Vegetation mappin should be an jntegralpart of ongoing research and management e$fortsin Hawaiian ecosystems.
Vegetation maps are used to prcsent information on the s o m l ~ o s ~ t iand m .truiture (height, conop!. cover, and life rorm classcs) of plant eommunilies up011 in a two-dimen~ion~l iorn~at.Such map. proride s reg~onalr r a n ~ c w r k which ecologiall investiqrion~ individual species or hiolofiical communiof or ties (for either ~ildcrness other Lind mie) a n he habed. Cienerall), tne vegetation of 3n area is m:ipped on aerial photographs. with the mapped unitr verified during tield ~ ' ~ y In some c;t,es, h,~wevcr, m;q>ping1s June s . the completely from ground reconnaissance. Vegetation maps may be produced at various scales and for a great diversity of purposes (Kiichler 1967). The degree of detail that,can be expressed in a vegetation map is a function of both the mapping objectwe (that is, what components are to be displayed), and the scale at wh~ch map is to be the Mapping objectives may be quite variable for any one particular area, resulting in vew different maus, deuendine, on what components of theveeetation aie emphasized. For &le, a foFester may foc6s on species comiposition and diameter class for a stand of trees, while a map roduced for pasture management may ignore the trees altogether hut disp ay the grassland cover in ereat detail. The most comolex veeetation maDs are those which ~. ~~r ~lescrihe both the structural and f l o r h u sokposit~on i 3 pl:m community o and mav :~dditionallvinclude informatim on other e c o l ~ ~ ~ lvariables, such cal as rainfall, substrate characteristics, temperature regime7and so forth. Scale-related limitations of maps pertain primarily to the size of units that can be visually resolved in a two-dimensional presentation (Table 1). A small-scale map is limited to units that are fairly large and generalized, and may include a great deal of heterogeneity in the delineated units. A largescale map, on the other hand, can theoretically display units that are qulte small and detailed in the field. and mav be relativelv homocleneous. Most vegec~tion maps at the sc& oi l:5,tlOd,000 ( I cm wi the m 6 ) = 5 km up the ~ r o u l ~or)sm.dler ;,re limited to diykwing potential or climax tuvegetat!on d (see cliinax communitv\ as inter~retkd &oromregional climates, soiis,
units with boundaries thai can realistically 6e identified in the field;
Second. there is the mechanical problem of accurately drawing a unit boundary onto the base map.1 m2
< I m2
One of the biggest problems with vegetation maps is accuracy.25 ha
1:10. the map units displayed can actually be determined and visited in the field.OW 1:100. individual trces Foliage cover fur individual shrubs and herbaceous plants 2500 . Map accuracy is a crucial point. their utility is limited.25 ha
TYPES OF INFORMATION THAT CAN BE DISPLAYED
MINIMUM UNIT SIZE (aooroximate)
> 1:l million
Generalized potential vegetation
1:l million to
Regional maps. These maps lnclude small-scale maps ( > 1:l million) through very large-scale maps ( < 1:10. with large-scale maps.WO
25 . In other words. how real are the units that have been mapped. Map ac& . as they are extremely generalized to begin with.WO to 1:lOO
2500 m2 . as it determines the actual use potential of the map. Many users attempt to relate field results to the vegetation maps they are using.0~ to
1:1O. Accuracy is less of a problem with small-scale maps.
potential vegetation Generalized actual plant associations Dctailed plant associations. accuracy must be considered in terms of curacy has two components: f the content of the interpreted units themselves. and the conclusions may be compromised. If maps are inaccurate. However.
SOME PREVIOUS VEGETATION MAPS FOR HAWAI'I
Over 35 different maps have been prepared to show the dis!ributinn of aspects of the vegetation of the Hawaiian Islands.000) and depict units ranging from generalized potentla1 vegetation zones (see
The mosidetailed . Two other intermediate-scale maps were prepared by Lamooreux (1983) and Knapp (1965).ere pro-a duced at the scale of 1:24.500.rn.000 (Th. The second set of maps is at the scale of 1:100. based on aerial photographs taken between 1950 and 1954 (Nelson 1967).S million. This map. This ma is readily available in the popular Atlus of Hawai'i (Arm~trong 19837.. 2) forest type (that is. and McEldowney (1983). tree height. and 4) tree stand size class in terms of sawtimber (marketable trees) classes.~. climatic patterns. with the detailed vegetation units grouped into lar er and more generalized units.S: Fish and Wildlife Service's sufievi of Hawaiian f ~ ~ r ebirds (S. The 1:24. Higashino and Mizuno (1976).000-scale maps provide detailed inkrmation that mav be a~plicable research or management Droerarns of relatively to
. with only a limited amount of unit verification in the field. . . :in2 im .Is 11. Other recent vegetation ma 5 of relatively small areas include those by Smathers (19671. Harrison 8$72). range of maps. 3) density of tree cover. ' n i w r \ ~(r 1 H. primarily based on moisture and tem erature regimes.000..Thc ni:rp> h d . . the 8s. Lamoureux's map is very sim~lar Ripperton and to Hosaka's (1942) and also displays generalized vegetation zones for all of the Islands.. Several other detailed vegetation maps have been prepared for smaller areas on many of the Islands.000. i tthruu. and plant species composition.it~red ~ ? ~ e d ~ ~ 1r I'. .III'. and topography. The Hawai'l Forest Type Map units provide information on 1) land use class.I st ( I / ~ t r n ~ i ~ l ~ ~ rp/1~1~ p o c ~ >i n J~ . Jacobi (1978).~iir\lucllc~r-I>oml>~~~~ vegetation at twh levels of generalization.wtt v r d I . . A map by Mueller-Domhois and Fosberg (1974) displays vegetation types within and adjacent to Hawaii Volcanoes Natmnal Park on the island of Hawai'i. . tree species composition). Forest Service and the Hawaii State Division of Forestry produced the "Hawai'i Forest Type Maps" at the scale of 1:62. Despite the greater level of mapping detail at this large scale. at the scale of 152. island bf Hawai'i was m a ~ ~ at d e thexale of 1:l.tuJic> oi tlrc <I\ I~:IIIII. v t h ? nirhc ~ . presents a detailed as well as accurate description of the dominant trees and understmy plant associations in the Park. with all of the Islands except Hawai'i mapped at 1:500. . These maps were prepared for all forested areas except National Park Service lands on ali the major Hawaiian Islands. A new set of veeetaiion maps.h I:W I301:11iyDepartnicnt r f ~ . covering upland veeetation on the islands
a habitat base for the U.
vegetati& 2onks of ~ a f i i ' i This mip fit&to the intermediate-kale ' . 01 1l1c.000 and provide information on tree canopy cover.) Rimerton
ing vegetation. In the mid 1960s. Whiteaker (1983) prepared a similar map of the plant communities in Haleakala National Park on the island of Maui.&~I. Knapp's map delineates major vegetation zones. the Hawai'i Forest Type maps were prepared at the reconnaissance level.
1983. Scientific report of the Manawainui Rescarch Project (unpublished report).get.).. . Thc Ronald Prcss Company. The ao~lication new techniaues to reeularlv u ~ d a t e of our . Island of " " Hawaii: An Inlerdisciplinaty Smdy ofan Environmental Trorrsecf. Clark and P.K.).D. Files.t Mapping.W. Although [he \cgctatlnn map.
.! thc I. B. KUchlcr.C.. Hawaii Prcss. coupled with rapid computer data analysis capabilities. Stuttgart. Ncw York.V. Resource Bulletin PSW-16. Cuddihy. R. Harrison.s 1 ls\r. ihey do not inchde all areas of native vegetation in the ~ k e ~hditional .T. 1sla11do f Howoi'i. I D . ecological succession. Report Series 83-1. Agriculture. 1983. McEldowney. 19711 Ve8clalion Mop of the Kalc F o r m Reserve and Adjacotl Lands. Fish and Wildlife Scrvice Hawaii Research Station. plant invasion. Jacobi. Die Vegetation von Nord..W. digital image processing of data gathered with multispectral sensors on earth-orbiting satellites. Vegetation mapping and vascular plant check list.W. Forest Service. B. 1967. Pp.I. Univ.H. Higashino. Today.und Mittelamerika und der Hawaii-lnseln.
\'r. Knapp. Honolulu.di. A description of major vegetation patterns in the Waimea-Kawaihae region during the early historic period. 94-136 IN J. R. Vegetation maps of tho upland plant communities on the islands of Hawai'i.H. J.Y.tr~huti~m.s of Hawai'i. Atlor ofHawoii.'. [this volume] Vegetation zones of the Hawaiian Islands.~tion nlspl~ing h o u l hc :!I! intcgrsl part of ongoing rehearill and ~ ~l n~. 407-448 IN J.Woinrea-Kawoihoe Road Com'dor. We are quickly approaching the point where detailed vegetation maps can he easily and rapidly produced for even extremely remote areas of the earth.120 IN D. and all of the maps need to he updated periodically to delineate communities that have been altered by land-use changes or natural phenomena (for example. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. U. Mizuno. Pp.S. Scientific report of the Waihoi Valley Project (unpublished report). Pp.P. new lava flows. eco2nd in . Armstrang (ed. and Lana'i.). Bishop Museum Anthropology Dept. Translation of the section on Hawai'i by A. U. L a m o u r e q C. li\h xnd \\'lldliie Service wrvevs are ouite detailed.'. A. Kjargaard (ed. 2nd edition. L. Hawaii Press. Thevegetation of Waihoi Valley.S. Yoshinaga and H. P. knot<ledgc:r. 41. 1972. Alchaeolo~col i.S. Kirch (eds.~n:tgcmr~t effort\ i n lls\raiisn ecoyslerns.Alln.i the cmnpo>ition. Gustav Fischer Verlag. Molaka'i. Maui. In prep. cliang~. provide an additional set of mapping tools that could scarcely have been imagined by the scientists who produced the first maps of Hawaiian plant communities. ~ tof t h e e ~rrcpl:~ceshlc r ion n:!tursl
. maps need to he produced for areas not covered previously by the detailed mapping. 2nd edition.). 1965.toan ' wtcrn>LA i l l grcatlv enhsnze c ~ u c ~ n ~ e n . Honolulu. ~roJuced durin. (ed. and G. Jacobi. Pp. 70-71 IN R. Hawaiian Botanical Society hrcwsletrer 14:95-121. and so forth). Pcterson (ed. Vegelatio. Tltis. Vegetation zones. H.W. Univ. 1976. Dept. Honolulu. 1983.tvesfiaalions of Nte Mudlane.
Anan survcys ol large gcugraphicd areas: a systematic approach. Depl. L. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Cxpcrimcnt Station.E...r Ecoiom...). Veyelalio. 55-70 + maps IN R. Records andMops of Forest npes it! Hawaii. R. Hosilka. Scott. Hawaii Honolulu. Smathers. Zones nfHawuii. and F. 1942.A. A preliminary survey of the phytoycography of Kipahulu Valley.P. Fcrsherg. Ramsoy.1974. 'Ohi'a dieback and protection maoagemcnt of the Hawaiian rain forcst Pp.0) Technical Report 4.. . Botany Dept. D. D. (Unpublished report to The Nature Conservancy. Vegefatio~t Experiment Station Bulletin 89. Mueller-Domboi~ and H. U. 1967. 19XS. J. Ellenber~. VegeIaIiiro~~ oJHowoii Volcmoes Nolio.r o. Honolulu.R. G. Scientific Reporl of the Spahulu Valley Expcdition.L. Forest Service. Jacobi. 1983. Hawoi'i's Tereslrial E c o s y s t ~ ~ P4sen~aliolr Manapenma. J.Mueller-Dnmhii. f . Univ Hawaii Press lor Univ Hawaii s: and " Cooperative National Park Resourcca Studies Unit. D.Honolulu.Stone and J. Pp. Warner (ed. 1967. Univ. Hawaii Agricultural Ripperton. Resource Bulletin PSWB. and E.M. 1981.zol Pork (a:2200. Pacific Science 37:1-24.. J.). Nelson.E.S.) Whikaker.New York.M. Wild/~j% Sociery Bull& 9(3):190-200.Y. Scott (eds.
. Univ Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit ZS. The vegetation and environment of the Crater District of Haleakala National Park. Aims and Me1lzod. John Wiley and Sons.D. Mop Mucller-L'ombois. 1974. 403-421IN C. Agriculture. and F.C.D.