weighing three or four ounces and some beautiful 1 a specimens of silver. It is greatly improved The minerais of the country form the internally. both colourless and richest part of the collection. about man. beyond a splendid set of toucans and of quadrupeds. as the wild natives adopt civilised habits. Of birds there are branches of nàtural history are not rich hère. confess that the fine coloured copper. the ports to leeward.2'70 JOURNAL. andwants arrangement: this~s weapons and dresses is incomplète. and the But the other insects. fit to flit about in it. and yield 99 parts of iron. fit for Aladdin's cave. Paul's. 1 went with M. Thé amethysts. for by-and-by. so that they must run for cutting away the main and mizen masts. surpass any thing 1 have seen but 1 believe the crystals of there are several pieces of gold to be the most precious articles here native gold. Seamen will appreciate this. excepting what is sufficient for a certain number of days. and As officers and men from the Imperial at Bahia and Pernambuco. a very intelligent FrenchAugust 14~. a pity. few of note. . on since 1 was here. and the beautiful gr~ined iron. externallyand The diamonds. are ail 1 remember. as fine and as delicate as lady's aigrette. and it is like roe-deer. to whom 1 am indebted for a good deal of information this country. and ail innumerable manner of gorgeous works of nature. black. thèse 1 have eaten ofthe venison. Lord Cochrane makes sure of and water. topazes. as fine as Scotch coal. to the museum. quartzes there are beautiful jaspers with veins of gold. both my first visit to Rio. a few monkies. Plasson. to work the prizes into ships cannot be spared in sufficient numbers their going thither by starting the port. which 1 had seen in a hurried way. that has been recently discovéred in the immediate neighbourhood of those of all colours. two fawns lik~the The collection of Indian curious armadillos. are very mines.

is situated on a platform. is twenty-one two feet diameter We entered among a gréât crowd of -persons. The body is an octagon of thirtyand the choir. and shortly a&erwards thé Imperial party entered. beautifully carved. that there were a room appropriated to these things. 15~Thé feast of Our Lady of the Assumption. May. and of course the whole of the royal 1 was spending family attended Mass in the moming and evening. ornamented with beads. not in the state le valliant des cubes. was well performed as to music. and a cap of bark. called here Nossa Senhora da Gloria. the day with Mrs. so that the vest is light. and I was not disagreeably surprised at Thé salutation. and placed ourselves within the choir. and The church we agreed to go in the afternoon to see the ceremony. and highiy ornamental There is another ehtirely of rich from its rich purple stripes. ii. a sceptre most ingeniously wrougbt of scarlet feathers. service is called. at her pleasant house on thé Gloria hill. 1 heard a Portuguese sermon. 1 could wish. of the same shape. as they are curious in the history of man. but carefully cleaned and dried. And of course occasionaL Thé text. as we do bladders. ver. each seam being set with tufts or rather fringes of purple feathers. and a quantity of coloured feathers and hair behind. the patroness of the Emperor's eldest child. for thé first time. <' andsat down on his throne. 19. rather more than half way up a steep eminence overlooking the bay. Mazarine blue feathers.RIO DE JANEIRO. One very remarkable one is a king's dress made of ox-gut. since the situation of Brazil is so favourable for collecting African costume. feet in diameter. It is then split longitudinally. but some of them are very curious in their kind. chap. 1 Kings. 271 The African curiosities are scarcely better will be unattainable. and caused a seat to be set for the . and very short: It was after it. the throne of an African prince of wood. kept. and bowed himself unto her. with a long projectmg beak m front. there is. Besides all these things. the king rosé up to meet his mother. and the pieces sewedtogether. as this evening's being most pleasantly recognised. is celebrated to-day. impervious to rain.

the Johns. when 1 am in and think it neither wisë nor foreign society. as rulers. wore white silk surplices. that though we were but four. After tea. 1 had the pleasure of again hearing Dona Rosa sing. for cards the stakes. king's mother. we hardly conversed together. The tea-room was no sooner full. and the Henrys of Portugal and of the Maria Theresas of Austrin. Several rooms were open. than tea was handed round and 1 perceived that some of thé older servants. and the institution of laws. spoke to such of the guests as they were acquainted with. and these were the wives of the consul and the comimssioner for the slave business." The application of this text to the legend of the Assumption is obvious. and led up to their grandmother and after paying my compliments to her. 1 was met by the young ladies of the family. The whole was gravely and properly done. and she sat on his right hand. On this occasion. forming the The whole people of Brazil were called grounds of comparison. 1 fancy. A foreign gentleman present remarked. and did not last above fifteen minutes. and that most especially to the eldest hope of Brazil. with as little of the appearance of flattery to thé illustrious persons present as possible. and . to talk to foreigners civil to form coteries with those of one's own nation in such cases. 1 was placed among the division of the-family where 1 had most acquaintance. with great respect indeed. were high.272 JOURNAL. upon to join in thanksgiving and prayers to the Virgin of Glory thanksgiving that she had given to her people. This was perfectly true: 1 like. and bore torches in their hands. and occupied the first division of thé discourse. the descendants of the Emanuels. named after her and dedicated to her. There were only two Englishwomen besides Lady Cochrane and myself. The second part consister in an application ofthe history of the early part of Solomon's reign to the the restoration of the kingdom. and prayers that she would continue her gracious protection. 1 went in the evening to a ball and concert at the Baronesa de Campos on entering. present circumstances of Brazil the triumph over faction. the veadors. and other persons attendant on the Imperial family.

there were no such persons. in that branch of thé fine arts. and 1 heard that they continued the ba!l until three. which music inspires upon that into all. here. what they were here twenty years since. I took thé liberty of remarking to one of the ladies. if they were brought too forward in company. thé pupils of the French. and others with their She said we were happy in that but that nurses and governesses. 1 see a wonderful polishing bas taken place. whose manners were so it must be the destruction depraved. the bed-rooms and dressingrooms of the ladies are neat and elegantly fitted up with English and and all as dinerent as possible from thé houses 1 French furniture 1 am told that they are ïikewise as dinerent from saw in Bahia. and every thing is gaining an Eurapean air. have a singular power over me. and can well believe it.RIO DE JANEIRO. to them in aIL respects. After the first dance was over. 1 love to collect thèse even here where it exists in a milder proofs of the evils ofslavery 1 left the dancers busily engaged at form than in most countries. we walked all about the house. almost N N . the extreme their mothers this youth of some of the children who accompanied evening. which broke in sober certainty of waking Miss. and practices so immoral. and especially to those who have known sorrow. twelve o'ctock. There is no peculiarity in the dancing -here the ladies of Rio being like ourselves. that in England we should consider it injurions 1 She asked me what we did with them. told her that some of them would be in bed.-Y even during the twelve months of my absence from Rio. that and that those who loved their children must keep of the children them under their own eyes. whether in speaking or singing. and that the children would be left to the care and example of the slaves. but scarcely furnished to correspond with the rest of the house. they at least could learn no iH. and found a magnificent dining-room as to size. 273 grudged my gayer companions their ban. especially those of the human voice. where. and saying. 1 am no mu~ician but sweet sounds.

or exercise one's tongue or one's whip without any onenGe to one's We were well tried to-day. 20~. if. pier on a taM bay horse high in bone. May's at half-past four o'clock. and as thé road is too well travelled to fear extraordinary accidents. and Mrs. a reference to one's horse. . as is our case. or disposition. that we might reach Campinha. about fourteen leagues from hence. Hardy gave a baU and supper to English. 1 had determined to hire a black attendant and go alone. and every body pleased. was over-ruled by Mr. This détermination. 1 confess 1 was very glad to be. my boat-cloak over my saddle. however. Damleagues a day without complaining. May. the mprriest of negroes. whose taste for the 1 think that if picturesque beauties of nature agrees with my own. they A difference of opinion is so easily evaded by travel on horseback. and had resolved on riding at least to Santa Cruz. more especially. though the afternoon was most unpromising. whose brother. there may always be peace and pleasant conversation. Mr. there is one decided point in which iellow-travellers agrée. thé first stage. otherwise dressed as and our atusual. Dampier. 1 Itad taken two-legged companion. and well-ordered. it into my head. 19~. and not a little pleased to have the society of a well-bred. and my bag before him. 1 had long wished to see a little more of the neighbourhood of Rio than 1 have hitherto done.relieved of the absolute charge of myself. on a mule. which may always go too fast or too slow. with a straw riding hat. Sir T. alas these horses are not like my Chilian steeds. with Mr. and J am not timid as to common inconveniences. in a huge straw hat. that after having postponed our journey n'om week to week on one account or an other. however different in age. If we did not begin it this day we never should go at all and. French. Mr. and a short jacket 1 on a little grey horse. therefore. and Brazilians where every thing was handsome. that would carry me twenty We mounted then. temper. with a brace of pistols buckled round him. and dark grey habit tendant Antonio. to sleep for. kindiy onered to escort me. intelligent young man.274 JOURNAL. we left Mr. DamWe proceeded pier's portmanteau behind.

. is to be sold then the Capon do Bispo. that rushed impetuously down their sides. entered on a country quite new to me. where a good deal of produce is embarked for thé city. the clouds had closed dully in. resting-place. From the western side of the entrance to Rio Janeiro. and thé little port of Benenca. 275 by the upper part ofthe town. and with some pains prevailed on my horse to go on we reached the venda. the tops of the mountains were wrapped in mists. On the northem side of this ridge there is a plain. a high mountainous ridge extends close to the sea. after a long wet ride in a dark and boisterous night. and after crossing thé little bill to the left of the palace. which the rain clouds made me long to stop at and then the stone bridge of Rio de Ferreira. By the time we reached Praya Pequena. we passed the Venda Grande. and long before we reached the Casca d'ouro. and reaching in a winding direction to the bay of Angra dos Reyes itself having probably at no very remote period been covered with water. connecting these two bays. the protection of cloaks and umbrellas had ceased to avail. as far as the Bay of Angra dos Reyes.JOURNEY TO SANTA CRUZ. or through their clefts. and every now and then a hollow sound ofwind came from out of them. and insulating thé mountains abovementioned. Under this sort of cloud we passed the picturesque Pedragulha. a pretty village. to arrive at a place of rest. leaving the bay entirely and first theï~ eharacter. Along this plain our road lay between grand scenery on the one hand. and soft and beautiful landscape on thé other but to-night all was dark and louring. and the grand mountain mists had lost StUl we went on. formed by I!ha Grande and Marambaya. here and there varied by low hills. There but having been told that thé Venda of we might have stopped Campinha was the best. though the blast did not quite reach us. and along the well-trodden road to San CristovaÔ. where thé rain at length began to fall in large cold drops then tremendous gusts ofwind came out of the mountain gaps. But if it be delightmi. where every necessary for horse or man travelling. we resolved to proceed. formed by a creek of thé Rio. extending quite to the most inland part of Rio de Janeiro. it is at least as wretched NN2 .

and extended her hospitable care to the negro. They appear happy however. where a negro was boiling coffee. lightly and actively made. and proceeded along a league of very Where that estate joins Campinha pretty road to thé Affonsos. was nothing at the venda to eat. 21st. and she and the little had changed our wet clothes. 8~ peared to be the masters of thé party the baggage was piled up on one side of the shed. and her little daughter Her husband and son were absent on business. possessing above four or five slaves. Dampier her son's and the bed. she gave us warm conee. we had letters from a friend in town. and made up a couch for me in the room where she child slept. there is a large tiled shed where we found a party of travellers. and two or three men apparently above the common. aptheir clothes and baggage after the parently from thé mines. and girl were alone. . and 1 am This morning looked at least as threatening as yesterday. Senhor Joam Marcus Vieira. A priest. GeneraHy speaking. to be turned from the door where you hope to find shelter. noitre from the back of the houae. handsome race. who had made coffee early for us. sure are very hospitable. with There dripping clothes and shivering limbs yet such was our fate. none for our horses. drying last night's storm. when having ascertained that we the front door was really were English travellers benighted and wet. As soon as we had provided for the horses. which our hostess put into an empty building. and several persons round drying clothes. and we found within a middie-aged very kind-looking her name is Maria Rosa d'Acunha. bread and cheese. no place for us. She gave Mr. but we determined to go as far as the Engenho dos Anbnsos. woman. Thèse people are of the poorest class of farmers. Accordingly we took leave of our kind hostess. however. not and working hard themselves. and the arms were stuck into thé cordage which bound it. the men we met on their way from the mines are a fine. and so we set out again to brave thé pitiless storm a few yards. for whose owner. opened.276 JOURNAL. brought us to a low cottage on the road side. and there we A mulatto serving-man came round cautiousiy to reconknocked. There was a grcat fire in the middle.

Catherine's. One of them made breakfast for us. Thé first place we visited after break&st was the sugar-mill. It consists of an oval cloak. After breakfast. The sides are often turned up over the shbulders. The dumb ladies. the dumb and the speakers being born alternately. They are part of a family of eight children. besides those for thé service of the family. would be perfectly intelligible to the pupils of Sicard or Braidwood. and '70 pipes of spirits. are very interesting they are extremely intelligent. brought us to Anbnsos. the others content themselves with a good cudgel. 1 was indeed glad ofthe opportunity of spending a whole day with a country family. lined and bordered with some bright colour such as rose or apple green. The breeches are loose. being married. which consisted of coffee. but seems to answer its purpose. understanding most things said in Portuguese by the motion of the lips. we were easily prevailed on by our host to remain ail day at Affonsos. where we presented our letter. and a widow. four of whom are dumb. and two dumb cousins also réside here. and display a bright coloured 'jacket below. The higher classes have generally handsome pistols or great knives. so that their cousin spoke in French. and loose boots of brown leather are frequently seen on the better sort. 277 Their dress is very picturesque. and reach to the knee. A short league from the last house of Campinha. and sister. though it is very common to see the spurs upon the naked heel. as thé day continued cold and showery. when he wished to say any thing of them they make themselves understood by signs. 1 may say most. worn as thé Spanish Americans wear the poncho. which is worked by mules. many of which. and brother.AFFONSOS. and were most kindly welcomed. who is a native of St. Thé estate employs 200 oxen and 180 slaves as labourers. and no boot or shoe of any kind. but he is only an occasional visitor. The lands extend from . His mother. The machinery is rather coarse.Thé produce is somewhere about 3000 arobas of sugar. and various kinds of bread and butter. Thé estate belongs in fact to the grandmother of Senhor Joaô Marcus. no longer young. and living near his wife's family.

it is often the saving even of his wages. on account of thé numerous accidents that happen in felling thé trees. the place where we met the travellers. though in thé southern The luxury and inland mountainous districts it thrives admirably. and quara. of wheaten bread is introduced everywhere. the soil a mixture of sand and loam. and prevent thé growth of weeds. and occasionally for sale. and But a smail portion of thé exercise the more necessary handicra~s. The Creole cane takes the hill. April. There are about forty white tenants other useM shops on the borders of the estate near the roads. the canes yield less juice by oneThe wages from a patac and half to two patacs per day besides food . or negroes let out by their masters*. when the vourable to the sugar-cane the roots of the ground is weeded. May.2~8 JOURNAL. Wheat does not grow in this part of Brazil. The Cayenne cane yields best. to send into the woods. and where 200 years Tapera. of a hired negro. only that of a small fine and of a free black. and cleared. though less productive. North America furin this neighbourhood. a to Piraago there was an aldea of reclaimed Indians. Wherever one travels is sure of excellent rusk at every venda. the rest being covered with its native woods. one nishing the flour. and loosened around canes then the maize is pulled. and timber for machinery. when a second weeding and clearing takes place after which the sugar is tait enough to shade the ground. The first canes are ripe about May. particularly in steep situations. In the ridges between them maize and kidney-beans are planted. The death of an estate negro is the loss of his value. estate is in actual cultivation. After October. but these are valuable as fuel for the sugar-furnaces. about league who keep vendas. The owners of estates prefer hiring either free blacks. is supposed to yield sugar of a better are thé properest quality. if he bas no son to claim them. The sugar-canes are planted here during the months of March. The cool months from May to September for boiling sugar. though soft bread is rare. and. and even June and July. and thrives in low grounds. the cultivation of which is fafirst the beans are gathered in.

assists as fuel in heating the furnaces the sweet refuse water that runs off from the still is eagerly drank by the oxen. when dried. 2~9 eighth. and governing the female in-door slaves. Every thing was served up on English blueandwhite ware. 1 preferred thé dish of farinha moistened with broth.AFFONSOS. which is very beautiful. After dinner some of the family retired to the siesta others occupied themselves in embroidery. with only a little more garlic than is used in English cookery. which has a taste ofsoda*. On the side-table there was a large dish of dry farinha. sometimes by one-fourth. when it is ready for use. with a quantity oflie made by steeping the twigs of a small shrub. 1 suppose that the main business of expressing the juice. 1 had . small and very sweet. The clay used in refining thé sugar is dug close to thé mill. which the elder part of the family called for and used instead of bread. and the rest in the business of the house. By the time we had examined the sugar-work. which was presented along with the bouillie and sliced saussage after the soup. and we were summoned to dinner. as well as cleansing them. or even in every sugar-work nor can the distilling the spirits be very different. though probably there may be some difference in every country. Nothing is wasted in a sugar-house the trash that remains after the canes are pressed. boiling it. not uniike brose. it feels soft and fat in the fingers. The table-cloths and napkins were of cotton diaper. It is placed in a wooden trough. but not displayed. and nearly as much more is lost in claying by the !!ghtnes& of the sugar. and there was a good deal of plate used. and drying the sugars. who always seem to fatten on it. and seen the garden. the pots of three arobas not returning after the opération more than two and a half at most. district from the lake of Jacarepagua. it was two o'clock. and worked up and down with a machine. Every thing was excellent in its kind. who This is brought to the Engenhos ofthe no opportunity of seeing the whole plant. are carried on here as in every part'of the world. something like a churn-stan~ until it is of the consistence ofthick cream. The mutton was from the estate.

a meal almost as ceremonious. who seemed to be as tenderly treated as if they had been of the family. and nothingtrusted to others. introduced. and the vantage to that of free servants. which signs all the family know and 1 was delighted with the quickness and within their precision with which they conversed on every subject knowledge. ladies possess of discoursing together. namely. Slavery under thèse circumstances is much alleviated. but prepared here are more like Scotch oat-cakes. After it. and enjoyed themselves accordingly. the caprice of a half-educated. where the family is constantly resident. they have the power of doing so and the slave is subject to the worst of contingent evils. One of the dumb ladies made tea. 1 remember an account given by Bishop Burnet in his Travels. have been mostly born on the estate. toasted cheese was and quite as constant. Affonsos. before the instruction of such unfortunate persons Some sMch method these had become an object of public attention. an intelligent girl. and spread with a very little Irish butter they are the same as the Casava bread ofthe West Indies. worst but too probable since the unchecked power of a fallible being may exercise itself without censure on its slaves. 1 saw children of all ages and colours running about. . that though perhaps masters may not treat their slaves ill. as the dinner. dumb lady who had invented a way ofcommunicatingwith even in the dark. and brought up in their mistress's house. and more like that of thé patriarchal times. of a her sister.where the sisters felt themselves quite on an equality with the speakers. and of making themselves understood by their young cousin. and afterwards we passed a couple ofhours at a round game of cards. who is always at hand to interpret for them.280 JOURNAL. The great evil is. They have also invented arbitrary signs for the names of the flowers and plants in their garden. or it may be an illWere aH slaves as well off as the house slaves of educated master. with girdle cakes of farinha freshly toasted. The cards made way for the supper. where the purchased servant became to all intents one of the family. the state of the individuats might be compared with adBut the best is impossible.

or to assist me in undressing at any time. plains. 281 Ori retiring to my room at night. and floods rear'd high to heav'n around them threw And above all these the mountains rose in the distance. streams. and broad Meridian gloom. and removing the foot bath. thé road improving in beauty as we proceeded. where we stopped at a very neat venda to rest and feed our horses. She seemed disappointed when I told her 1 never suffered any body to do that for me. we procured for distant. Here lofty trees to ancient song The noble sons of potent heat. and pools. Having loitered a little to admire it. so she would not disturb me. Prone rushing from the clouds. August 22~Thé fast we pursued our journey to Santa Cruz. with plenty of tepid water which she left without saying a word.AFFONSOS. Their thorny stems. she supposed. cheese from the province of Minas exactly 00 . seem all placed on purpose to be admired. decorated with air plants in bloom. In the morning she returned. overlooking a very pretty country and a neat village. a handsome young slave entered. and told her mistress 1 was a very quiet person. where the rocks. and a large embossed silver basin and ewer. Beyond this lies one of the most beautiful spots 1 ever saw. and a n'inged towel over her arm." unknown. brought fresh towels. day as fine as possible. and lower hills more near. between which. and buildings. The church is on a little hill. with a large brass pan of tepid water. and. namely. and groups of passNear Campo ing cattle and their picturesquely clad conductors. Grande. and scarlet creepers. ourselves some rusk. long valleys stretched themselves till the eye could fûllow them no farther and the ibregrounds were filled up with gigantic aloes. and offered to wash my feet. with only an insulated tree here and there. and after breakFriday. the scenery is diversified by several little green plains. Viaga. trees. liked nobody but my own people. we rode on to thé New Freguezia of Sant Antonio. but the greater part of the parish is very While the horses were eating their maize.

and to whom we had a letter of introduction. and so rest. As soon as ou. horses were ready. the boilers. and port wine from the cask of excellent quality. and generally sleep in the same shed. if not the very first. a polite and well-informed person and with him was the chaplain of Santa Cruz. the evening and other hymns were sung. and we accompanied Dona Mariana into the house. is commonly known by the name of the Padre Mestre. These provisions are always to be had. like Scotch kebbuck. who were supplying the canes. and as many oxen. to sing. whom we found attending to her engenho. bacon. the eldest daughter of the Baroness de Here we Campos. but travellers commonly wrap themselves in their cloaks. Dona Mariana desired the women. On our departure. told them to sing their hymns to the Virgin when. Dona Mariana led us into the engenho. saws so that she bas the advantage of having her timber prepared While we were sitting by thé machine. The besides the rollers in the sugar-house.282 JOURNAL. we . cooking food for travellers. though it was long after the family hour. We were received at first by the chaplain. moves several steam-engine. and they began at first with some of their own wild African airs. and the distillery. and with some sweet voices. dinner had been prepared for us. with beans. we rode on to Mata Paciencia. who generally carry the utensils for that the inn cook purpose with them. one of the first. She then with words adopted at the moment to suit the occasion. to which the guests add what bedding they please. where we found that while we had been occupied in looking at the machinery. who having been formerly a professor in the college at Rio. which is indeed an interesting one. thé engenho of Dona Mariana. met with a most polite reception from a handsome ladylike woman. in constant employ. erected are here 200 slaves. and dried But the hospitality of a Brazilian inn does not extend to beef. There engine. which are worked by an eight-horse power steamin Brazil. regularly in tune and time. where we had seats placed near the rollers. and who in some shed attached to for themselves. At Sant Antonio there are decent sleeping-rooms provided with benches and mats. almost without expense.

but the works were stopped on his departure. which extends many cattle upon it. nothing loath. a surgeon. Nothing can exceed the good-humoured hospitality of our host and hostess." promised to do. The new part was built for King John VI. Soon after our arrival. thé Capitaô de Fragata Joam da Cruz de Reis. most magnificent. In this climate Jbangings. and exceedingly coM when there. is here and there varied by clumps of natural wood the horizon extends to the sea in one direction. we easily found the house of the gentleman to whom we had a ~er of introduction. which we. and every where else the view is bounded by mountains or woody hills. 283 were hospitably pressed to return on our way back 'to Rio. It was quite dark long before we reached Santa Cruz. and mentioned that the object of thé journey was mere curiosity. The walls are therefore washed with oo 2 . the view of the extensive plains of Santa Cruz. who cornes from Rio once a year to vaccinate the children born in the twelvemonths on the estate. whether of paper or silk. The morning was excessively cold but clear. and a &w tolerablie apartments. with the herds of The pasture.SANTA CRUZ. and comfortably furnished. Three sides are modem the fourth contains thé handsome chapel of the very reverend fathers. The apartments are handsome. so that the Capitaô told us that he would next day do all he could to satisfy us. among the rest. The palace itself occupies the site of the old Jesuits' college.. The Visconde do Rio Seco bad kindly furnished us with this letter. who is the superintendant of the palace and estate. who soon made us feel quite at home and by the time tea was over. we were quite initiated into all the ways of the house and the village. leagues on each side of the little hill on which the palace and village are situated. all the difference being in a little more or less refinement. several persons dropped in to converse half an hour. The Padre Mestre and another friar also came in. are liable to speedy decay from damp and insects. and 1 soon found that Santa Cruz has its politics and gossip as well as the city. 23~. and )Sa<M~<K/.

. and surrounded by mountains. formed by the Jesuits not very The situation of the aldea and church long before their expulsion. is extremely fine. The produce of his little garden.. Besides. the arabesques of the friezes being composed of the fruits. we rode along thé causeway that crosses the plain of Santa Cruz. not well indeed. that she and her daughters had always lived there but her sons and grandsons. ingly beautiful in design. a very fine white clay. slaves are plentitul and as the negro is hardier than the Indian. One of the rooms represents a pavillon and between the open pilasters. his labour is more profitable. and. had returned to their fathers. After breakfast. if she knew whence her tribe came she said no she had been brought. after the fathers of the company went. by which she meant that they had resumed their savage life. to his unrestrained Taboa tinga. Thé artists employed were chiefly. and become servants a state they hardly distinguish from slavery. a willing Indian does not always find a master. whose but 1 sat down. and insects of the country. whom 1 had understood 1 enquired of one of the women. when a mere child. This is not surprising. flowers. by the fathers of the company had died when she was young. or his fishing. We watered by a navigable river. the same a3 is found in the valleys of Chile. the half-reclaimed savage droops. proper for making porcelain. in to be of the Guaranee nation. therefore. and generally very well executed. whose chief favour was procuring constant occupation. very abundant in Brazii. entered several of the huts of the Indians. is rarely sufficient for his family and without the protection of the priest. on the summit of a hill overlooking a rich plain. to the Indian aldea of San Francisco Xavier de Itaguahy. birds. from a great disthat her husband tance to Taguahy. and flies again to the liberty of his forest.mulattoes and creole negroes. but the room is pleasant and cheerful. commonly called Taguahy. The Indians here must work for others. as far as 1 can judge.284 JOURNAL. the scenery round Santa Cruz is painted. and cornices and a rich creamy white clay. called Taboa Tinga Some of these are exceedborders painted on them in distemper.

285 hunting and fishing. occupied by the Visconde de Merendal where there is a wharf where thé produce of the neighbouring estates is embarked. the people themselves squatting on the ground. than the pure race of either. the passage thither being generally of twenty-four hours. The Indian huts at Taguahy are very poor barely sufficient in walls and roof to keep out the weather. and conveyed to Sepetiva. but as we had a servant from Santa Cruz with us. in the barony of Itanhse and having received the Tingui. In 1810 there was an intention of uniting the Guandu with the Itaipu by a short canal by which means the produce. a little port in the bay of Angra dos Reyes. sold by King Joam VI. the number of slaves employed being the same.cleanly swept. it passes to the engenho of Palmares. and a log of wood or a rude stool was generally to be found for a seat for the stranger. we left Taguahy to return to Santa Cruz. we were not questioned. turned Thé quantity of sugar made in a by the little stream Taguahy. to one de Barros thé rollers are worked by a horizontal water-wheel about twenty-two feet in diameter. where it is shipped for Rio. and re-crossed the river Guandu. where passes from the police are required from ordinary travellers. After we had admired the neatness of the engenho and the beauty of the situation sufficiently.SANTA CRUZ.' The children of such couples are prettiér. where there is a guard-house by the bridge. At the foot of the hill of Taguahy there is a very fine ingenho. and furnished with little besides hammocks and cooking utensils yet we were every where asked to go in and sit down all the floors were. The Guandu rises in the mountain of Marapicu. not only of . which have nothing in common with the state of Brazil. and appear to me to be more intelligent. given time is something more than that produced by the steamengine at Mata Paciencia. The Chilian Indians rarely or never return to their forests when their villages are once formed but that depends on circumstances. Many of the Indian women have married the creole Portuguese intermarriages between creole women and Indian men are more rare.

about fifteen hundred on the estate. The immédiate neighbourhood of Santa Cruz is feijoâ. for thé voice and fire of seraphim To paint thy glories with devotion due After dinner 1 walked about a little in the village of the negroes. Every time 1 pass through a grove in Brazil. but they have their little portions of land and they have half ofFriday. were wading about in graceful pride. priated great part of a very commodious building. without the risk of the navigation outside of the harbour 1 know not why the project was abandoned. to labour for themselves so that they at most work for their master four days. and the broth. of beautiful crimson and purple wild tea. . To-day 1 saw passion-flowers of colours 1 never observed before green. all Saturday and Sunday. and every holiday. as the families feed and clothe themThe Emperor has approselves without the master's interference. pink. scarlet. new to me and in every little pool. water-hens. and blue wild pine apples. There are. and Serra thèse yield cooee.286 JOURNAL. in return for their house and land and some even of the external marks of slavery are removed. and varieties of At every step 1 am storks. and well-ventilated apartments the kitchen was clean. the greater part of whom belong to the outlying tarms or feitorias. erected by his 1 visited it. how in every charm suprême jJ Whose votaries feast on raptures ever new Oh. Piperi. and maize. 1 believe. father for the royal stud. appropriated to the rearing of cattle. even more beautiful than the elegant Chinese shrub marsh-palms. inclined to exclaim with the minstrel Oh nature. The negroes of Santa Cruz are not fed and clothed by the Emperor. and innumerable aquatic plants. and a richness of vegetation that seems inexhaustible. 1 see new flowers and plants. to the purpose of an hospital. 1 believe. of which there are. and found a white surgeon and black assistant decent beds. this district. wild-ducks. three. would bave been conveyed directly to Rio. Bom Jardin. of which there are this year about four thousand head and a good deal of pasture land is annual]y let. but of the Ilba Grande.

plant in China. 1 think. besides a good many of the negro people all of them. 1 consider the hospital as affording a proof of the healthiness of thé negroes of Santa Cruz. however. as never yet to have afforded the slightest Yet the plants are so promise of paying thé expense of culture.who brought the plants and cultivators at great expense from China. they have no unpleasing effect. others a sort of leprosy from working in damp grounds. 287 which was all 1 found cooked at the time of night when 1 was there. with young children so that. 1 walked up to the tea-gardens. who perceives that it is more advantageous to sell coffee and buy tea. that 1 have no doubt they will soon spread of themselves. presented a very respectable congregation on its way to the -chapel of Santa Cruz. and the garden hedge is of a beautiful kind of mimosa. The introduction of the culture of tea into Brazil was a favourite project of the King Joam VI. whose dark shining leaves and myrtle-like flowers fit them for a parterre.SANTA CRUZ.. which occupy many acres of a such as 1 suppose may be the favourite ~a~a~ of the rocky hill. and probably become as natives. most of them merely for sores good in their feet. so that the China of Santa Cruz forms really a delightful walk. placed where they are. better dressed than persons of the same class elsewhere in this part of Brazil. some from giggers. There were all the officers belonging to the palace. The walks are bordered on either hand with orange trees and roses. The Emperor. His Majesty built Chinese gates and summer-houses to correspond with the destination of these gardens and. there were about sixty patients. than to grow it at such expense. pulmonary complaints not uncommon. The tea produced both here and at the botanic gardens is said to be of superior quality but the quantity is so small. has discontinued thé cultivation. and a few with elephantiases fevers are very rare. thriving. 24th. Our hospitable friends the Capitaô and his lady would not allow . Sunday. among the beautiful tea~shrubs. with their wives and families also the shopkeepers of the village and neighbourhood. on the whole. Several of the inmates of the hospital were there merely from old age one was insane and there was a large ward of women.

each with his They were just beginning to thé little basket laden with something of his own. honour having been done to thé table. On our arrivai we went with Dona Mariana and the chaplain into the garden. Oranges and roses. who. that we might sit and enjoy on whose side a great Overhanging that field there is a steep hill. the day offreedom to thé slave. had arrived to buy the iresh-picked coffee. and orchard in one. and the gardens and cotfee plots and blessed be the This day of the negroes occupy the ground. having invited several persons to do honour to us. deal of wood has been cleared away. and to a sumptuous feast they had prepared. and passed in with them. and neighboured each other. cabbage and tobacco. and lowed impatiently at thé gate of the corral we opened it. where it sells at a higher price. and again and again as they passed me. Presently the this time was only tinging the tops of the dropped in. The sun by hills. the little treasure. A sidedoor in the garden let us into a beautiful field. 1 do not know when 1 have passed so pleasant an evening. and then to take the opportunity of one of the lady's messengers to town and send it thither. wbich unites the flower. we took our leave. 1 blessed the Sabdisplayed with glistening eye last few stragglers bath. kitchen-garden. The cattle flocked in from the pasture. where However. something in which and master had no share. where we arrived a little before sunset. and crossed thé court where the negroes live. . whither chairs were the freshness of the evening. Ail was bustle there they were bargaining with a huckster. knowing the proper hour. as if they belonged all were thriving among numbers of weeds. or prepare the ground for thèse or other vegetables.288 JOURNAL. us to leave them till after dinner. of which the wholesome calliloo and the splendid balsam attracted my eye most. due every good thing that can be named was present. melons and leeks. Some sold it thus others chose to keep it and dry it. brought. return from the wood. the negroes' own after morning blass they are free to do Sabbath!-is their own will and then most of them run to thé hill to gather their coffee or maize. to the same climate. and at about four o'clock or a little earlier set off for Mata Paciencia.

1 conversed also a good while with the chaplain on thé general state of the country. and run about on terms of familiar equality. he is expected to.MATA PACIENCfA. and the slaves. regretting all the time that their own dinner was over. he is expected to show his gratitude for early indulgence by future fidelity. It would be worth while to enquire into the cause of this evi!. and having eaten. tIU he is strong enough to work then. On the road we stoppèd to make some sketches. every thing in thé manner of living at Mata Paciencia is not only agreeable but elegant. to partake of a bee~steak which thé good woman of thé house cooked according to our directions. The new negro bas the education of the slave-ship and the market. that the creole negroes are less docile and less active than the new negroes. 289 AAer supper 1 had a gréât deal of conversation with Dona Mariana concerning thé sugar-work. 1 was very sorry to leave Mata Paciencia this morning when it was time to return however.be industrious. the hour came. he is expected to be obedient and where no moral feelings have been cultivated. The creole negro is a spoiled child. drunk. as <jheday was prettyeoo!. And if the stories of older travellers con-cerning the country life of the Brazilians be true. that not haïf the negroes born on her estate live to be ten years old. and whether it is general. Dona Mailana tells me. confirming what 1 had learnt at Affonsos. and that there was not time to boil or roast for us. for without having recourse to the innuence of climate. and at Campo Grande to refresh our horses and were glad ourselves. active from habit. She also tells me. 25th August. the iash being administered to driïï him so that when bonght he is docile from fear. 1 think both facts may be accounted. the change bas been most rapid and complete. of course a staunch It is needless to say that independent. without previous habits of industry. He is a native ofPernambuco. p p . But hospitality seems the temper of the country. as 1 had heard before. and we departed for Affonsos. thé cultivation ofthe cane. the first she had ever seen.

They all saluted us gravely and courteously as they passed and 1 thought 1 had gotten among some of Gil Blas* travellers in the did they differ neighbourhood of Oviedo or Astorga. a bare-headed slave with two mules. Mr. Dampier. but my young friend. at Campinha. now building on a little insulated knoll.290 JOURNAL. in astride enormous straw hats. and N. we had leisure to admire the country about Campinha. also astride. and whose size and shape denoted the presence of at least a clean shirt and. one laden with baggage and provisions. to call on our hospitable and hostess. of course. at thé beginning of thé last century. all natural FaIstaHs. S. which was totally obscured thé first. could not spare the time so 1 was obliged to cortent myselfwith only hearing of the beauties of the lake of Jacarepagua. On our arrival at Affonsos we were received as old friends. left Affonsos by times this morning. First came rather a handsome woman. . and found her surrounded by four of the prettiest women 1 have seen in Brazil. da Pena. We stopped. so as to swing as low as the stirrups. in order to make excursions to some picturesque spots in the neighbourhood. in a blue joseph and broad black hat.time we passed by rain. and mounted on good well-groomed horses next followed the lady's maid. and marched without stop to the city. riding then three gentlemen in Indian file. lastly. with hermistress's portmanteau buckled behind her and behind her thé valet.t'a. so completely from any thing usual with us. with three leathern bags hanging to his saddle by long straps. and by the plain to the capital. being distinguished by a new mud fort. . which commands thé road through the hills. which 1 would fain have done. The want of some such point of defence was felt when Du Clerc landed in the bay of Angra dos Reyes. where we sat talking with them for some tirne. found her at a neighbour's house whither we followed her. Senhora Maria Rosa. and the other as a relay. &c. and sbortiy after26~We wards met an original-looking group of travellers. and much pressed to stay a couple of days. From the veranda. It is of the same beautiful character with the rest we have seen.

We must have sailors to end the war. well found and provisioned. says. seeing more of Brazil and Brazilians in these few days. after mentioning bis success. longitude 32° W. under bis circumthem. His Lordship. expected. colours. However. PP 2 . when baïf the army. and frigates. we proceeded homewards and srrived at Mr. you will do a great service to the country." His Lordship mentions farther in his letters to Pernambuco. and take half at least of a fleet of seventy sail*. or imbecility of the enemy. who are enemies but sailors of any other K~OM. were. 291 After feeding our borses at the very pretty station of Rio Ferreira. on my part. against them. as at Rio de Janeiro. instead of the ships of war. and stores of Madeira had fallen into his hands. drawing on government for the same. I do not say Portuguese sailors. and.. passed entirely out reach. and full of veteran troops. He attributes much to thé imprudence. that his reasons for rather following up the transports at first. 1 fear it will be He has already effected more than could have been impossible. had at least that number. or obscure the courage necessary to follow up. than in ait the time 1 had been here before. in latitude 6" S. If Your Excellencies will give 24 milrees bounty. and stating his want of seamen. to feel that no faults oftbe enemy's commander lessen bis merit.pursuit of the rest. haying had a very pleasant excursion. whose plan of saving an army he likens to Sterne's marble sheet. attack. May's in good time to dinner. lest It is now certain that Joa8 Felix. or perhaps tban any commander besides himself could have done. so armed and manned. others are just enough to him. Should he be able to separate no doubt he will capture them but alone.RIO DE JANEIRO. intending afterwards to follow the JoaÔ VI. stances. which were the objects he had most at heart. ammunition. of English On my arrival at home 1 found news from Lord Cochrane of the 9th July. Tbere is a letter from Lord Cochrane to the magistrates of Pernambuco published in thé gazette. and he was in .

either to shoot game or dépend themselves from the wiîd Indians. the -use of fire-arms. mother was aiso a Portuguese. besiJeshis cattle. peror's battalions. To-day 1 received a visit from Dona Maria de Jesus. The young women learn and they also embroider very beautifully. especially her eyes and-forehead. emissaries had traversed the country . since whose death he bas married again. named Gonsalvez de Almeida.292 JOURNAL. Senhor but the possessor seldom knows or counts his numbers. which she told me she had adopted from a picture representing a highlander. that early and more concerning her own adventures. the quantity is uncertain. as they had threatened. the young woman who has lately distinguished herself in the war of Her dress is that of a soldier of one of the Emthe Reconcave. have the strongest characteristics Her father bas another daughter by the same wife of the Indians. and commit new hostilities in the empire. as their brothers do. Rio do Pex. dry seasons 'he can scarcely collect above sixty which may fetch from six to seven milrees. as the most feminirie military dress. The farm of the Rio do Pex is chiefly a cattle farm. but as the Certaô is In sometimes a whole year without rain. with the addition of a tartan kilt. in the parish of San José. His farm employs twenty-six slaves. It appears. and the new wife and the young children have made home not very comfortable to Dona Maria de Jesus. in some other port of Brazil. Thé women ofthe interior spin and weave for their household. the troops should land. August 29~. attire and possesses a farm on-the." chosen as a womanish Her father is a Portuguese. Gonsalvez. at from four or seventy arobas. about forty leagues rn-l~nd from Cachoeira. raises somecotton. in the late war ofthe Reconcave. to five milrees in wet years he may sell 400 arobas. What would the Gordons and Mac Donalds say to this ? Thé "garb of old Gaul. Her in the Certaô. yet the young woman's features. Dona Maria told me several particulars conceming the country. And he concludes with announcing that he sends several flags taken from the enemy.


and had mounted guard. 1 felt my heart burning in my breast. thé house of her own sister. for that service." Her father. She recapitulated the whole of the stranger's discourse. and that after their meal he began to talk on the subject of his visit. with despatches. who has given her . 293 that one of these had in all directions. that she had entered the régiment of artiHery. and those of the Empress so that at the last. was on Friday. Maria received some dothes belonging to her sister's husband toequip her. pendent. She was top slight. equipped herself in male attire. He is old. had none of her enthusiasm . for one Nay. half of what you say 1 would join the ranks for the Emperor. however. said the girl. She was sent hither. By Sunday she had managed matters so well. what interest had a slave to fight for the independence of Brazil ? He should wait in patience the result of the war. He represented the greatness and the riches of Brazil. and far enough off to escape detection." This was enough. who was married. that she might join the patriots. however. if 1 had not a husband and children. At and going off the length being in sight of Cachoeira. she resolved to take theopportunity of riding after him. and lived at a little distance. she stopped This road. and as her father was then about to go to Caçboeira to dispose of some cottons. and said she wished she was a man." said the sister. near enough for protection in case of accident on thé road. nor had he a son to send thither and as to giving a slave for the ranks. He taJked long and eloquentlyof the services Don Pedro had rendered to Brazil of his virtues.of character. and the happiness to which it might attain if indeHe set forth the long and oppressive tyranny of Portugal. where she now is. and the meanness of submitting to be ruied by so poor and degraded a country. and to be presented to the Emperor. and be a Dona Maria stole from home to peaceable subject to the winner. and entered the town. to raise patriot recruits arrived at her father's house one day about dinner time that her father had invited him in. and said he neither could join the army himself. 1 believe. and excbanged into thé infantry.RIO DE JANEIRO.

with some young children. and ten women. applied to her commanding officer There is notbing very peculiar in her manners at table. She has not conance. excepting that she eats iarinha with her eggs at breakfast and her fish at segar after each meal but dinner. 1 had understood that but the women of this party ing the face was reserved for the men See Sou thy's Brazil. who are now there on a visit. and such trinkets and ornaments as they value. to know what relation the Botocudos bear Tupayas. with very high cheek-bones. when they blush. and her she might have been a perceptions keen. of a light foreheads. an ensign's commission and the order of the cross. they are always enhearts' content. The faces are rather square. One thing is certain. lam not suScientty acquainted to the with the ûHation of the Indian tribes. and her manners are gentle and cheerful. 8th. and Mr. Hoste to see a party of Botocudo Majesty's ship Briton. and 1 believe that no imputation has ever been substantiated against her modesty. with education She is not particularly masculine in her appearremarkable person. that her sex never was known until her father to seek her. and low contracted Some of the young women are really pretty. about six men. the decoration of which he himself fixed on her jacket. Hately. of His Sept. that we could scarcely tell what the privilege of thus beautifythey were like. . andsmokesa she is very temperate. to Praya Grande. 1 think. with very dark eyes. whenever they manifest a wish to visit the neighbourhood of the city. Her understanding is quick. As it is desired to these people by every possible means. for the manners of the Tupayas. She is illiterate. (the usual colour of the eyes is haze~) and aquiline noses the rest were so disfigured by the holes cut in their lower lips and their ears to receive their barbarous ornaments.294 JOURNAL. civilise Indians. and two of copper-colour. fed to their We saw clothes. tracted any thing coarse or vulgar in her camp life.–1 went with Mr. but clever. and given couraged and received kindly. 1823. instead of bread. which glows aU over the young men were decidedly handsome.

RIO DE JANEIRO. but discoursed. and some on their backs. there was a springy activity hardly ntting a human being. and are extremely frightful. ments u&ed by these people are pieces of wood perfectly circular. 295 were equally disfigured. which they addressed to us. When we entered the room where the savages are lodged. the men shirts and trousers. iadeed. that in 1537. and lords of their own actions. given them on their arrivai hère.. which seemed like a series ofhalf-articulate sounds. But their traducers had their reasons for inventing and propagating the most atrocious falsthoods. pronounced that ïndians of America are men of rational soul. They had learned a few words of Portuguese. but 1 cannot believe that any ever ied habitually on human flesh. in ail they did. and pinched me gently to attract my attention. As they are usually naked in the woods. most of them were lying in mats on the floor. especially when they are eating. and consequently free by nature. who having hea?d ~o~ sides. and saliva running through. provincial of the order in Mexico." . and these were dressed only in coarse co~on petticoats the rest of the females had cotton frocks. were so wicked. capable of the sacraments of the holy church. their garments seemed to sit uneasily on them their usual motions seemed slow and lazy but when roused. whîch are inserted into the slit of the lip or ear. if it did not originally . as to taste of the flesh of prisoners taken in battle. the Dominican Frey Domingos de Becançoo. It gives the mouth the appearance of an ape's. the teeth appearing.together in their. sent Frey Domingos de Menaja to Rome to plead the The cause of the Indians before Paul tll.* Thé mouth is still more ugly without the lîp-piece. and so notorious. or victuns offered to the gods. We purchased from one of the men a The ornamouth-piece. some on their faces. They begged for and when we took out a few vintems. as a sort of excasp for their own barbarity in hanting and making slaves of them. measuring an inch and a half in diameter. the stories oftheir cannibalism. Three of the women were sùckling their infants. ownlongue.suggest. for many reasons. Psrhaps ail the Indians may have been so far cannibals. like a button. that it gives credit to. the women crowded money round me. of the same nature and species as aU others. These practices. and the peculiar mumping it occasions is so hideously unnatural.

others with a nat bit of cane tied with bark to the end of the hard wood thèse arrows are five feet long and 1 saw one of them penetrate several inches into the trunk of a tree. who are September 9~1 about to enter the Imperial naval service. The bow is of hard wood. bas the sub-acid taste of the gooseberry.296 JOURNAL. and the men. 1 purchased one bow and two arrows. from the first weighing of the ingredients to the filling cartridges and then we had our table spread in a pleasant part of the garden. to the ~spa~c-ca6o. when shot by an Indian from his bow. 1 tried to learn if this was a step towards civilisation. whose fruit. but they had neither eut their lips nor pulled their beards. The two handsome lads had eut their hair. excepting a tuft on the fore part of the head. took two very fine Brazilian boys. and as beautiful as they are usefuL 1 took my young friends to see the powder-mills. the interpreter attending them not being able to explain any thing but what concerns their commonest wants and actions. who had slit their lips. whose which its pulp bears a strong resemblance fruit is scarcely inferior to the damascene. the nùt of which is the strongest known purge the Cb~Mca. or if it was only that they had not reached the age when the ceremony of lip-slitting. as large as a russet apple. They had brought some of their bows and arrows with them of the rudest construction. &c. had also pulled out their beards. as good as that from cherries. which appears in much better order than when 1 saw it two years ago. which are not now at work. to spend the day at the botanical garden. and 1 was glad to find many of the indigenous trees had been placed here such as the ~7t~~Moa. being under repair but they learned the manner of making powder. and the Grumachama. is practised. under . The arrows are of cane some are pointed only with hard wood. is made these three last are like laurels.whence a liquor. with only two notches for the string. The hedge-rows of the Bencoolen nut ( FerM~zia Montana) are prodigiously grown the Norfolk Island pine bas shot up like a young giant. Most of these people had their hair closely clipped.

was surely never before chosen as a manufactory for so destructive an article 1 suppose the great command of water for the machinery is thé chief inducement to fix it hère. as a bright spot of azuré in a stormy sky. The powder is mixed by pounding." Sept. and the other specimens of spice the cloves are very fine. and the cinnamon might be so but the wood they hâve barked is generally too old. 297 the shade of a jumbu tree. and they have not yet the method of stripping the twigs this 1 endeavoured to explain. which we could not otherwise have We could not learn the relative strength of the powder. What 1 have seen is about as fine in grain as what we call priming powder in the navy. these things. enjoyed.–1 rode again to the botanic-gardens with Mr. the mortars being of rosewood. 1 have heard. Our chief object this time was the powder-mills. &c. 13<A. The two boys were highly delighted with their jaunt. Hoste and Mr. The camphor tree grows very well here. Poor things they are entering on a hard service and God knows whether the two cousins da Costa may not hereafter look back to this day passed with a stranger. however. dams. 1 do not understand which seems to me to be a strange oversight. and the pestles of the same shod with copper yet the mortar-hoops are iron. he showed us the cinnamon they have barked here.RIO DE JANEIltO. partake of our luncheon which being over. by the overseers and other persons employed in the works. and is now under repair so that we had an opportunity of seeing the watercourses. The principal mUI blew up a few months since. wheels. in the bosom of the mountains. and pressed to QQ . and the timber used in the construction very beautiful. that it is good.. however but the machinery interested me it is extremely simple. but 1 do not know if the gum bas ever been collected. and 1 not less so. While we were walking about we were invited into several houses. we proceeded along the valley of the mills and so beautiful and sequestered a place. After walking round the garden. as 1 had seen it practised in Ceylon. and made the head gardener. a very ingenious Dutchman. Hately.

to live in the country all the summer: so that the houses of every kind. and rather cold. the conntry. and a very natural and pleasant one it is. . at the botanic garden there is a constant nursery of the rare and the useâu plants. It is thé first time 1 have seen it here. My going to town. that on observing a peculiar luminous appearance of the sea. and on examining it next morning. exists m all public establishments here. that seem almost to rock the mountains. in the country. For instance. prepared by this cooler climate for their farther transplantation.298 JOURNAL. and 1 cannot find that any body has paid any attention to it. we observed a similar red grainy substance floating in it. one should not only move from but change his lodgings from one end and part of thé city to city. At night this red edge became luminous and 1 now recolleet when on the passage to India in 1809. for every family that can. Perhaps it is not worth noticing. perhaps. extending all along the shore. matter. does not Lord Bacon advise that in order to profit much from travel. and we hâve had some fierce thunder-storms. as in a few days 1 have to take up my abode in one of the narrow close streets of Rio and this not from choice. are in great request. 1 must make much of appearances of inanimate nature. to strangers and natives alike so that not only the gardens of Brazil are stocked with the rarer productions of the East. but 1 am so much alone. and tinging the sea for several feet from the edge. and 1 am therefore obliged to leave it. The greatest liberality to eat and drink with great hospitality. strangers. we took up a bucket of water. but there are some things 1 shall probably learn more perfectly by living there and. on application. that 1 have grown more and more alive to all the Besides. besides. and threaten to bring them down upon us. city to another ?" The last fortnight bas been extremely foggy. indeed. The term for which that 1 live in was hired is expired.Europe. but they are carried to different countries in . I observed on the beach to-day a line of red sandy-looking 14~. which are given away. might be avoided. It is the custom here.

it is said. the more time 1 have for Brazil the better. Yet in the course of the last week the project of the constitution for Brazil. it is doubtful. One advantage has already arisen from my removal into town. finding he could not get into Bahia. which he dispenses to others with the greatest good-nature. as Emperor. That city had iHuminated well as in consequence of news that Lord Cochrane had been beaten.. that at Lisbon they can publish false news. who himself inhabits a villa out of town where he has a farm. having ou board Luiz Paolino as successor to Madeira who. to present. As to the reception the commissioners are to meet with. a garden. and all sorts of agreeable and profitable things. Some days since thé brig 3° de Maio arrived here. thèse acknowledged the title. Dickson. in some other countries in Europe. began in the full assembly. 1 have received the very -first news of the arrival of t ship from Lisbon with commissioners on the part of the King to the 1 find. Rua dos Pescadores. belonging to my kind friend Dr. and flying before the Imperial Admiral's flag. came hither. or independence of the empire of BraQQ 2 . framed by the committee appointed. However. perhaps in a few weeks. and the Imperial navy destroyed by the Bahia squadron and this illumination must have taken place just about the time that Madeira was evacuating the city. and his boats my goods so in a few hours 1 have changed my home. 17th. '79. as 1 look forward to going to England in a few months. every body has such a dread of the heat of the town. his carriage conveying me. My private affairs have so occupied me that 1 have scarcely had time to think of the puHic. in the first floor of an excellent house. a collection of minerais and insects. was sent from the and yesterday the discussion of it. At length 1 am fixed in No. too. 399 16~.RIO DE JANEIRO. and have probably taken my leave of all English society. his commission and as governor of Bahia to His Imperial Majesty as Prince Régent But as none of it is also said that he was the bearer of some letters. article Assembly to the Emperor by article. 1 am obliged to Sir Thomas Hardy for a pleasant passage to town from Botafogo.

particularly building sheds for the workmen. and thé library is open to all persons for six hours daily. Whether thé gazing on a beautiful scene be in itself a plea~ . 1 am not sure cloister or a prison. Commodore means to go thither himself on the business. should not be condemned as a prize. commanding a fine view. Bombay. The which the Buenos Ayrians daim for their own health-boat. it is said. be preferable to one without. where there is the convent of San Bento where. the want of machinery and all the luxuries of labour is conspicuous but the work is well done. But hitherto of course nothing is known.300 JOURNAL. and am invited to go and use what 1 like there the librarians are all extremely polite. Another vessel also arrived with intelligence of some moment from Buenos Ayres. and have again visited the arsenals in which very great improvements have been made and are making. to be sure. Vieira and his colleague. They are laying down new ships I only wish they could form a nursery for seamen. divisions of thé harbour and the whole delightful. and the hills many a mile beyond. Fisheries off the Abrolhos. From the arsenal 1 climbed the hill immediately overlooking it. I went to-day to the public library to ask about some lg~. they were not received and the vessel has already sailed on her It is believed that the same fate will attend the return to Lisbon. and reminds me of that 1 used to see under the old Parsee builder in and repairing old ones. might perhaps do something towards it. books. overlooking both whether a town. It appears that the captain of His Majesty's ship Brazen has been at variance with the authorities there concernthe priority of ing the old subject of the right of boarding vessels. there is a good library. After an English arsenal. The situation of thé convent is but it is not accessible to women. zil. and from St. and 1 have no doubt all will be well and reasonably sëttled. Catherine's. because Brazil must have ships to guard her coasts. if indeed the ship present commissioners. 1 have also walked a great deal about the town.

However. which was once the hospital belonging to the That hospital was removed to a healthier and more Carmelites. and paper always placed to make notes. But a . and certainly the loveliest. so 1 wentboth yesterday and to-day to the library. -it seems to me as if. and the lately married and cherished wife of a most worthy man. Thé greater number are books of theology and law. nothing modem scarcely a book having been bought for sixty years. The library was brought hither from Lisbon in 1810. Beautiful and gay. of whichthere are between sixty and seventy thousand volumes. are not wanting and tbere are good editions of the classics. died a short time after the birth ofher first child. N. There is a great deal of ecclesiastical history. happy in a cloister. or whether It does not increase the longing for liberty in a way analogous to that in which a well-remembered air creates a longing. and the rooms. She had appeared to be recovering well she relapsed and died. of our countrywomen hère. There are some fine works on natural history but. 1 do 1 suppose some may be. and where 1 have pen. Mrs. admirably adapted to the purpose.RIO DE JANEIRO. excepting these. 1 find that staying at home 23<7. iuk. and particularly Général and civil history all the Jesuits' accounts of South America. commodious situation. 1 would break every association with liberty. where a pleasant. and keep my eyes from wandering where my limbs must no longer bear me. little cabinet has been assigned to me. and placed in. where whatever book 1 ask for is brought to me. cannot envy them 1 would fain not despise them. and some have been. 1 have been unwell again but does not cure me. its present situation. even to death. cool. for the home where that air was first heard. Our little English world at Rio is grieving in one September 19~ common mourning for the death of one of the youngest. once-imprisoned. It is one of those events that excites sympathy in the hardest. 301 sure great enough to alleviate connnement. This is a kindness and attention to a woman and a stranger that 1 was hardly prepared for. and commiseration in the coldest. received the books.

The Abbade Machado's de 1579 até 1757." 1 know not how name is in almost all thé historical books 1 have yet seen in the library. He is a small man. &c. others he probably had not seen. an ingenious young English artist. Lusitania became part of the roy al library. some MS. and truly and all the neappreciating the worth and talent of her husband in education phews and other relations 1 meet there appear superior and understanding to thé generality ofpersons I see. with a thin lively countenance and his manner and conversation at once impress the beholder with the idea of that restless activity of mind which O'er-informs its tenement of clay. 1 have begun to read diligently every scrap of Brazilian history 1 can find. 1 never spend half an hour any where with more pleasure and is of Irish paprofit than with the ex-minister's family. Having now received the portrait which Mr. but they contain nothing very material that he bas not in bis history.302 JOURNAL. noble addition was made to the establishment by the purchase of the Conde de Barca's library in which there are some valuable modem works. José Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva. the collection of the author of the Bibliotheca . Besides which. 1 speak now less English than Portuguese. and a very fine collection of topographical prints of all parts of thé world. bound up together*. newsfrom the year 1576 to papers. as follows e Militares da America Collegidas por Diogo Barboso Machado Abbade da Igreja ricas Comprehende do Anno de Santo Adriano de Sever. Southey mentions. has been painting of the Senhora Alerez Dona Maria de Jesus." Noticias HistoTo this collection !s a printed and engraved title. But it is Jose Bonifacio himself who attracts and interests me most. e Academico da Academia Real. Erle. and 1 have commenced by a collection of pamphlets. an O'Leary. 24~. some of these tracts Mr. a most amiable and kind woman. His lady rentage. This morning's study of Brazilian history in the original language is one great advantage 1 derive from my removal into town.page. 1757. It contains twenty-four pamphlets. 1 took it to show it to her friend and patron. letters and proclamations.

and as pure as his light. indeed. and conversed on all subjects He has visited most of those of Europe. new and beautiful combinations. e &ste}a& Os abertos botoes das novas rosas. . is full of character and intelligence. 1 found him surrounded by young people and children. and the last of these is now mine. and rich in Swedish and German authors. Tra~Me~o. be essential to poetry. and seems to me very beautiful.RIO DE JANEIRO. Com que medraô as plantas. E da Rorida primavera a hora Purpurea rio de verde herva mimosa A Terra denegrida se corôa. his occupations before that time leaving him little leisure for private society. 303 and is but too likely to wear out the body that contains it. on the Creation of Woman. The first time 1 saw him in private was after he ceased to be minister. though not what is called fine reading. and have naturally been of Rrst-rate interest to him. some of whom he took on his knee and caressed and 1 could easily see that he was very popular among the small people. Perhaps my knowledge of Portuguese does not entitle me to judge particularly on the vehicle or language of his poetry but if lofty thoughts. Bebem os prados jâ liquido orvalho. which. To me. Jâ do ether fugto ventosa invemo. glowing as the sun under which it was written. To-day. two or three copies printed by one of his friends. and a love of beauty and'of nature. There is one in particular. These. as a stranger. keen sensibility. the poems he read to me to-day have them all. which It was written at Lisbon in 1816. 1 was curious to see the retreat of a public man. The colHis library is well stored with books in aU languages. Perhaps it derived some of its merit from his manner of reading it. he was most ceremoniously yet kindly polite. and of all countries. But his delight is classical literature and he is himself a poet of no mean order. Jose Bonifacio gave me a translation from Meleager. lection on chemistry and on mining is particularly extensive. are subjects peculiarly interesting to Brazil.

Com as asperos sons da frauta rude Folga o Serrano. and having neither wealth nor rank forced to receive obligations painful and discordant with my former habits and prejudices. j'a produzem Formoso mel nos favos repousados Candida cera mult!plicao. This delight 1 do oftener enjoy than 1could have hoped. a formosa Primavera? . em torna aos tectos Canta a Andorinha. and in a foreign land. my nerves irritable. so far from cultivated Europe. cubertas as cabeças Da Sor d'hera. And it is ajoyto find minds that can understand and communicate with our own to meet occasionally with persons ofsimilar habits of thinking. o Pegureiro folga Com as alvos recentes cabritinhos. that he at the same time gave me an equal capacity for joy. And 1 thank God. Let no one say. than half of those whom the world accounts happy. As Menades. Cantao Por toda a parte as sonorosas aves Nas ondas o Alcyao. e o Rouxinol no bosque. who gave me the temper to feel grief exquisitely. and a widow. canta o branco Cysne Na ribanceira. my health weak. and often meeting with impertinence from those who take advantage of my solitary situation but 1 am nevertheless sure that 1 have more half-hours. Do uvifero Baccho orgias celebrao A Geraçao bovina das abelhas Seus trabalhos completa. 1 dare not say hours. Se pois as plantas ledas reverdecem Florece a Terra. and who. e folga co'as maçans folhudas Se aves gorgeiao se as abelhas criao. E Favonio innocente as velas boja. seek récréation in the same pursuits.304 JOURNAL. when the business of life rests a while. and fewer days of real misery. Baccho guia as choros Nautas Navegao Porque nao cantarâ tambem o Vate A risonha. Jâ sutcao Nautas estendidas ondas. tres vezes enrolada. 1 am alone. of true enjoyment. o Guardador a frauta Tange.'that he is too misérable for any comfort to reach him.

whose extraordinary likenessto our own Princess Charlotte of Wales is such. 1823. that I am sure no English person can have seen her without being struck with ît. Seriously. 26~. more noble. hitherto. i. A fidalgo. fortunate to have obtained one of the loveliest grand-daughters of the enough Baroness de Campos. Here. an officer distinguished under Beresford. no unmarried women are allowed to be present at a marriage but the ceremony îs performed in the presence of the nearest relations. on both sides.RIO DE JANEIRO. being married. It is said this match is one in which the lawful lord of such things. if she be of rank to do so. 305- One or two of my inends are. Sneezed aloud and at his right The little loves that waited by. Pleased and tidded at the sight. The god of love. is. Maria de Loreto. e. The mother of the bride sends notice to court. thé course of true love is apt not to run smooth. where. accordThe bride then ing to their degree. has had more to do than he is usually allowed to have in Brazil. afterwards to other ladies. Bow'd and Mess'd the a~gury as my favourite Cowley says and 1 hope we shall have more such free matches in our free Brazil. perhaps there bas not hitherto been refinement enough for thé delicate metaphysical love of Europe which. even sincé and truly a handsomer couple will not often be it was independent seen. The godof love. goes to court after which the ladies visit her. if my informants on the subject are in the right. talkers Don Francisco -whose other name 1 hâve forgotten. but there are several of sterling metal that even here disarm the ills of this working-day world" o~ half their sting. than ai! others. that is. of the marriage of her daughter. Mke costly jewels. of Rio. indeed. subject is as much to be desired as on any other. Surely free choice on such an important On this occasion. A marriage in high life engages many of the Sept. because it is morërational. who must be nigh them. is less R R .whostoodto spythem. Master Cupid. not to be worn every day. and proceed to congratulate the other members of the &mily. 1 am glad of it.

that they may be decently interred. Besides. From the asylum. was formerly so little. the means of subsistence. The house is exceedingly clean. though little. The girls have a portion other assists in their establishment.S<29~1 The orphan boys are apprenticed at a proper foundling hospital.000 chiidren have been received: thèse were placed out at nurse. and is often eked out from the funds. other channels. went to the orphan asylum. would most likely secure care of its liië the but the white ones had not even this chance of safety. children are also brought. See the Emperor's speech on thé SdMay. want of reform. and which is often ~al to them. into which thé infants are put. foundling children. made. is not in so good a state as might be wished there are usually four huridred patients. age. because mulatto child as a slave. and so are the beds tbr are now in-door nurslings. full of disease.. only three of whom in the rest being placed out in the country. Grandison or Clarissa couid easily turned àside into the not have been written here but 1 think ère long we may look-for polish and prudent morals of Belinda.306 JOURNAL. A wheel or revolving box. 10. Not the temptation of retaining a perhaps that they ail died. Till lately they hâve died Within little a proportion frightful compared with their numbers. like that at a çonvent.them A partial amendment bas taken place. and has plenty of room but it Misericordia. which Is also thé . of 200 milrees which. -or more often a dreadful species Nay. There is a and still greater improvements are about to be Many of the foundlings are placed great want of médical treatment. in the wheelf. and many were never accounted for. but 1 could Thé médical department is in great not learn the exact proportion. that the wages paid for the nursing of each could hardly have anbrded them poor creatures who received. and the number of deaths very great. The insane ward interested me most of all: it is on 1. fever. dead of itch called sarna. . more than nine years. 1 crossed the street to thé gréât hospital of the It is a fine building.


when he was sent here. It slopes gradually towards the road along the shore: at the highest point there is a pretty building. 1 think it one of the loveliest spots lever beheld. wished to do what 1 have done to-day. and. diction to A poôr negro had been bitten by a mad dog a month ago he did not seem very ill till yesterday moming. some magnificent trees. and vain memorlals we raise to relieve our own sorrow Threé and between these and the road. that hydrophobia is not known in Brazil. and urns.– The Sisters. my illness 1 had often felt sorry that 1 had not seen this groùtid. and 1 owe the excursion of this morning to accident rather than design. which is between the other two. Yet my courage tion upon them had hitherto failed. sides ofthis field are fenced by rock or wood. îs generally occupied by the body of the dead for the few hours. 307 the ground noor. He was at thé grate of his cell as we passed him. R R2 . 1 think the more persons that show an interest in such establishments the better it fixes attenand that of itself must do good. commandihg beautiful views every way. 1 rode this evening to the protestant burial-ground. 1 bad long 1 should imagine.RIO DE JANEIRO. at the Praya de Gamboa. one serves as a place of meeting or consisting of three chambers one as a repository for the waiting for the clergyman occasionally moumiul'furniture of the grave and the largest. 1 am satisfied now. 1 found here a contrathe vulgar opinion. The burial-ground of the Misericordia is so much too small as to be exceedingly disgusting. he had hoped he would this of course could not be he exrelease him from confinement pired a few hours after we saw him. very cold and damp and most of those placed in it die speedily of consumptive complaints. in a deplorable state knowing thé gentleman who was with me. itmay be a day and a night. and if my stilHingeringwéakness SeeTalesof thé HaU. which can in this climate elapse between death and burial in front of this are thé various stones. unwholesome for the neighbourhood. Even Crabbe's ïanciful and delicate Jane might have thought without pain ofsleeping hère* In.

the very. and draws flowers exceedingly well. But. a regular Brazilian bas-blue in the person of Dona Maria Clara she reads a good deal. court and city are in a state of rejoicing. who. sure to tell you. besides. and new poems should hâve the pretty passages pointed out for ~~advantage of literary misses. 30~1 called at a very agreeable Brazilian lady's house to-day and saw. And now 1 have to add. saying brieSy what we were about then. August 12dt. in sober earnest. Once more 1 break in on my own ruie. it may daim some small inHuence over the occupations and amusements of home. 1823.–Thé Lord Cochrane has secured Maranham for the Emperor. without harming herself or others. Without arrogating much more than is due to the sex. and aiso from the latitude of Pernambuco. in the society to which she belongs. or advocating the cause of the editor of the Sylpho or the Tamoyo. and the woman who brings books instead of cards or private scandai into the domestic circle. that we ~bilowed the Portuguese squadron to the BiUi degree of north latitude. for the first time in my life. You would receive a few Unes from me. is likely to promote a more général cultivation. especially philosophy and politics she is a tolerable botanist. that my plan of adding it to the empire has had .-jtidging it better for thé interests of His Imperial and 1 have the plea1 hauled the wind for Maranham Majesty. and would be invaluable where new authors want pufEng. should lay me here. Here. t823 My dear Madam. very few who may corne to see where their friend lies will feel no disgust at the prison-house. and until oniy thirteen sail remained together ôut of seventy of their convoy and then. alas such kindly offices are nfined to comparing the rival passages in the Correiro and the Sentinella. and a more refined taste.308 JOURNAL. 1 was delighted to find such a lady. she is what 1 think it is Miss Edgeworth calls a useful member of society. and copy part of his letter to me Maranham. aleteheï' and carrier of bays. circulates the necessary literary news. October Ist. dated from off Bahia.

the pilots became uneasy the imof the dangerous navigation of the coast. he sent a boat on board . and at this moment is actually from case. and a good deal of property belonging to PortuThe in the custom-house. Thus." has sent me the public Together with this letter.a notice of blockadé. is brig of war late the Infante Don Miguel. « between the extremities of his empire there exists no enemy either sixth month on shore or afloat. that on account resolved on going to Maranham. as far as it goes. the Portusquadron of Bahia and Imperial went on without « guese flag was hauled down. This will probably be within the the our sailing from Rio. Seeing a v~ssel of war off the place. the As soon as it was perceived on board thé Pedro Primeiro. and. and and so on thé 26th of July.RIO DE JANEIRO. 1 ran in with this ship "and having sent. however. on my retum but hé has got before now. and intimàted that the forces were off the bar. 309 abreast of their forts «complète success. His Lordship of the place for the Empepapers concerning the taking possession has obligingly ror. that 1 shall have the pleasure to acquaint His Imperial Majesty. and eight gun-boats « merchant vessels. as they said. and thé cScer who brought thé despatches so that 1 believe thé following favoured me with farther particulars to be a correct account. had better motives. a schooner. to summon Para. where there is a gone down with Grenfell which 1 have no doubt beautiful newly-launched fifty-gun frigate. 1 have often possibility of entering the felt that there was something very captivating in the word imposhad skill and sible. The Admirai. under English Jours. harbour in so large a ship. just as you could wish. knowledge to support his perseverance cohe entered the bay of San Luis de Maranham. of the whole. guese résident in Lisbon. by he had orders given by Lord Cochrane for the course of the ship. and every thing « bloodshed. We bave found hère a Portnalso sixteen « guese brig of war. deposited now the Maranham. my dear Madam.

The forces of His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Brazil. '< The port. oppose the Hberation of this country. 1 beg the principal authorities to make known to me their decisions. Admirai and Commanderin-Chief of the naval ibrces of His Imperial Majesty. in case of opposition. 26~ JM~. from vexatious motives. in conformity to the wishes of His Imperlai Majesty. and though some of the sailors recognised two of the boat's crew. Shepherd. such persons may be assured that the naval and military forces which expelled the Portuguese n'om the South. performed his part so well. are ready to draw the sword in the same just cause: and that sword once drawn. the bay of San José. are declared to be in a state of blockade. jPrOC~OMMC~OM By Hts Excëllency Lord Cochrane. the conséquences may not be imputed to the hasty manner in which 1 set about the work which 1 On must achieve. that he obtained all and the Admiral then went in with his the necessary information ship. the officer. under those pains and . and to salute them as brethren and as friends. and anchored under fort San Francisco. river. Mr. as long as the Portuguese shall exercise thé supreme authorîty there and ail entrance or departure is strictiy prohibited. having delivered the city and province of Bahia from the enemies of their independence. am desirous that the fruitful province of Maranham should en~oy a like ireedom. and roads adjacent. God keep Your Excellencies many years &o~~ the Pedro Primeiro. 1 am now corne to oSër to the un~brtunate inhabitants the protection and assistance necessary against the oppression of ibreigners. But should there be any who. and island ofMaranham. 1823. Thence he sent in the following papers to the city. Address to the Authorities.310 JOURNAL. the consequences cannot be doubtful. wishing to accornpiish their ireedom. in order that. Ï.

« The auspicious day is amved on which theworthy mhabitants of Maranham have it m their power to déclare at once thé inde- . He caused all who had been imprisoned and he sent on account of their political opinions to be liberated aud Piauhy notices to the independent military commanders of Céara to desist from. and anchored her between the Bha do Medo and the main town in fifteen fathoms water where he left her. by the Portuguese troops. and for embarking the Portuguese troops had shown a disposition to oppose step the more necessary. but they had been overruled about 300 in the town. with the government.tion:– ?%e J~A ~a~ ofJ3rc~ <othe ~~aM<aM~ q~JMar~~M. Admirai took her round the great shoal which forms the other side of the harbour. and had -even insulted Captain Crosbie and others Besides. they were landing to settle affairs of a reinforcement of 500 men from they were hourly in expectation Meantime the anchorage under Fort Francisco was found Lisbon." These papers were received by the junta of Provisidnal Government.RIO DE JANEIRO. There had previously been some movements in favour of independence. of whomthere were The junta of course accepted all Lord Cochrane's proposais the Ist of August was appointed as the day for electing a new govemment under the empire.–OM JM~. and the incopvenient for so large a ship as the Pedro Primeiro. 1823. hostilities against Maranham. as they as the Brazilians. in all situations not admit more than a very limited cessary to keep order but he did number within the walls. and the intermediate days for taking the a oaths to the Emperor. proclamOn the 2'7th. 26th "thé rights of belligerents. and returned to the to in the sloop of war Pambinha. at whose head was the Bishop. Lord Cochrane published thefollowing a. 311 of nations against those who vioïate penalties authorised by the law board the Pedro Primeiro. in which vessel he could lie close for the city itsel£ One of his first steps was to substitute Brazilian where soldiers were absotutely nePortuguese troops.

with Captain Crosbie to represent Lord Cochrane. and ringing of belts. must be the désire of every honest and thinking citizen. and in their own country. their patriot monarch. To take the necessary oaths. will permit." On the 28th. assembled to proclaim the independence of Brazil. our Emperor Viva. who was not weU enough to attend. atives assembled to consult on their own interests. pendence of their country. to choose'the members of the civil government. (son of thé august Soverign Don John VI. the nrst of August is the earliest day which the preparation for such solemn ceremonies demands.312 JOURNAL. the citizens and soldiers. or confusion and accomplish the work we have in hand in such a manner as shall merit the approbation of His Imperial Majesty. according to the degree of the crime. Viva. and satisfaction with. ~s is usual on such occasions.which there was a firing of thé troops. the camara of the town.) under whose protection they enjoy the glorious privileges of being free men. 27~ J~ 1823. even though proceeding irorn enthusiasm in the cause we have embraced. thé Emperor Peter I. and discharge of artillery. nor room for amendment. COCHRANE. It is not necessary to advise such as to their conduct: but. and their adhesion to. without tumult. The public act of fealty was drawn up. the-independence and constitution of Brazil board the J~ro ~~M~ro. and to swear allegiance to the Emperor. of choosing their own and of making their own laws by their representconstitution. Don Pedro de Alcantara. That thé glory of such a day should not be darkened by any excess. let them beware for the chastisement of whoever shall cause any kind of disgiven order. and signed . the junta of government. should there be any individuals capable of interrupting the public tranThe strictest orders are quillity on any pretext. Citizens let us go ibrward seriously and methodicai!y. after-. and shall « give us neither cause for repentance. are acts that should be performed with délibération for which reason. hurry.

The first act of the new government was to issue a proclamation to the inhabitants of the province of Maranham. as had been appointed. the prudence. however they might be. To anchor in our port. The members are. congratulating them on being no longer a nation of slaves to Portugal. 313 by as many as could conveniently do so. The next day the inhabitants proceeded to the choice of their new which was installed on the provisional government of the province. deeply engraven on our hearts and those and thé gentle manners of august Sire the wisdom. when every thing was finally settled. Miguel 8th of August.. 26th of July. -Secr~ary. fidelity. as the tude and respect inspired by the virtues of the iltustnous Admirai sent to our aid by the best and most amiable of Monarchs wHI be of our posterity Yes. and and concluding with ~<M to the Roman Catholie retranquillity. to proclaim respectable to administer the proper oaths of obédience to Your independence s s . and his dynasty to the Cortes of Brazil. but a free people of the empire of Brazil exhorting them to confidence. It begins in BraziL by congratulating him on the happy state ofthings in general It then sets forth the wishes of the people ofMaranham to have joined their brethren long since. but that these wishes had been thwarted by But what was our joy and transport when unthe Lisbon troops. Defender Don ligion to our Constitutional Emperor and Perpétuai Pedro 1. The letter of the new government to His Imperial Majesty is dated the 12th of August. and the Brazilian flag was hoisted. Lourenço de Castro Ignacio dos Santos Freire e Bruce. Lord Cochrane.RIO DE JANEIRO. 1823! Thrice happy day! tbou wilt be as consentiments ofgratispicuous in thé annals of our province. than even the fear of his forces. and the people of Maranham. our port expectedly we saw the ship Pedro Primeiro summoning Oh. have contributed still more to the happy issue of our political difficulties. ~'esM~ Belford. a flag of truce having been flying from the arrivai of the Pedro till then. and José Joaquim Vieira Belford.

Dr. and that Your Imperial "bourswith more may be necessary to Majesty being so well served. in a speech to vote thanks to any individual. of eloquence and enthusiasm. the brig regard to the capture of Maranham to-day. on the ground that he was thé servant of the ment. did Lord Cochrane. . On which Costa Barros. and but he would not vote to would do as much to prove his gratitude thank him there. maintained the propriety of thanking That the triumphal road.314 JOURNAL. but in those of the whole world And this. but the triumph might be granted by the voice of the Thé gentleman who thought no thanks national représentatives. and said it derogated from the dignity of the and rich empire of Brazil. as in ancient Rome. executive governthis. not only in the annals of Brazil. 1 think. and the gpvernment ought to thank him. thé debate. not now exist. was the work of a few days. nothing immortalise that admirable commander. that Chief may end the glorious career of his political and military la~ the like felicity and success. and then oniy in sumcient numbers for to open communication between the public order and tranquillity and to the Interior and the capital to provide it with neeessanes restore navigation and commerce to their pristine state ail this. He felt as grateM to Lord Cochrane as any member of the Assembly could do. is all of importance that 1 have learned with It is true.– A friend who was present at the Assembly to-day the first place. and noble. 2d Oc<o&er. Grant. only arrived to-day so that much may be bebind. législative assembly of the vast. Heaven. despatched by HisLordship on the 12th of August. França (known by the nickname ofFranzinho) seconded Montezuma. Maria.-In gives me the following account of the and success at Maranham Emperor sent notice of Lord Cochrane's a vote of Martim Francisco Ribiero de Andrada rose and proposed The deputy Montezuma (ofBahia) opposed thanks to His Lordship. the province Impérial Majesty to suspend hostilities throughout to bring the troops of to cause a new govemment to be elected the country into the town. this noble SiRE.

a member for Bahia. where what is comely Envenoms imthat bears it h SS 2 . Who but Lord Cochrane had delivered Bahia from the Portuguese. and assuring him he did not refuse it on which a member on the same side observed sarcastically.then saM: that as to the observation that had fallen from França. would be tenmid. that His Lordship had oniy done his duty. Barros bowing. Ribiero de Andrada. and some who envy. and then a cry of order. ham was something more-it and at the risk of conséquences to hirnseIC Sen. that they do seem sensible that in Lord Cochrane they have obtained a treasure. 1 must say for the people here. what a worldis this. But when was it otherwise? 0. his gratitude. This produced a laugh. that grateful as he (Costa Barros) now felt. Sen. that as to its being beneath the dignity of the Représentative Assembly of Brazil to thank an individual. Lisboa observed. that it smothered the expression. Montezuma's gratitude was such. though thé blockade of Bahia was a duty. and talked of his gratitude. ïike that gentleman. and that a challenge. He could tell him. only half rising as he spoke. Sometimes 1 cry. and his eagemess to express it. the English Parliament serupled not to thank its naval and military chiefs and could what it did be beneath the Assembly of Brazil ? Would to God the Assembly might one day emulate the British Parliament After this there was more sparring between Montezuma and Costa Barros: the former resuming the subject of the challenge. That there are some who find fault. was no man to be thanked for doing an important duty ? Besides. is very true. This ended the disputé vote of thanks was carried with only the voices of Montezuma and França against it and so passed this day's session. order" (a ord~). the réduction of Maranwas undertaken on his own judgment. that those who meant really to fight would hardly speak it and the aloud in the General Assembly.RIO DE JANEIRO. that swarm of drones that threatened to devour the land ? But he supposed the greatness of Sen. were he. 315 should be voted was a member for Bahia.

and amenable to those laws." This article treats of the the 7th article came under discussion. and wish to see. nor any other injurious feeling. can ever lessen the real merit of so great a man. and generally spend four hours there. the 8th paragraph of the 5th article was admitted without a dissentient voice: Itisthis–Ma~M?'o/Mcef To-day the 3d paragraph of strangers. as 1 happened to be at thé palace to show some drawings to the Empress. entitled to the protection of the laws of the empire. See the Appendix. Ne'ertobe partedtili the manwasdead and neither envy. 9th. 1 take it more easily. The acquisition of Maranham is exceedingly important to the empire it is one of the provinces that.thewiseman said. 1 have improved my acquaintance with my foreign ~riënds but of English 1 see. May. . which treats of the persons who are to be considered as Brazilians. probably. from the time of its first settlement. Envywashonour'swife.* 6~We had three days of public rejoicing. has carried on the greatest foreign trade. At others. 1 perceived that the Emperor's levee was unusually crowded. It is some time since. and say coolly with the Spaniard. That library is a gréât source of comfort to me 1 every day find my cabinet quiet and cool. nor ail thé manifestations of them all together. reading Portuguese and Brazilian history for which 1 shall not.-I resolved to take a holiday so went to spend it with Mrs. onaccountofthe taking of Maranham and on Friday. though 1 have been far from well. May. in discussing that part of the proposed constitution. have so good an opportun ity again. only going first for half an hour to the library. and provided with the means of study. very little of any body but Mrs.316 JOURNAL. This day the debate in the Assembly has been most interesting. at the Gloria. whatever be their religion. During these few days.

where the Emperor and Empress. and went to the royal chapel. together with that laudable attachment to the church of his fathers that belongs to good men of every creed. Liberty of the Press.RIO DE JANEIRO. Diario of the Assembly is so far behind with the reports of the sessions." The 14th article goes on to state. Brazil so 1 rose early and dressed myself. and none but Christians shall enjoy political rights. individual . Now this day's discussion was not merely one of form but it has established toleration in all its extent. and the Imperial Princess 1 accordingly were to be with the court before the drawing-room. a correct account of the speeches but 1 believe that 1 am not wrong in attributing to the Bishop the most benevolent and enlightened views on this momentous subject. that all Christians may enjoy the Other religions are hardiy political rights of the empire 15th. it runs thus–"The ail Brazilians thé &Ilowîng individual rights. have the ioJIy to turn Turk. and the first 1 was curions to see the court of anniversary of the coronation. A man is at liberty to exercise his faith as he pleases. III. « VI. of course. indeed. October 12th. AU Christians are eligible to ail omcea and and 1 only wish older countries would deign to take employments The lessons from this new govemment in its noble liberality." and the 16th déclares the Roman CathoHc religion to be that of the state. Inviolability of Property. tolerated. he must not vote at elections. 317 constitution rights of Brazilians. and even to change it should he. IV. nor be a member of the Assembly. but he may ait under his vine and his fig-tree. and the only one beneficed by the state. Professional Freedom. with "guaranteesto the explanations and limitations thereafter expressed I. V. -This is the Emperor's birth-day. that 1 have not. Religions Fireedom. Personal Freedom. civil or military'. and exercise an honest calling. « IL Trial by Jury. nor enjoy an office in thé state.

and the ladies all paid their compliments while the Emperor was busy in the presence-chamber receiving the compliments of the . but it is in fact for respectable fbreigners there 1 met all manner of consuls. when 1 ought to have been most 1 am sometimes absent attentive. Had this happened with regard to any other prince. and that all others had paid their compliments and passed to their places. who had retired with thé young Princess. and had conferred on him the highest degree of the order of the Cruceiro. with a most pleasing compliment.318 JOURNAL applied to the chaplain for a station. and that his hand was extended towards me. for 1 saw some of the ladies smile before 1 remembered any thing about It. just as the Emperor had. However. 1 believe that 1 should have run away but nobody is more good-natured than Don Pedro I saw there was no harm done and so determining to be on my guard when the Empress came in. after all. which perhaps. of sending my wits wool-gathering. 1 felt myself in the situation Sancho Pança so humorously describes. 1 stayed quietly. being quite alone. and now. both in the chapel and afterwards in the corridor leading to the 1 reached the inner room royal apartments. had not thé gracious manner in which their Imperial Majesties saluted me. induced me to proceed. Her Majesty. the curiosity which led me to the chapel would not allow me to go home when the said consuls did so 1 went to the drawing-room. and 1 suppose kissed it much in earnest. of the room. and began talking to two or three young ladies who were at court for the first time. that for once his services had' that when 1 found the Emperor in the middle been appreciated. nowcame in. andhadjust received their appointment as ladies of honour to the Empress. and then to take an opportunity of telling her of my fault. who showed me into what is called thé ~p/o~a~c tribune. where the ladies were. took his Imperial hand with that glove. 1 forgot 1 had my glove on. and coming home shorn myself: for 1 was so intent on the honour conferred on my friend and coun~ryman so charmed. announced to Lady Cochrane that she was Marchioness of Maranham for that he had màde her husband Marques. 1 should not have done.

both of them standing on the upper step of the throne. which she wears. and to her. if 1 could. When the Emperor had received the public bodies. If 1 have been pleased with her before. military. a corresponding cap with feathers tipped with green. My partial eyes preferred my pretty countrywoman the new Marchioness. and those of the Viscondeça do Rio Seco. only inferior to those of the Empress but 1 cannot enumerate all the riches. 1 bave few opportunities of speaking to cultivated persons. the largest 1 have seen. and civil omcers. and her diamonds were superb. 1 saw Madame do Rio Seco in earnest conversation with them and soon 1 saw her and Lady Cochrane kissing hands. 1 should do wrong not to mention the ladies of the court. and -found they had both . 319 Assembly and other public bodies. 1 was charmed with her now. and especially of the Scotch novels. he came and ied the Empress into the great receiving room. a bond of kindness to them.RIO DE JANEIRO. When their Imperial Majesties came out of the great room. and private men thousands. There was littlé form and no stiffness. thus passed. and apply their pouting African lips to so delicate a skin but they looked up to Nosso Emperador. though 1 now understand. to see some negro officers take the small white hand of thé Empress in their clumsy black hands. It was curious. and very kindly helped me in my Portuguese which. but it pleased me. and a number and then there were the of others of most engaging appearance jewels of the Baronessa de Campos. and the brilliants surrounding the Emperor's picture. they had their hands kissed by naval. or beauty nor wouid it entertain my English friends. for whom this journal is written. 1 should think. her head-tire and ear-rings having in them opals such as 1 suppose the world does not contain. and there. only telling us all to speak Portuguese. with a reverence that seemed to me a promise of faith from them. but there were the sweet young bride Maria de Loreto. The Emperor was dressed in a very rich military uniform. She ta!kM a good deal to me about English authors. which of course we did. the Empress in a white dress embroidered with gold. Her Impérial Majesty conversed easily with every body.

It was 1 done. for they saw it in my hand. however thé Empress told me to apply to the Emperor. This astonished me. This. to Her Impérial Majesty. and that if 1 could render myself sufficiently agreeable to the Empress. so that 1 should probably not have proposed the thing myself. He received me was punctuat to the time for seeing the Emperor. and 1 remained marvelling at the chance that had brought me and into a situation so unlike any thing 1 had ever contemplated came home to write a letter to Her Imperial Majesty. as a warm climate agreed with me. and sent me to speak took my letter. and promised me an answer in two days. tainly the first letter 1 ever wrote on the subject. but come write to her another day. 1 wished to belong to it but 1 was frightened at the thoughts of Rio. and October 13~1 JMoM<~M/. She said. that it required consideration. and then the Visbeen appointed honorary ladies of the Empress countess told me she had been speaking to the Empress about me. that 1 should like~to fducate her. for 1 had no thought of engaging in any thing Six months before. wrote my letter to the Empress. and said he had aiready mentioned it to a friend of mine. and to wonder what 1 should do next. indeed. like every thing in this gossiping place. was. which 1 thought no more of at the time.320 JOURNAL. 1 should not dislike it. that if the Emperor and Empress chose. And so they went and see the Emperor at five o'clock to-morrow." out. told to Sir T. was so pleased with the little Princess. though my English friends tell me that 1 had a memorial in my hand yesterday. the more Avres. Now 1 had a white pocket-handkerchief and a black fan in my hand. adding the And this was cermost obliging expressions of personal kindness. by the impertinent behaviour of some of the English. 1 had said that 1 away from England. 1 said. who very kindly. and begged to be allowed to Write if you please. observed he looked tired with the levee. Hardy: he spoke ofit to me. and that 1 went to court only to deliver it. 1 should ask the appointment of governess to the Princess and so matters stood when Sir Thomas Hardy sailed for Buenos 1 own that the more 1 saw of the Imperial family. and .

To-day. saw the Empress. 1 comess 1 am England in the packet. and hâve 16~1 become acquainted with the principal librarian.530. who is pleased to allow me to sail for [9~. in the Emexpressions peror's name and her own. showed me the Conde da Barca's library. on returning from my study ï re-. ceived a letter from the Empress. 321 thought as little of speaking about my own affairs to their Imperial Majesties. seeing my best friend in this country. But 1 have now put my hand to the plough.RIO DE JANEIRO. before 1 entered on my employment.900 rees. 1 had set my heart on sorry to go before Lord Cochrane~s return. thé day after to-morrow. But people will always know each other's affairs best. after his exertions and triumph. as the Princess is still so young. as 1 knew be&~re. my services as governess to her daughter. T T . as of making a voyage to the moon. had been purchased at the priée of 15. full of kind and in the pleasantest manner accepting. which. and 1 must not turn back. 1 went to San Cristovaô to return thanks. and giving me leave to go to England. written in English. He peror's confessor. who is also the EmHe is a polished and well-informed man. and added to the public collection. have continued going regularly to the library.

entirely devoted to the Andradas: it is. but this bas ceased te appear since the change of ministry. The GovEBNMENTGAZETTE. havingbecomeamemberoftheAssembly. ments. which bas nothing but advertisevertisements. only occasionally for some time. an advocate for limited is monarchy. 1 had previousiy taken leave of every body 1 knew. English and foreign. The Malaguetta was a paper whose nrst number attracted a great it fëil off afterwards. democratic journat. Indeed the war of words the author waged against the the instigafamily was so virulent. whicb the editor wrote from prison. but the writer bas discontinued it. it used to print a a meteorological table. and ceased on the declaration deal of attention ofthe independence of Brazil. Sir Murray Maxwell lent me his boats to bring myselfand goods on board. and satisfactorily disproved and theman being almost maniacal with in the state. Mr. accused any and every person of consequence . also an occasional paper. moderately ministerial. and ship news. This they indignantly denied. and is said to be pure carbonarism. The AïALAlA. embarked on board the packet for England. appointments. another occasional paper as is also thé TAMOYO.322 JOURNAL. the best-written of all. Anderson brought me the latest newsThe following are the principal ones published in Rio papers. in my opinion. passion. and prices current. The Espelho was a government paper. After 1 embarked. It was remarkable for its hostility to the Andradas. but lately E DALIBERDAD A BEIRADO it bas been a daily paper. and engaged in a war of words with several others. that they were suspected of being tors of an attempt to assassinate him. May walked to the shore with me. whose editor is a deputy of considerable reputation. it appears as fast as the short-hand writers ings of the Assembly can publish it. The is DAPAOND' ASUCAR on the same side. which contains nothing but the proceedThe DiARio DA ASSEMBLEA. October 21~1 Mrs. naval intelligence. The SyLPHO. The CORREIRO. whieh bas au officiai articles. and sometimes a few adThe DIARIODo Rio. its editor formerly SENTINELA published the Regulador. assisted by one of the deputies. The SENTINELA MAR DAPRAYAGRANDEis edited by a Genoese.

as Primeiro sails well. 25th. though in long. visit him. Happily for me there are no passengers in the packet. even wounded as he was. sea*74~°. above all. as if at home: every body. clean. generally speaking. the captain's wife and daughter are on board so that 1 feel as if lodging in a quiet English family. 1 perceive that the sails are all tinged with a reddish T T 2 . even thé Emperor himself. and his strong passions had probably rendered him sn object of hatred or jealousy to some inferior person. the tbermoLat. In vain did all persons." says thé proverb and.. 5° N. 1 had no opportunity of learning more. st. thermometer'74< 9~Lat. 1 am under no restraint. before we shall be able to look to the northward. We spoke She says Lord Cochrane the Pambinha. and shall probably stand still nearer to the coast of To-day Africa. looks kindly at me and 1 receive all manner of friendly attention consistent with perfect liberty. and he withdrew himself the moment he was He was by birth a Porsufficiently recovered from his wounds. but 1 have not seen them. and. meter at 80° thé temperature of the sea at noon 82°. all is so decent. long. read. the consequences of 1 believe which his vanity made him attribute to a higher source. but walk. orderly. 60 days from Maranham. We are still in the latitude of Rio de Janeiro. whence he meant to proceed directly for the Pedro Rio so that he would probably be there by th~ time. to réassure him his terrors continued.. the thermometer is at 75°. the temperature of the sea '72". ships bound for England from Brazil at this time of the year stand far to the eastward. Oct. tu~uese. as the vessel passed hastily.PASSAGE TO ENGLAND. For several days 1'7~. 323 and conceived himself. We have. had hot winds from Africa. 25" W. write. even to the monkey on board. and still more happily.. 14" 19'S. had gone himself to Para. and draw. 29° W. 24° W. long.. on that principle. there are some other occasional papers. and tbere is a sultry feel in the air which the state of the thermometer hardly ~ccounts for. not safe. home. The longest way about is often the nearest way I ~Vbt?.

we reached this moderated. After passing the Azores. like the breakers on -a reef of rocks. and 1 A sudMrs. round the were lying-to on a right tack. from the north-west and yesterday morning it changed to a gale from the south and south-west. driving the sea along furiously before it and the meeting of the two winds broke the sea as high as any ship's mast-head in a long line. in case we lost our bowsprit. and a hawser had been passed as bits in order to sustain the foremast. and the winds we have had This afternoon. the weather was thick and rainy. which . they appear This the captain and officers attribute to almost as if iron-moulded. and we bore up for Falmouth. in a treAbout one o'clock the captain called to me. and stains the canvass? Can it be this minute dust affecting the lungs which makes us breathe as if in the sultry hours preceding a thunder-storm ? came in sight of St. became smooth. though have been un&vourable for the purpose. It was the most beautiful yet fearful over our little vessel so sight 1 ever beheld and the sea was surging we as to threaten to fill her: but the hatches were battoned down. so that we saw nothing.324 JOURNAL. and desired mendous sea. which had been heavy. 1 ran up. They were certainly perfectly white long after we left Rio they have not been either furled or unbent. These were succeeded by three fine days and the sea. What that thus on the wings of the may be the nature of the dust or sand wind crosses so many miles of ocean. and Miss K– might never see again. colour and wherever a rope has chafed upon them. it began to blow very hard Early the day before yesterday. a long succession of gales from the north-east kept us off the land. But in twenty minutes the gale we expected to do every instant. however. near enough to have seen at least the face of the land. the eastern island of the Dec. ~We 1 much wished to have touched at some of these isles but Azores. me to corne on deck and see what could not last ten minutes. the wind from Africa. this is not a good season for doing so. as did den shift of windhad taken place we saw it before it came up. and we lay-to under storm stay-sails. 18~. Mary's.

" M. and as is ntting the story.37. Here will 1 make an end. .xv. 2 Mwcabees.5 that doubtiess had morning. it is that which 1 eoutd~aS~S~to. 32. to use the words of a vénérable though apocryphal writer. it is that wilich 1 desired but if sienderiy and meanly. And if 1 have done weH. chap.PASSAGE TO ENGLAND. 38. ~11~ V-. ver. h. having passed the cabin deck of a ship Once more 1 am in England ibundered in thé stonn ofyesterday. and.




they hâve never been Although there are veins of metal in Mar worked but some saltpetre-works have been established there. Nothing is wanting to the prosperity of that nne Province but a steady govemment. it will be in vain to expect either prosperity or tranquillity. and sugar Maranham is abundantly rich. which may serve to give a clearer idea of the state of the country. paid by Maranham to thé treasury at Rio de Janeiro during those ten years. cotton. people are multiplying too fast to be managed by the former clumsy administration and their intercourse with the rest of the world has taught them to wish for something better. from 1812 to 1821. in all cf which u u . and the growth ofconëe. little attention bas hitherto been paid to any thing but the woods. Some other Tables are added. was 30. of how much importance the acquisition of that Province is to the Empire of Brazil.APPENDIX.. A" ~A \i iT ~ÏTappëar t' from thé &Uowing TABLES ofihe Imports and Exports ofthe Province of Maranham. There are minéral and medicinal waters in some districts. but 1 believe they hâve not been analyzed in short.Without these two The things.239 milrees. The amount of the duties on the importation of Slaves. and a regular administration of justice.

foreign.407.506.600 2.f. UnitedStates. importée! J 2.494.600 271.080 22.326.t 9. 43.800. .292 5.750 46.000 1.200.410 80 58 138 2.920 15.220 10.840 55.399.300 946 Fine Hats Portuguese. fbreign. GENERAL I Rees.418. 244.190 32.000 17.360.780 22.300 125.?. Oporto En~ard" Gibraltar.900 5.600 29. Ships Total NewSlave&fromAfnca Do.193 9.750 2.000 1.694.800 18.700.400 284. jMoveables Portuguese.465.'119j350~454'.i ~Proceedsot'theCustoms 'PortugueseShipsarrived Do.376 112.244.020 60.100 1.250 444. 1 Bées.427 81 1 18.891.747 221.600.217. arrobas.425.751.848.arrobas !SattFish.964. 33. 4.245.057 416. Do.842.800 172.266.600 1. .389.000 104 21 1.000 3.795 6.085.400 19.380 377. Rces.817.863.000 4.t~ HuUand.000 48 Hl 645 26.640 CottonGoodsPortuguese 349. IButter.219. Wheatenriour.600.000 167.300 3.345 69 43 112 2.000.729.000 2.886.025 64 29 93 1.725.440 Do.000 162.4.246. ibrei~ 11.838 938 4. STATEMENT 1814.147 70 12 82 1. 49. ~o~&i'e.424 17.221 508 j~~9 Total Number of Slaves impot-ted.240 12.305.963.238.400 8.000 752.720.tbreign .320 4 25.906.900 4.080.734.794.051.350 69.317.000 50. 26.785 5 1.848.508.456 7~648.290 70.377 203.000.228 Do. asamst.431.625 2.700 45 46 745 247 61 10.628 642 190.690 146.210 581.000 2. jCheese.arrpbas. foreign.225 4.103.622.330 APPENDIX.295.692. FrfnS.872.633.402 3.662.730 324.211.860 10.000 139 20 1.832.200 10.380 14. fbreign.273.735 1.880 1.4-6.270 371.150 11.292. .7001.563.300 SHkGoodsPortu<ruese.487.700 1 S})ain IO.198 1.175.620 3.346.5S6.986 81.340 98.700 13.640 774.o.100 Do.018.100 Linen'GoodsPortuguese 69.120. Western Isles.880.447. Rees.836.429.600 1.877 74.243 325. Total Slaves in theYear.100 21.800 8.000 316.592 394 1.524 252 4.900 18..538 296 4.710 654.213.824.820 272.976 3.867.419 7. -II' IO.900 696.160 408.810 173.29.600 284.555 2. 3.774 ibreign.179 1. Portuo~uesp brandy Pipes f Do. ClothesandShoesPor-~ tu~uese.280 54.811 256. from Brazil.989.92~667 8.259.957 52 34 86 992 C80 g~g 83.000 8.244.200 74.357.135 30.797 83.170.250 458.375.546.692 684 3.689 CoarseHatsPortuguese Do.250.232.729.i i~ai'MUou~ l'.i.615 762 3. Cloths Woollen Por1 tunuese.950 2. Do 6.200 6.140 9.000 5.080 550. 3.229 39.andGin.997.459.812 181.000 220 38 761 55 21.400.054.682.872 818 5. THE IMPORTS 1816.610. n Do.600 foreign.623 2.quintats.590.732.050 198. Do.595.792. m ~Balance Maranha favourof Do.836 3.593.843 417.273.220 1. 0F 18L5.200 50. foreign.228 401 5.601.217.817.500 22.647.090.600 500.n PortugueseWines.859. &r~<m. Brazil Portu~'ese'portsinAû-Ica Lisbon.377.031.422 16.170. Rees.720 1.167.

720 193.213. 22.194.565 13.328 99 1.120 579.799 8.480 111.774 108.921 227 42.842.809 12.179 77 20.062.950 89.338.568 150.076.360 13.056.923.261. 1819.261.675 2.950 92.686.381 .520 13.920 108.59.274 54.751 3.619.164.624 3.221 132.751 79 100 179 3.200 33.614.855.122 7.690 5.670.669 8.681.000 4.768.J~ 2.775 2.000 23.621 257.336 265. 300.440 4.200 102.060 23.237 9.000 9.5. 271.000 46.790 331.76 67 35 102 1.347.099.082 5.389 175.710 240.565.966 21.224 3. 616.718 1.841.879 54 52.619 5.790 1.756 1.263 9.480' 120.786 10.961 7.477.662 14.370.451.864 36.613 14.979.960 562.216 168. Recs.324 4.310 359.983.115.538.888.500 527.532.400 70.615 470.400 9.180 25.000 259 124 1.634.112 20.571.970 11.002.187 2.099.180 410.876 5.312.689 1.895.000 103.320. u u 2 .520 41.020 149.000 55.920.509 4.400 3.350 75.828.680 49.534.000 303 132 1.983 219.580 212.838.746.534.659.420 14.642.069.061.568 87.520 908.636 froml812tol821.797 2.053 158.1983.260 75. ~tî5l~.000 .000 288 76 2.879.325 8.600.400 111 1 27 1.400 3.590.730 77.618.560 44.450 149.261.900 490.665.776.590 Rees.150.686 1.706.784 1.000 96.282.947.154. 181"J.300 48 56 104 1.1.122 247.254.200 474.983.470 3.600 28.000 10.392.940.620 260 82.491.456.282.258.240 435. 1$1$.460 132.292 5.663 12.858.219 2.175 89 M 152 5.483.290 1818. FROM THE YEAh 1818 TO 1820. 1817.520 934.377 3.930 589.226 204 4.169.786.700 4.300 24.042.757.596.744 ~g~ 1$~1.709.535 111 167.230.195 6.752 667.700 61 80 141 2.196 9.179.797.047 382 40.220.940 613.578 12.717 1 ~F~e~ 1820. 9.297.718 Rees.960 5.298.374.710 442.180 3.800.702.280 326.961.145.348.280 112.000 743.261.552 22.900 1 33.100 33.000 1.910 672.780 3.041.750 2.800.305.583.430.400 1.272.920 2.377 80 57 137 4.000 221 269 2.505. Il Rees.0.720 759.060 29.541 352.282 77 71 149 3.813 97.588.620 49.453.400 22.100.453 3.130 27. '~â~ M~n~~e Rees.259 6.501.398 1. 635.240.000 569. 45.687 1. Rees.485 8. 496.885.761 ~feanofsecond M~o~nd Rees.700 175.520 307.730 12.435 144.960 9.186 13.120 57.536.230 1 3.400 506.390 14.194 2.454.927.313.600 17.000 17.896 784.200 362.755 10.400.639.668 8.640 20.800 7.720 988.380 83.920 3.075. 293.483 2.924.379.600 541 4.517.320.161.600 40.000 265 109 694 442 53.341.290 116.760.000 66.499.700 18.977.868 12.862.579 10.532 420.338.886.136.269 6.041.040 6.556.289.427 .826 27.APPENDIX.065.411.080 2.180 2.680 685.748 4.822 713 2.477. g~ TO MARANHAM.200 178.891 1.09!.674.334.409 115.625.250.250. 687.380.723.412.960 878.230 255.652.325.375.612~730 657 1.934.000 6.145.625.320' 1.616.020.

703. 1 657.822 38.063.0!6. 50.699 31.C~.752.959 63.156 1814.879.15030o 196.011 208.800.300' 33 49. 958.842.g-Se 1.150.938 48.672 30.960 23.291 5.448 892. FRANCE.788 144.655 6.804.879 272. 598. o46.450 1.7801~ 217. 419' 19.400~ 3.910' 14.570. ~~Arrobas -~Amount 1J?°-.263 o?i3.792.655'g 18.212 222.971.i61 s.771 2.236 61 2.317.999.238. 8 53.144 65.406.305 17.103 166.100 25.965.006.041.304.81~ 13 6! 6 ~p.822j 42.557!§ 5!g 25°3§ 160. Engtand.730 43.An-obas ~Amount ?.700157.925 1.).051.488 2.275. 21 106 79.400 52i 62 6!) 66 35 27 14 39 89 80 105 87 ~L"i):.900 16.154.417 125 ~1.523.878 196.833.052.754 253.940.800.000.087.251 18.729 20 104 84.787 185~9 519. 2. TOTAL.3591.282 873 4.?.003. ~Arrobas ~Amount ~~°.833'~ oc 2.488 680. Lisbon Oporto.200 81 63.060.623 31.732!§5§' gt 66.221'161.551.000 1.234.658. 1.951.2591.221.456 827 2.376.7H 166. States.600.719.450104. ~r~rie~ .289.625 91.463'! 45!§3§ 359.799 6.738.565 103 31.262.]3~ 401.262.226. ~Arrobas -<Amount ~°. OpOM 3.658.969 218.742.343 25810 3.364 143.794. Shipssaiied.493 268.502~ 36.448.815.311 48.5o 8.836 10.882'..835 214.256.85Z.986 71.003 188.076.569. 1813.790.400 16.700 917.537201.822) '226.592 873 26.9001.5001.109.326L. 706 360 1815.930 58. Different Ports Total ofthe Exports.000 577.843 601. SAmount 253.000~ 93.400229.527.074 315~ 1.727.276 100.671 5.106.850 3.330.108.207. ~AtTobas SAmount 1": IN°.5S! 01 41.032.691.55.605.745.904 20.626 148.850!l94.129..164 27.894 î.298.154 130. ~w Priee.432.( 277.736 66.80430.200 409.083 4.692.077.279 12.289 212. 272.600~9.795.206.538 3.332 APPENDIX. 94.508.579.997 9.857.045 401.118' 41.425.600158.730.200 19.1 ~Arrobas ~Amount .609 o) J.599.097.6t9 367.700 10.915' 16. GENERAL STATEMENT COTTON. 1812.s.7282~ 326.67145. UNITED D~Ports. 1.607 50'75711 1.821.400~ 1 31.300116. National Foreign Ships sailed Total Shipssai!ed.145'Jes71. ~.993 65.820 73. ~An-obas iArrobas LISBON.654.539 ENGLAND.531.830 36. OFQRTO.351 36. Export Duties on Cotton.750 o? 3.293 1.57047.°S§ 913.950132. r2 J >-1 ~N°.434.406.385 242.082 10.515.650 210.333.581. 166.306.053.999.629 40.804 0 S.069.080.839 146.043 1. ~~°~Arrobas "Amount osj~~An-obas ~Amount ?.595 145.470 90.6152~ 248.369 88.142.25225 oc 133 402.634.B~B 3.793 224.824 4-2. OF THE EXPOR~ I RICE.078.200233. 6531 214.074 517.522. LISBON.127 5.006166.1.116. 917 1.950 18.720. 1816 850.¡N°.16120 51.930 3.350. 109.775 RECAPITULAT 1 DESTINATION.0006.777.01 154.52757~58524 350.334203.040 105.260.802.313.683206.294 88.782247.675. 2.653.730 357.766.257 293. 50.700.75751.833219.003 2.693 206. g60.877.601.136.908.050 8.562 238.6551.112.245.690.260 123 98.890 666.( 17.899 205 267.591 56.280) 220.600 22 116 2.902.692.100. o 1.1001.925~ o o40.250 431.820111. o50. 38. TATES. France.087.645.459 10.1451.5001.000 >< 2B 170 853i§a§ 1.083.184 12.413.825. 562 2.688.845.159.336 18.899' 3. United "329.275130.17339.115.500 12. ~jArrobas Amount ~N°.788 3.1931 43.977 168.925.4551.132 3.80419 168. 81.7877 112.18 8'oo 41. 10. 19.448.787 248.90 63.0001 600.414.856.

3837456)1406j )2500ig95)4287) 496)1200314-19)7397)9502577)684)1800 22.750 § â :iI:¡ j ç~ 1 I Ici i~a 01e!.304.200 132.2122.7821.1.250 5.096.8S 3 S 354.240 63 86 64: 77) 78 76) 49 34' 65 65 66 66! 78 70 _]51_155 _144J_133_9~143~114 . 0 A-~ -i.138.500 4. 'Ó SUNDRIES SUNDRIFS.150 ~j iS ~j 5.000! 20. 2 <!l'C 5~75~ 28.695.660.502. § m a.2~9.500 7.0861.485 203.833'.000 i~88!2419)1282!l200 22.425.482.728.630.315.000 33.512.087 tCtQ 1819730.996.400' 3. Divers K~P~.700 ia<?n 1" 1 556. 300 350.568.437.084.190.400 432.214.651.681. 8 770 ~ÎJ~561 75019031 342050 248)ssll~ 67029ï593\4801570~21 g67~9~i~80'5702!00'H~ 5225~ 9.000 324J21! 2.000 6 4()4' 6.600L.221.400 225. 333 ~FROMMARANHAM.500 150) 55J27895J 950 4385)3720.080.333.165~ 28.610.3 .483 678) 14412800 28.862.~ j! :il 0 .450~.319.376.099.007.800! 170.814 M MeanofFirst eanofSecond ic~t 1 1 ~°FiveYean.500 )2500 iBB 4.2981.950' 43..596. M Diiferent Di~renrjS.771.605 249.50' 3t6..ae 8 S J~ 0 . 250 6.SI 1. 1.4.368.930 4.500 1 8. P Ports.639.936.602.-i-Â.585.536. 153. ci U p~y i ô Õ a g 1 Green.996 241. Five 'ears.279.6643.646 ~354-.428.663 2 2 9 360.919. 279 590~ ~ji 56.000 # 892 4.970.000! 595.912.173. ¡ 140)2800 3820)687)13795)1500 41712000.'I]4.786.~000 Ja!t .000 31.971.312.264.004.735 602.155. OOOJ 220. FiveY.536.2002.971.250 50~712798649)1785 270 § S S 877.396.157.250 36.74.9i6..764.14~5.600 4226) 850)22306:1800 41.625 g~~ <.168.050 TO'957 ~S~t J 37~252 §Ë§ ~334.509.000 22133)3867) 235!l20017268)8690) 9501547) 104)1800 31.800 24.100 7353!HHH 248J 750 6.921 o~56.971.200~ geg'~6671) g Ci 3~405 350.140 2.000 48.2400 9.126. 500 1.675.200 3.00 2.133 976.276. t 695.363.742.725 237.9502.2709615) 0 '=' § ~L.150 153.800.000 16. i aJ u a 1:: W J.085.C j rl 8 "v' g 01:J~ g.037.000! *2t6.60& 12. SKÏNS. . 224~3t28ill00177lt 49764736~9813)1394! 27.550 300' ~100 14.971.200.60.700 5. W~-TFiïA~NEDHIDES Kiut. A~et~M.709 155.142.000~^ 8.¡1:i! tâ a 5'C ::sP<.667.800 4. 215.720 12.4.200 238. 1A Nt. 9501994) 202)1800 677 c 68'9668342) 720) 50J2700 4531)1177) 5669)125032460)6395) 14.300 24'2.071.889. M JJM j~ JgS Mg SS 20.u tti~no.100j 86.155.188 88.417 Il 24.000~ °' 241.567.850 19.3052.161 4~83.524.903.600~ -313.800 10. TOTAL.~19.000 2277) 900 '7693)3554) 9001891) 368. Ports JS ? t 10.096.392. iei'7 tata 181'' ~S~' 1 1.APPENDIX.012.428.200 25.) 166.850 5.999 i9 241. 1SUNDRÏES.653.FROM1818T01881.220.000 36.317.¡:.451.700! 309.000 6.237.507 85.835 ~500 26. 000 7.457.400j 9.300 _5. S 1 GUl\f.421.577.025 758) _J2000 6785)1071t 16.300 8235)5102! 9501743) 4~1800 3.184 S 3 S 297.800 8.400 _2.300_ S 417 617 347.406.800 3.354 1.600 5.700 5. IIigh Mec.375 196.687.879.669.82.524.946.5623.246.550.000 24.548.-an.448.380.453..250 563)3000 4769)5072) 7301752) 6.575!§B§ 1.377.721 Sa~ I.068.750.650.671 1. 8752883) 500)19p0 200)! 977(3411)3000 "c'64927 26.921.184.765..g6'746 800 ~L~ -505.000 c.0251. 8.670.604.720. T.093 24.676 ".102.712 24.144.3q8.768.130.332. and Law ToïAi.088 3.432.975 _33.404.000 357)2000 18414) 850)10002845) 19.441.581.869.712 350.o 2 § 1.368.685.367.952.905.250 3.279 S!§ OF EXPORTS.099~ 2. Fme Tears.

800 andFemaie~ 1 800 240 160 Servants. AlltheIl~rovinces. Slaves Ditto Ditto Ditto .86800320" 269 Carpenters.Ditto~T80j800 j320 Carters. for Ditto 22 shelling rice Ditto for sugar Interior 7 Ditto for bruising cane § Ditto 115 iordistitling ` Hand machines for Ditto 521 ..Freemen CityofMaranhao 37 Slaves _Ditto Ditto _23 Ditto ~eemen .Freemen Il Ditto Ditto Slaves Ditto Masonsand Freemen 1. Ditto Ditto Ditto . _Slaves.S* cleansing cotton Isle of Maranhaô 1 js Manufactory of l 230 j~ Loomsforweaving cotton In the city jPotteries Ditto 27 Lime kilns Isle of Maranhaô 26 1 AU thé provinces 18 Saw pits _Forges. _Slaves. Ditto 608 Ditto Ditto ~Slaves AU the provinces 10640400HT Painters. Slaves Ditto Servants Whites AU the provinces . g'sS Men living by their o\vn g= All the provinces 29 580 industry 1 Steam engine for shelling 1 li rice . 1 Ditto .012 Stone-cutICityofMaranhao40480cT320' ters.000320 Taylors. Daily AlI the PrOVInces. Where. Slaves Ditto Ditto Ditto _38! Ditto 5 800 400 5 Smiths.Daily Minimum. Ditto 183 Ditto Ditto Wood.96 i Ditto 4. Where. Free blacks AU the provinces 200.560 Variable Variable 760 andFaetors.1 Ditto .ta National houses of Maranhaô g 54 4 City j ( Ditto 4 Dittofbreign. QuantitY'Ij\Ja:x~ Mi~~j~).0' 40Q 60" GoMsmith:.Ditto Ditto 700 320"60" . Freemen Ditto 1 Ditto Ditto Slaves Il Freemen Ditto . Machines. Freemen Ditto Ditto Ditto Slaves . Freemen Ditto Ditto Slaves 5 Ditto Freemen 235 City of Maranhaô92800~400 Carpenters.600320"/T Braziers. Slaves Ditto Ditto 143 Ditto 400 Ditto 4 800 5 Sadlers. Variable VariaMe . Quantity.132 Freemen Ditto~T6Ï 157 ~1.200400 cutters. STATE OF INDUSTRY. Freemen 'Slaves Ditto . with mules.CityofMaranhao City of Maranha6 g.g Black. Freemen Ditto Ditto 6 Ditto Slaves W~omenFrefTree ~.u~v "T"~7"~7* 1.Freemen Ditto 138 96 "1. Total.42 Freemen 118 ship . 1.Ditto. _At'thePro~c~Whe~Qu~ty.T 2 4~8 320'aT Coopers Slaves Ditto S Ditto _1 Ditto AU the provinces 30 800 400 57~ Joiners.T4480 320 10 Tanners. Freemen I Ditto Ditto Slaves _27 Ditto Ditto ~T 49 64..334' APPENDIX. o.

MeanWotdt.Mnuhee.–Tt'e worthts calculât~imrees.84. Da~ province.813. STATEMENT In <hewhoteProvince. sterting.271.683 de24.856 · 2.600.000 4.311edium 3900 11600 405 60000 380945 570 20000 3200 30018 600 8600 1200 32 2500 3200 880 64200 2000 500 3200 2578 1800 3500 1400 todas variable 2400 6 900 I988ÏO 2381 170 todo 700 todo 1000 1 i 1 STATEMENT OF AGRICULTURE. Emptbyed.the 1.6 27.00 » 1800 600 12240 · 9400 3200 1100 890 204~00 j Total Amount of Agriculture Capital employed Number of Farms Numberof Proprietors J~e. Freemen S Slaves Oxen Asses Goats Sheep ~S'Hoises ~Mares Mules Ewes Cows 19960 69534 8811 35618 84434200000 10000 20000 1200 2000 20000 10000 45000 1200 12000 1.000. NewCotton Spirits Rice Suoar Oil Potatoes Currie Coffee Dry Beef Wax Hides Beans Fruits Ginger Mandioc Treacle Maize Salt Fish arrobas pipes alqueires arrobas canadas arrobas ditas ditas ditas ditas numéro alqueires number arrobas alqueires barrels alqueires arrobas 335 OF PRODUCE. E~Plôyed. Fmdace. bdag worth &2d. 225518 385 570079 417 68386 2420 83 1020 48924 37 28876 3128 36 28 207899 6988 77172 15254 ~ted!am Consnmp-Value. D~feaaWortL. Consump. THE~END.APPENDIX.897.0a326 de 160 a 240 130640 28 74. . Ia 8~ewhole e DaHy. E'usdng. Esisting.

.ItOttDON: = FHnted by A. S~ottxwoode. New-Street-Square. & R.

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