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MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 PA/SA
Particle Analysis and Oil Spill Analysis Module
User Guide
2
Software development by : xxxxx
Written by: xxxx
G:\fshare\MikeZero\new\source\M3\ParticleSpillAnalysis\Manual\Cover.fm 22 January 2007 5:40 am
3
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Printing History
June 2003
June 2004
August 2005
April 2006
4 MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 PA/SA
5
C O N T E N T S
6 M3&M21 PA/SA
1 ABOUT THIS GUIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Dialog Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2 BASIC PARAMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.1 Starting Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.2 Hydrodynamic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.3 Simulation Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.4 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.5 Dispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.6 Wind Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.7 Eddy and Logarithmic Velocity Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.8 Exceeding concentration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.9 Time Exposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.10 Water Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.11 Line Discharge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3 SEDIMENT PARAMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.1 Type of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.2 Light Attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.3 Settling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.4 Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.5 Output Areas (PA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.5.1 Output Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.5.2 Particle Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4 OIL SPILL PARAMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.1 Air Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.2 Heat Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.3 Emulsification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.4 Dissolution and Entrainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.5 Oil Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.6 Output Areas (SA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Reference Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5 BASIC PARAMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.1 Bathymetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.1.1 General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.1.2 Selecting the Model Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
7
5.2 Bottom Roughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.3 CPU Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.4 Disk Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.4.1 Small Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.4.2 Large Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.4.3 Remarks and Hints (CPU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.5 Dispersion Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.5.1 General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.5.2 Dispersion in an SA Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.5.3 Dispersion Coefficients Within the Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.5.4 Recommended Dispersion Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
5.6 Eddy Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
5.7 Exceeding Concentration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.8 Flood/Dry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.9 Hydrodynamic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.9.1 General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.9.2 Example of a Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.10 Line Discharge Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.11 Logarithmic Velocity Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.12 Maximum Particle Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.13 Nested Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.14 Number of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.15 Output Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5.15.1 General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5.15.2 Specifying the Output Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5.15.3 Remarks and Hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
5.16 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.16.1 General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.16.2 Horizontal position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.16.3 Vertical position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.16.4 Source flux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.17 Stratification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.18 Time Exposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.19 Time Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.20 Water Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.21 Wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.21.1 General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5.21.2 Specifying the Wind Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
5.21.3 Specifying the Wind Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Remarks and Hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
5.21.4 Specifying the Wind Drift Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
8 M3&M21 PA/SA
5.21.5 Shore Current Zone and Depth of Wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
6 SEDIMENT PARAMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
6.1 Dissolved matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
6.2 Light Attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
6.2.1 General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
6.2.2 Recommended Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
6.3 Linear Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
6.4 Resuspension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
6.4.1 General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
6.4.2 Resuspension Within This Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
6.5 Sedimentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
6.5.1 1st Order Sediment Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
6.5.2 Mud and Sand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
6.6 Settling Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
6.6.1 General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
6.6.2 Frequency function for settling velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
6.6.3 Frequency function for particle size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
7 OILSPILL PARAMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
7.1 Air Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
7.2 Emulsification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
7.3 Evaporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
7.4 Heat Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7.5 Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7.6 Sedimentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7.7 Vertical Dispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7.8 Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Scientific Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
8 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
9 ADVECTION AND DISPERSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
9.1 Lagrangian discrete parcel method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
9.1.1 AdvectionDiffusion equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
9.1.2 Langevin equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
9.1.3 FokkerPlanck equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
9.2 Advection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
9.2.1 Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
MIKE 3 HD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
MIKE 21 HD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
9.2.2 Weighting of current and wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
9
9.2.3 Wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Wind drift vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Wind drift angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
9.3 Turbulent dispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
9.3.1 Horizontal dispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Longitudinal and transversal dispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Neutral dispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
9.3.2 Vertical dispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
9.4 Numerics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
9.4.1 Bilinear interpolation of current field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
9.4.2 Reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Reflection at surface and bottom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Reflection at land points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
9.4.3 Calculation of concentration from distribution of particles . . . . 74
PA calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
SA calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
10 SEDIMENT PROCESSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
10.1 Settling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
10.1.1 Dissolved matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
10.1.2 1.order sedimentation process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
10.1.3 Sand and mud sedimentation process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Turbulent contribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Settling contribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Wind contribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Sedimentation and resuspension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
10.2 Light Attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
10.3 Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
11 OIL SPILL PROCESSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
11.1 Spreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
11.2 Evaporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
11.3 Vertical dispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
11.4 Dissolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
11.5 Emulsification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
11.6 Heat transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
11.6.1 Heat transfer between oil and air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
11.6.2 Heat transfer between oil and water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
11.6.3 Solar Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
11.6.4 Emitted and received radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
11.6.5 Evaporative heat loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
11.7 Chemical and physical properties of the oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
11.7.1 Oil fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
10 M3&M21 PA/SA
11.7.2 Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
11.7.3 Surface tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
11.7.4 Heat capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
11.7.5 Pour point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Appendix A A.1REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Introduction
11
1 ABOUT THIS GUIDE
1.1 Introduction
This manual is a common manual for the Particle Analysis (PA) module
and the Oil Spill Analysis module (SA).
Each of the chapters are divided in three sections: The first contains infor
mation common to the two modules, the second contains information spe
cific to the PA module, and the third contains information specific to the
SA module.
ABOUT This Guide
12 M3&M21 PA/SA
13
D I A L O G O V E R V I E W
14 M3&M21 PA/SA
Starting Conditions
Dialog Overview 15
2 BASIC PARAMETERS
2.1 Starting Conditions
Choose the type of simulation you want to run: Particle Analysis (PA) or
Oil Spill Analysis (SA).
Specify the number of nested areas.
2.2 Hydrodynamic Data
The PA/SA simulation needs information about the hydrodynamic condi
tions. These can be specified in two ways:
z as a full hydrodynamic field from a MIKE 21 or MIKE 3 HD simula
tion (varying in time and space 2D/3D) or in the very simple case as a
timeseries of current speed and direction (constant in space). In the lat
ter case also a bathymetry must be specified.
z as a limited number of flow patterns, a socalled database. The database
is given as a MIKE 21 or MIKE 3 HD file, but only with a few
timesteps. Each timestep contains a characteristic flow situation, and
each time hydrodynamic information is required, a flow situation is
pointed out by the timeseries given in the reference file. Lower and
upper limit defines the minimum and maximum values that are allowed
in the reference file.
Note: The PA/SA module can be used for a nonhydrostatic model only.
2.3 Simulation Period
In this dialog you must give some time information.
Time step range is the number of time steps the simulation should cover.
Note the simulation always starts with time step number 0
The time step interval is the time that the historical time is incremented by
at each time step.
The simulation start date is the historical date and time corresponding to
time step 0.
Basic Parameters
16 M3&M21 PA/SA
2.4 Sources
Up to 64 point sources can be included in the model. For each source the
following information must be given:
z Horizontal position
z Vertical position
z Source flux
Furthermore the Number of Particles pr. timestep should be given.
Optionally a Maximum Particle Age can be included.
The released particles can be treated as conservative (not decaying) or
decaying matters.
z In a PA simulation the suspended mass can be reduced by Sedimenta
tion and Linear Decay. Increase in suspended mass is caused by Resus
pension.
z In an SA simulation the decaying processes are due to Heat Transport
(evaporation), Dissolution and Entrainment. The volume of oil in the
oil slick can be increased by Emulsification.
2.5 Dispersion
The dispersion coefficients can either be given independently of the cur
rent or scaled in accordance with the fluxes in the hydrodynamic field.
The user specifies
z Horizontal dispersion (longitudinal and transversal coefficients)
z Vertical dispersion
If the dispersion is independent of the current, the dispersion coefficient
itself is specified for each area. For each direction one can choose the
coefficient to be a constant value (which is allowed to be different in dif
ferent areas) or spatially dependent (given as a type 2 file for each area).
If the dispersion is proportional to the current the proportionality factor
should be specified in each area for each direction. Minimum and maxi
mum values for the dispersion coefficients are required.
Wind Conditions
Dialog Overview 17
NOTE: Dispersion coefficients in a Lagrangian model are independent of
the grid size and time step.
2.6 Wind Conditions
The stressgenerated drag on the surface due to wind can be included in
one of the following three ways:
z as a constant value in time and space
z as constant in space but varying in time. The values are given through a
type 0 data file
z varying in both time and space. The values are given through a type 2
data file
NOTE: The directions are given in degrees and measured clockwise from
true North to where the wind is blowing from.
The wind friction factor can be specified either as a constant or linearly
interpolated between two values based upon the wind speed. In the latter
case, if the wind speed is below the lower limit, the friction is given the
value corresponding to that limit, and likewise, if the wind speed is above
the maximum.
2.7 Eddy and Logarithmic Velocity Profile
If you have included a Logarithmic Velocity Profile in your simulation,
you should specify a bottom roughness as a constant value applied to all
points in the model or as a type 2 data file. The roughness is specified in
metres.
NOTE: If cohesive or noncohesive sediment is included, a logarithmic
velocity profile must be included.
The parabolic Eddy Profile causes an adjustment of the vertical dispersion
based on a gradient approach.
2.8 Exceeding concentration
In this dialog you specify the exceeding concentration. You have to spe
cify a threshold value ("exceeding concentration limit") and the program
calculates how often this threshold value is exceeded.
Basic Parameters
18 M3&M21 PA/SA
The threshold value should be given in units
z kg/m
3
(concentration) for a PA simulation and
z mm (oil slick thickness) for a SA simulation
The program calculates the exceedance frequency between 0 and 100%,
and the results can be saved in the output area file.
NOTE: Inclusion of exceeding concentration does not affect the particle
paths  it is a postprocessing of the concentration field.
Remember to include "exceeding concentration" as an "Output Item" in
the "Output Areas" dialog.
2.9 Time Exposition
The time exposing facility is useful to record when released particles
reach the shore zones of the bathymetry.
2.10 Water Properties
The water temperature and salinity should be specified. Both temperature
and salinity can be specified as constants or varying fields (independently
of each other). The following restrictions apply:
PA on MIKE 21 HD: only constants
PA on MIKE 3 HD: constants and type 3 files
SA on MIKE 21 HD: constants and type 0 files
SA on MIKE 3 HD: constants and type 0 files
2.11 Line Discharge
The line transport facility is used to calculate the transport of the sub
stance across a userspecified line in the model area.
The line coordinates are given in grid points with respect to the reference
area.
Line Discharge
Dialog Overview 19
The line orientation is defined positive clockwise with first line point as
the origin, see Figure 5.1. Lines are not allowed to cross other areas than
the reference area.
Both the instant and the accumulated transport are calculated.
You must specify the number of lines (max 3) and then specify the posi
tion of the lines.
NOTE: The generated output file contains all discharge lines
Basic Parameters
20 M3&M21 PA/SA
Type of Particles
Dialog Overview 21
3 SEDIMENT PARAMETERS
3.1 Type of Particles
The sediment module (PA) can be run in the following modes:
z Dissolved matter
z 1st Order Sediment Process
z Mud and Sand
3.2 Light Attenuation
In this dialog you specify the light attenuation. You have to specify both
the light extinction and the background dampening.
NOTE: Inclusion of light attenuation does not affect the particle paths  it
is a postprocessing of the concentration field.
At least one of the items "instantaneous light attenuation" or "averaged
light attenuation" should be specified in the "Output Areas" dialog.
3.3 Settling
For each source the settling properties can be specified either as a constant
settling velocity or a varying distribution.
For a varying settling distribution two types of input can be used:
z Frequency function for settling velocity
z Frequency function for particle size
In both cases a type 0 file containing measured settling velocities/grain
sizes and corresponding frequencies must be given for each source. In the
latter case the relative density and the kinematic viscosity of water should
be specified.
Sediment Parameters
22 M3&M21 PA/SA
3.4 Decay
A 1.order decay of the particles can be included. The decay period “T90”
is the time in which the substance is reduced to 10% of its original mass.
The minimum mass is a threshold value that removes particles with a mass
below the given limit from the simulation.
3.5 Output Areas (PA)
3.5.1 Output Areas
The output consists of type 2 files with maps of concentrations, exceed
ance frequencies, etc.
Maximum 8 output areas can be specified. Remember to specify the
"Associated Area" (number of the nested grid from which the output
should be generated).
Under Xrange and Yrange, specify first and last grid point to be saved
followed by the frequency. Default frequency is 1 (storing data at every
grid point). A better resolution of the particle cloud can be obtained by
specifying negative frequencies in the horizontal directions (2 corre
sponds to 1/2 ∆x, 3 to 1/3 ∆x and so on, where ∆x is the grid spacing in
the hydrodynamic file).
Under Trange, specify first and last time step to be saved, followed by the
frequency.
The concentration of suspended sediment is averaged over the thickness
of a specified layer. The layer might be as deep as the deepest point or just
a thin layer. The layer is specified under “vertical selection” as a “vertical
range”. “From” and “to” are measured in meters below the surface. The
concentration in a layer adjacent to the bottom is obtained by specifiying
“bottom layer” instead of “vertical range”. The thickness of the bottom
layer is given in meters in the variable “above”.
As the result files tend to become very large, it is usually not possible to
save the computed concentrations in all grid points to all time steps. For
information the size of the output is calculated
Subareas and subsets must usually be selected.
Output Areas (PA)
Dialog Overview 23
3.5.2 Particle Tracks
It is also possible to include output for particle tracks. A particle track out
put file contains Long./Lat. coordinates for positions of a specific particle
at each PA timestep of the simulation while the particle is in the domain,
see Figure 3.1. The particle track file is named automatically
particle_track_#.xyz and placed in the same folder as the *.npa file.
Figure 3.1 Particle tracks including vertical position in Oresund , Denmark
Sediment Parameters
24 M3&M21 PA/SA
Air Properties
Dialog Overview 25
4 OIL SPILL PARAMETERS
4.1 Air Properties
The air temperature can be specified as a constant or a type 0 file.
The cloudiness takes values between 0 and 1 and can be specified as either
a constant or a type 0 file.
4.2 Heat Transport
If heat balance is included, the heat exchange airtooil and oiltowater is
taken into account. The initial temperature of the oil must be specified on
the Oil Properties dialog.
If evaporation is included, the volume of oil being evaporated from the
slick is calculated.
.
4.3 Emulsification
If emulsification is included, the volume of the oil can increase by an
enormous amount due to water uptake.
4.4 Dissolution and Entrainment
If dissolution is included, the oil volume leaving the slick due to dissolu
tion in the water column is calculated. The default value of the mass trans
fer coefficient is 2.36E6. This value should only be changed under very
special circumstances.
If entrainment (Vertical Dispersion) of oil into the water column is acti
vated the oilinwater interfacial tension must be specified [dyne/cm].
Oil Spill Parameters
26 M3&M21 PA/SA
4.5 Oil Properties
The oil properties consist of eight oil fractions, given as volume fractions
(percentage).
Additionally, a reference temperature should be specified due to the den
sity and the kinematic viscosity of the oil.
If heat balance is included in the Heat Transport dialog, the program
prompts you for an oil temperature that can be specified as a constant
value or as a type 0 file.
4.6 Output Areas (SA)
The output consists of type 2 files with maps of oil slick thickness,
exceedance frequencies, etc., see SA output items
Maximum 8 output areas can be specified. Remember to specify "Associ
ated Area" (number of the nested grid from which the output should be
generated).
Under Xrange and Yrange, specify first and last grid point to be saved
followed by the frequency. Default frequency is 1 (storing data at every
grid point). A better resolution of the particle cloud can be obtained by
specifying negative frequencies in the horizontal directions (2 corre
sponds to 1/2 ∆x, 3 to 1/3 ∆x and so on, where ∆x is the grid spacing in
the hydrodynamic file) .
Under Trange, specify first and last time step to be saved, followed by the
frequency.
As the result files tend to become very large it is usually not possible to
save the computed concentrations in all grid points to all time steps. For
information the size of the output is calculated.
Subareas and subsets must usually be selected.
27
R E F E R E N C E M A N U A L
28 M3&M21 PA/SA
Bathymetry
Reference Manual 29
5 BASIC PARAMETERS
5.1 Bathymetry
5.1.1 General Description
Providing MIKE 21 or MIKE 3 with a suitable model bathymetry is essen
tial for obtaining reliable results from your model. Setting up the bathyme
try requires more than just specifying an array of accurate water depths
covering the area of interest. It also includes the appropriate selection of the
area to be modelled and the grid spacing. This nested version of MIKE 21
& MIKE 3 PA/SA can work with up to nine bathymetries (model areas) of
different spatial resolutions. The bathymetries can be nested into each
other with more than one model area at each level (spatial resolution). A
number of rules must be obeyed when preparing the hydrodynamic model
setup to obtain compatibility between a subarea (fine grid) and its
enclosing area (coarse grid). The rules are described in the respective
addenda to the MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 HD User Guide and Reference
Manual (Nested Hydrodynamic Module – Operation Guide).
5.1.2 Selecting the Model Area
In deciding on the area to be included in your model you must consider the
area of interest, and the position and types of the hydrodynamic model
boundaries to be used. The advantages of applying the nested grid facility
in the PA/SA modules compared to using only one grid is mainly that the
model will only loose mass when the particles pass the outer coarse grid
boundary. In many cases involving tides, the size of the model area has to be
increased because the particle cloud is advected by the tide and can return if
the model area is large enough. If the particle cloud passes the model bound
ary it will be lost. To obtain a satisfactory spatial resolution of the model
within the area of interest, a single computational grid will often result in a
very large number of water points (and often within areas of only limited
interest for the application), and it will accordingly require much CPU
time. Applying the nesting facility, the spatial resolution can be optimised
to save computer time and disk space. Furthermore, the number of parti
cles leaving the outer coarse grid boundaries during tidal simulations can
be reduced.
5.2 Bottom Roughness
See Logarithmic Velocity Profile, p. 37.
Basic Parameters
30 M3&M21 PA/SA
5.3 CPU Time
The CPU time required by a MIKE 21 or a MIKE 3 PA/SA simulation
depends on the number of particles in your model, on the number of time
steps in your simulation, on the number of sources included, on which fea
tures you have specified for the simulation, and on the general computa
tional speed of your computer.
z the CPU time varies linearly with the number of particles in the model
z the CPU time varies quadratically with the number of time steps
assuming that the particles are released continuously and are not leav
ing the model area
z adding one more component to be calculated, the CPU time increases
approximately linearly
If you wish to calculate the CPU time required by a simulation (in real
CPU seconds, not elapsed seconds), the following formula can be used:
(Number of steps)
2
∗ Number of particles/time step * (No. of compo
nents) * ½ / BCS
Where BCS (basic computational speed) is the number of computational
particle displacements that your computer processes in one CPU second.
5.4 Disk Space
5.4.1 Small Files
The disk space required for your simulation mainly depends on the
amount of results you request to save. During a simulation only two other
files, in addition to the data files containing the results, are created:
z the specification file containing the simulation specifications. This file
will be placed in your present working directory and have a file exten
sion of npa. It will only take up approximately 25 Kbytes
z the log file, which is placed in your working directory contains informa
tion about:
z the model setup
z statistics of files used and generated
z a message for each completed time step
Disk Space
Reference Manual 31
5.4.2 Large Files
The amount of data generated by a simulation can be very large. Therefore,
you should only save as much data as is needed for your further work. Nev
ertheless, very large files will often be generated. The result files will be
placed according to the path you specify in the Output Areas dialog.
If you wish to calculate the disk space required for a single output data
file, the following formula can be used. The result is in bytes:
4 ( (number of items selected)∗
( (NlastNfirst)/Nfrequency+1) + 1 )*
(JlastJfirst+1)*(KlastKfirst+1)+1052
where N denotes time steps, J denotes points in the xdirection and K
points in the ydirection. The number 1052 is only exact for files written
in the old ctx/dtx format. For files written in the dfs format, the number
might vary slightly from 1052. The items selected can be some of the fol
lowing output possibilities, depending on which simulation you wish to
run:
PA output items
– Instantaneous concentration of suspended material in different lay
ers [kg/m
3
]
– Averaged concentration of suspended material in different layers
[kg/m
3
]
– Instantaneous light attenuation at the seabed [  ]
– Averaged light attenuation at the seabed [  ]
– Instantaneous total cohesive erosion [kg/m
2
]
Instantaneous total cohesive deposition [kg/m
2
]
Instantaneous net cohesive sedimentation [kg/m
2
]
– Accumulated total cohesive erosion [kg/m
2
]
Accumulated total cohesive deposition [kg/m
2
]
Accumulated net cohesive sedimentation [kg/m
2
]
– Exceeding concentrations [  ]
– Time exposition [seconds]
– U and V current velocity components [m/s]
SA output items
– Instantaneous oil slick thickness [mm]
– Averaged oil slick thickness [mm]
Basic Parameters
32 M3&M21 PA/SA
– Instantaneous oil components (up to eight) [mm]
– Averaged oil components (up to eight) [mm]
– Instantaneous Emulsification rate [percentage]
– Averaged Emulsification rate [percentage]
– Instant oil evaporation [mm]
– Averaged oil evaporation [mm]
– Instant oil dissolution [mm]
– Averaged oil dissolution [mm]
– Instant vertical dispersion [mm]
– Averaged vertical dispersion [mm]
– Exceeding concentrations [  ]
– Time exposition [seconds]
– U and V current velocity components [m/s]
5.4.3 Remarks and Hints (CPU)
Averaged output is established by averaging the simulation results during
the time frequency specified for saving the output file(s).
Please note that MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 PA/SA do not check whether or not
you have enough free disk space for your requested output files.
5.5 Dispersion Coefficients
5.5.1 General Description
The flow fields calculated with MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 HD used for advec
tion of the particles in MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 PA/SA are calculated in a grid
of a certain extent in time and space.
Physical flow processes, however, occur simultaneously at different spa
tial and temporal scales with a continuous spectrum ranging from molecu
lar agitation to tidal, barotropic and baroclinic residual flows. The need to
express conservation laws by means of mathematical methods imposes the
treatment of fluid motions as part of continuum mechanics, and this
implies the use of spatial scales (grids) much larger than the intermolecu
lar spacing associated with molecular agitation processes. To take these
effects into account, an artificial dispersion is applied.
Dispersion Coefficients
Reference Manual 33
Thus, it should be kept in mind that the transport by dispersion is a mathe
matical artifact arising from the spatial averaging rather than a physical
process.
MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 PA/SA are Lagrangian models, which means that
they do not run in a specified grid; instead each particle is transported and
the exact position is updated at every time step. Thus, the dispersion
descriptions within the MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 PA/SA models must only
account for the simplifications made in the hydrodynamic models.
5.5.2 Dispersion in an SA Simulation
A prerequisite for spreading of a particular crude oil or refined product
after spillage into the marine environment is that its pour point must be
lower than the ambient seawater temperature. High wax content crude oils
or refined products are characterised by a high pour point and these mate
rials will easily solidify either directly or shortly after spillage at sea. As a
first attempt to classify different crude oils with respect to their expected
behaviour at sea, a characterisation by wax content (and pour point) seems
feasible.
Many oils put on the surface of calm water spread in the form of a thin,
continuous layer in a circular pattern as a result of gravity and net surface
tension. The net surface tension, or spreading coefficient, is the difference
between the air/water surface tension and the sum of the air/oil surface
tension and the oil/water interfacial tension. Although viscosity does have
some effect on the rate of spreading, particularly shortly after the spillage,
many oils tend to spread on water surface at about the same rate even
though they may possess different viscosities. The dominant physico
chemical parameters of the crude oil that determine spreading are thus
(besides the pour point) the density and the dispersion coefficients.
5.5.3 Dispersion Coefficients Within the Models
MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 PA/SA involve the use of 3 horizontal dispersion
coefficients and two vertical dispersion coefficients in case of a 3D calcu
lation.
Horizontal dispersion
D
l
, D
t
Two dispersion coefficients to account for the nonresolved differ
ences in current speed and direction, in the longitudinal and trans
versal directions in the horizontal plan
D
o
A dispersion coefficient to account for the dispersion caused by
temperature and density difference driven turbulence
Basic Parameters
34 M3&M21 PA/SA
Vertical dispersion
D
v
A dispersion coefficient to account for the nonresolved differences
in current speed and direction. In a PA simulation the vertical disper
sion is controlling the amount of particles passing the bed shear zone
and is an important calibration parameter.
D
w
A dispersion coefficient for the description of the stirring due to
wind shear stress.
Except for D
w
the dispersion coefficients are either described as constants
in time and space or constants in time and varying in space. D
w
is in every
time step calculated as a function of the wind speed and the depth of wind
influence.
5.5.4 Recommended Dispersion Values
Selecting dispersion coefficients is very difficult. The optimum method is
to obtain the coefficients from a calibration process, where simulated and
measured concentration fields are compared. Measurements are very sel
dom available for calibration of transport processes. These processes have
very long response times (weeks or months), and therefore, empirical esti
mates are adopted. The dispersion coefficients can be preliminarily esti
mated by using
(5.1)
where D
l
is the longitudinal dispersion coefficient, ∆x is the grid size, ∆t is
the time step, and K
l
is a coefficient having the range of 0.003 to 0.075
based on previous modelling studies.
5.6 Eddy Profile
It is possible to adjust the vertical dispersion according to a prescribed
parabolic profile. The eddy viscosity varies parabolically over the vertical:
(5.2)
where
κ Von Karman´s constant (0.42)
t
x
K D
l l
∆
∆
=
2
z
D
z
u z v
f t
⋅

.

\

− = 1 ) ( κ
Exceeding Concentration
Reference Manual 35
u
f
Bottom friction velocity
D Water depth
z Vertical position in the water column
The settling velocity of the particles is adjusted by:
(5.3)
The formulation is based on the publication: Simulation of turbulent diffu
sion of suspended sediment by a random walk model, published by Rolf
Deigaard and Erik Asp Hansen, DTU, Dec. 1994.
5.7 Exceeding Concentration
If you want to include the exceeding concentration option, you enter the
Exceeding Concentration dialog and specify the concentration limit. This
threshold value should be given in units
z kg/m
3
(concentration) for a PA simulation
z mm (oil slick thickness) for a SA simulation
The program calculates the exceedance frequency between 0 and 100%,
and the results can be saved in the output area file.
5.8 Flood/Dry
If you run the MIKE 21 or MIKE 3 PA/SA module using a hydrodynamic
file where Flood/Dry has been included, the Flood/Dry facility will auto
matically be setup in the MIKE 21 or MIKE 3 PA/SA simulation. If a
particle reaches shallow waters, with a water depth below a certain thresh
old value specified in the hydrodynamic file, the particle position will be
unaffected until the water depth (tide) at this location reaches above this
threshold value.
For a PA simulation you should be aware of the fact that the concentration
field in dry points will be based on the threshold water depths.

.

\

− =
D
z
u
dz
dv
f
t
2
1 κ
Basic Parameters
36 M3&M21 PA/SA
5.9 Hydrodynamic Data
5.9.1 General Description
The PA/SA simulation needs information about the hydrodynamic condi
tions. These can be specified in two ways:
z as a full hydrodynamic field from a MIKE 21 or MIKE 3 HD simula
tion (varying in time and space 2D/3D) or in the very simple case as a
timeseries of current speed and direction (constant in space). In the lat
ter case also a bathymetry must be specified.
z as a limited number of flow patterns, a socalled database. The database
is given as a MIKE 21 or MIKE 3 HD file, but only with a few
timesteps. Each timestep contains a characteristic flow situation, and
each time hydrodynamic information is required, a flow situation is
pointed out by the timeseries given in the reference file. Lower and
upper limit defines the minimum and maximum values that are allowed
in the reference file.
5.9.2 Example of a Database
Establishment of a database is not an easy task as a onetoone correspon
deance between the surface current speed in a point and the flow pattern in
the entire domain should be defined.
From a measurement gauge surface current speed for a position in the
computational domain is available. The surface current speed typically
belongs to the interval 5m/s to 5m/s. If the characteristic situations are
“northerly current”, “southerly current” and “almost no current” 3 flow
fields are sufficient, corresponding to 5m/s, 0m/s and +5m/s. The fields in
the database must be sorted in ascending order. When the simulation runs
each value in the reference file is matched by a flow field which is interpo
lated linearly between the two “surrounding” flow fields.
Hints: Other timeseries than one of current speed can be used as reference
file. To an example a flow field that repeats itself can be constructed by
using a database file containing a flow field for every 6th hour (00:00,
06:00, 12:00, 18:00) and a reference file that points out the time of the day.
5.10 Line Discharge Calculations
The line transport facility is used to calculate the transport of the sub
stance across a userspecified line in the model area. At each time step
both the instantaneous and the accumulated transport from time zero is
calculated.
Logarithmic Velocity Profile
Reference Manual 37
The cross sections is specified in grid coordinates (floating values) and the
discharge will be taken as positive clockwise across the section, see
Figure 5.1.
Figure 5.1 Orientation of discharge line
You can make up to 3 discharge calculations, and it is allowed that the
cross section may cross land areas.
The output is saved in a type 0 file.
5.11 Logarithmic Velocity Profile
If you have included a logarithmic velocity profile in your simulation, you
should specify a bottom roughness. The bottom roughness can be constant
in all model points or vary in space (given as a type 2 file). The roughness
is specified in metres.
Basic Parameters
38 M3&M21 PA/SA
5.12 Maximum Particle Age
A maximum particle age can be given (in seconds). Particles reaching the
specified age (counted from the time of release, not from the start of the
simulation) are simply taken out of the simulation. This option can be use
ful e.g. under long sedimentation calculations, where only the rate of sedi
mentation is to be considered, not the amount of sedimented material.
5.13 Nested Grid
The following rules should be observed when running a nested PA/SA
simulation
z the advective current should be specified for each area
z bed resistance should be specified for each area (constant or 2D map)
z the type of Eddy viscosity formulation will be common for all areas,
whereas the actual value can be different in the respective areas
z spatial varying wind is only specified for the main area. The wind is
internally interpolated to the subareas
z sources can be specified in all model areas, but should be specified in
the model area of the finest resolution which covers the actual geo
graphical position of the source
z in the output specifications, each output area must be related to an
associated model area
See also Bathymetry.
5.14 Number of Particles
In the Sources dialog it is possible to specify the number of particles
released per time step.
If you specify a short simulation period or a large time step, it is some
times a good idea to release a number of particles at each time step,
thereby making the concentration fields more "smooth".
If you specify that 5 particles are released at each time step and constant
source flux of 5 m
3
/s, then each released particle will have the mass 1
m
3
/s/timestep. You can specify either a constant or a timevarying source
mass. Note that the source flux in PA has units kg/s and in SA m
3
/s.
Output Areas
Reference Manual 39
5.15 Output Areas
5.15.1 General Description
Computers are not yet so powerful that a simulation can be run each time a
plot of, for example, the concentration field is needed. Therefore it is nec
essary to store the basic results from the simulations. On the other hand,
the amount of output produced by a single simulation is often so large that
it is necessary to limit the amount of output saved. You therefore have the
option of saving up to 8 selected parts of the output.
5.15.2 Specifying the Output Area
In the Output Areas dialog you specify how many output data files you
wish to have produced from the simulation. You can specify the contents of
each data file under "Output Items".
Specify the name of the output file (including the path).
Give a short description of the content under "title"
Specify the area to be included in the data file. By default the whole area
is chosen, but if you are only interested in a part of the model area and you
have finished the calibration, you could specify the area of interest only.
You can specify a Nested Grid Output area by selecting a negative fre
quency in both horizontal directions and in that way get a better resolution
of your particles.
If, for example, you specify the grid frequency to 4, the grid spacing in
your output file will be a quarter of what is specified in the hydrodynamic
file.
Finally, you specify the range of time steps to be saved and whether every
time step should be included or only every second, third, etc. The aver
aged output results, which you can select in the Output Areas dialog
(under Output Items), are based on calculations from a period equal to the
time frequency for the output data files.
5.15.3 Remarks and Hints
If you run the model in foreground mode, the progress of your simulation
is shown on the screen. If the model is run in background mode (windows
icon), you can follow the progress of your simulation by following the
number of time steps written in your .log file.
Basic Parameters
40 M3&M21 PA/SA
5.16 Sources
5.16.1 General Description
The effects of rivers and outlets from power stations, etc. can be included
in a simulation. These sources have to be included in both the hydrody
namic and the PA/SA modules. The source positions and discharges are
specified in the hydrodynamic input part, whereas the source fluxes
(amount of particles/amount of oil) are specified in the particle input part.
5.16.2 Horizontal position
The horizontal position must be specified for each source. The position
should be given in grid points (floating point values) and it can either be
given as
z constant values
z a type 0 file containing the x and y coordinates of the source. The x and
y coordinate must be given as two separate items.
Furthermore the reference area for the source should be specified.
5.16.3 Vertical position
For a PA simulation also the source depth must be specified, either as
z a constant value
z a type 0 file
The source depth is given in metres and is counted positive from the sur
face.
In an SA simulation the source is automatically placed at the surface.
5.16.4 Source flux
The mass flux from each source can be given as
z a constant value
z a type 0 file
In SA the mass flux should be given in and in PA in .
If the source flux is given as a type 0 file, the timestep in this timeseries
should be equal to or greater than the simulation timestep. In the latter
case MIKE21/3 SA/PA automatically interpolates linearly. A timestep in
the source flux file that is less than the simulation timestep is not allowed.
m
3
/s   kg/s  
Stratification
Reference Manual 41
An instantaneous release can be achieved by defining a source flux file
with timestep equal to the simulation timestep and zero value at all places
except for the start time of the simulation.
5.17 Stratification
See Water Properties.
5.18 Time Exposition
By including Time Exposition, the model will create a map with informa
tion about how fast the particle cloud is moving. This information can be
interpreted as how long time a particle uses for being advected and dis
persed from the source point to a certain location. The results will be pre
sented as isolines with the unit seconds.
5.19 Time Step
Selecting the Time Step
As a rule of thumb a particle should not move more than one grid cell in
each timestep, otherwise the numerical integration of the stochastic differ
ential equation that controls the particle motion becomes unstable. If a
particle displacement in fact exceeds one grid cell MIKE 21&3 PA/SA
divides the displacement in halves until a displacement below one grid
cell is obtained.
The time step for your simulation is selected as follows:
1 First you determine the grid spacing, , as described under Bathyme
try, which is equal to the maximum allowable particle displacement
2 Secondly you determine the maximum current speed U
max
in the com
putational domain. In most cases U
max
is assessed after inspecting the
flow field.
3 From the definition of the Peclet number the maximum timestep can
now be calculated: . In nested simulations must
be calculated for all areas and the smallest one chosen for the PA/SA
simulation.
∆x
∆t
max
∆x/U
max
≤ ∆t
max
Basic Parameters
42 M3&M21 PA/SA
5.20 Water Properties
The density of the water is calculated from salinity and temperature .
In an oil spill simulation (SA), the water temperature itself is a parameter
that influences the properties of the oil. In SA the temperature and salinity
can be specified as constants or timeseries.
In a sedimentation calculation (PA) the particles are affected by the den
sity of the water. If 3D fields of salinity and/or temperature are available
these can be used in sedimentation simulations, otherwise constant values
for salinity and temperature must be given.
5.21 Wind
5.21.1 General Description
When wind is acting on the surface of water, energy is transferred to the
water through the shear stress. The energy is used for stirring/mixing the
water and accelerating the water in the direction of the wind.
The wind shear stress results in acceleration of the upper thin surface
layer, and gradually the zone, where the shear stress is active, progresses
in depth.
The depth of influence of the wind is defined as the depth where 90% of
the wind induced energy is used for the above mentioned processes. The
depth depends on the wind speed and direction history since the profile is
a result of the wind action over time, and furthermore, it depends on the
bathymetry and stratification of the water column.
The surface current velocity due to the wind is calculated as
V
s
= C
w
W (5.4)
where C
w
is the wind friction coefficient and W is the wind velocity in m/s
10 m above the sea surface. The wind friction coefficient is different from
what is specified in MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 HD.
Notice that the direction of the wind is given in degrees blowing from rel
ative to true North, see Figure 5.2.
Wind
Reference Manual 43
Figure 5.2 Definition of wind direction
5.21.2 Specifying the Wind Conditions
The wind conditions can be specified in three ways:
1 As a wind which is blowing from the same direction and with the same
magnitude over the whole model area for the entire simulation period
2 As a wind where the magnitude and direction varies during the simula
tion period, but is the same over the entire model area
– you have to prepare a data file (type 0) containing the wind speed
and direction before you set up the PA/SA simulation.the wind
speed and wind direction must be given as two separate items in the
data file. The time step of the wind input data file does not, how
ever, have to be the same as the time step of the PA/SA simulation.
A cubic interpolation will be applied if the time steps differ. The
only requirement is that the wind data arespecified for the complete
simulation period
In both cases it is not necessary to specify a start up period during
which the wind speed is increased.
3 As a wind where the magnitude and direction varies during the simula
tion period and over the model area
Basic Parameters
44 M3&M21 PA/SA
– you have to prepare a data file (type 2) containing the wind speed
components and air pressure before you set up the oil spill simula
tion. This can be done by either using one of the two MIKE 21 wind
generating programs: cyclone generated wind and pressure, or wind
generated on the bases of digitised pressure fields. (These programs
are found in the MIKE 21 Toolbox). Or you can enter the data
directly into a type 2 file using the grid editor.
– the wind speed and pressure must be given as three separate items
in the data file. The first item should be the pressure in HPa, the two
next ones should be the wind speed in the xdirection and ydirec
tion, respectively. However, the time step of the wind input data file
does not have to be the same as the time step of PA/SA simulation
– a linear interpolation will be applied if the time steps differ. The
only requirements are that the wind map matches the bathymetry
map and that the wind data covers the complete simulation period
5.21.3 Specifying the Wind Friction
The wind friction coefficient you specify in MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 PA/SA is
not comparable to what you can specify in MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 HD,
while in the HD the coefficient corresponds to the momentum of the fluid
and in the PA/SA the coefficient corresponds to the surface speed of the
fluid.
Normally a wind friction coefficient of 0.02 will give good results for
moderate and strong winds in the open sea. For weak winds, however,
smaller coefficients can be used.
If you specify a varying wind speed, you might also need to specify a var
ying friction coefficient. Consequently, the possibility of varying the fric
tion coefficient linearly as a function of the wind speed is included.
Remarks and Hints
You can use the wind friction factor as a parameter in you model calibra
tion.
5.21.4 Specifying the Wind Drift Angle
Due to the influence from the Coriolis force, the direction of the wind drift
vector is turned relative to the wind direction. The angle of deviation is
termed the wind drift angle. It turns to the right on the Northern Hemi
sphere and to the left on the Southern Hemisphere. The magnitude of the
wind drift angle varies in time if the wind friction is time varying, other
wise the wind drift angle is constant in time and is given in degrees.
Wind
Reference Manual 45
5.21.5 Shore Current Zone and Depth of Wind
The “Shore Current Zone” is the depth at which the calculation of the
wind influence on the current changes from the onshore formulation to
the offshore formulation. Setting “Shore Current Zone” to zero gives off
shore formulation all over. Onshore formulation at all depths can be
obtained by setting “Shore Current Zone” to a value that exceeds the larg
est depth.
The onshore expression calculates a correction over the entire depth, the
offshore expression corrects only the current down to “Depth of Wind”.
Thus “Depth of Wind” should always be greater than or equal to “Shore
Current Zone”.
Basic Parameters
46 M3&M21 PA/SA
Dissolved matter
Reference Manual 47
6 SEDIMENT PARAMETERS
6.1 Dissolved matter
If dissolved matter is chosen in the Type of Particles dialog the particles
are neutrally buoyant, which means that they follow the flow without
being settled. This option can be used for calculation of spreading of e.g.
bacteria, where it can be combined with a Linear Decay.
6.2 Light Attenuation
6.2.1 General Description
In clear water the light intensity is reduced exponentially from the water
surface down through the water column. Sediments in suspension result in
an additional dampening of the light caused by shading from the sediment
particles.
The background dampening from clear water depends on the water depth
and a dampening coefficient. The light attenuation caused by sediments in
suspension depends on the water depth, the concentration of suspended
sediments and a light attenuation coefficient describing the shading per
mass.
The light attenuation can be calculated both as an instantaneous value and
as an averaged value, where the averaging one is referring to the time fre
quency of saving output.
6.2.2 Recommended Values
The default light attenuation coefficient is based on analyses of measure
ments performed in the Great Belt, Denmark, 1991. Shading calculations
using this value have been verified against measurements of eelgrass
growth in the Great Belt.
The default light attenuation coefficient includes both the background
dampening of clear water and the light attenuation caused by sediments in
suspension.
It is, however, made possible that you can specify a separate background
dampening coefficient.
Sediment Parameters
48 M3&M21 PA/SA
6.3 Linear Decay
Decay as a result of chemical or biological processes is described in the
following way:
Every particle has attached a certain mass of the total released substance.
This mass may change during the calculation if a decay process is defined.
A first order decay is considered so that
(6.1)
M being the particle mass and k [s
1
] the decay factor. When the mass of a
certain particle becomes less than a user specified minimum mass, the par
ticle is taken out of the simulation.
The decay law yields after integration
(6.2)
The decay period T
90
is defined as
(6.3)
which brings
(6.4)
The decay period must be specified by the user.
6.4 Resuspension
6.4.1 General Description
Deposited material resuspends when the shear stress at the sea bed
exceeds a critical limit. The amount of material resuspended depends on
the grain size of the material, the degree of consolidation and the physico
chemical interactions between the particles (cohesive/noncohesive).
M k
dt
dM
⋅ − =
( ) ( ) t k M t M
o
⋅ − ⋅ = exp
1 . 0 =
o
M
M
( )
90
10 ln
T
k =
Sedimentation
Reference Manual 49
6.4.2 Resuspension Within This Model
Resuspension is presently not available for the 1
st
order depth averaged
sediment description. Both the cohesive/noncohesive sediment calcula
tions include resuspension.
The resuspension of sedimented material is determined by the relationship
between the critical shear stress and the actual shear stress at the seabed.
The critical shear stress is a function of the critical shields' parameter and
depends on the material in question.
6.5 Sedimentation
6.5.1 1
st
Order Sediment Process
The sediment is regarded as fully mixed over the depth, and the settling of
sediment takes place with a constant or randomly generated settling veloc
ity, thereby reducing the remaining mass of each particle in suspension.
When the mass falls below a specified minimum value, the remaining
mass of the particle is deposited. The particles are advected with the local
velocity profile, which can be constant or logarithmic in the vertical. The
velocity profile can be superimposed with a windinduced current profile
if wind is applied to the model.
6.5.2 Mud and Sand
The sediment is released at a specified depth, and the particles settle with a
constant or randomly generated settling velocity. The particles are deposited
when they reach the bottom. This simulation type gives you the possibility
of calculating the concentration of suspended material at different depths.
The particles can be advected by a threedimensional velocity field or by
logarithmic velocity profiles established from the depthintegrated veloci
ties specified in the Hydrodynamic Data dialog. The velocity profiles can
be superimposed with a wind induced current profile if wind is applied to
the model.
Typical values for the critical shields' parameter for motion is 0.045 for
sand and 0.2 for clay.
NOTE: The sediment output will be zero at the first time step for saving
output.
Sediment Parameters
50 M3&M21 PA/SA
6.6 Settling Velocity
6.6.1 General Description
There are two ways of including settling velocities in a particle simulation.
The easiest way is to specify a constant settling velocity for each source
specified. A more advanced method is to include a particle size distribu
tion or a particle settling velocity distribution based on laboratory meas
urements of the material released.
6.6.2 Frequency function for settling velocity
The model expects the following input:
z A type 0 file with two items, where each “timestep” is a set of settling
velocity [m/s] and observed frequency.
A settling velocity chosen at random from this distribution is assigned to
each particle when it is released.
6.6.3 Frequency function for particle size
The model expects the following input:
z A type 0 file with two items, where each “timestep” is a set of particle
size [mm] and observed frequency
z relative density of sediment and a kinematic viscosity of water
The model calculates the frequency function for settling velocity by using
Stokes law. A settling velocity chosen at random from this distribution is
assigned to each particle when it is released.
Air Properties
Reference Manual 51
7 OILSPILL PARAMETERS
7.1 Air Properties
The air properties consist of the air temperature and the cloudiness, which
also can be specified as constant in time or as time varying (type 0). These
environmental data influence the weathering of oil, and are important in
the calculation of the properties in the waterinoil emulsion. The cloudi
ness is applied to correct the heat input from the sun on a clear day to the
actual conditions. The time series has to cover the specified simulation
period and the model will make the necessary interpolation to get specific
values at each time step during the simulation.
7.2 Emulsification
Emulsification of crude oils and/or refined products involves the disper
sion of water droplets into the oil medium. As the percentage of water
increases (up to a maximum of 7585%), the resulting emulsion undergoes
a dramatic increase in viscosity, its effective volume increasing by a factor
of up to 5, its density approaching that of the surrounding water, and col
our changes occurring ranging through browns, oranges and reds. These
properties of the resulting emulsions make cleanup operations more diffi
cult. Furthermore, evaporation of components from an emulsion will also
be diminished.
The mechanism by which water incorporates droplets into a slick is poorly
understood. Therefore, the process of emulsification can only be discussed
in a qualitative way. However, it can be stated that the mixing energy
through wave action is an important requirement and that emulsions are
less likely to be formed in calm conditions.
To estimate the significance of emulsification for a particular oil type
under given environmental conditions, it is necessary to know the follow
ing:
z first, whether an oil has the potential to form an emulsion
z secondly, how fast the emulsion is formed and how much water is
taken up, and
z finally, how stable the emulsion is
Furthermore, information about the emulsified oil is required.
OilSpill Parameters
52 M3&M21 PA/SA
The rate at which water is taken up in the slick is greatly influenced by the
type of oil (Lynch) and the environmental conditions. However, properties
and conditions that favour vertical dispersion are expected also to be
favourable for emulsification.
For cleanup purposes, information on the viscosity of an emulsion is nec
essary.
7.3 Evaporation
The evaporation processes are included in the MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 SA
models. The rate of evaporation of the lighter components is influenced by
the percentage of lighter components in the crude oil itself, the oil temper
ature, the oil thickness and area, and the physical forces of wind (and
wave) energy. The effect of evaporation is to increase the density of the
remaining oil and to increase its viscosity. Pour point may also be affected,
determining whether or not the oil remains a fluid or becomes a waxy
solid or semisolid.
In practice, as crude oil spreads out on the sea surface a large surface area
is exposed and the initial rapid loss of the volatile components occurs. The
main loss occurs during the first 2 or 3 hours and the process then slows
down with the increasing proportion of the higher boiling components
remaining in the residue. In theory, the higher boiling components also
have a vapour pressure and should eventually evaporate, but increasing
viscosity and pour point of the remaining oil lead to a complex process of
emulsification and solidification, which reduces the surface area of the
slick and hence the rate of evaporation.
During the first 24 hours after spillage, most crude oils will have lost
approximately 2530% of their lighter components and although the loss
continues, the rapid evaporation process can be assumed to have ended.
Subsequent "weathering", e.g. by wind action and thermal radiation from
the sun, then leads to a slow but progressive loss of the middle boiling
range components. The associated increase in the density and viscosity
takes up to about one week to simulate with the SA model.
The effect of evaporation on the physical properties of the resulting resid
ual has a major influence on the type of response required for cleanup of
the oil. It has already been shown how the pour point influences the
fluid/solid properties of the oil and the method of recovery.
Heat Transport
Reference Manual 53
7.4 Heat Transport
Five input parameters are used in the heat balance calculation for the oil.
The Albedo Value describes the fraction of the solar radiation, which is
reflected. This parameter is primarily depending on the colour of the oil.
The emissivity of the oil, water and air are constant values in time and space
and are applied for the calculation of the heat balance for the oil slick. The
evaporation constant is proportional to the amount of evaporated oil, and
is a calibration parameter.
7.5 Radiation
It is possible to take the solar radiation into account when calculating the
oil slick temperature. The emissivity constants related to the water, oil and
air have to be specified. The model calculates the variations in the solar
radiation with respect to the geographical position, the time of the day and
which season of the year.
7.6 Sedimentation
General Description
Only relatively few crude oils weather to produce residues that are denser
than seawater and sink. The majority of crude oils yield weathered oils
lighter than seawater, and even if they form stable waterinoil emulsions,
the resultant material is positively buoyant. Nevertheless, floating oil can
come into contact with heavy mineral particles, e.g. sand, silt, etc., espe
cially in coastal areas. In these instances solid particles may be incorpo
rated into the bulk of the oil or may become coated with a layer of oil. In
both circumstances, the resultant mixture becomes negatively buoyant and
sinks. The oil is therefore carried to the seabed and incorporated in bottom
sediments where the degradation processes are very slow.
Remarks and Hints
The above mentioned processes are not described in the Spill Analysis
module of MIKE 21 and MIKE 3, which not at all take the buoyant effects
into account.
7.7 Vertical Dispersion
Transport into the water column can be accomplished by a number of
mechanisms: dissolution, dispersion, accommodation, and sedimentation.
OilSpill Parameters
54 M3&M21 PA/SA
Dispersion and accommodation are by far the most important mechanism
during the first week of weathering.
Dispersion is a mechanical process. Water turbulence tears off globules of
oil and entrains them, forming an oilinwater emulsion. These emulsions
can be stabilised by surfaceactive agents coating the oilwater interface
and thus preventing the oil from coalescing. This formation of colloids is
called accommodation. In harsh weather, the dominant dispersion mecha
nism is probably wave breaking, while in calm weather, the most signifi
cant mechanism is probably the stretching compression of the slick
leading to droplet separation.
Vertical dispersion of crude and/or refined products after spillage at sea is
the process of forming small droplets of oil, which will be incorporated
into the water column. Besides evaporation, the rate of vertical dispersion
largely determines the lifetime of an oil spill.
Vertical dispersion reduces the volume of the slick at the surface and
reduces evaporative loss, but it does not lead to changes in the physico
chemical properties of the spilled material in the way that evaporation
does, for example.
In general, oilinwater emulsions are not stable, and the oil droplets tend
to coalesce and return to the surface, again forming a slick. Vertical emul
sifiers and/or suspended solids can stabilise them by reducing interfacial
tension, which leads to a reduction in droplet size.
Vertical dispersion is still a very poorly understood process, and the math
ematical description of it is still in an early phase of development
(Mackay). The importance of dispersion for a particular spill of crude oil
under certain weather conditions, and differences in dispersion behaviour
of different crude oils, can only be evaluated in a qualitative way. There
are fairly reasonable "best estimates" derived from observations of histori
cal spills (Blaikley et al.), which determine the rate of dispersion at sea to
be 05% oil lost per day depending on the sea state. More detailed infor
mation on vertical dispersion can be obtained from the comprehensive
review compiled by (Raj et al.).
The fraction of sea surface dispersed in the water column per unit time is
calculated as a lost fraction of sea surface, under nonwave breaking con
ditions. The input parameter is named oilinwater interfacial tension. The
default value is 20 [dyne/cm]
Viscosity
Reference Manual 55
7.8 Viscosity
If the viscosity of the original crude oil, determined at only one tempera
ture, is all that is available, it is possible to estimate the viscosity of the
weathering oil at various temperatures as a function of the time after spill
age. Although only a rough estimate of the viscosity of the remaining oil
is obtained it may be useful in deciding on the cleanup technique to be
applied, e.g. whether or not dispersants should be used. The oil viscosity
in the MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 SA is specified in Cs at a certain reference
temperature measured in degrees Celsius.
OilSpill Parameters
56 M3&M21 PA/SA
57
S C I E N T I F I C B A C K G R O U N D
58 M3&M21 PA/SA
Scientific Background 59
8 INTRODUCTION
The present Scientific Documentation aims at giving an indepth descrip
tion of the equations and numerical formulation used in the Particle Anal
ysis module (PA) and the Spill Analysis module (SA) of MIKE 21 &
MIKE 3.
Both modules are based on the random walk technique where an ensemble
of particles is followed instead of solving the Eulerian advectiondiffusion
equation.
The particles move due to the advective current and due to turbulent fluc
tuations. The advective velocities are (usually) obtained from a hydrody
namic simulation (MIKE 21 HD or MIKE 3 HD), whereas the turbulent
contributions are controlled by the dispersion coefficients.
The properties of the released particles are described by
z PA: Settling velocity, either constant or specified as a distribution of
velocities or grain sizes. Also nonbuoyant particles can be simulated.
z SA: The ratio between eight oil fractions that are charachterized by
density, vapour pressure, pour point etc.
The mass (PA) or the volume (SA) of the particle cloud can change due to
z PA: Sedimentation/resuspension. Futhermore a linear decay can be
employed.
z SA: Weathering of the oil: emulsification (water uptake), evaporation,
entrainment into the water column and dissolution.
Both models calculate concentration fields of the pollutant by tallying the
number of particles in each grid cell.
Introduction
60 M3&M21 PA/SA
Lagrangian discrete parcel method
Scientific Background 61
9 ADVECTION AND DISPERSION
The advectiondiffusion model is designed to simulate the surface and
subsurface transport of pollutants. The pollutant is divided into discrete
parcels and sets of spatial coordinates are assigned to each parcel. It is
assumed that these parcels advect with the surrounding water body and
diffuse as a result of random processes.
9.1 Lagrangian discrete parcel method
Typically in models using Lagrangian Discrete Parcels Method the pollut
ant is represented by a large ensemble of small parcels. The movement of
each parcel is affected by the physicochemical processes. Once the par
cels are released in the water body, their discrete path and mass are fol
lowed and recorded as function of time relative to the reference grid
system fixed in space. Then the density distribution of the ensemble can
be interpreted as the concentration of the pollutant.
The Lagrangian discrete parcel scheme calculates the displacement of
each particle as the sum of an advective deterministic component and an
independent, random Markovian component, which statistically approxi
mates the random and/or chaotic nature of timeaveraged tidal mixing.
9.1.1 AdvectionDiffusion equation
In a vertically mixed environment, twodimensional depthintegrated
mass transport models are commonly employed. An analysis of the trans
port of a conservative substance with no sources can be based on the fol
lowing time and spaceaveraged equation:
(9.1)
where c(x,y,t) is the depthaveraged concentration, u(x,y,t) and v(x,y,t) are
the x and y components of the depthintegrated velocities, h(x,y,t) is the
depth (mean sea level), and D
xx
(x,y,t), D
yy
(x,y,t), D
xy
(x,y,t) and D
yx
(x,y,t)
are dispersion coefficients which represent all of the mechanisms that
]
y
c
D
h +
x
c
D
[h
y
+ ]
y
c
D
h +
x
c
D
[h
x
=
y
h) c (v
+
x
h) c (u
+
t
h) (c
yy yx xy xx
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
Advection and Dispersion
62 M3&M21 PA/SA
cause mixing at scales smaller than those over which the equation is aver
aged. The angle between the local flow direction and the x axis is given as
(9.2)
and the appropriate coordinate transformation is:
(9.3)
in which D
L
and D
T
are the estimated dispersion coefficients parallel and
perpendicular, respectively, to the local advective velocity vector. Their
role are very important in depthintegrated modelling, where D
L
incorpo
rates not only the pure longitudinal turbulent diffusion but also the effect
due to the interaction between the vertical shear of horizontal velocities
and vertical turbulent diffusion.
9.1.2 Langevin equation
The following analysis shows briefly how to equate equation (2.1) to the
FokkerPlanck equation, which governs particle transport in a random
walk model.
The position x(t) of each particle in a random walk model is described by
the nonlinear Langevin equation (Gardiner /9/):
(9.4)
where A(x,t) is a known vector representing the deterministic forces that
act to change x(t), B(x,t) is a known tensor that characterises the random
forces, and is a vector composed of random numbers that represent
the random/or chaotic nature of tidal mixing which, when averaged over
sufficiently long time and space scales, becomes effectively random.
θ
v x t ( ) t , ( )
u x t ( ) t , ( )

\ .
 
atan =
) ( ) ( )
D

D
( =
D
) (
D
+ ) (
D
=
D
) (
D
+ ) (
D
=
D
T L xy
2
T
2
L yy
2
T
2
L xx
θ θ
θ θ
θ θ
cos sin
cos sin
sin cos
t d
dx
A x t , ( ) B x t , ( )ξ t ( ) + =
ξ t ( )
Lagrangian discrete parcel method
Scientific Background 63
Equation (2.4) becomes equivalent to the stochastic differential equation
(9.5)
where dW(t) is the random Wiener process. According to Gardiner /9/ the
mean value of dW(t) is zero and the mean square is proportional to dt.
The simplest discretization of equation (9.5) is the explicit Euler scheme
for stochastic differential equations. This scheme is of order
(Kloeden and Platen, /13/).
(9.6)
where Z
n
is a vector of one, two, or three independent random numbers
depending on the dimensionality of the problem from a distribution with
zero mean and unit variance.
9.1.3 FokkerPlanck equation
In the limit when the number of particles is infinite and the time step is
infinitely small, equation (9.6) is equivalent to the FokkerPlanck equa
tion
(9.7)
where f(x,tx
0
,t
0
) is the conditional probability density function for x(t) .
dx A x t ( ) t , ( )dt B x t ( ) t , ( )dW t ( ) + =
∆t
∆x
n
x
n
x
n 1 –
– A x
n 1 –
t
n 1 –
, ( )∆t B x
n 1 –
t
n 1 –
, ( ) ∆tZ
n
+ = =
t ∂
∂f
x
i
∂
∂
A
i
f ( ) +
x
i
x
j
2
∂
∂ 1
2
B
ik
B
jk
f
\ .
 
=
Advection and Dispersion
64 M3&M21 PA/SA
The partial differential equation (9.1) and the FokkerPlanck equation
(9.7) are equivalent if
(9.8)
(9.9)
and
(9.10)
In the special case where D
xy
= D
yx
= 0, i.e., the coordinate system is
aligned the principal axes of dispersion, the random walk analogue to
equation (9.1) becomes
(9.11)
(9.12)
Looking at equations (9.11) and (9.12) we see that the deterministic or
'advective' velocity of a parcel in a given direction consists of three com
ponents: (1) the true advective velocity, u, (2) the gradient of the disper
sion coefficient and (3) a term due to the gradient of the water depth. In
case of a constant dispersion coefficient the contribution from (2) is zero.
The choice of the random component is discussed in sec. 9.3.
,
x
D
+
x
h
h
D
y
D
+
y
h
h
D
u +
y
D
+
y
h
h
D
+
x
D
+
x
h
h
D
= A
yx yx yy yy
xy xy xx xx








.

\

+
∂
∂
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
∂
v
(
¸
(
¸
=
yy yx
xy xx
T
D D
D D
B B
2
1
h c = f
Z
t
D
2 + t u) +
x
D
+
x
h
h
D
( = x
n xx
xx xx
∆ ∆
∂
∂
∂
∂
∆
Z
t
D
2 + t v) +
y
D
+
y
h
h
D
( = y
n yy
yy yy
∆ ∆
∂
∂
∂
∂
∆
Advection
Scientific Background 65
The time step must be compatible with the grid size to make sure that the
simulation is accurate. This means that the timestep must be chosen such
that a particle at most moves at most one grid cell during one timestep.
9.2 Advection
The combined effects of current and wind drag cause the advection of the
particles.
9.2.1 Current
A significant factor in the transport of the pollutant is the current field,
which can be obtained from a two or threedimensional hydrodynamic
model for tidal and winddriven currents in the region of interest, but a
time series of measurements can also be employed.
MIKE 3 HD
If the the current field is obtained from a MIKE 3 HD simulation it reads
(9.13)
where u, v, and w are the velocities in the x, y and z directions respectively,
x, y, and z are the Cartesian coordinates, and t is time. In MIKE 3 HD the
wind shear layer is resolved, thus the wind contribution should not be
added from the PA/SA simulation.
MIKE 21 HD
A current field from MIKE 21 HD is depth integrated, which means that
the vertical velocities are inherently assumed to be zero and the values of
the horizontal velocities are averaged over the depth
(9.14)
Even if the MIKE 21 HD simulation includes wind, the wind shear layer is
not resolved in the depth integrated field. MIKE 21 PA/SA includes the
possibility of parameterizing the wind shear, which is explained is section
9.2.3.
From the depth integrated velocities a logarithmic velocity profile can be
established, but the simulation can also be run with the homogeneous pro
file (rarely used as there is no reason for not using the extra information
that the logarithmic profile gives).
U u x y z t , , , ( ) v x y z t , , , ( ) w x y z t , , , ( ) , ,   =
U
a
u
a
x y t , , ( ) v
a
x y t , , ( ) ,   =
Advection and Dispersion
66 M3&M21 PA/SA
Logarithmic profile
The logarithmic profile is defined as:
(9.15)
where
z = vertical coordinate measured from sea surface [m]
V(z)= the logarithmic current profile
= von Kármán's constant (0.42)
h = water depth [m]
= Nikuradse roughness [m]
= friction velocity [m/s]
The friction velocity is given by
(9.16)
where
= mean current velocity [m/s] =
and the other variables are defined as above.
The expression in eq. (9.15) equals zero when
(9.17)
Below this depth the advective velocities are asumed to be zero.
V z ( )
U
f
κ

h z –
k
n
/30

\ .
 
ln =
κ
k
n
U
f
U
f
V
mean
κ ⋅
h
k
n
/30

\ .
 
ln 1 –

\ .



 
=
V
mean
u
a
2
v
a
2
+
z h
k
n
30
 – =
Advection
Scientific Background 67
Figure 9.1 Logarithmic current profile and wind induced current profile
9.2.2 Weighting of current and wind
The total drift velocity can be determined by a weighting formula:
(9.18)
in which
= wind velocity vector usually at 10 m above the water surface
= depth integrated current velocity vector
c
w
= wind drift factor
c
a
= advective water current factor.
9.2.3 Wind
Wind drift vector
The magnitude of the wind drift vector is commonly assumed to be pro
portional to the magnitude of the wind speed 10 m above the sea surface,
U
w
. This factor c
w
*
is termed with the wind drift factor and the common
value varies from 3 to 4 percent by AlRabeh /1/.
The wind contribution is divided into an offshore contribution and an on
shore contribution. The onshore formulation is employed in shallow
waters with a water depth less than a specified depth, h
sep
, which is a posi
tive value measured from the free water surface (with unit [m]). The on
U
tot
c
w
z ( )U
w
c
a
z ( )U
a
+ =
U
w
U
a
Advection and Dispersion
68 M3&M21 PA/SA
shore expression acts over the entire depth. The offshore formulation
takes over when the water depth exceeds h
sep
. The offshore expression
acts only down to the (user) specified depth of wind influence, h
w
.
Figure 9.2 shows the principle.
Figure 9.2 The wind influence on the advective current. The onshore expres
sion acts on shallow depths, on deeper water the offshore expres
sion takes over.
If h
sep
= 0 the offshore expression applies all over. If h
sep
is greater than
the maximum depth the onshore expression applies at all depths.
The depth of wind influence (h
w
) should always be greater than
(or equal to) the depth that separates the onshore and off
shore formulations (h
sep
), otherwise a particle can move from a
wind influenced position to a position with no wind influence
by moving horizontally.
Offshore formulation
The vertical distribution of the offshore wind drift vector is given by
(9.19)
where
= 3/h
w
[m
1
]
c
w
z ( ) c
w
∗
k
0
z – ( ) exp = 0 z h
w
≤ ≤
k
0
Advection
Scientific Background 69
= depth of wind influence [m] (input)
z = vertical coordinate measured from sea surface
= wind drift factor [] (input)
In order not to create an additional mass flux caused by wind shear stress,
the current profile is adjusted such as to have zero net flow. The contribu
tion can be expressed as:
(9.20)
Onshore formulation
The onshore distribution is based on a parabolic vertical profile and is able
to produce back flow at depth, where the offshore logarithmic profile does
not.
The vertical distribution of the parabolic onshore profile is given by
(9.21)
where
h = local water depth in meter
z = vertical particle coordinate, measured from sea surface
= wind drift factor (input)
The parabolic profile causes the windgenerated flow in the upper third of
the water column to be in the same direction as the current and the flow in
the lower part to be in the opposite direction of the wind. There is no net
depth averaged mass transport due to the wind.
Wind drift angle
Due to the influence from the Coriolis force, the direction of the wind drift
vector is turned relatively to the wind direction. The angle θ
w
of deviation
is termed the wind drift angle. It turns to the right on the northern hemi
h
w
c
w
∗
( ) ( ) ( ) z c dz z c
h
z c
w
h
w
w
w
w
+ − =
∫
0
1
c
w
z ( ) c
w
∗
1 3
z
h
 –
\ .
 
1
z
h
 –
\ .
 
= 0 z h ≤ ≤
c
w
∗
Advection and Dispersion
70 M3&M21 PA/SA
sphere and to the left on the southern hemisphere. From AlRabeh (1994)
/1/, it is assumed that
(9.22)
where
α = 0.3⋅10
8
β = 28°38'
γ
w
= kinematic viscosity of sea water [kg m
1
s
1
]
g = acceleration due to gravity [m s
2
]
The magnitude of the wind drift angle varies with the geographical loca
tion and wind speed and it is often estimated as 1215 degrees in the North
Sea decreasing to 0 at the equator.
9.3 Turbulent dispersion
9.3.1 Horizontal dispersion
Longitudinal and transversal dispersion
The pollutant elements diffuse in the medium. Diffusion occurs in the hor
izontal and vertical directions. An average element travels in time ∆t
p
:
(9.23)
where S
rms,L
and S
rms,T
is the rootmeansquare distance for both the longi
tudinal and transversal direction respectively and D
L
and D
T
are the hori
zontal diffusion coefficients.
For any individual element, the diffusion step size S is generated ran
domly by
(9.24)


.

\

γ
α
β
θ
w
3
w
w
g

U

= exp
S
rms L ,
2 D
L
∆t
p
⋅ ⋅ = S
rms T ,
2 D
T
∆t
p
⋅ ⋅ =
  r S r R S
r
r
≤ ≤ − =
−
Numerics
Scientific Background 71
where is the random number in the interval –r to r. The value of r is
chosen so that S
rms
must be equal to the mean square of all values of S.
Since the random number varies from –r to r and
(9.25)
then the distance that any element travels by diffusion is
(9.26)
Neutral dispersion
The neutral dispersion is given by
(9.27)
where D
o
is the neutral dispersion coefficient.
9.3.2 Vertical dispersion
The vertical dispersion plays an important role in sediment calculations,
where it is a dominating factor for the vertical transport of the sediment.
This topic is dealt with in section 10.1.3.
Vertical dispersion is also an issue in oil spill calculations, but in MIKE
21&3 SA it is treated as en entrainment process, see section 11.3.
9.4 Numerics
9.4.1 Bilinear interpolation of current field
The current motion is in most cases obtained from a MIKE 21 or a MIKE
3 HD output. In these current files the velocities are stored a the grid
points with a given time frequency. As the particles in a Lagrangian dis
crete parcels model most of the time will be situated at offgrid points a
good interpolation procedure is needed.
R  
r –
r
3
1
½
½
1
1
2
=
(
¸
(
¸
∫
−
dS S
S
L
R  
1 –
1
6 D
L
∆t
p
⋅ ⋅ = S
T
R  
1 –
1
6 D
T
∆t
p
⋅ ⋅ =
 
p o
oy
ox
t D R
S
S
∆ ⋅ ⋅ =
)
`
¹
−
6
1
1
Advection and Dispersion
72 M3&M21 PA/SA
In order to interpolate the velocities in space the bilinear interpolation is
chosen. The twodimensional version of the bilinear interpolation scheme
is shown in equation (9.28)
(9.28)
where F
1
, F
2
, F
3
and F
4
are known grid point values and x ,y are dimen
sionless distances, see Figure 9.3.
A similar procedure is applied in 3D. In time a linear interpolation is
adopted.
Figure 9.3 Bilinear interpolation (2D case)
9.4.2 Reflection
Reflection at surface and bottom
This issue is only relevant in PA calculations, where particles are moving
in the vertical (as opposed to SA calculation, where the particles remain
on the surface)
F F
1
F
2
F
1
– ( ) y ⋅ F
4
F
1
– ( ) x ⋅
F (
1
F
2
– F
3
F
4
) x y ⋅ ⋅ – +
+ +
+
=
Numerics
Scientific Background 73
If a particle during a timestep moves across upper boundary (z
i
<0) it is
reflected by the following rule:
(9.29)
If a particle moves below the lower boundary (z
i
>h) the reflection
depends on which type of particle the simulation is run with (dissolved,
1.order sedimentation, sand or mud).
Particles in a “dissolved” or “1.order sedimentation” simulation are per
fectly reflected
(9.30)
Particles in a “sand” simulation are sedimented. When they are eroded
they are given a vertical position corresponding to the depth where the
logarithmic profile equals zero.
(9.31)
Particles in a “mud simulation” are sedimented too. When they reenter
the calculation they are placed at the bottom
(9.32)
This makes it easy for a sand particle to “escape” from the bottom, as it
more easily is “caught” by the advection, whereas a mud particle tends to
stay sedimented.
Reflection at land points
If a particle encounters land it is reflected by the perfect reflection algo
rithm. The main property of this algorithm is that the angle of incidence
equals the angle of reflection and that no (kinetic) energy is lost at the
impact. The principle is sketched in Figure 9.4.
z
i
z
i
– =
z
i
2h z
i
– =
z
i
h k
n
30 ⁄ ( ) – =
z
i
h =
Advection and Dispersion
74 M3&M21 PA/SA
Figure 9.4 Principle of “perfect reflection”. The sketch shows a coastline which
is parallel to the xgridlines. In the model a land boundary will
always be parallel to either xgridlines or ygridlines.
At the end of a timestep the particle is found at the position (x
new
,y
new
),
which turns out to be on land. The particle is then reflected to the position
(x
new,ref
,y
new,ref
)
(9.33a)
(9.33b)
9.4.3 Calculation of concentration from distribution of particles
PA calculations
The concentration of suspended sediment in a PA calculation is calculated
at the end of a timestep. The horizontal position of a particle defines which
grid cell it “belongs to”, thus the number of particles in each grid cell can
easily be found. The concentration is obtained by dividing the total mass
of the particles in a grid cell by the volume of the water in the grid cell.
This gives a depth averaged concentration. It is possible to consider only a
layer (as opposed to the entire water column)  in this case only particles
in the specified depth are counted and the averaging is over the layer
depth.
SA calculations
The SA module only tracks particles at the surface, and the “concentra
tion” of oil , the oil slick thickness, is measured in [mm]. The thickness of
the slick is calculated at the end of a timestep by tallying particles in the
(x
new
,y
new
)
(x
old
,y
old
)
(x
new,ref
,y
new,ref
)
y
bound
0
x
new,ref
x
new
=
y
new,ref
2y
bound
y
new
– =
Numerics
Scientific Background 75
grid cells and then for each grid cell dividing the total volume of the parti
cles present in the cell by the area of the cell.
Advection and Dispersion
76 M3&M21 PA/SA
Settling
Scientific Background 77
10 SEDIMENT PROCESSES
The vertical transport of a particle is a result of a sedimentation compo
nent and dispersion components.
10.1 Settling
10.1.1 Dissolved matter
In the simplest case the particles act as “dissolved matter”, i.e. the parti
cles are nonbuoyant and follow the flow without settling. If the particles
reach the bottom they are reflected instead of being settled.
10.1.2 1.order sedimentation process
The 1.order sedimentation process is designed for a PA simulation which
is run on a depthintegrated velocity field (e.g. from MIKE 21 HD), where
the logarithmic velocity profile is not activated. As the velocity is uniform
all over the depth the sedimentation criterion described in the next section
cannot be used.
The sedimentation is calculated on the basis of a settling velocity, assum
ing that the sediment is fully mixed over the vertical. The amount of sedi
mentation at a given time and place is calculated from a first order
process, using the settling velocity divided by the depth as “decay parame
ter”. The suspended amount of material at time step i is given as:
(10.1)
where
S
i
0 =
suspended amount of sediments at time, i [kg]
∆t
p
= time step [s]
k = process constant,
where
V
set
= settling velocity for the individual particle [m/s]
h = water depth [m]
( )
p
o
i i
t k S S ∆ ⋅ − = exp
k
V
set
h
 =
Sediment Processes
78 M3&M21 PA/SA
10.1.3 Sand and mud sedimentation process
In the vertical direction the substance changes position as a result of the
advective velocity, the settling velocity of the particle and vertical disper
sion. The vertical displacement can be expressed as:
(10.2)
where
z
i
= vertical coordinate at time, i [m]
V
set
= settling velocity of the individual particle [m/s]
w = vertical current velocity produced by MIKE 3 HD [m/s]
∆t
p
= time step [s]
If a sand or mud simulation is run on a 2D current field (from a MIKE 21
HD simulation) the vertical current velocity is zero, i.e. w=0.
The dispersion ∆D
z
consists of 2 contributions:
(10.3)
where
∆D
v
= vertical dispersion caused by turbulence, see equation (10.4).
∆D
w
= dispersion caused by wind acting on the surface.
∆D
w
is only active over a part of the depth due to the specified 'depth of
wind influence' from the wind.
Turbulent contribution
The vertical transport of the element, S
v
, is
(10.4)
new position old position settling dispersion + + =
z
i
z
i 1 –
w V
set
+ ( )∆t
p
∆D
z
+ + =
w v z
D D D ∆ + ∆ = ∆
 
p v v
t D R S ∆ ⋅ ⋅ =
−
6
1
1
Settling
Scientific Background 79
where D
v
is the vertical dispersion coefficient. The form in equation (10.4)
covers the transport of the element upward and downward where the ran
dom number varies from –1 to 1.
Settling contribution
If only an average settling velocity is known this can be assigned to all
particles (“constant settling velocity”). If more detailed information is
available a distribution of the settling velocity can be specified as pairs of
velocity and frequency (“varying settling distribution”). Then for each
particle the program generates a random settling velocity based on the
specified distribution.
If the distribution of particle size is given the program calculates the corre
sponding settling velocities using Stokes' law /7/
(10.5)
where
S = specific gravity of sediment grain
g = gravity [m/s
2
]
d
p
= particle size [m]
γ
w
= kinematic viscosity of water [m
2
/s]
Eddy profile
In sedimentation calculations the diffusion model is violated by introduc
ing the setttling velocity V
set
. The following approach is described by Dei
gaard and Hansen, /5/.
A parabolic eddyviscosity distribution is applied in accordance with the
assumed logarithmic velocity profile, Figure 10.1. This replaces the con
stant dispersion coefficient D
v
applied in nonsediment calculations. In the
following the turbulent dispersion coefficient D
v
is taken to equal the eddy
viscosity , i.e the vertical dispersion coefficient varies over the depth.
(10.6)
where
( )
w
p
set
d g S
V
γ 18
1
2
−
=
ν
t
( ) ( ) h z z U z
f t
/ 1− = κ ν
Sediment Processes
80 M3&M21 PA/SA
κ = von Karman's constant = 0.42
U
f
= friction velocity
h = water depth
z = vertical coordinate, (0 at the surface)
Figure 10.1 Theoretical eddy viscosity profile
This variation of the vertical dispersion coeffeicient gives rise to an artifi
cial contribution to the settling velocity, V
set,a
(10.7)
This correction ensures zero net transport of suspended sediment.
Wind contribution
The velocity distribution due to wind shear stresses on the free surface is
considered to be given by
(10.8)
where
V
set a ,
z ∂
∂ν
t
– =
( ) ( ) z K V z v
s
⋅ − ⋅ = exp
Settling
Scientific Background 81
z = vertical coordinate, positive downwards (0 at the surface) [m]
K = velocity profile coefficient [m
1
]
V
s
= surface current velocity due to the wind [m/s]
Figure 10.2 Velocity profile due to a wind field. Vertical dispersion
The wind shear stress distribution is approximated in the following way
(10.9)
hence, considering the velocity distribution presented above, it can be
shown that
(10.10)
where
h
w
= depth of wind influence [m], user specified
ρ = water density [kg/m
3
]
v = eddy viscosity [m
2
/s]
( ) ( )
w w
h z dz dV v z / 1 / − ⋅ − = ⋅ ⋅ = τ ρ τ
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ρ τ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ =
s w w
V K z K h z z v / exp / 1
Sediment Processes
82 M3&M21 PA/SA
τ
w
= shear stresses at the free surface [N/m
2
]
The current velocity at the surface due to the wind is by default considered
to be C
w
= 2% of the wind speed U
w
measured 10 m above datum.
The velocity distribution is then fixed by choosing
at the surface,
at z = h
w
,
which implies that K = 3/h
w
Hence
(10.11)
and noting that
(10.12)
we get
(10.13)
where
C
w
= wind friction coefficient.
Finally, the depthintegration can be performed, yielding
(10.14)
Finally, ∆D
w
can be expressed:
(10.15)
v 0 ( ) V
s
C
w
W ⋅ = =
v h
w
( ) 0,05V
s
=
ν z ( ) C
w
U
w
3
z
h
w
 –
\ .
 
exp ⋅ ⋅ =
τ
w
ρ ⁄ C
w
U
w
2
ρ
air
ρ
water
⁄ ⋅ ⋅ C
w
U
w
2
800 ⁄ ⋅ = =
ν z ( ) U
w
C
w
1
z
h
w
 –
\ .
 
3
z
h
w

\ .
 
1
2400
 ⋅ exp ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
D
w
1
h
w
 ν t ( ) t d
0
h
w
∫
7,447 10
4 –
h
w
U
w
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = =
  m t D D
p w w
∆ ⋅ ⋅ = ∆ 6
Settling
Scientific Background 83
Sedimentation and resuspension
The 3D module for sediment calculations includes descriptions of resus
pension for both noncohesive and cohesive materials. The following sec
tions give a brief overview of the 3D sediment specific description.
Sedimentation
Particles falling below the level where the local current velocity falls to
zero (z
0
=k
n
/30 above the bed) are assumed to be in a bed shear layer.
For noncohesive sediment, sedimented particles will remain on the bed,
provided the bottom shear stress is less than the critical shear stress for the
bed material in question, i.e.:
(10.16)
where
U
f
= friction velocity [m/s]
θ
c
= critical Shield's parameter
S = relative sediment density [kg/kg]
g = acceleration due to gravity [m/s
2
]
d = particle fall diameter [m]
For a bottom shear stress slightly above the critical shear stress at the ero
sion threshold, particles are seen to jump along the bed. Correspondingly,
high instantaneous concentrations can be found in the bottom layer.
PLEASE NOTE:
The vertical dispersion is affecting the vertical transport of particles and
thereby the amount of particles in the bed shear layer for consolidation of
particles.
Resuspension
At higher shear stresses the possible turbulent suspension becomes larger
than the downward settling of the sediment and sediment may thus be
brought entirely into suspension. The rate of resuspension is proportional
( ) gd S U
c f
1 − < θ
Sediment Processes
84 M3&M21 PA/SA
to the square root of the friction velocity. The limit at which resuspension
can occur is given by:
(10.17)
where
ν
bed
=eddy viscosity at the apparent bed [m
2
/s]
V
set
= particle settling velocity [m/s]
∆t
p
= model time step [s]
10.2 Light Attenuation
The light extinction at the seabed caused by sediments in suspension is
described by LambertBeers law.
(10.18)
where
I
b
= light intensity at the bottom
I
s
= light intensity at the surface
K
b
= background dampening for clear water [m
1
]
h = water depth
a = light extinction coefficient [m
2
/kg]
c = concentration of suspended sediment
p set p bed
t V t ∆ ⋅ > ∆ ν 6
( ) ( ) h c a h K I I
b s b
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ = exp exp
Decay
Scientific Background 85
10.3 Decay
To every particle a mass of the substance in question is attached. The mass
may change during the calculation if a decay is defined. First order decay
is included:
(10.19)
where
M = mass [kg]
k = decay factor [s
1
]
After integration the decay law yields:
(10.20)
The decay time T
90
is defined as the time where 90% of the mass is lost
(10.21)
from which the decay constant is calculated
(10.22)
t d
dM
kM – =
( ) ( ) t k M t M
o
⋅ − = exp
M T
90
( )
M
0
 0,1 =
k
10 ( ) ln
T
90
 – =
Sediment Processes
86 M3&M21 PA/SA
Spreading
Scientific Background 87
11 OIL SPILL PROCESSES
11.1 Spreading
Oil discharged on a water surface will immediately start to increase its
surface area. Two different mechanisms cause this. The first is spreading
induced primarily by the oil properties (differences in the density of the oil
and seawater, surface tension). The sum of retardation and spreading
forces will determine the spreading rate. Fay /8/ has developed the well
known and commonly used three phase spreading theory. The three phases
are (1) the primary phase, in which only gravity (spreading) and inertia
(retardation) are important, (2) an intermediate phase, in which gravity
and viscous (retardation) forces dominate, and (3) a final phase, in which
surface tension (spreading) is in equilibrium with viscous forces.
The second mechanism is dispersion. Random motions induced by waves,
wind and tidal currents translocate the elements of the slick relative to
each other and to the centre of mass of the slick. When the slick is decom
posed to slicklets with stable surface areas, only dispersion will move the
oil elements away from the centre of mass.
Mackay et al. /14/ developed a modified gravityviscous formulation of
Fays theory for area growth based on the following assumptions:
z The oil can be regarded as a homogeneous mass.
z The slick is assumed to spread out as a thin, continuous layer in a cir
cular pattern. However, real oil slicks often have irregular shapes and
often break up into streaks.
z No loss of mass from the slick is assumed. This assumption is, of
course, not applicable to real oil slicks, where both evaporation and
dispersion are important.
With these assumptions the change of slick area, A
oil
, with time can be
expressed by
(11.1)
where:
K
a
= constant [s
1
]


.

\


.

\

A
V
A K
=
dt
dA
oil
oil
4/3
1/3
oil a
oil
Oil Spill Processes
88 M3&M21 PA/SA
t = time [s]
A
oil
= πR
oil
2
[m
2
]
The oil slick volume is:
(11.2)
The initial oil slick thickness is estimated to be
h
s
=10 cm at t=0 (11.3)
It is well known that after certain time oil spilled on the sea ceases to
spread until the Pour Point of the individual oil particles exceeds the local
sea water temperature.
11.2 Evaporation
Evaporation from an oil spill is influenced by the composition of the oil,
air and sea temperatures, spill area, wind speed, solar radiation, and slick
thickness. Various attempts have been made to quantify the evaporation
rates.
The following assumptions are made:
z No diffusion limitation exists within the oil film. This is in general a
reasonable assumption of temperature above 0°C and oil slick thick
ness below 510 cm.
z The oil forms an ideal mixture.
z The partial pressure of the components in the air, compared to the
vapour pressure, is negligible.
With these assumptions the rate of evaporation can be expressed as:
(11.4)
where
N
e
= the evaporation rate
s oil oil
h R V ⋅ = π
2
] s
m
/
m
[
X
M
RT /
P k
=
N
2 3
i
i
i SAT
i ei
e
i
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
ρ
Vertical dispersion
Scientific Background 89
k
e
= the mass transport coefficient
P
SAT
= the vapour pressure
R = the gas constant
T = the temperature
M = the molecular weight
X = the mole fraction
=the density of oil fraction
i = refers to the properties of component i
The estimate of k
ei
is based on Mackay et al. /14/ and is defined as
(11.5)
where
k = a constant (to be estimated)
A
oil
= the slick area [m
2
]
Sc
i
= vapour Schmidts number for component i
U
w
= wind speed [m/s]
11.3 Vertical dispersion
Transport into the water column can be accomplished by a number of
mechanisms: dissolution, dispersion, accommodation, and sedimentation.
Dispersion and accommodation are by far the most important mechanism
during the first week of weathering.
Dispersion is a mechanical process. Water turbulence tears off globules of
oil and entrains them, forming an oilinwater emulsion. These emulsions
can be stabilised by surface active agents coating the oilwater interface
and thus preventing the oil from coalescing. This formation of colloids is
called accommodation. In hard weather the dominant dispersion mecha
nism is probably wave breaking, while in calm weather the most signifi
ρ
[m/s]
U Sc A
k =
k
0.78
w
2/3
i
0.045
oil ei
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
Oil Spill Processes
90 M3&M21 PA/SA
cant mechanism is probably the stretching compression of the slick,
leading to droplet separation.
The fraction of sea surface dispersed in the water column per unit time is
calculated as a lost fraction of sea surface, under nonwave breaking con
ditions, and is calculated by
(11.6)
where D
a
is the fraction of the sea surface dispersed per second and D
b
is
the fraction of the dispersed oil not returning to the oil slick, expressed by
(11.7)
where
U
w
= wind speed
and
(11.8)
where
µ
oil
= oil viscosity [cP]
h
s
= oil slick thickness [cm]
γ
ow
= oilwater interfacial tension [dyne cm
1
]
The rate of upwelling of dispersed oil droplets is calculated by
(11.9)
D D
a
D
b
=
3600
)
U
+ (1 0.11
=
D
w
2
a
γ µ
ow
s
oil
b
h
50 + 1
1
=
D
)
D
 (1
D
=
dt
V
d
b a
oil
Dissolution
Scientific Background 91
11.4 Dissolution
Assuming that the actual concentration of hydrocarbons is negligible com
pared to the solubility, the rate of dissotution is expressed by
(11.10)
where
= solubility of fraction i [mg/kg water]
= molar fraction of fraction i
M = molar weight of fraction i [kg/mol]
ρ = density of fraction i [kg/m
3
]
= oil slick area [m
2
]
The mass transfer coefficient for dissolution is calculated by
(11.11)
where
(11.12)
11.5 Emulsification
One of the most important processes leading to the persistence of the oil at
the sea surface is the formation of a waterinoil emulsion (dispersed water
droplets in the oil), turning the oil into a very viscous mixture. Such an
emulsion can contain up to 80% water. The ease of formation and the sta
bility are very dependent on the oil type and environmental conditions.
For instance, the stability of the emulsion is closely related to the amount
of surfactants present in the oil and the rate of water uptake is closely
A
M
X C Ks
=
dt
dV
oil
i
i
mol
sat
i i
ds
i
i
ρ
sat
i
C
mol
X
oil
A
e 10
2.36 = K
i
6
S
i
⋅
e
i
1,4 for alkanes
2,2 for aromatics
1,8 for oilfines
\

=
Oil Spill Processes
92 M3&M21 PA/SA
related to sea state. A mathematical description of this process including
all relevant parameters is not yet available. Existing emulsification models
are rather empirical by nature.
A reasonable model describing emulsification can be obtained by regard
ing the reaction as an equilibrium reaction.
(11.13)
The change in water content with time can then be expressed by:
(11.14)
R
1
is thus the rate of wateruptake. It increases with increasing tempera
ture and wind speed. This is taken into consideration by expressing R
1
as
(11.15)
where
U
w
= the wind speed
µ
oil
= the oil viscosity
y
w
max
= the maximum water content (input)
y
w
= the actual water content
K
1
= a coefficient to be estimated (input)
R
2
is the rate of water release. It decreases with increasing content of
asphaltenes, wax and surfactants in the oil and with increasing oil viscos
ity. This is expressed by:
(11.16)
Oil water +
Waterinoil emulsion
→
Oil water +
Waterinoil emulsion
←
t d
dy
w
R

R
=
dt
dy
2 1
w
( ) y  y
)
U
+ (1
K
=
R
w w
oil
2
w
1 1
max
µ
y
Wax
A
1
K
=
R
w
oil
S
2 2
⋅
⋅ ⋅ µ
Heat transport
Scientific Background 93
where
As = content of asphaltenes in the oil (wt %)
Wax= content of wax in the oil (wt %)
K
2
= a coefficient to be estimated
The emulsification constants K
1
and K
2
were estimated to:
[kg/m
3
] (11.17)
[kg(wt%)/s] (11.18)
The coefficients K
1
and K
2
will be estimated using experimental data from
a controlled oil spill in Haltenbanken /12/.
11.6 Heat transport
Vapour pressure and viscosity are strongly temperature dependent. It is
furthermore observed that an oil slick can become considerably warmer
than the surrounding air and sea. It is therefore relevant to establish a
model for calculation of the slick temperature. Figure 11.1 shows a heat
budget for an oil slick.
K
1
5 10
7 –
⋅ =
K
2
1,2 10
5 –
⋅ =
Oil Spill Processes
94 M3&M21 PA/SA
Figure 11.1 Heat budget for an oil slick: 1 = heat transfer between air and oil, 2 =
emitted and received radiation, 3 = solar radiation,4 = evaporative
heat loss, 5 = heat transfer between oil and water, 6 = emitted and
received radiation.
11.6.1 Heat transfer between oil and air
The heat transfer between the oil slick and the atmosphere is expressed by
(11.19)
where
(11.20)
and
Sc = Schmidt's number
T
oil
= oil temperature [ Kelvin]
T
air
= air temperature [Kelvin]
ρ
a
= density of air [kg/m
3
]
C
pa
= heat capacity of air [j/kg/°C]
)
T

T
(
k A
=
H oil air
air  oil
H oil
air  oil
T

.

\

P
S
C k
=
k
r
c
0.67
air
pa
a
m
air  oil
H
ρ
Heat transport
Scientific Background 95
The Prandtl's number for air is calculated by
(11.21)
where the heat capacity of air is given by equation (11.42). If there is no
evaporation, k
H
oilair
is simply calculated by Duffie and Beckmann /6/.
(11.22)
11.6.2 Heat transfer between oil and water
The heat transfer between the oil slick and the water is expressed by:
(11.23)
where k
H
oilwater
is the heat transfer coefficient calculated by Bird et al. /2/:
(11.24)
and the heat capacity of the water is given by equation (11.44).
The Prandtl's number of water is based on the following expression e.g.
Duffie and Beckmann /6/.
(11.25)
The Re is a characteristic Reynolds number for calculating the heat trans
fer coefficient of oilwater and is defined by
(11.26)
where ν
rel
is the kinematic viscosity of the oil slick.
)
T
0.003 + 8055 0.0241(0.1
C
=
P
air
a
a p
r
ρ
k
H
oil air –
5,7 3,8U
w
+ =
( )
T

T k A
=
H oil water
water  oil
H oil
water  oil
T
Pr Re C
+ 0.332 =
k
2/3
w
0.5
w p
w
water  oil
H
ρ


.

\

273.15) 
T
( 0.000848 + 0.330
1
C
=
Pr
w
w
w w p w
ρ
ν
η
π
ν
w
oil
rel
A
4
= Re
Oil Spill Processes
96 M3&M21 PA/SA
11.6.3 Solar Radiation
The solar radiation received by the oil slick is dependent on a number of
parameters, the most important being the location of the spill, the date and
time of day, cloudiness, and the content of water, dust, and ozone in the
air.
The variation of solar radiation over a day is assumed to be sinusoidal:
(11.27)
The day starts at t
sunrise
and ends at t
sunset
t
sunrise
= time of sunrise (seconds after midnight)
t
sunset
= time of sunset (seconds after midnight)
t
sunset
can be calculated by adding the day length, T
d
, to t
sunrise
.
(11.28)
The day length is calculated by the following expression
(11.29)
where
φ = latitude (north positive)
= declination (the angular position of the sun at solar noon with
respect to the plane of the equator)
(11.30)
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦

.

\

⋅ ⋅
sin
max
otherwise 0,
t
< t <
t
,
t

t
t
 t
H K
= H(t)
sunset sunrise
sunrise sunset
sunrise
o t
π
[s]
T
+
t
=
t d
sunrise sunset
T
d
φ ς tan tan ( ) acos =
ς
ς 23,45 360
284 n +
365
 ⋅
\ .
 
sin ⋅ ≅
Heat transport
Scientific Background 97
H
0
max
is the extraterrestrial radiation at noon, calculated by Duffie and
Beckmann /6/
(11.31)
where
I
sc
= solar constant = 1.353 [W/m]
n = day number of the year
ω
s
= sunrise hour angle, solar noon being zero, and each hour equalling
15° of longitude (mornings being positive)
and
If the sky is cloudfree, K
t
≅ 0.75; otherwise K
t
will decrease with increas
ing cloudiness.
A high fraction, a (albedo), of this solar radiation reaching the ground is
reflected. The net heat input from solar radiation will thus be:
[W/m
2
] (11.32)
11.6.4 Emitted and received radiation
The oil slick will lose and receive heat due to long wavelength emitted
radiation. The amount of heat received and lost due to radiation is easily
quantified using StefanBoltzman's law. The net amount of heat received
by the oil slick is calculated from
(11.33)
where
[W/(m
2
K)]
l
air
, l
water
, l
oil
= emissivities of air, water and oil, respectively
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ζ φ ω ω ζ φ sin sin sin cos cos
365
360
cos 033 . 0 1
12
max
0
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅


.

\


.

\
 ⋅
⋅ + ⋅ ⋅
−
⋅
=
s s
sc
sunrise sunset
t
n
I
t t
K
H
K
t
H
H
0

solar radiation reaching the surface
extra terrestrial radiation
 = =
1 a – ( ) H t ( ) ⋅
( ) ]
m
[W/
T l
2 
T l
+
T l
=
H
2 4
oil oil
4
water water
4
air air
rad
total
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ σ
σ Boltzman constant 5,72 10
8
⋅ = =
Oil Spill Processes
98 M3&M21 PA/SA
T
air
, T
water
, T
oil
= temperatures of air, water and oil, respectively
11.6.5 Evaporative heat loss
Evaporative cooling will cause a heat loss of:
[W/m
2
] (11.34)
where
∆H
vi
= heat of vaporisation of component i [J/mol]
A dynamic heat balance for the slick thus gives the following:
(11.35)
where
= rate of water uptake [m
3
/s]
= amount of upwelling dispersed oil drops [m
3
/s]
C
po
= heat capacity of oil [J/kg °C]
C
pw
= heat capacity of water [J/kg °C]
11.7 Chemical and physical properties of the oil
11.7.1 Oil fractions
Oil is a mixture of hundreds of hydrocarbons, whose individual chemical
properties vary widely. The properties of the oil as a whole depend on the
H
vapor
N
i
∆H
vi
⋅
i
number of components
∑
=
( ) ( )  
( ) ( )
( )
oil oil water poil oil
oil
pw w
water
vi i oil air oa oil water ow
oil oil water water air air
p
oil
A T T C
dt
dV
C
dt
dV
H N T T h T T h
T l T l T l H a
h C
t d
T d
⋅ − ⋅ 
.

\

⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ +
∆ − − + − +
⋅ − + + ⋅ −
=
∑
ζ ζ
ζ
4 4 4
2 1
1
t d
dW
water
t d
dV
oil
Chemical and physical properties of the oil
Scientific Background 99
properties of the individual constituents. Because these constituents
weather at different rates, the slicks properties will change with time.
The properties of the oil are described by dividing the oil into eight frac
tions, defined according to their distillation properties and their chemical
structur (alkane or aromatic). Table 11.1 summarises these fractions.
The most important physical and chemical properties (average) of each
fraction are listed in Table 11.2.
Table 11.1 Oil fractions
Fraction Description Boiling range
1 C
6
C
12
(Paraffin) 69230°C
2 C
13
C
25
(Paraffin) 230405°C
3 C
6
C
12
(Cycloparaffin) 70230°C
4 C
13
C
23
(Cycloparaffin) 230405°C
5 C
6
C
11
(Aromatic) 80240°C
6 C
12
C
18
(Aromatic) 240400°C
7 C
9
C
25
(Naphtenoaromatic) 180400°C
8 Residual (incl. heterocycles) >400°C
Table 11.2 Physical and chemical properties of oil fractions. The values for
vapor pressure are taken from Yong and Wang /15/, the value t is
the temperature in °C.
Fractio
n
Mole
weight
[g/mole]
Density
[kg/m
3
]
Viscosit
y at
100°F
[cs]
Vapor pressure
[mm/Hg]
Surface
tension
[103N/m]
1 128.0 715 0.536 10
(6.94
1417.61(t+202.17))
29.9
2 268.0 775 4.066 10
(7.01
1825.05(t+149.76))
35.2
Oil Spill Processes
100 M3&M21 PA/SA
11.7.2 Viscosity
Viscosity will increase during weathering, primarily due to evaporation
and emulsification. Furthermore, viscosity is strongly dependent on the
slick's temperature. The viscosity is calculated in three steps.
First, calculate "waterfree" oil slick viscosity at T
ref
= 100°F, using the
KendallMonroe equation:
(11.36)
where
X
i
=the model fraction of fraction i.
3 124.0 825 2.000 10
(6.91
1441.79(t+204.7))
29.9
4 237.0 950 4.000 10
(6.99
1893.78(t+151.82))
35.2
5 110.5 990 0.704 10
(6.91
1407.34(t+208.48))
32.4
6 181.0 1150 6.108 10
(6.97
1801.00(t+162.77))
29.9
7 208.0 1085 3.000 10
(6.97
1789.85(t+164.56))
29.9
8 600.0 1050 458.0 0 47.2
Table 11.2 Physical and chemical properties of oil fractions. The values for
vapor pressure are taken from Yong and Wang /15/, the value t is
the temperature in °C.
Fractio
n
Mole
weight
[g/mole]
Density
[kg/m
3
]
Viscosit
y at
100°F
[cs]
Vapor pressure
[mm/Hg]
Surface
tension
[103N/m]


.

\

∑
ν ν
1/3
i i
8
=1 i
3
oil
T
X
=
REF
Chemical and physical properties of the oil
Scientific Background 101
Second, calculate the oil slick viscosity at the actual temperature e.g.
CONCAWE (1983).
(11.37)
where
T = temperature (K)
ν = is kinematic viscosity at the temperature T (Cs)
B = 3.98
Third, calculate the slick viscosity at the actual temperature and water
content, using an equation suggested by Hossain and Mackay /10/:
(11.38)
Evaporation also causes an increase in the viscosity which can be calcu
lated by
(11.39)
where
C
4
= dimensionless content in the oil [wt %]
F
e
= fraction of oil evaporated
The combined effect of emulsification and evaporation can be calculated
by the following equation, which is the sum of the two effects in differen
tial form
(11.40)
( )   ( )  
T
T
B  0.7 + = 0.7 +
ref
oil
T
oil
T
ref
log log log log log
ν ν
y 0.654  1
y 2.5
=
w
w
oil
exp η η
( )
F C
=
e 4
oil
0
oil
exp η η
dt
dy
) y y  (1
2.5
+
dt
dV
V
1
C
=
dt
d
w
w w
2
oil
e
0
oil
oil
4
oil
max
η
η
η
Oil Spill Processes
102 M3&M21 PA/SA
11.7.3 Surface tension
The surface tension of the oil is simply calculated by
(11.41)
11.7.4 Heat capacity
The heat capacity of the air, oil and water is given as the following equa
tions, respectively
(11.42)
(11.43)
and
(11.44)
All temperatures are given in Kelvin.
11.7.5 Pour point
For waterfree oil the following simple correlation is used (CMFMWOS
/3/)
(11.45)
The pour point increase for the waterinoil emulsion is calculated by
(CMFMWOS /3/)
(11.46)
T X
= T
i i
8
=1 i
∑
,
T
10
119.3

T
0.133 + 998.73 =
C
2
air
5
air a p
⋅
10
273.15) 
T
( 3.3912
+ 1684.74 =
C
3 
oil
oil
o p
ρ
10
)
T
0.00061  (4.3684 =
C
3
w w p
F K
+
P
=
P e 1 p 0 p oil p,
y
K

P
 +
P
=
P 2 p oil p oil p water  oil p
103
A P P E N D I X A
104 M3&M21 PA/SA
AppenDIX A 105
A.1 REFERENCES
/1/ AlRabeh, A.H., 1994. Estimating surface oil spill transport due to
wind in the Arabian Gulf. Ocean Engng, Vol. 21 No. 5, pp 461465.
/2/ Bird, R.B., W.E. Steward and E.N. Lightfoot, 1960. Transport Phe
nomena. Wiley and Sons, New York.
/3/ CMFMWOS, 1985. Computer Model Forecasting Movements and
Weathering of Oil Spills. Final Report for the European Economic
Community, WQI and DHI, October 1985.
/4/ CONCAWE, 1983. Characteristics of Petroleum and its Behaviour
at Sea. Report no 8/83.
/5/ Deigaard, R. and E.A. Hansen, 1994. Simulation of Turbulent Diffu
sion of Suspended Sediment by a Random Walk Model. Prog. Rep
75, Institute of Hydrodynamics and hydraulic Engineering, technial
University of Denmark.
/6/ Duffie, J.A. and W.A. Beckmann, 1974. Solar Energy Thermal
Processes. Wiley Interscience, New York.
/7/ Engelund, F.A., Fl. Bo Pedersen, 1982. Hydraulik. Den Private
Ingeniørfond, Danmarks Tekniske Højskole, pp 6869.
/8/ Fay, J.A., 1969. The spread of Oil Slick on a Calm Sea. In Oil on
the Sea.
/9/ Gardiner, C.W., 1985. Handbook of stochastic methods for Physics
Chemistry and Natural Science. SpringerVerlag, Berlin.
/10/ Hossain, K and D. Mackay, 1980. Demoussifier  a new chemical
for oil spill countermeasures. Spill Technology Newsletter, v5, n6,
pp 154156.
/11/ Hunter, J.R., 1987. The application of Lagrangian particle tracking
technique to modelling dispersant in the sea. In Numerical Model
ling: Application to Marine Systems, ed. J. Noye, NorthHolland.
/12/ IKU  Institut for kontinentalsokkelundersøgelser: “The experimen
tal Oil Spill in Haltenbanken 1982”, IKU Publication No. 112,
1984.
/13/ Kloeden, P and E. Platen, 1995. Numerical Solution of Stochastic
References
106 M3&M21 PA/SA
Differential Equations. Springer
/14/ Mackay, D, I. Bruis, R. Cascarenhus and S. Peterson, 1980. Oil
Spill Processes and Models. EPS, R&D Division, Canada.
/15/ Yong, W.E. and H. Wang, 1977. Modelling of Oil Evaporation in
aqueous environment. Water Research, Vol. 11 pp 879887.
107
I N D E X
Index
108 M3&M21 PA/SA
A
advection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
C
current motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
D
Dispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
dispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
dissolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
dissolved matter . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
E
Evaporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
F
FokkerPlanck equation . . . . . . . . 63
L
Lagrangian Discrete Parcels Method 61
Langevin equation . . . . . . . . . . . 62
light extinction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
O
Oil fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
R
Reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Resuspension . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
S
Settling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
slick temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
T
temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
V
vertical displacement . . . . . . . . . 78
Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
W
waterinoil emulsion . . . . . . . . . . 91
wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
wind friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Software development by : xxxxx Written by: xxxx
G:\fshare\MikeZero\new\source\M3\ParticleSpillAnalysis\Manual\Cover.fm 22 January 2007 5:40 am
2
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3
4 MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 PA/SA .
CONTENTS 5 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Output Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Light Attenuation . . . . .1 Starting Conditions . . . . . . . . . .3 Simulation Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. .3 Settling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Time Exposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 OIL SPILL PARAMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Air Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . 4. . . 15 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 18 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 25 25 25 25 25 26 26 3 . . . . . . . . . .3 Emulsification . . . . . . . .4 Decay . . . . . . . . . . .1 General Description . .2 Particle Tracks . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . Reference Manual 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . .4 Dissolution and Entrainment 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Selecting the Model Area 6 M3&M21 PA/SA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Eddy and Logarithmic Velocity Profile 2. . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . 2. . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Bathymetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Oil Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Sources . . . 5. . .5 Output Areas (PA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 ABOUT THIS GUIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . .6 Wind Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SEDIMENT PARAMETERS . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . 2. . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Heat Transport . . .8 Exceeding concentration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . 11 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Dispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . .5. . .10 Water Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Output Areas (SA) . 11 Dialog Overview . . . . . . . . . . .11 Line Discharge . . . . . 13 2 BASIC PARAMETERS . . . . . .2 Hydrodynamic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . 27 29 29 29 29 BASIC PARAMETERS .1 Type of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .8 5. . . . . 40 40 40 40 . . . .16. . . 41 . . . . .15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . .16 5. .13 5. 35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Horizontal position . . . . 37 . . . . Line Discharge Calculations . . . .1 General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 .2 5.2 Specifying the Wind Conditions . . . . . . 31 . . . . . 5. . . . . . . 39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . . Stratification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 5. 5. . . . . .14 5. 38 . . . . . Dispersion Coefficients . . .16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum Particle Age . . . . .1 General Description . . . .4 Recommended Dispersion Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 5. . .3 Remarks and Hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 5. . . .21. . . . . . .21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 . 5. . . . . . . . . . . 36 . . . . . . . . 36 . 36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General Description . . . . . . .1 General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Vertical position . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disk Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. .1 Small Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 . . Time Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15. . . . . . .5.4 Source flux . . . . 5. . . . . 5. .10 5. . 35 . . . . . . . . . . . . Nested Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . .16. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exceeding Concentration . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Example of a Database . . . . . Hydrodynamic Data . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Specifying the Wind Friction . .3 Remarks and Hints (CPU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 5. . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .2 Large Files . Logarithmic Velocity Profile . . . . . .5. . 32 33 33 34 . . .3 Dispersion Coefficients Within the Models 5. . . . . . . . . . . 39 . . . .15. . . 5. .12 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time Exposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21. . . . . . . . . . . .17 5. . . 42 . . . . . . . . . . 39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Bottom Roughness . . .19 5. Number of Particles . . . . . . 29 . 39 . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .1 General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 43 44 44 44 7 .21. . . 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Dispersion in an SA Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . CPU Time . . . . . . . . . . . .16. . . . . . . . Water Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flood/Dry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wind . . 40 . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .5. . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. .18 5. . . . . . . .2 Specifying the Output Area . . . . 41 . . . . . 5. .7 5. . . . . . . .5 5. . . Remarks and Hints .15 5. . . . . . . . . . . 38 . . .4 Specifying the Wind Drift Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Output Areas . .11 5. . . . . .9. . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . Eddy Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 . . . . 42 . . . . .
. . . . . . .2 Resuspension Within This Model . . .5. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . .2. . . .2 Emulsification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Lagrangian discrete parcel method . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General Description . . . . . . . . .5 Radiation . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . 9. 6. 59 ADVECTION AND DISPERSION . .21. . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Settling Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . 6. 6. . 7. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Light Attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General Description . . . . . OILSPILL PARAMETERS 7. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Weighting of current and wind . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Recommended Values . . .3 Frequency function for particle size . . . . . . . . . Scientific Background 8 9 . . .2 Advection . . . .4 Heat Transport . . . . 7. . . . .2 Langevin equation .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Vertical Dispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Shore Current Zone and Depth of Wind . .3 Evaporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MIKE 21 HD . . . .1 Current . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . .8 Viscosity .4 Resuspension . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . .6 Sedimentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Frequency function for settling velocity 6. . . . . . . . . 57 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1. 47 47 47 47 47 48 48 48 49 49 49 49 50 50 50 50 51 51 51 52 53 53 53 53 55 7 . . . . . . . . . MIKE 3 HD . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Dissolved matter . .5 Sedimentation . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 FokkerPlanck equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 AdvectionDiffusion equation 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 6 SEDIMENT PARAMETERS . . .1 1st Order Sediment Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Linear Decay . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . .2 Mud and Sand . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 61 61 62 63 65 65 65 65 67 8 M3&M21 PA/SA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .1 Air Properties . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . .3 . 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 73 74 74 74 . . . . . . . Reflection at surface and bottom . . . . . . . . . .2 Evaporation . . . . . . . . . 85 11 . OIL SPILL PROCESSES . . . 89 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . 87 . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wind drift angle .1 Oil fractions . .3 9. . . . . . . 77 77 78 78 79 80 83 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . 11. . . . . . . SA calculations . 87 . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Calculation of concentration from distribution of particles PA calculations . . . . . . . 9. .1 Heat transfer between oil and air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Light Attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. .3 Decay . . 9.5 Emulsification . . . .1 Bilinear interpolation of current field . . . . . . . Numerics . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.4 Wind . . . . . . . . . .7. . .2 Vertical dispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . Turbulent dispersion . . . . . . . . . . Wind drift vector . . 11. . . Settling contribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .order sedimentation process . . . . 98 9 .1 Spreading . . . . . . . . . .1 Settling . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . 94 95 96 97 98 . . . . . . . 67 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Heat transport . . .1 Horizontal dispersion . . . . . . .7 Chemical and physical properties of the oil . . . 10. . . . . . . . Sedimentation and resuspension . .4 Dissolution . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . .4 Emitted and received radiation . . . . . . Longitudinal and transversal dispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 98 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reflection at land points . . . . . 67 . . . . . . . . .3 Sand and mud sedimentation process Turbulent contribution . . . . Wind contribution . . . . . . .6. . . . . 77 . . . . . . . . 91 . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. 69 . . . . . . . . 91 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Evaporative heat loss . . . . . . . . .1 Dissolved matter . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . 71 10 SEDIMENT PROCESSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Solar Radiation . . . . . . . . . 70 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Heat transfer between oil and water 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Reflection . . . . 10. . . . . . .2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . .3 Vertical dispersion . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. 11. . . . . . Neutral dispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.
100 102 102 102 Appendix A A. . . . . . . . . Surface tension Heat capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . .5 Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Index . . . . . . .7. . . . . . .7. . . . . .4 11. . . . . . . . . .3 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 11. . 107 10 M3&M21 PA/SA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pour point . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Each of the chapters are divided in three sections: The first contains information common to the two modules.1 ABOUT THIS GUIDE Introduction This manual is a common manual for the Particle Analysis (PA) module and the Oil Spill Analysis module (SA). the second contains information specific to the PA module. and the third contains information specific to the SA module. 11 .Introduction 1 1.
ABOUT This Guide 12 M3&M21 PA/SA .
DIALOG OVERVIEW 13 .
14 M3&M21 PA/SA .
Dialog Overview 15 . The simulation start date is the historical date and time corresponding to time step 0.Starting Conditions 2 2. Note: The PA/SA module can be used for a nonhydrostatic model only. Specify the number of nested areas. a socalled database. Each timestep contains a characteristic flow situation.2 Hydrodynamic Data The PA/SA simulation needs information about the hydrodynamic conditions. a flow situation is pointed out by the timeseries given in the reference file.3 Simulation Period In this dialog you must give some time information. 2. as a limited number of flow patterns. These can be specified in two ways: as a full hydrodynamic field from a MIKE 21 or MIKE 3 HD simulation (varying in time and space 2D/3D) or in the very simple case as a timeseries of current speed and direction (constant in space). Lower and upper limit defines the minimum and maximum values that are allowed in the reference file. The database is given as a MIKE 21 or MIKE 3 HD file. and each time hydrodynamic information is required. Note the simulation always starts with time step number 0 The time step interval is the time that the historical time is incremented by at each time step.1 BASIC PARAMETERS Starting Conditions Choose the type of simulation you want to run: Particle Analysis (PA) or Oil Spill Analysis (SA). In the latter case also a bathymetry must be specified. 2. but only with a few timesteps. Time step range is the number of time steps the simulation should cover.
Basic Parameters 2. In an SA simulation the decaying processes are due to Heat Transport (evaporation). The user specifies Horizontal dispersion (longitudinal and transversal coefficients) Vertical dispersion If the dispersion is independent of the current. Optionally a Maximum Particle Age can be included. The released particles can be treated as conservative (not decaying) or decaying matters. timestep should be given.4 Sources Up to 64 point sources can be included in the model. Dissolution and Entrainment. 16 M3&M21 PA/SA . If the dispersion is proportional to the current the proportionality factor should be specified in each area for each direction. Increase in suspended mass is caused by Resuspension. The volume of oil in the oil slick can be increased by Emulsification. Minimum and maximum values for the dispersion coefficients are required. the dispersion coefficient itself is specified for each area. 2. For each source the following information must be given: Horizontal position Vertical position Source flux Furthermore the Number of Particles pr.5 Dispersion The dispersion coefficients can either be given independently of the current or scaled in accordance with the fluxes in the hydrodynamic field. For each direction one can choose the coefficient to be a constant value (which is allowed to be different in different areas) or spatially dependent (given as a type 2 file for each area). In a PA simulation the suspended mass can be reduced by Sedimentation and Linear Decay.
2. The values are given through a type 2 data file NOTE: The directions are given in degrees and measured clockwise from true North to where the wind is blowing from.Wind Conditions NOTE: Dispersion coefficients in a Lagrangian model are independent of the grid size and time step. The wind friction factor can be specified either as a constant or linearly interpolated between two values based upon the wind speed. 2.8 Exceeding concentration In this dialog you specify the exceeding concentration. Dialog Overview 17 . In the latter case. you should specify a bottom roughness as a constant value applied to all points in the model or as a type 2 data file. the friction is given the value corresponding to that limit. 2. and likewise.7 Eddy and Logarithmic Velocity Profile If you have included a Logarithmic Velocity Profile in your simulation. if the wind speed is below the lower limit. The roughness is specified in metres. The parabolic Eddy Profile causes an adjustment of the vertical dispersion based on a gradient approach. You have to specify a threshold value ("exceeding concentration limit") and the program calculates how often this threshold value is exceeded.6 Wind Conditions The stressgenerated drag on the surface due to wind can be included in one of the following three ways: as a constant value in time and space as constant in space but varying in time. if the wind speed is above the maximum. The values are given through a type 0 data file varying in both time and space. a logarithmic velocity profile must be included. NOTE: If cohesive or noncohesive sediment is included.
Basic Parameters The threshold value should be given in units kg/m3 (concentration) for a PA simulation and mm (oil slick thickness) for a SA simulation The program calculates the exceedance frequency between 0 and 100%. and the results can be saved in the output area file. NOTE: Inclusion of exceeding concentration does not affect the particle paths .11 Line Discharge The line transport facility is used to calculate the transport of the substance across a userspecified line in the model area. The following restrictions apply: PA on MIKE 21 HD: only constants PA on MIKE 3 HD: constants and type 3 files SA on MIKE 21 HD: constants and type 0 files SA on MIKE 3 HD: constants and type 0 files 2.10 Water Properties The water temperature and salinity should be specified. The line coordinates are given in grid points with respect to the reference area. Both temperature and salinity can be specified as constants or varying fields (independently of each other).it is a postprocessing of the concentration field.9 Time Exposition The time exposing facility is useful to record when released particles reach the shore zones of the bathymetry. 2. 18 M3&M21 PA/SA . 2. Remember to include "exceeding concentration" as an "Output Item" in the "Output Areas" dialog.
Line Discharge The line orientation is defined positive clockwise with first line point as the origin.1. see Figure 5. You must specify the number of lines (max 3) and then specify the position of the lines. NOTE: The generated output file contains all discharge lines Dialog Overview 19 . Lines are not allowed to cross other areas than the reference area. Both the instant and the accumulated transport are calculated.
Basic Parameters 20 M3&M21 PA/SA .
In the latter case the relative density and the kinematic viscosity of water should be specified.it is a postprocessing of the concentration field. 3.Type of Particles 3 3. You have to specify both the light extinction and the background dampening. NOTE: Inclusion of light attenuation does not affect the particle paths .2 Light Attenuation In this dialog you specify the light attenuation. Dialog Overview 21 .3 Settling For each source the settling properties can be specified either as a constant settling velocity or a varying distribution. For a varying settling distribution two types of input can be used: Frequency function for settling velocity Frequency function for particle size In both cases a type 0 file containing measured settling velocities/grain sizes and corresponding frequencies must be given for each source. At least one of the items "instantaneous light attenuation" or "averaged light attenuation" should be specified in the "Output Areas" dialog.1 SEDIMENT PARAMETERS Type of Particles The sediment module (PA) can be run in the following modes: Dissolved matter 1st Order Sediment Process Mud and Sand 3.
specify first and last grid point to be saved followed by the frequency. The layer might be as deep as the deepest point or just a thin layer. As the result files tend to become very large. Remember to specify the "Associated Area" (number of the nested grid from which the output should be generated). The thickness of the bottom layer is given in meters in the variable “above”. exceedance frequencies. The concentration in a layer adjacent to the bottom is obtained by specifiying “bottom layer” instead of “vertical range”. 3. For information the size of the output is calculated Subareas and subsets must usually be selected. Default frequency is 1 (storing data at every grid point). Maximum 8 output areas can be specified. Under Xrange and Yrange.5 3. Under Trange. etc. The concentration of suspended sediment is averaged over the thickness of a specified layer. it is usually not possible to save the computed concentrations in all grid points to all time steps. The decay period “T90” is the time in which the substance is reduced to 10% of its original mass. 3 to 1/3 ∆x and so on. 22 M3&M21 PA/SA .5. The layer is specified under “vertical selection” as a “vertical range”. specify first and last time step to be saved.order decay of the particles can be included. “From” and “to” are measured in meters below the surface. A better resolution of the particle cloud can be obtained by specifying negative frequencies in the horizontal directions (2 corresponds to 1/2 ∆x. The minimum mass is a threshold value that removes particles with a mass below the given limit from the simulation. where ∆x is the grid spacing in the hydrodynamic file).4 Decay A 1. followed by the frequency.1 Output Areas (PA) Output Areas The output consists of type 2 files with maps of concentrations.Sediment Parameters 3.
5. The particle track file is named automatically particle_track_#.xyz and placed in the same folder as the *.2 Particle Tracks It is also possible to include output for particle tracks.1 Particle tracks including vertical position in Oresund . Figure 3.npa file.1. Denmark Dialog Overview 23 . coordinates for positions of a specific particle at each PA timestep of the simulation while the particle is in the domain. A particle track output file contains Long./Lat.Output Areas (PA) 3. see Figure 3.
Sediment Parameters 24 M3&M21 PA/SA .
3 Emulsification If emulsification is included. the volume of oil being evaporated from the slick is calculated. If entrainment (Vertical Dispersion) of oil into the water column is activated the oilinwater interfacial tension must be specified [dyne/cm].2 Heat Transport If heat balance is included. 4. The cloudiness takes values between 0 and 1 and can be specified as either a constant or a type 0 file. The default value of the mass transfer coefficient is 2. the heat exchange airtooil and oiltowater is taken into account. This value should only be changed under very special circumstances. The initial temperature of the oil must be specified on the Oil Properties dialog. the oil volume leaving the slick due to dissolution in the water column is calculated. the volume of the oil can increase by an enormous amount due to water uptake.36E6. Dialog Overview 25 . . 4. 4.Air Properties 4 4.4 Dissolution and Entrainment If dissolution is included.1 OIL SPILL PARAMETERS Air Properties The air temperature can be specified as a constant or a type 0 file. If evaporation is included.
Remember to specify "Associated Area" (number of the nested grid from which the output should be generated). For information the size of the output is calculated. where ∆x is the grid spacing in the hydrodynamic file) .5 Oil Properties The oil properties consist of eight oil fractions.. Subareas and subsets must usually be selected. specify first and last grid point to be saved followed by the frequency. exceedance frequencies. specify first and last time step to be saved. 26 M3&M21 PA/SA . Under Trange. followed by the frequency. As the result files tend to become very large it is usually not possible to save the computed concentrations in all grid points to all time steps. If heat balance is included in the Heat Transport dialog. 4. the program prompts you for an oil temperature that can be specified as a constant value or as a type 0 file. a reference temperature should be specified due to the density and the kinematic viscosity of the oil.Oil Spill Parameters 4. Additionally. etc.6 Output Areas (SA) The output consists of type 2 files with maps of oil slick thickness. A better resolution of the particle cloud can be obtained by specifying negative frequencies in the horizontal directions (2 corresponds to 1/2 ∆x. Under Xrange and Yrange. Default frequency is 1 (storing data at every grid point). 3 to 1/3 ∆x and so on. given as volume fractions (percentage). see SA output items Maximum 8 output areas can be specified.
REFERENCE MANUAL
27
28
M3&M21 PA/SA
Bathymetry
5
5.1
5.1.1
BASIC PARAMETERS
Bathymetry
General Description Providing MIKE 21 or MIKE 3 with a suitable model bathymetry is essential for obtaining reliable results from your model. Setting up the bathymetry requires more than just specifying an array of accurate water depths covering the area of interest. It also includes the appropriate selection of the area to be modelled and the grid spacing. This nested version of MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 PA/SA can work with up to nine bathymetries (model areas) of different spatial resolutions. The bathymetries can be nested into each other with more than one model area at each level (spatial resolution). A number of rules must be obeyed when preparing the hydrodynamic model setup to obtain compatibility between a subarea (fine grid) and its enclosing area (coarse grid). The rules are described in the respective addenda to the MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 HD User Guide and Reference Manual (Nested Hydrodynamic Module – Operation Guide). Selecting the Model Area In deciding on the area to be included in your model you must consider the area of interest, and the position and types of the hydrodynamic model boundaries to be used. The advantages of applying the nested grid facility in the PA/SA modules compared to using only one grid is mainly that the model will only loose mass when the particles pass the outer coarse grid boundary. In many cases involving tides, the size of the model area has to be increased because the particle cloud is advected by the tide and can return if the model area is large enough. If the particle cloud passes the model boundary it will be lost. To obtain a satisfactory spatial resolution of the model within the area of interest, a single computational grid will often result in a very large number of water points (and often within areas of only limited interest for the application), and it will accordingly require much CPU time. Applying the nesting facility, the spatial resolution can be optimised to save computer time and disk space. Furthermore, the number of particles leaving the outer coarse grid boundaries during tidal simulations can be reduced.
5.1.2
5.2
Bottom Roughness
See Logarithmic Velocity Profile, p. 37.
Reference Manual
29
4. It will only take up approximately 25 Kbytes the log file. which is placed in your working directory contains information about: the model setup statistics of files used and generated a message for each completed time step 30 M3&M21 PA/SA .4 5. and on the general computational speed of your computer.1 Disk Space Small Files The disk space required for your simulation mainly depends on the amount of results you request to save. on which features you have specified for the simulation.Basic Parameters 5. This file will be placed in your present working directory and have a file extension of npa. 5. of components) * ½ / BCS Where BCS (basic computational speed) is the number of computational particle displacements that your computer processes in one CPU second. the CPU time increases approximately linearly If you wish to calculate the CPU time required by a simulation (in real CPU seconds. on the number of sources included.3 CPU Time The CPU time required by a MIKE 21 or a MIKE 3 PA/SA simulation depends on the number of particles in your model. the following formula can be used: (Number of steps)2 ∗ Number of particles/time step * (No. the CPU time varies linearly with the number of particles in the model the CPU time varies quadratically with the number of time steps assuming that the particles are released continuously and are not leaving the model area adding one more component to be calculated. are created: the specification file containing the simulation specifications. not elapsed seconds). in addition to the data files containing the results. During a simulation only two other files. on the number of time steps in your simulation.
4.] – Averaged light attenuation at the seabed [ . the following formula can be used. Nevertheless. The result is in bytes: 4 ( (number of items selected)∗ ( (NlastNfirst)/Nfrequency+1) + 1 )* (JlastJfirst+1)*(KlastKfirst+1)+1052 where N denotes time steps.] – Time exposition [seconds] – U and V current velocity components [m/s] SA output items – Instantaneous oil slick thickness [mm] – Averaged oil slick thickness [mm] Reference Manual 31 . The items selected can be some of the following output possibilities.Disk Space 5. The number 1052 is only exact for files written in the old ctx/dtx format.2 Large Files The amount of data generated by a simulation can be very large. If you wish to calculate the disk space required for a single output data file. the number might vary slightly from 1052. very large files will often be generated.] – Instantaneous total cohesive erosion [kg/m2] Instantaneous total cohesive deposition [kg/m2] Instantaneous net cohesive sedimentation [kg/m2] – Accumulated total cohesive erosion [kg/m2] Accumulated total cohesive deposition [kg/m2] Accumulated net cohesive sedimentation [kg/m2] – Exceeding concentrations [ . The result files will be placed according to the path you specify in the Output Areas dialog. you should only save as much data as is needed for your further work. depending on which simulation you wish to run: PA output items – Instantaneous concentration of suspended material in different layers [kg/m3] – Averaged concentration of suspended material in different layers [kg/m3] – Instantaneous light attenuation at the seabed [ . J denotes points in the xdirection and K points in the ydirection. Therefore. For files written in the dfs format.
To take these effects into account.5. The need to express conservation laws by means of mathematical methods imposes the treatment of fluid motions as part of continuum mechanics.3 Remarks and Hints (CPU) Averaged output is established by averaging the simulation results during the time frequency specified for saving the output file(s).Basic Parameters – Instantaneous oil components (up to eight) [mm] – Averaged oil components (up to eight) [mm] – Instantaneous Emulsification rate [percentage] – Averaged Emulsification rate [percentage] – Instant oil evaporation [mm] – Averaged oil evaporation [mm] – Instant oil dissolution [mm] – Averaged oil dissolution [mm] – Instant vertical dispersion [mm] – Averaged vertical dispersion [mm] – Exceeding concentrations [ .] – Time exposition [seconds] – U and V current velocity components [m/s] 5.1 Dispersion Coefficients General Description The flow fields calculated with MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 HD used for advection of the particles in MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 PA/SA are calculated in a grid of a certain extent in time and space. however. Physical flow processes. 32 M3&M21 PA/SA . an artificial dispersion is applied. barotropic and baroclinic residual flows. and this implies the use of spatial scales (grids) much larger than the intermolecular spacing associated with molecular agitation processes. occur simultaneously at different spatial and temporal scales with a continuous spectrum ranging from molecular agitation to tidal.4.5 5. 5. Please note that MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 PA/SA do not check whether or not you have enough free disk space for your requested output files.
or spreading coefficient.5. MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 PA/SA are Lagrangian models. particularly shortly after the spillage. in the longitudinal and transversal directions in the horizontal plan Do A dispersion coefficient to account for the dispersion caused by temperature and density difference driven turbulence Reference Manual 33 . a characterisation by wax content (and pour point) seems feasible. Dt Two dispersion coefficients to account for the nonresolved differences in current speed and direction. The dominant physicochemical parameters of the crude oil that determine spreading are thus (besides the pour point) the density and the dispersion coefficients.2 Dispersion in an SA Simulation A prerequisite for spreading of a particular crude oil or refined product after spillage into the marine environment is that its pour point must be lower than the ambient seawater temperature.3 Dispersion Coefficients Within the Models MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 PA/SA involve the use of 3 horizontal dispersion coefficients and two vertical dispersion coefficients in case of a 3D calculation. continuous layer in a circular pattern as a result of gravity and net surface tension. it should be kept in mind that the transport by dispersion is a mathematical artifact arising from the spatial averaging rather than a physical process. Horizontal dispersion Dl.5. Thus. High wax content crude oils or refined products are characterised by a high pour point and these materials will easily solidify either directly or shortly after spillage at sea. 5. instead each particle is transported and the exact position is updated at every time step. is the difference between the air/water surface tension and the sum of the air/oil surface tension and the oil/water interfacial tension. 5. many oils tend to spread on water surface at about the same rate even though they may possess different viscosities.Dispersion Coefficients Thus. the dispersion descriptions within the MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 PA/SA models must only account for the simplifications made in the hydrodynamic models. As a first attempt to classify different crude oils with respect to their expected behaviour at sea. The net surface tension. Although viscosity does have some effect on the rate of spreading. Many oils put on the surface of calm water spread in the form of a thin. which means that they do not run in a specified grid.
The optimum method is to obtain the coefficients from a calibration process. Dw is in every time step calculated as a function of the wind speed and the depth of wind influence.42) 34 M3&M21 PA/SA . 5. The dispersion coefficients can be preliminarily estimated by using Dl = K l ∆x2 ∆t (5. and Kl is a coefficient having the range of 0. ∆x is the grid size.2) where κ Von Karman´s constant (0.6 Eddy Profile It is possible to adjust the vertical dispersion according to a prescribed parabolic profile. In a PA simulation the vertical dispersion is controlling the amount of particles passing the bed shear zone and is an important calibration parameter. 5.003 to 0.1) where Dl is the longitudinal dispersion coefficient.5.075 based on previous modelling studies. The eddy viscosity varies parabolically over the vertical: z v t ( z ) = κ u f 1 − ⋅ z D (5. Measurements are very seldom available for calibration of transport processes. and therefore.Basic Parameters Vertical dispersion Dv A dispersion coefficient to account for the nonresolved differences in current speed and direction. empirical estimates are adopted. Dw A dispersion coefficient for the description of the stirring due to wind shear stress. Except for Dw the dispersion coefficients are either described as constants in time and space or constants in time and varying in space. These processes have very long response times (weeks or months). where simulated and measured concentration fields are compared.4 Recommended Dispersion Values Selecting dispersion coefficients is very difficult. ∆t is the time step.
3) The formulation is based on the publication: Simulation of turbulent diffusion of suspended sediment by a random walk model. Reference Manual 35 . the Flood/Dry facility will automatically be setup in the MIKE 21 or MIKE 3 PA/SA simulation. Dec. 1994. 5. DTU. This threshold value should be given in units kg/m3 (concentration) for a PA simulation mm (oil slick thickness) for a SA simulation The program calculates the exceedance frequency between 0 and 100%. If a particle reaches shallow waters. the particle position will be unaffected until the water depth (tide) at this location reaches above this threshold value. and the results can be saved in the output area file.7 Exceeding Concentration If you want to include the exceeding concentration option.Exceeding Concentration uf Bottom friction velocity D Water depth z Vertical position in the water column The settling velocity of the particles is adjusted by: dvt 2z = κ u f 1 − dz D (5.8 Flood/Dry If you run the MIKE 21 or MIKE 3 PA/SA module using a hydrodynamic file where Flood/Dry has been included. 5. you enter the Exceeding Concentration dialog and specify the concentration limit. with a water depth below a certain threshold value specified in the hydrodynamic file. For a PA simulation you should be aware of the fact that the concentration field in dry points will be based on the threshold water depths. published by Rolf Deigaard and Erik Asp Hansen.
as a limited number of flow patterns. The database is given as a MIKE 21 or MIKE 3 HD file.1 Hydrodynamic Data General Description The PA/SA simulation needs information about the hydrodynamic conditions.9. 12:00. a flow situation is pointed out by the timeseries given in the reference file. 06:00. 5. a socalled database.2 Example of a Database Establishment of a database is not an easy task as a onetoone correspondeance between the surface current speed in a point and the flow pattern in the entire domain should be defined.10 Line Discharge Calculations The line transport facility is used to calculate the transport of the substance across a userspecified line in the model area. and each time hydrodynamic information is required. Hints: Other timeseries than one of current speed can be used as reference file. At each time step both the instantaneous and the accumulated transport from time zero is calculated. The fields in the database must be sorted in ascending order.Basic Parameters 5. When the simulation runs each value in the reference file is matched by a flow field which is interpolated linearly between the two “surrounding” flow fields. 5. but only with a few timesteps. Lower and upper limit defines the minimum and maximum values that are allowed in the reference file. “southerly current” and “almost no current” 3 flow fields are sufficient. corresponding to 5m/s.9. 0m/s and +5m/s. From a measurement gauge surface current speed for a position in the computational domain is available. 18:00) and a reference file that points out the time of the day. If the characteristic situations are “northerly current”. These can be specified in two ways: as a full hydrodynamic field from a MIKE 21 or MIKE 3 HD simulation (varying in time and space 2D/3D) or in the very simple case as a timeseries of current speed and direction (constant in space). To an example a flow field that repeats itself can be constructed by using a database file containing a flow field for every 6th hour (00:00.9 5. The surface current speed typically belongs to the interval 5m/s to 5m/s. Each timestep contains a characteristic flow situation. 36 M3&M21 PA/SA . In the latter case also a bathymetry must be specified.
11 Logarithmic Velocity Profile If you have included a logarithmic velocity profile in your simulation. Reference Manual 37 . The roughness is specified in metres.Logarithmic Velocity Profile The cross sections is specified in grid coordinates (floating values) and the discharge will be taken as positive clockwise across the section. and it is allowed that the cross section may cross land areas.1 Orientation of discharge line You can make up to 3 discharge calculations. The output is saved in a type 0 file. you should specify a bottom roughness.1. 5. The bottom roughness can be constant in all model points or vary in space (given as a type 2 file). see Figure 5. Figure 5.
each output area must be related to an associated model area See also Bathymetry. 5.14 Number of Particles In the Sources dialog it is possible to specify the number of particles released per time step. Particles reaching the specified age (counted from the time of release. If you specify a short simulation period or a large time step.Basic Parameters 5. then each released particle will have the mass 1 m3/s/timestep. where only the rate of sedimentation is to be considered. under long sedimentation calculations. Note that the source flux in PA has units kg/s and in SA m3/s. 5. The wind is internally interpolated to the subareas sources can be specified in all model areas.g. whereas the actual value can be different in the respective areas spatial varying wind is only specified for the main area. not from the start of the simulation) are simply taken out of the simulation. but should be specified in the model area of the finest resolution which covers the actual geographical position of the source in the output specifications. If you specify that 5 particles are released at each time step and constant source flux of 5 m3/s. it is sometimes a good idea to release a number of particles at each time step. 38 M3&M21 PA/SA . This option can be useful e.12 Maximum Particle Age A maximum particle age can be given (in seconds). thereby making the concentration fields more "smooth". You can specify either a constant or a timevarying source mass.13 Nested Grid The following rules should be observed when running a nested PA/SA simulation the advective current should be specified for each area bed resistance should be specified for each area (constant or 2D map) the type of Eddy viscosity formulation will be common for all areas. not the amount of sedimented material.
15. for example. you could specify the area of interest only. Therefore it is necessary to store the basic results from the simulations. Specify the name of the output file (including the path). Reference Manual 39 .1 Output Areas General Description Computers are not yet so powerful that a simulation can be run each time a plot of. the grid spacing in your output file will be a quarter of what is specified in the hydrodynamic file. On the other hand. etc. the concentration field is needed. you can follow the progress of your simulation by following the number of time steps written in your . Specifying the Output Area In the Output Areas dialog you specify how many output data files you wish to have produced from the simulation. The averaged output results. You can specify the contents of each data file under "Output Items".15. are based on calculations from a period equal to the time frequency for the output data files.3 Remarks and Hints If you run the model in foreground mode. you specify the range of time steps to be saved and whether every time step should be included or only every second. Give a short description of the content under "title" Specify the area to be included in the data file. the amount of output produced by a single simulation is often so large that it is necessary to limit the amount of output saved.15. You therefore have the option of saving up to 8 selected parts of the output. the progress of your simulation is shown on the screen. Finally. 5. third. for example. You can specify a Nested Grid Output area by selecting a negative frequency in both horizontal directions and in that way get a better resolution of your particles. If. but if you are only interested in a part of the model area and you have finished the calibration.log file.Output Areas 5. which you can select in the Output Areas dialog (under Output Items). By default the whole area is chosen. you specify the grid frequency to 4.15 5.2 5. If the model is run in background mode (windows icon).
Basic Parameters 5. In an SA simulation the source is automatically placed at the surface. whereas the source fluxes (amount of particles/amount of oil) are specified in the particle input part.16. etc.16.16 5. Horizontal position The horizontal position must be specified for each source. The source positions and discharges are specified in the hydrodynamic input part.2 5. A timestep in the source flux file that is less than the simulation timestep is not allowed. either as a constant value a type 0 file The source depth is given in metres and is counted positive from the surface.1 Sources General Description The effects of rivers and outlets from power stations.4 Source flux The mass flux from each source can be given as a constant value a type 0 file In SA the mass flux should be given in [ m 3 /s ] and in PA in [ kg/s ] . If the source flux is given as a type 0 file. 5. The position should be given in grid points (floating point values) and it can either be given as constant values a type 0 file containing the x and y coordinates of the source. can be included in a simulation. In the latter case MIKE21/3 SA/PA automatically interpolates linearly.16. 40 M3&M21 PA/SA .16. 5. the timestep in this timeseries should be equal to or greater than the simulation timestep.3 Vertical position For a PA simulation also the source depth must be specified. These sources have to be included in both the hydrodynamic and the PA/SA modules. Furthermore the reference area for the source should be specified. The x and y coordinate must be given as two separate items.
Stratification An instantaneous release can be achieved by defining a source flux file with timestep equal to the simulation timestep and zero value at all places except for the start time of the simulation. 5. as described under Bathymetry. The results will be presented as isolines with the unit seconds. 5. which is equal to the maximum allowable particle displacement 2 Secondly you determine the maximum current speed Umax in the computational domain. This information can be interpreted as how long time a particle uses for being advected and dispersed from the source point to a certain location. Reference Manual 41 . the model will create a map with information about how fast the particle cloud is moving.19 Time Step Selecting the Time Step As a rule of thumb a particle should not move more than one grid cell in each timestep. In most cases Umax is assessed after inspecting the flow field. 3 From the definition of the Peclet number the maximum timestep can now be calculated: ∆t max ≤ ∆x/U max . The time step for your simulation is selected as follows: 1 First you determine the grid spacing. otherwise the numerical integration of the stochastic differential equation that controls the particle motion becomes unstable. ∆x . If a particle displacement in fact exceeds one grid cell MIKE 21&3 PA/SA divides the displacement in halves until a displacement below one grid cell is obtained. 5.17 Stratification See Water Properties. In nested simulations ∆t max must be calculated for all areas and the smallest one chosen for the PA/SA simulation.18 Time Exposition By including Time Exposition.
it depends on the bathymetry and stratification of the water column. The surface current velocity due to the wind is calculated as Vs = CwW (5. otherwise constant values for salinity and temperature must be given.21 5. Notice that the direction of the wind is given in degrees blowing from relative to true North. The wind friction coefficient is different from what is specified in MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 HD.21.2. progresses in depth. and furthermore. 42 M3&M21 PA/SA . see Figure 5. the water temperature itself is a parameter that influences the properties of the oil.20 Water Properties The density of the water is calculated from salinity and temperature . energy is transferred to the water through the shear stress. The depth of influence of the wind is defined as the depth where 90% of the wind induced energy is used for the above mentioned processes. 5.4) where Cw is the wind friction coefficient and W is the wind velocity in m/s 10 m above the sea surface. where the shear stress is active. The energy is used for stirring/mixing the water and accelerating the water in the direction of the wind.Basic Parameters 5. If 3D fields of salinity and/or temperature are available these can be used in sedimentation simulations. The depth depends on the wind speed and direction history since the profile is a result of the wind action over time.1 Wind General Description When wind is acting on the surface of water. In an oil spill simulation (SA). In SA the temperature and salinity can be specified as constants or timeseries. In a sedimentation calculation (PA) the particles are affected by the density of the water. The wind shear stress results in acceleration of the upper thin surface layer. and gradually the zone.
The time step of the wind input data file does not. have to be the same as the time step of the PA/SA simulation.21.2 Definition of wind direction 5. however.the wind speed and wind direction must be given as two separate items in the data file.2 Specifying the Wind Conditions The wind conditions can be specified in three ways: 1 As a wind which is blowing from the same direction and with the same magnitude over the whole model area for the entire simulation period 2 As a wind where the magnitude and direction varies during the simulation period. 3 As a wind where the magnitude and direction varies during the simulation period and over the model area Reference Manual 43 . The only requirement is that the wind data arespecified for the complete simulation period In both cases it is not necessary to specify a start up period during which the wind speed is increased. A cubic interpolation will be applied if the time steps differ.Wind Figure 5. but is the same over the entire model area – you have to prepare a data file (type 0) containing the wind speed and direction before you set up the PA/SA simulation.
Normally a wind friction coefficient of 0. (These programs are found in the MIKE 21 Toolbox). However. The only requirements are that the wind map matches the bathymetry map and that the wind data covers the complete simulation period 5. respectively.21. smaller coefficients can be used. It turns to the right on the Northern Hemisphere and to the left on the Southern Hemisphere.Basic Parameters – you have to prepare a data file (type 2) containing the wind speed components and air pressure before you set up the oil spill simulation. Consequently. or wind generated on the bases of digitised pressure fields. The angle of deviation is termed the wind drift angle.4 Specifying the Wind Drift Angle Due to the influence from the Coriolis force. the two next ones should be the wind speed in the xdirection and ydirection. The first item should be the pressure in HPa. the possibility of varying the friction coefficient linearly as a function of the wind speed is included. Or you can enter the data directly into a type 2 file using the grid editor. – the wind speed and pressure must be given as three separate items in the data file. This can be done by either using one of the two MIKE 21 wind generating programs: cyclone generated wind and pressure. otherwise the wind drift angle is constant in time and is given in degrees. For weak winds. while in the HD the coefficient corresponds to the momentum of the fluid and in the PA/SA the coefficient corresponds to the surface speed of the fluid. 44 M3&M21 PA/SA . however. If you specify a varying wind speed.21. you might also need to specify a varying friction coefficient. the direction of the wind drift vector is turned relative to the wind direction. the time step of the wind input data file does not have to be the same as the time step of PA/SA simulation – a linear interpolation will be applied if the time steps differ.3 Specifying the Wind Friction The wind friction coefficient you specify in MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 PA/SA is not comparable to what you can specify in MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 HD. The magnitude of the wind drift angle varies in time if the wind friction is time varying. 5. Remarks and Hints You can use the wind friction factor as a parameter in you model calibration.02 will give good results for moderate and strong winds in the open sea.
21. Thus “Depth of Wind” should always be greater than or equal to “Shore Current Zone”. The onshore expression calculates a correction over the entire depth. Reference Manual 45 . the offshore expression corrects only the current down to “Depth of Wind”. Onshore formulation at all depths can be obtained by setting “Shore Current Zone” to a value that exceeds the largest depth. Setting “Shore Current Zone” to zero gives offshore formulation all over.5 Shore Current Zone and Depth of Wind The “Shore Current Zone” is the depth at which the calculation of the wind influence on the current changes from the onshore formulation to the offshore formulation.Wind 5.
Basic Parameters 46 M3&M21 PA/SA .
The background dampening from clear water depends on the water depth and a dampening coefficient. This option can be used for calculation of spreading of e. The default light attenuation coefficient includes both the background dampening of clear water and the light attenuation caused by sediments in suspension. which means that they follow the flow without being settled. 1991.g.1 Light Attenuation General Description In clear water the light intensity is reduced exponentially from the water surface down through the water column. It is. bacteria.2 6.Dissolved matter 6 6. Shading calculations using this value have been verified against measurements of eelgrass growth in the Great Belt. The light attenuation can be calculated both as an instantaneous value and as an averaged value. where the averaging one is referring to the time frequency of saving output. The light attenuation caused by sediments in suspension depends on the water depth. where it can be combined with a Linear Decay. Denmark.2.2. Reference Manual 47 .2 Recommended Values The default light attenuation coefficient is based on analyses of measurements performed in the Great Belt.1 SEDIMENT PARAMETERS Dissolved matter If dissolved matter is chosen in the Type of Particles dialog the particles are neutrally buoyant. Sediments in suspension result in an additional dampening of the light caused by shading from the sediment particles. however. 6. the concentration of suspended sediments and a light attenuation coefficient describing the shading per mass. 6. made possible that you can specify a separate background dampening coefficient.
4) The decay period must be specified by the user. 6. This mass may change during the calculation if a decay process is defined.Sediment Parameters 6.2) The decay period T90 is defined as M = 0.1 Resuspension General Description Deposited material resuspends when the shear stress at the sea bed exceeds a critical limit. The decay law yields after integration M (t ) = M o ⋅ exp (− k ⋅ t ) (6.4. the degree of consolidation and the physicochemical interactions between the particles (cohesive/noncohesive). A first order decay is considered so that dM =−k ⋅M dt (6.4 6. When the mass of a certain particle becomes less than a user specified minimum mass. The amount of material resuspended depends on the grain size of the material.1) M being the particle mass and k [s1] the decay factor.3 Linear Decay Decay as a result of chemical or biological processes is described in the following way: Every particle has attached a certain mass of the total released substance.1 Mo (6. the particle is taken out of the simulation. 48 M3&M21 PA/SA .3) which brings k= ln (10 ) T90 (6.
2 Resuspension Within This Model Resuspension is presently not available for the 1st order depth averaged sediment description. The particles are advected with the local velocity profile. and the settling of sediment takes place with a constant or randomly generated settling velocity.2 Reference Manual 49 .5. and the particles settle with a constant or randomly generated settling velocity.045 for sand and 0.5. Typical values for the critical shields' parameter for motion is 0. The velocity profiles can be superimposed with a wind induced current profile if wind is applied to the model. The critical shear stress is a function of the critical shields' parameter and depends on the material in question. The particles are deposited when they reach the bottom. The velocity profile can be superimposed with a windinduced current profile if wind is applied to the model. The particles can be advected by a threedimensional velocity field or by logarithmic velocity profiles established from the depthintegrated velocities specified in the Hydrodynamic Data dialog. Mud and Sand The sediment is released at a specified depth. When the mass falls below a specified minimum value. 6.5 6.Sedimentation 6. NOTE: The sediment output will be zero at the first time step for saving output. which can be constant or logarithmic in the vertical.2 for clay.4. Both the cohesive/noncohesive sediment calculations include resuspension. 6.1 Sedimentation 1st Order Sediment Process The sediment is regarded as fully mixed over the depth. the remaining mass of the particle is deposited. The resuspension of sedimented material is determined by the relationship between the critical shear stress and the actual shear stress at the seabed. This simulation type gives you the possibility of calculating the concentration of suspended material at different depths. thereby reducing the remaining mass of each particle in suspension.
6.6 6.6.1 Settling Velocity General Description There are two ways of including settling velocities in a particle simulation. where each “timestep” is a set of settling velocity [m/s] and observed frequency. where each “timestep” is a set of particle size [mm] and observed frequency relative density of sediment and a kinematic viscosity of water The model calculates the frequency function for settling velocity by using Stokes law. The easiest way is to specify a constant settling velocity for each source specified.3 Frequency function for particle size The model expects the following input: A type 0 file with two items. A more advanced method is to include a particle size distribution or a particle settling velocity distribution based on laboratory measurements of the material released. A settling velocity chosen at random from this distribution is assigned to each particle when it is released. Frequency function for settling velocity The model expects the following input: A type 0 file with two items.Sediment Parameters 6. 50 M3&M21 PA/SA .2 6.6. A settling velocity chosen at random from this distribution is assigned to each particle when it is released.6.
evaporation of components from an emulsion will also be diminished. and colour changes occurring ranging through browns. The time series has to cover the specified simulation period and the model will make the necessary interpolation to get specific values at each time step during the simulation. its density approaching that of the surrounding water. it can be stated that the mixing energy through wave action is an important requirement and that emulsions are less likely to be formed in calm conditions. how stable the emulsion is Furthermore.2 Emulsification Emulsification of crude oils and/or refined products involves the dispersion of water droplets into the oil medium. To estimate the significance of emulsification for a particular oil type under given environmental conditions. Therefore. it is necessary to know the following: first. Reference Manual 51 . However. oranges and reds. 7.1 OILSPILL PARAMETERS Air Properties The air properties consist of the air temperature and the cloudiness. As the percentage of water increases (up to a maximum of 7585%). The mechanism by which water incorporates droplets into a slick is poorly understood. and are important in the calculation of the properties in the waterinoil emulsion. information about the emulsified oil is required. how fast the emulsion is formed and how much water is taken up. the process of emulsification can only be discussed in a qualitative way. which also can be specified as constant in time or as time varying (type 0). These properties of the resulting emulsions make cleanup operations more difficult. Furthermore. These environmental data influence the weathering of oil. its effective volume increasing by a factor of up to 5. The cloudiness is applied to correct the heat input from the sun on a clear day to the actual conditions.Air Properties 7 7. whether an oil has the potential to form an emulsion secondly. and finally. the resulting emulsion undergoes a dramatic increase in viscosity.
g. the oil temperature. properties and conditions that favour vertical dispersion are expected also to be favourable for emulsification. most crude oils will have lost approximately 2530% of their lighter components and although the loss continues. Pour point may also be affected. In theory. 7. During the first 24 hours after spillage.OilSpill Parameters The rate at which water is taken up in the slick is greatly influenced by the type of oil (Lynch) and the environmental conditions. In practice. determining whether or not the oil remains a fluid or becomes a waxy solid or semisolid. The effect of evaporation on the physical properties of the resulting residual has a major influence on the type of response required for cleanup of the oil. then leads to a slow but progressive loss of the middle boiling range components. The effect of evaporation is to increase the density of the remaining oil and to increase its viscosity. the higher boiling components also have a vapour pressure and should eventually evaporate. 52 M3&M21 PA/SA . Subsequent "weathering". the oil thickness and area. However. For cleanup purposes. as crude oil spreads out on the sea surface a large surface area is exposed and the initial rapid loss of the volatile components occurs. information on the viscosity of an emulsion is necessary.3 Evaporation The evaporation processes are included in the MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 SA models. The rate of evaporation of the lighter components is influenced by the percentage of lighter components in the crude oil itself. but increasing viscosity and pour point of the remaining oil lead to a complex process of emulsification and solidification. and the physical forces of wind (and wave) energy. The associated increase in the density and viscosity takes up to about one week to simulate with the SA model. by wind action and thermal radiation from the sun. It has already been shown how the pour point influences the fluid/solid properties of the oil and the method of recovery. which reduces the surface area of the slick and hence the rate of evaporation. e. the rapid evaporation process can be assumed to have ended. The main loss occurs during the first 2 or 3 hours and the process then slows down with the increasing proportion of the higher boiling components remaining in the residue.
floating oil can come into contact with heavy mineral particles.g.5 Radiation It is possible to take the solar radiation into account when calculating the oil slick temperature. accommodation. dispersion.Heat Transport 7. and even if they form stable waterinoil emulsions. The model calculates the variations in the solar radiation with respect to the geographical position. 7.4 Heat Transport Five input parameters are used in the heat balance calculation for the oil. In these instances solid particles may be incorporated into the bulk of the oil or may become coated with a layer of oil. Nevertheless. The evaporation constant is proportional to the amount of evaporated oil. 7. water and air are constant values in time and space and are applied for the calculation of the heat balance for the oil slick. and is a calibration parameter. and sedimentation. 7. the resultant mixture becomes negatively buoyant and sinks. Remarks and Hints The above mentioned processes are not described in the Spill Analysis module of MIKE 21 and MIKE 3. In both circumstances.6 Sedimentation General Description Only relatively few crude oils weather to produce residues that are denser than seawater and sink. The Albedo Value describes the fraction of the solar radiation. The majority of crude oils yield weathered oils lighter than seawater. silt. The oil is therefore carried to the seabed and incorporated in bottom sediments where the degradation processes are very slow. especially in coastal areas. the resultant material is positively buoyant. etc. oil and air have to be specified. which not at all take the buoyant effects into account. Reference Manual 53 . This parameter is primarily depending on the colour of the oil. the time of the day and which season of the year. e.7 Vertical Dispersion Transport into the water column can be accomplished by a number of mechanisms: dissolution. sand. which is reflected.. The emissivity constants related to the water. The emissivity of the oil.
oilinwater emulsions are not stable. which determine the rate of dispersion at sea to be 05% oil lost per day depending on the sea state. These emulsions can be stabilised by surfaceactive agents coating the oilwater interface and thus preventing the oil from coalescing. In harsh weather. which will be incorporated into the water column. The importance of dispersion for a particular spill of crude oil under certain weather conditions. and differences in dispersion behaviour of different crude oils. There are fairly reasonable "best estimates" derived from observations of historical spills (Blaikley et al.OilSpill Parameters Dispersion and accommodation are by far the most important mechanism during the first week of weathering. Vertical dispersion reduces the volume of the slick at the surface and reduces evaporative loss. forming an oilinwater emulsion.). The default value is 20 [dyne/cm] 54 M3&M21 PA/SA . again forming a slick. while in calm weather. The fraction of sea surface dispersed in the water column per unit time is calculated as a lost fraction of sea surface. Vertical dispersion of crude and/or refined products after spillage at sea is the process of forming small droplets of oil. the rate of vertical dispersion largely determines the lifetime of an oil spill. which leads to a reduction in droplet size. In general. but it does not lead to changes in the physicochemical properties of the spilled material in the way that evaporation does. Besides evaporation. More detailed information on vertical dispersion can be obtained from the comprehensive review compiled by (Raj et al. and the mathematical description of it is still in an early phase of development (Mackay). Water turbulence tears off globules of oil and entrains them. Dispersion is a mechanical process. Vertical dispersion is still a very poorly understood process. This formation of colloids is called accommodation. can only be evaluated in a qualitative way. the dominant dispersion mechanism is probably wave breaking. and the oil droplets tend to coalesce and return to the surface. under nonwave breaking conditions.). for example. Vertical emulsifiers and/or suspended solids can stabilise them by reducing interfacial tension. The input parameter is named oilinwater interfacial tension. the most significant mechanism is probably the stretching compression of the slick leading to droplet separation.
g. Reference Manual 55 . The oil viscosity in the MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 SA is specified in Cs at a certain reference temperature measured in degrees Celsius. Although only a rough estimate of the viscosity of the remaining oil is obtained it may be useful in deciding on the cleanup technique to be applied.8 Viscosity If the viscosity of the original crude oil. e.Viscosity 7. determined at only one temperature. it is possible to estimate the viscosity of the weathering oil at various temperatures as a function of the time after spillage. whether or not dispersants should be used. is all that is available.
OilSpill Parameters 56 M3&M21 PA/SA .
SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND 57 .
58 M3&M21 PA/SA .
either constant or specified as a distribution of velocities or grain sizes. Futhermore a linear decay can be employed. The particles move due to the advective current and due to turbulent fluctuations. entrainment into the water column and dissolution. Both models calculate concentration fields of the pollutant by tallying the number of particles in each grid cell. SA: Weathering of the oil: emulsification (water uptake). Scientific Background 59 . The mass (PA) or the volume (SA) of the particle cloud can change due to PA: Sedimentation/resuspension. vapour pressure. The properties of the released particles are described by PA: Settling velocity. pour point etc. SA: The ratio between eight oil fractions that are charachterized by density. The advective velocities are (usually) obtained from a hydrodynamic simulation (MIKE 21 HD or MIKE 3 HD).8 INTRODUCTION The present Scientific Documentation aims at giving an indepth description of the equations and numerical formulation used in the Particle Analysis module (PA) and the Spill Analysis module (SA) of MIKE 21 & MIKE 3. evaporation. Also nonbuoyant particles can be simulated. Both modules are based on the random walk technique where an ensemble of particles is followed instead of solving the Eulerian advectiondiffusion equation. whereas the turbulent contributions are controlled by the dispersion coefficients.
Introduction 60 M3&M21 PA/SA .
u(x. 9.y.t) are the x and y components of the depthintegrated velocities.1) where c(x.y.1 Lagrangian discrete parcel method Typically in models using Lagrangian Discrete Parcels Method the pollutant is represented by a large ensemble of small parcels. and Dxx(x.1. Dyy(x. The pollutant is divided into discrete parcels and sets of spatial coordinates are assigned to each parcel.t) is the depthaveraged concentration.t) are dispersion coefficients which represent all of the mechanisms that Scientific Background 61 . h(x.y.and spaceaveraged equation: ∂(c h) ∂(u c h) ∂(v c h) + + = ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂ ∂c ∂c ∂ ∂c ∂c [h D xx + h D xy ] + [h D yx + h D yy ] ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂y (9. which statistically approximates the random and/or chaotic nature of timeaveraged tidal mixing. Then the density distribution of the ensemble can be interpreted as the concentration of the pollutant.y.y. their discrete path and mass are followed and recorded as function of time relative to the reference grid system fixed in space. Dxy(x. The movement of each parcel is affected by the physicochemical processes.y. It is assumed that these parcels advect with the surrounding water body and diffuse as a result of random processes.y. 9. The Lagrangian discrete parcel scheme calculates the displacement of each particle as the sum of an advective deterministic component and an independent.t). Once the parcels are released in the water body.Lagrangian discrete parcel method 9 ADVECTION AND DISPERSION The advectiondiffusion model is designed to simulate the surface and subsurface transport of pollutants.t).t) is the depth (mean sea level).t) and Dyx(x. twodimensional depthintegrated mass transport models are commonly employed. An analysis of the transport of a conservative substance with no sources can be based on the following time.1 AdvectionDiffusion equation In a vertically mixed environment.t) and v(x.y. random Markovian component.
The angle between the local flow direction and the x axis is given as v ( x ( t ). which governs particle transport in a random walk model.2) 2 2 D yy = D L sin ( θ ) + DT cos ( θ ) D xy = ( D L . when averaged over sufficiently long time and space scales.1) to the FokkerPlanck equation. B(x.t) is a known tensor that characterises the random forces. t ) θ = atan . respectively. t ) and the appropriate coordinate transformation is: 2 2 D xx = D L cos ( θ ) + DT sin ( θ ) (9.Advection and Dispersion cause mixing at scales smaller than those over which the equation is averaged.2 Langevin equation The following analysis shows briefly how to equate equation (2.1. 9.t) is a known vector representing the deterministic forces that act to change x(t). Their role are very important in depthintegrated modelling. t ) + B ( x. to the local advective velocity vector. u ( x ( t ).4) where A(x.3) in which DL and DT are the estimated dispersion coefficients parallel and perpendicular. 62 M3&M21 PA/SA .DT ) sin( θ ) cos( θ ) (9. where DL incorporates not only the pure longitudinal turbulent diffusion but also the effect due to the interaction between the vertical shear of horizontal velocities and vertical turbulent diffusion. becomes effectively random. and ξ ( t ) is a vector composed of random numbers that represent the random/or chaotic nature of tidal mixing which. The position x(t) of each particle in a random walk model is described by the nonlinear Langevin equation (Gardiner /9/): dx = A ( x. t )ξ ( t ) dt (9.
t0) is the conditional probability density function for x(t) .6) is equivalent to the FokkerPlanck equation 2 ∂f ∂ ∂ 1 B B f + (A f) = ∂ t ∂ xi i ∂ x i x j 2 ik jk (9.tx0. or three independent random numbers depending on the dimensionality of the problem from a distribution with zero mean and unit variance. t n – 1 ) ∆tZ n (9. The simplest discretization of equation (9.7) where f(x. two. t )dt + B ( x ( t ).5) is the explicit Euler scheme for stochastic differential equations.6) where Zn is a vector of one. /13/).4) becomes equivalent to the stochastic differential equation dx = A ( x ( t ). t )dW ( t ) (9.3 FokkerPlanck equation In the limit when the number of particles is infinite and the time step is infinitely small. According to Gardiner /9/ the mean value of dW(t) is zero and the mean square is proportional to dt. This scheme is of order ∆t (Kloeden and Platen. Scientific Background 63 .Lagrangian discrete parcel method Equation (2.1. ∆x n = x n – x n – 1 = A ( x n – 1. t n – 1 )∆t + B ( x n – 1. equation (9. 9.5) where dW(t) is the random Wiener process.
the random walk analogue to equation (9. i.1) and the FokkerPlanck equation (9.1) becomes ∂h ∂ ∆x = ( D xx + D xx + u) ∆t + 2 D xx ∆t Z n h ∂x ∂x (9. (9.9) and f =ch (9. u.11) and (9.7) are equivalent if Dxx ∂h + ∂ Dxx + Dxy ∂h + ∂ Dxy + u h ∂x h ∂y ∂x ∂y A= Dyy ∂h + ∂ Dyy + Dyx ∂h + ∂ Dyx + v h ∂y h ∂x ∂y ∂x D xx B BT = D yx D xy D yy . The choice of the random component is discussed in sec.Advection and Dispersion The partial differential equation (9.11) ∆y = ( D yy ∂h ∂ D yy + + v) ∆t + 2 D yy ∆t Z n ∂y h ∂y (9. the coordinate system is aligned the principal axes of dispersion.12) Looking at equations (9.3. (2) the gradient of the dispersion coefficient and (3) a term due to the gradient of the water depth.e. 9. 64 M3&M21 PA/SA .10) In the special case where Dxy = Dyx = 0. In case of a constant dispersion coefficient the contribution from (2) is zero.12) we see that the deterministic or 'advective' velocity of a parcel in a given direction consists of three components: (1) the true advective velocity.8) 1 2 (9..
y and z directions respectively. In MIKE 3 HD the wind shear layer is resolved. MIKE 21 PA/SA includes the possibility of parameterizing the wind shear. but a time series of measurements can also be employed. v ( x. y. z. y. MIKE 21 HD A current field from MIKE 21 HD is depth integrated. This means that the timestep must be chosen such that a particle at most moves at most one grid cell during one timestep. but the simulation can also be run with the homogeneous profile (rarely used as there is no reason for not using the extra information that the logarithmic profile gives). and w are the velocities in the x. y.Advection The time step must be compatible with the grid size to make sure that the simulation is accurate. x. and z are the Cartesian coordinates. which can be obtained from a two. z. From the depth integrated velocities a logarithmic velocity profile can be established. v.2. t ). which is explained is section 9. z. t ). w ( x.3. 9. which means that the vertical velocities are inherently assumed to be zero and the values of the horizontal velocities are averaged over the depth U a = [ u a ( x.or threedimensional hydrodynamic model for tidal and winddriven currents in the region of interest.2 Advection The combined effects of current and wind drag cause the advection of the particles. y. and t is time. the wind shear layer is not resolved in the depth integrated field. t ). y. t ) ] (9.13) where u.2. y. Scientific Background 65 . 9. thus the wind contribution should not be added from the PA/SA simulation. v a ( x.14) Even if the MIKE 21 HD simulation includes wind. t ) ] (9.1 Current A significant factor in the transport of the pollutant is the current field. MIKE 3 HD If the the current field is obtained from a MIKE 3 HD simulation it reads U = [ u ( x.
(9.42) = water depth [m] = Nikuradse roughness [m] h kn U f = friction velocity [m/s] The friction velocity is given by V mean ⋅ κ U f =  h ln .16) The expression in eq.15) V(z)= the logarithmic current profile κ = von Kármán's constant (0. – 1 k n /30 where and the other variables are defined as above.ln . V mean = mean current velocity [m/s] = ua + va 2 2 (9.17) 66 M3&M21 PA/SA . (9.15) equals zero when kn z = h – 30 Below this depth the advective velocities are asumed to be zero. k n /30 κ where z = vertical coordinate measured from sea surface [m] (9.Advection and Dispersion Logarithmic profile The logarithmic profile is defined as: Uf h–z V ( z ) = .
2 Weighting of current and wind The total drift velocity can be determined by a weighting formula: U tot = c w ( z )U w + c a ( z )U a in which U w = wind velocity vector usually at 10 m above the water surface U a = depth integrated current velocity vector (9. Uw. The onshore formulation is employed in shallow waters with a water depth less than a specified depth. This factor cw* is termed with the wind drift factor and the common value varies from 3 to 4 percent by AlRabeh /1/. hsep. The wind contribution is divided into an offshore contribution and an onshore contribution.2.Advection Figure 9. Scientific Background 67 .2. which is a positive value measured from the free water surface (with unit [m]).3 Wind Wind drift vector The magnitude of the wind drift vector is commonly assumed to be proportional to the magnitude of the wind speed 10 m above the sea surface. The on= advective water current factor.1 Logarithmic current profile and wind induced current profile 9.18) cw = wind drift factor ca 9.
The offshore expression acts only down to the (user) specified depth of wind influence. If hsep = 0 the offshore expression applies all over.Advection and Dispersion shore expression acts over the entire depth. Figure 9.2 shows the principle. on deeper water the offshore expression takes over. The onshore expression acts on shallow depths. The depth of wind influence (hw) should always be greater than (or equal to) the depth that separates the onshore and offshore formulations (hsep). The offshore formulation takes over when the water depth exceeds hsep.2 The wind influence on the advective current. otherwise a particle can move from a wind influenced position to a position with no wind influence by moving horizontally. Offshore formulation The vertical distribution of the offshore wind drift vector is given by c w ( z ) = c w∗ exp ( – k 0 z ) where k0 0 ≤ z ≤ hw (9.19) = 3/hw [m1] 68 M3&M21 PA/SA . Figure 9. If hsep is greater than the maximum depth the onshore expression applies at all depths. hw.
21) = vertical particle coordinate. measured from sea surface c w∗ = wind drift factor (input) The parabolic profile causes the windgenerated flow in the upper third of the water column to be in the same direction as the current and the flow in the lower part to be in the opposite direction of the wind. The vertical distribution of the parabolic onshore profile is given by z z c w ( z ) = c w∗ 1 – 3  1 –  h h where h z = local water depth in meter 0≤z≤h (9. It turns to the right on the northern hemi Scientific Background 69 . The angle θw of deviation is termed the wind drift angle. where the offshore logarithmic profile does not. the current profile is adjusted such as to have zero net flow.Advection h w = depth of wind influence [m] (input) z = vertical coordinate measured from sea surface c w∗ = wind drift factor [] (input) In order not to create an additional mass flux caused by wind shear stress. There is no net depth averaged mass transport due to the wind. The contribution can be expressed as: c w (z ) = − 1 hw ∫ hw 0 cw (z ) dz + c w (z ) (9.20) Onshore formulation The onshore distribution is based on a parabolic vertical profile and is able to produce back flow at depth. Wind drift angle Due to the influence from the Coriolis force. the direction of the wind drift vector is turned relatively to the wind direction.
the diffusion step size S is generated randomly by S = [R ] − r r −r ≤ S ≤r (9. 9. For any individual element. T = 2 ⋅ D T ⋅ ∆t p (9. Diffusion occurs in the horizontal and vertical directions. it is assumed that α  3 = β exp U w θw gγ w where α β = 0. From AlRabeh (1994) /1/.24) 70 M3&M21 PA/SA .3 9.3⋅108 = 28°38' (9. An average element travels in time ∆tp: S rms.T is the rootmeansquare distance for both the longitudinal and transversal direction respectively and DL and DT are the horizontal diffusion coefficients.22) γw = kinematic viscosity of sea water [kg m1 s1] g = acceleration due to gravity [m s2] The magnitude of the wind drift angle varies with the geographical location and wind speed and it is often estimated as 1215 degrees in the North Sea decreasing to 0 at the equator.23) where Srms. L = 2 ⋅ D L ⋅ ∆t p S rms.L and Srms.Advection and Dispersion sphere and to the left on the southern hemisphere.1 Turbulent dispersion Horizontal dispersion Longitudinal and transversal dispersion The pollutant elements diffuse in the medium.3.
4 9.3. 9. see section 11. Vertical dispersion is also an issue in oil spill calculations.3. This topic is dealt with in section 10. Since the random number varies from –r to r and 1 2 1 ½ ∫ S dS = 3 −1 then the distance that any element travels by diffusion is ½ (9.4. The value of r is chosen so that Srms must be equal to the mean square of all values of S. 9.26) S ox 1 = [R ] −1 S oy 6 ⋅ Do ⋅ ∆t p (9.2 Vertical dispersion The vertical dispersion plays an important role in sediment calculations. As the particles in a Lagrangian discrete parcels model most of the time will be situated at offgrid points a good interpolation procedure is needed.25) S L = [ R ] –1 6 ⋅ D L ⋅ ∆t p Neutral dispersion The neutral dispersion is given by 1 S T = [ R ] – 1 6 ⋅ D T ⋅ ∆t p 1 (9. In these current files the velocities are stored a the gridpoints with a given time frequency.Numerics r where [ R ] –r is the random number in the interval –r to r. but in MIKE 21&3 SA it is treated as en entrainment process.3.1.1 Numerics Bilinear interpolation of current field The current motion is in most cases obtained from a MIKE 21 or a MIKE 3 HD output.27) where Do is the neutral dispersion coefficient. Scientific Background 71 . where it is a dominating factor for the vertical transport of the sediment.
A similar procedure is applied in 3D.2 Reflection Reflection at surface and bottom This issue is only relevant in PA calculations. F3 and F4 are known grid point values and x .4.28) where F1. see Figure 9. Figure 9.y are dimensionless distances.3.28) F = F1 + ( F2 – F1 ) ⋅ y + ( F4 – F1 ) ⋅ x + ( F 1 – F2 + F3 – F4 ) ⋅ x ⋅ y (9. where the particles remain on the surface) 72 M3&M21 PA/SA . where particles are moving in the vertical (as opposed to SA calculation. In time a linear interpolation is adopted. The twodimensional version of the bilinear interpolation scheme is shown in equation (9.Advection and Dispersion In order to interpolate the velocities in space the bilinear interpolation is chosen.3 Bilinear interpolation (2D case) 9. F2.
31) Particles in a “mud simulation” are sedimented too.30) Particles in a “sand” simulation are sedimented.order sedimentation” simulation are perfectly reflected z i = 2h – z i (9. as it more easily is “caught” by the advection.Numerics If a particle during a timestep moves across upper boundary (zi<0) it is reflected by the following rule: zi = –zi (9. When they are eroded they are given a vertical position corresponding to the depth where the logarithmic profile equals zero.32) This makes it easy for a sand particle to “escape” from the bottom.29) If a particle moves below the lower boundary (zi>h) the reflection depends on which type of particle the simulation is run with (dissolved. The main property of this algorithm is that the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection and that no (kinetic) energy is lost at the impact.4. whereas a mud particle tends to stay sedimented. The principle is sketched in Figure 9. z i = h – ( k n ⁄ 30 ) (9. sand or mud). 1. Scientific Background 73 .order sedimentation. Reflection at land points If a particle encounters land it is reflected by the perfect reflection algorithm. Particles in a “dissolved” or “1. When they reenter the calculation they are placed at the bottom zi = h (9.
ynew.Advection and Dispersion (xold. which turns out to be on land. is measured in [mm]. The thickness of the slick is calculated at the end of a timestep by tallying particles in the 74 M3&M21 PA/SA . The particle is then reflected to the position (xnew.ynew). This gives a depth averaged concentration.in this case only particles in the specified depth are counted and the averaging is over the layer depth. In the model a land boundary will always be parallel to either xgridlines or ygridlines. The sketch shows a coastline which is parallel to the xgridlines.ref. thus the number of particles in each grid cell can easily be found. It is possible to consider only a layer (as opposed to the entire water column) .ynew) Figure 9.ref) ybound 0 (xnew.ref) x new.ref = 2y bound – y new 9. the oil slick thickness.yold) (xnew.3 Calculation of concentration from distribution of particles (9. SA calculations The SA module only tracks particles at the surface.4.ynew.ref. The horizontal position of a particle defines which grid cell it “belongs to”. The concentration is obtained by dividing the total mass of the particles in a grid cell by the volume of the water in the grid cell.4 Principle of “perfect reflection”.33b) PA calculations The concentration of suspended sediment in a PA calculation is calculated at the end of a timestep.33a) (9.ref = x new y new. and the “concentration” of oil . At the end of a timestep the particle is found at the position (xnew.
Numerics grid cells and then for each grid cell dividing the total volume of the particles present in the cell by the area of the cell. Scientific Background 75 .
Advection and Dispersion 76 M3&M21 PA/SA .
order sedimentation process The 1.1) amount of sediments at time.Settling 10 SEDIMENT PROCESSES The vertical transport of a particle is a result of a sedimentation component and dispersion components.g. The suspended amount of material at time step i is given as: 10. The sedimentation is calculated on the basis of a settling velocity. As the velocity is uniform all over the depth the sedimentation criterion described in the next section cannot be used.e. 1. k =  V h where Vset = settling velocity for the individual particle [m/s] h = water depth [m] Scientific Background 77 .1. the particles are nonbuoyant and follow the flow without settling.1 Settling Dissolved matter In the simplest case the particles act as “dissolved matter”.1 10.2 S i = S io exp (− k ⋅ ∆t p ) where Si0 = suspended (10.order sedimentation process is designed for a PA simulation which is run on a depthintegrated velocity field (e.1. assuming that the sediment is fully mixed over the vertical. i. using the settling velocity divided by the depth as “decay parameter”. where the logarithmic velocity profile is not activated. 10. i [kg] ∆tp = time step [s] k set = process constant. If the particles reach the bottom they are reflected instead of being settled. from MIKE 21 HD). The amount of sedimentation at a given time and place is calculated from a first order process.
4).4) 78 M3&M21 PA/SA . = dispersion caused by wind acting on the surface.2) Vset = settling velocity of the individual particle [m/s] w = vertical current velocity produced by MIKE 3 HD [m/s] ∆tp = time step [s] If a sand or mud simulation is run on a 2D current field (from a MIKE 21 HD simulation) the vertical current velocity is zero.e. i [m] (10. the settling velocity of the particle and vertical dispersion. ∆Dw is only active over a part of the depth due to the specified 'depth of wind influence' from the wind. Turbulent contribution The vertical transport of the element.3 Sand and mud sedimentation process In the vertical direction the substance changes position as a result of the advective velocity. is S v = [R ] −1 1 6 ⋅ Dv ⋅ ∆ t p (10. see equation (10. The dispersion ∆Dz consists of 2 contributions: ∆Dz = ∆Dv + ∆Dw where ∆Dv ∆Dw (10.Sediment Processes 10. w=0. The vertical displacement can be expressed as: new position = old position + settling + dispersion zi = z i – 1 + ( w + V set )∆t p + ∆D z where zi = vertical coordinate at time. i.1.3) = vertical dispersion caused by turbulence. Sv.
/5/. i. This replaces the constant dispersion coefficient Dv applied in nonsediment calculations.e the vertical dispersion coefficient varies over the depth. The following approach is described by Deigaard and Hansen.5) = specific gravity of sediment grain = gravity [m/s2] dp = particle size [m] γw = kinematic viscosity of water [m2/s] Eddy profile In sedimentation calculations the diffusion model is violated by introducing the setttling velocity Vset.4) covers the transport of the element upward and downward where the random number varies from –1 to 1. If the distribution of particle size is given the program calculates the corresponding settling velocities using Stokes' law /7/ 2 (S − 1)g d p Vset = where S g 18γ w (10.1. The form in equation (10. Settling contribution If only an average settling velocity is known this can be assigned to all particles (“constant settling velocity”). Figure 10.Settling where Dv is the vertical dispersion coefficient. If more detailed information is available a distribution of the settling velocity can be specified as pairs of velocity and frequency (“varying settling distribution”). In the following the turbulent dispersion coefficient Dv is taken to equal the eddy viscosity ν t .6) Scientific Background 79 . Then for each particle the program generates a random settling velocity based on the specified distribution. ν t (z ) = κU f z (1 − z / h ) where (10. A parabolic eddyviscosity distribution is applied in accordance with the assumed logarithmic velocity profile.
7) This correction ensures zero net transport of suspended sediment. Vset.a V set.42 Uf = friction velocity h z = water depth = vertical coordinate.1 Theoretical eddy viscosity profile This variation of the vertical dispersion coeffeicient gives rise to an artificial contribution to the settling velocity. a = – ∂ν t ∂z (10. Wind contribution The velocity distribution due to wind shear stresses on the free surface is considered to be given by v (z ) = Vs ⋅ exp (− K ⋅ z ) where (10.8) 80 M3&M21 PA/SA .Sediment Processes κ = von Karman's constant = 0. (0 at the surface) Figure 10.
considering the velocity distribution presented above. positive downwards (0 at the surface) [m] = velocity profile coefficient [m1] Vs = surface current velocity due to the wind [m/s] Figure 10. user specified ρ v = water density [kg/m3] = eddy viscosity [m2/s] (10.2 Velocity profile due to a wind field.Settling z K = vertical coordinate.9) hence. it can be shown that v (z ) = τ w ⋅ (1 − z / hw ) ⋅ exp (K ⋅ z ) / (K ⋅ Vs ⋅ ρ ) where hw = depth of wind influence [m].10) Scientific Background 81 . Vertical dispersion The wind shear stress distribution is approximated in the following way τ (z ) = ρ ⋅ v ⋅ dV / dz = − τ w ⋅ (1 − z / hw ) (10.
yielding (10.447 ⋅ 10 ⋅ h w ⋅ U w hw 0 Finally. at z = hw.13) 1. ∆Dw can be expressed: (10.15) 82 M3&M21 PA/SA .05 V s which implies that K = 3/hw Hence zν ( z ) = C w ⋅ U w ⋅ exp – 3  h w and noting that (10. the depthintegration can be performed.14) ∆D w = 6 ⋅ D w ⋅ ∆t p [m ] (10.∫ ν ( t ) dt = 7.12) z z 1 ν ( z ) = U w ⋅ C w ⋅ 1 –  ⋅ exp 3 .Sediment Processes τw = shear stresses at the free surface [N/m2] The current velocity at the surface due to the wind is by default considered to be Cw = 2% of the wind speed Uw measured 10 m above datum. ⋅  h w 2400 h w where Cw = wind friction coefficient. The velocity distribution is then fixed by choosing at the surface. v ( 0 ) = Vs = Cw ⋅ W v ( h w ) = 0.11) τ w ⁄ ρ = C w ⋅ U w ⋅ ρ air ⁄ ρ water = C w ⋅ U w ⁄ 800 we get 2 2 (10. Finally.hw –4 D w = .
provided the bottom shear stress is less than the critical shear stress for the bed material in question.Settling Sedimentation and resuspension The 3D module for sediment calculations includes descriptions of resuspension for both noncohesive and cohesive materials. i. sedimented particles will remain on the bed. Resuspension At higher shear stresses the possible turbulent suspension becomes larger than the downward settling of the sediment and sediment may thus be brought entirely into suspension. particles are seen to jump along the bed. PLEASE NOTE: The vertical dispersion is affecting the vertical transport of particles and thereby the amount of particles in the bed shear layer for consolidation of particles. The following sections give a brief overview of the 3D sediment specific description. For noncohesive sediment. Correspondingly. high instantaneous concentrations can be found in the bottom layer. Sedimentation Particles falling below the level where the local current velocity falls to zero (z0=kn/30 above the bed) are assumed to be in a bed shear layer.: U f < θ c (S − 1) gd where Uf = friction velocity [m/s] θc = critical Shield's parameter S g d = relative sediment density [kg/kg] = acceleration due to gravity [m/s2] = particle fall diameter [m] (10. The rate of resuspension is proportional Scientific Background 83 .e.16) For a bottom shear stress slightly above the critical shear stress at the erosion threshold.
I b = I s ⋅ exp (− K b ⋅ h ) ⋅ exp (− a ⋅ c ⋅ h ) where Ib Is = light intensity at the bottom = light intensity at the surface (10.17) 10. The limit at which resuspension can occur is given by: 6ν bed ∆t p > Vset ⋅ ∆t p where νbed =eddy viscosity at the apparent bed [m2/s] Vset = particle settling velocity [m/s] ∆tp = model time step [s] (10.Sediment Processes to the square root of the friction velocity.2 Light Attenuation The light extinction at the seabed caused by sediments in suspension is described by LambertBeers law.18) Kb = background dampening for clear water [m1] h a c = water depth = light extinction coefficient [m2/kg] = concentration of suspended sediment 84 M3&M21 PA/SA .
3 Decay To every particle a mass of the substance in question is attached.= 0. First order decay is included: dM = – kM dt where M = mass [kg] k = decay factor [s1] (10.20) The decay time T90 is defined as the time where 90% of the mass is lost M ( T 90 ) .22) Scientific Background 85 .Decay 10.1 M0 from which the decay constant is calculated (10.21) ln ( 10 ) k = – T 90 (10. The mass may change during the calculation if a decay is defined.19) After integration the decay law yields: M (t ) = M o exp (− k ⋅ t ) (10.
Sediment Processes 86 M3&M21 PA/SA .
With these assumptions the change of slick area. only dispersion will move the oil elements away from the centre of mass. Fay /8/ has developed the well known and commonly used three phase spreading theory. Random motions induced by waves. However. in which surface tension (spreading) is in equilibrium with viscous forces. This assumption is. with time can be expressed by V oil dAoil = K a A1/3 oil dt Aoil where: Ka = constant [s1] 4/3 (11. Mackay et al. The slick is assumed to spread out as a thin. No loss of mass from the slick is assumed. The sum of retardation and spreading forces will determine the spreading rate. wind and tidal currents translocate the elements of the slick relative to each other and to the centre of mass of the slick. When the slick is decomposed to slicklets with stable surface areas.Spreading 11 11. /14/ developed a modified gravityviscous formulation of Fays theory for area growth based on the following assumptions: The oil can be regarded as a homogeneous mass. of course. The second mechanism is dispersion. The first is spreading induced primarily by the oil properties (differences in the density of the oil and seawater. real oil slicks often have irregular shapes and often break up into streaks. Two different mechanisms cause this. in which only gravity (spreading) and inertia (retardation) are important. in which gravity and viscous (retardation) forces dominate. and (3) a final phase. (2) an intermediate phase.1) Scientific Background 87 . not applicable to real oil slicks. continuous layer in a circular pattern. The three phases are (1) the primary phase.1 OIL SPILL PROCESSES Spreading Oil discharged on a water surface will immediately start to increase its surface area. surface tension). where both evaporation and dispersion are important. Aoil.
This is in general a reasonable assumption of temperature above 0°C and oil slick thickness below 510 cm. The following assumptions are made: No diffusion limitation exists within the oil film.Oil Spill Processes t = time [s] Aoil = πRoil2 [m2] The oil slick volume is: 2 Voil = Roil π ⋅ hs (11. and slick thickness.2) The initial oil slick thickness is estimated to be hs =10 cm at t=0 (11. is negligible. wind speed.2 Evaporation Evaporation from an oil spill is influenced by the composition of the oil. compared to the vapour pressure. Various attempts have been made to quantify the evaporation rates. With these assumptions the rate of evaporation can be expressed as: N i = k ei ⋅ Pi e SAT / RT ⋅ M i ⋅ X i [ m3 / m2 s ] ρi (11.4) where Ne = the evaporation rate 88 M3&M21 PA/SA . air and sea temperatures. solar radiation.3) It is well known that after certain time oil spilled on the sea ceases to spread until the Pour Point of the individual oil particles exceeds the local sea water temperature. 11. spill area. The partial pressure of the components in the air. The oil forms an ideal mixture.
Dispersion is a mechanical process. Water turbulence tears off globules of oil and entrains them. and sedimentation.3 Vertical dispersion Transport into the water column can be accomplished by a number of mechanisms: dissolution. accommodation. These emulsions can be stabilised by surface active agents coating the oilwater interface and thus preventing the oil from coalescing.78 0.5) where k = a constant (to be estimated) Aoil = the slick area [m2] Sci = vapour Schmidts number for component i Uw = wind speed [m/s] 11. In hard weather the dominant dispersion mechanism is probably wave breaking.045 k ei = k ⋅ Aoil ⋅ Sci ⋅ U w [m/s] (11.Vertical dispersion ke = the mass transport coefficient PSAT= the vapour pressure R = the gas constant T = the temperature M = the molecular weight X = the mole fraction ρ =the density of oil fraction i = refers to the properties of component i The estimate of kei is based on Mackay et al. dispersion. Dispersion and accommodation are by far the most important mechanism during the first week of weathering. This formation of colloids is called accommodation. forming an oilinwater emulsion. /14/ and is defined as 2/3 0. while in calm weather the most signifi Scientific Background 89 .
leading to droplet separation.11 (1 + U w )2 3600 (11. and is calculated by D = Da Db (11. under nonwave breaking conditions.8) where µoil = oil viscosity [cP] hs = oil slick thickness [cm] γow = oilwater interfacial tension [dyne cm1] The rate of upwelling of dispersed oil droplets is calculated by d V oil = D a (1 . expressed by Da = where 0.9) 90 M3&M21 PA/SA .D b ) dt (11.7) Uw = wind speed and Db = 1 1 + 50 µ oil h s γ ow (11.6) where Da is the fraction of the sea surface dispersed per second and Db is the fraction of the dispersed oil not returning to the oil slick.Oil Spill Processes cant mechanism is probably the stretching compression of the slick. The fraction of sea surface dispersed in the water column per unit time is calculated as a lost fraction of sea surface.
turning the oil into a very viscous mixture. The ease of formation and the stability are very dependent on the oil type and environmental conditions.2 for aromatics 1.36 ⋅ 10 6 ei where (11.8 for oilfines (11. the stability of the emulsion is closely related to the amount of surfactants present in the oil and the rate of water uptake is closely Scientific Background 91 . the rate of dissotution is expressed by dV dsi = Ks i C isat X mol i M i Aoil dt ρi where (11.Dissolution 11.12) 11.4 for alkanes e i = 2.10) Cisat = solubility of fraction i [mg/kg water] X mol = molar fraction of fraction i M = molar weight of fraction i [kg/mol] ρ = density of fraction i [kg/m3] 2 Aoil = oil slick area [m ] The mass transfer coefficient for dissolution is calculated by K Si = 2.4 Dissolution Assuming that the actual concentration of hydrocarbons is negligible compared to the solubility. For instance. Such an emulsion can contain up to 80% water.5 Emulsification One of the most important processes leading to the persistence of the oil at the sea surface is the formation of a waterinoil emulsion (dispersed water droplets in the oil).11) 1.
Oil + water → Waterinoil emulsion ← (11. A mathematical description of this process including all relevant parameters is not yet available. It increases with increasing temperature and wind speed.14) R1 is thus the rate of wateruptake.yw ) (11. This is taken into consideration by expressing R1 as R1 = K 1 where (1+U w )2 µ oil (y max w .16) 92 M3&M21 PA/SA . This is expressed by: R2 = K 2 1 ⋅ yw AS ⋅ Wax ⋅ µ oil (11. It decreases with increasing content of asphaltenes. Existing emulsification models are rather empirical by nature.13) The change in water content with time dy w can then be expressed by: dt dy w = R1 .Oil Spill Processes related to sea state. A reasonable model describing emulsification can be obtained by regarding the reaction as an equilibrium reaction.R 2 dt (11. wax and surfactants in the oil and with increasing oil viscosity.15) Uw = the wind speed µoil = the oil viscosity ywmax= the maximum water content (input) yw = the actual water content K1 = a coefficient to be estimated (input) R2 is the rate of water release.
11. It is therefore relevant to establish a model for calculation of the slick temperature.1 shows a heat budget for an oil slick.17) (11.2 ⋅ 10 [kg(wt%)/s] –5 –7 (11. It is furthermore observed that an oil slick can become considerably warmer than the surrounding air and sea.6 Heat transport Vapour pressure and viscosity are strongly temperature dependent.Heat transport where As = content of asphaltenes in the oil (wt %) Wax= content of wax in the oil (wt %) K2 = a coefficient to be estimated The emulsification constants K1 and K2 were estimated to: K 1 = 5 ⋅ 10 [kg/m3] K 2 = 1. Figure 11.18) The coefficients K1 and K2 will be estimated using experimental data from a controlled oil spill in Haltenbanken /12/. Scientific Background 93 .
5 = heat transfer between oil and water.19) where k oil . 11. 3 = solar radiation.67 (11.6. 2 = emitted and received radiation. 6 = emitted and received radiation.air H S = k m ρ a C pa c P r air 0.T oil ) H (11.air ( T air .4 = evaporative heat loss.1 Heat budget for an oil slick: 1 = heat transfer between air and oil.20) and Sc = Schmidt's number Toil = oil temperature [ Kelvin] Tair = air temperature [Kelvin] ρa = density of air [kg/m3] Cpa = heat capacity of air [j/kg/°C] 94 M3&M21 PA/SA .Oil Spill Processes Figure 11.air = Aoil k oil .1 Heat transfer between oil and air The heat transfer between the oil slick and the atmosphere is expressed by HT oil .
2 oil – air = 5.21) where the heat capacity of air is given by equation (11.T oil ) H (11. 1 Pr w = C p w ν w ρ w 0.273.Heat transport The Prandtl's number for air is calculated by Pr = C pa ρa 0.15) (11. Scientific Background 95 .000848 ( T w .44).0241(0. Duffie and Beckmann /6/. The Prandtl's number of water is based on the following expression e.water = 0.water = Aoil k oil .42). /2/: kH oil .22) Heat transfer between oil and water The heat transfer between the oil slick and the water is expressed by: HT oil .26) where νrel is the kinematic viscosity of the oil slick. If there is no evaporation.5 Pr 2/3 w (11.7 + 3. kH 11.25) The Re is a characteristic Reynolds number for calculating the heat transfer coefficient of oilwater and is defined by Re = ν rel 4 Aoil ηw π (11. kHoilair is simply calculated by Duffie and Beckmann /6/.003 T air ) (11.23) where kHoilwater is the heat transfer coefficient calculated by Bird et al.24) and the heat capacity of the water is given by equation (11.8U w (11.water (T water .6.18055 + 0.330 + 0.332 + ρ w C p w Re0.g.
6. 365 (11. (11.29) ς = declination (the angular position of the sun at solar noon with respect to the plane of the equator) 284 + n ς ≅ 23.sunrise max ⋅ H o ⋅ sin π sunsett sunrise . the date and time of day. The variation of solar radiation over a day is assumed to be sinusoidal: t . to tsunrise.27) t sunset = t sunrise + T d [s] (11.45 ⋅ sin 360 ⋅ .3 Solar Radiation The solar radiation received by the oil slick is dependent on a number of parameters. cloudiness. t sunrise < t < t sunset Kt t t H(t) = 0. dust. the most important being the location of the spill. otherwise The day starts at tsunrise and ends at tsunset tsunrise = time of sunrise (seconds after midnight) tsunset = time of sunset (seconds after midnight) tsunset can be calculated by adding the day length. and ozone in the air. Td.28) The day length is calculated by the following expression T d = acos ( tan φ tan ς ) where φ = latitude (north positive) (11.Oil Spill Processes 11.30) 96 M3&M21 PA/SA . and the content of water.
33) where σ = Boltzman constant = 5. solar noon being zero.033 ⋅ cos 365 ⋅ (cos(φ ) ⋅ cos(ζ ) ⋅ sin (ω s ) + ω s ⋅ sin (φ ) ⋅ sin (ζ )) sunset 12 ⋅ K t ⋅ I sc t − t sunrise (11. of this solar radiation reaching the ground is reflected. The net amount of heat received by the oil slick is calculated from 2 rad 4 4 4 H total = σ (l air ⋅ T air + l water ⋅ T water . water and oil. a (albedo).Heat transport H0max is the extraterrestrial radiation at noon. respectively Scientific Background 97 .353 [W/m] n = day number of the year ωs = sunrise hour angle. The net heat input from solar radiation will thus be: ( 1 – a ) ⋅ H ( t ) [W/m2] 11.72 ⋅ 10 [W/(m2K)] 8 lair. lwater. Kt ≅ 0. loil= emissivities of air. The amount of heat received and lost due to radiation is easily quantified using StefanBoltzman's law.31) where Isc = solar constant = 1. calculated by Duffie and Beckmann /6/ H 0max = 360 ⋅ n ⋅ 1 + 0.75.6.= H0 extra terrestrial radiation If the sky is cloudfree.4 (11. otherwise Kt will decrease with increasing cloudiness.32) Emitted and received radiation The oil slick will lose and receive heat due to long wavelength emitted radiation. and each hour equalling 15° of longitude (mornings being positive) and H solar radiation reaching the surface K t = .2 ⋅ l oil ⋅ T oil ) [W/ m ] (11. A high fraction.
Oil Spill Processes Tair.34) where ∆Hvi= heat of vaporisation of component i [J/mol] A dynamic heat balance for the slick thus gives the following: d Toil = dt 1 4 4 4 (1 − a )⋅ H + l air Tair + l water Twater − 2 ⋅ loil Toil ζ Cp h + how (Twater − Toil ) + hoa (Tair − Toil ) − ∑ N i ∆H vi dV dV + water ⋅ ζ w ⋅ C pw + oil ⋅ ζ oil ⋅ C poil ⋅ (Twater − Toil ) ⋅ Aoil dt dt where dW water dt dV oil dt [ ( )] (11. respectively Evaporative heat loss Evaporative cooling will cause a heat loss of: number of components H vapor = ∑ i N i ⋅ ∆H vi [W/m2] (11. whose individual chemical properties vary widely.1 Chemical and physical properties of the oil Oil fractions Oil is a mixture of hundreds of hydrocarbons.35) = rate of water uptake [m3/s] = amount of upwelling dispersed oil drops [m3/s] = heat capacity of oil [J/kg °C] = heat capacity of water [J/kg °C] Cpo Cpw 11.6. Toil 11. The properties of the oil as a whole depend on the 98 M3&M21 PA/SA . water and oil. Twater.7 11.7.5 = temperatures of air.
Because these constituents weather at different rates.Chemical and physical properties of the oil properties of the individual constituents.0 Density Viscosit Vapor pressure [mm/Hg] [kg/m3] y at 100°F [cs] 715 775 0. the value t is the temperature in °C.1 summarises these fractions.1 Oil fractions Fraction 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Description C6C12 (Paraffin) C13C25 (Paraffin) C6C12 (Cycloparaffin) C13C23 (Cycloparaffin) C6C11 (Aromatic) C12C18 (Aromatic) C9C25 (Naphtenoaromatic) Residual (incl.011825.066 10(7.76)) Scientific Background 99 .2 Physical and chemical properties of oil fractions. heterocycles) Boiling range 69230°C 230405°C 70230°C 230405°C 80240°C 240400°C 180400°C >400°C The most important physical and chemical properties (average) of each fraction are listed in Table 11.2 4.536 10(6. the slicks properties will change with time.61(t+202.2.9 35. Fractio Mole n weight [g/mole] 1 2 128.17)) Surface tension [103N/m] 29. The values for vapor pressure are taken from Yong and Wang /15/. defined according to their distillation properties and their chemical structur (alkane or aromatic).05(t+149.941417. Table 11. Table 11. Table 11. The properties of the oil are described by dividing the oil into eight fractions.0 268.
911441.48)) 6.000 10(6.7.911407. The values for vapor pressure are taken from Yong and Wang /15/.0 208. The viscosity is calculated in three steps.78(t+151.2 32.82)) 0.2 4.56)) 458.0 Density Viscosit Vapor pressure [mm/Hg] [kg/m3] y at 100°F [cs] 825 950 990 1150 1085 1050 2.0 237.704 10(6.000 10(6.7)) Surface tension [103N/m] 29. Fractio Mole n weight [g/mole] 3 4 5 6 7 8 11.971789.36) where Xi =the model fraction of fraction i. 100 M3&M21 PA/SA .971801.2 Viscosity 124. calculate "waterfree" oil slick viscosity at Tref = 100°F.85(t+164. primarily due to evaporation and emulsification. Furthermore.Oil Spill Processes Table 11.0 0 Viscosity will increase during weathering.5 181.991893.0 110. viscosity is strongly dependent on the slick's temperature.9 35.9 47.0 600.4 29.9 29.79(t+204. using the KendallMonroe equation: ν oil T REF 8 = ∑ X iν 1/3 i i=1 3 (11. First.77)) 3.2 Physical and chemical properties of oil fractions.108 10(6.00(t+162. the value t is the temperature in °C.34(t+208.000 10(6.
calculate the slick viscosity at the actual temperature and water content.38) Evaporation also causes an increase in the viscosity which can be calculated by oil η oil = η 0 exp ( C 4 F e ) (11.0.B log [ ( )] T T ref (11. calculate the oil slick viscosity at the actual temperature e. CONCAWE (1983).98 Third.40) Scientific Background 101 . using an equation suggested by Hossain and Mackay /10/: η = η oil exp 2.y max y w ) dt w (11.Chemical and physical properties of the oil Second.39) where C4 = dimensionless content in the oil [wt %] Fe = fraction of oil evaporated The combined effect of emulsification and evaporation can be calculated by the following equation.7 )]= log log ν T ref + 0.5 η oil 1 dV e d η oil + = C 4 η oil 0 2 dt V oil dt (1 . which is the sum of the two effects in differential form dy w 2.7 .654 y w (11.g.5 y w 1 . oil oil log[log (ν T + 0.37) where T ν B = temperature (K) = is kinematic viscosity at the temperature T (Cs) = 3.
45) The pour point increase for the waterinoil emulsion is calculated by (CMFMWOS /3/) P p oil .3912 ( T oil . respectively C p a = 998.7.41) 11.73 + 0.15) ρ oil 10 3 (11.273.3684 .46) 102 M3&M21 PA/SA .42) C p o = 1684.133 T air  119.5 Pour point For waterfree oil the following simple correlation is used (CMFMWOS /3/) P p.43) and 3 C p w = (4.Oil Spill Processes 11.74 + 3.7.7.4 Heat capacity The heat capacity of the air.44) All temperatures are given in Kelvin.00061 T w ) 10 (11.water = P p oil +  P p oil  K p 2 y (11. oil and water is given as the following equations.3 Surface tension The surface tension of the oil is simply calculated by T = ∑ X iTi i=1 8 (11. (11.0.oil = P p 0 + K p 1 F e (11. 11.3 ⋅ 10 5 T air 2 .
APPENDIX A
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104
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A.1
REFERENCES
/1/ /2/ /3/ AlRabeh, A.H., 1994. Estimating surface oil spill transport due to wind in the Arabian Gulf. Ocean Engng, Vol. 21 No. 5, pp 461465. Bird, R.B., W.E. Steward and E.N. Lightfoot, 1960. Transport Phenomena. Wiley and Sons, New York. CMFMWOS, 1985. Computer Model Forecasting Movements and Weathering of Oil Spills. Final Report for the European Economic Community, WQI and DHI, October 1985. CONCAWE, 1983. Characteristics of Petroleum and its Behaviour at Sea. Report no 8/83. Deigaard, R. and E.A. Hansen, 1994. Simulation of Turbulent Diffusion of Suspended Sediment by a Random Walk Model. Prog. Rep 75, Institute of Hydrodynamics and hydraulic Engineering, technial University of Denmark. Duffie, J.A. and W.A. Beckmann, 1974. Solar Energy Thermal Processes. Wiley Interscience, New York. Engelund, F.A., Fl. Bo Pedersen, 1982. Hydraulik. Den Private Ingeniørfond, Danmarks Tekniske Højskole, pp 6869. Fay, J.A., 1969. The spread of Oil Slick on a Calm Sea. In Oil on the Sea. Gardiner, C.W., 1985. Handbook of stochastic methods for Physics Chemistry and Natural Science. SpringerVerlag, Berlin. Hossain, K and D. Mackay, 1980. Demoussifier  a new chemical for oil spill countermeasures. Spill Technology Newsletter, v5, n6, pp 154156. Hunter, J.R., 1987. The application of Lagrangian particle tracking technique to modelling dispersant in the sea. In Numerical Modelling: Application to Marine Systems, ed. J. Noye, NorthHolland. IKU  Institut for kontinentalsokkelundersøgelser: “The experimental Oil Spill in Haltenbanken 1982”, IKU Publication No. 112, 1984. Kloeden, P and E. Platen, 1995. Numerical Solution of Stochastic
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Canada. 1980.E. W. Yong. and H. R&D Division.References Differential Equations. 11 pp 879887. I. Modelling of Oil Evaporation in aqueous environment. R. D. Springer /14/ /15/ Mackay. EPS. Wang. Peterson. Vol. 106 M3&M21 PA/SA . Cascarenhus and S. Bruis. Oil Spill Processes and Models. Water Research. 1977.
INDEX 107 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 wind . .Index A advection . . . . . . dissolved matter . . . . 84 O Oil fractions . . . . . . . . . . 89 70 91 77 E Evaporation . . . 18 V vertical displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 F FokkerPlanck equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dispersion . 83 S Settling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 slick temperature . 71 D Dispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 T temperature . . . . . . . 72 Resuspension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 wind friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 R Reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 108 M3&M21 PA/SA . . . . 62 light extinction . . . . . . . 100 W waterinoil emulsion . . . . . . . . . . . 63 L Lagrangian Discrete Parcels Method 61 Langevin equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 C current motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dissolution . .