NTPC

PROJECT REPORT Summer Training

PROJECT REPORT
ON

FEROZE GANDHI UNCHAHAR THERMAL POWER STATION

Reporting Officer:
Mr. Bimal Shah
(HR-EDC)

FGUTPS, UNCHAHAR

Submitte d by:

........... ..... B.Tech(FINAL YEAR)

Contents
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Introduction of NTPC Introduction about Project Production of Electicity Principal of Steam Power Plant H.T.Switch gear L.T.Switch gear Generators and Transformers D.C. System Switch Yard Coal Handling Plant Coal Handling Plant Power Distribution

12. 13. 14.

Demineral Plant(DM Plant) Coal ,Water and Steam Cycle Conclusion

INTRODUCTION OF NTPC

Established in 1975, NTPC the largest power company of the country has been consistently powering the growth of India.

With an installed capacity of 30,144 MW, it contributes 28.6% of the nation’s power generation with only 18.79% of India’s total installed capacity. An ISO 9001:2000 certified company, it is world’s sixth largest thermal power generator and second most efficient in capacity utilization.

The corporation recorded a generation of 206.94 billion units (bus) in 2008-09, an increase of 3.03% over 2007-08, through 13 coal based and 7 gas based power plants spreads all over the country. Rated as one of the “Best companies to work for in India it has developed in to a multi-location and multi fuel Company over the past three decades.

Driven by its vision to lead, it has charted out an ambitious growth plan of becoming a 40,000 MW plus company by 2012.

Following are the other important highlights of 2008-09:

1.

Total Income of Rs.455, 000 million.

2.

Net profit in excess of Rs.78, 274 million

3.

A dividend payment of Rs.126, 865 million to the Govt. of India.

Received highest credit rating AAA by CRISIL and LAAA by ICRA for domestic bond and international rating for Eurobond.

INTRODUCTION ABOUT PROJECT

Water source for this plant is “Sarda Sahayak Canal”. 2. The governor promulgate Uttar Pradesh Vidyut Utpadan Nigam Limited (Acquisition and transfer of Undertaking) act. 68% in 1993-94 and more there after. 144 Mega Watts and has the goal to reach the capacity of 40000 Mega Watts. 3. In the year 2000-2001 it has achieved 85. Today it has project at the following places: - 1. It supplies the produced electricity to region of Uttar Pradesh.The installed capacity is 5 X 210 MW. Faced with financial crunch of its affairs. Northern region station 1. the Nigam was not able to operate the plan continuously at optimum capacity.925 Crore was decided for takeover. Singrauli Rihand Unchahar (5*2000+2*500) Mega Watts. The nearest railway station is Unchahar. This was fully owned by the UP Government. NTPC is managing the project well and the result is PLF of 54. PLF in March 2009 is highest at 100. Then it was decided to sell of the project to NTPC to augment and continue generation of electricity at full level and commence actives the expansion project in the interest of power development.5% and at the time of take-over in 1992-93. it was around 20%.9% in 199293. The project is a coal-based thermal power project and the main constituents for production is coal. Consideration worth Rs. oil and water. PLF in 1990-91 was 5. The project lies in the Raibareilly District in U.P.03%. (2*500) Mega Watts.5%. Our late Prime Minister Smt. The project was started with an installed capacity of 420MW (2*210). Indira Gandhi laid down the foundation stone on 27TH June 1981. (5*210) Mega Watts. Resulting in loss of generation the UPSEB was not able to pay charges to NTPC for energy bought. The NTPC has total installed capacity of 30. . The Uttar Pradesh Vidyut Utpandan Nigam Limited started this project in 1981. The climate conditions are quite favourable with greenery all around.The Unchahar Thermal Power Plant located about 125kms from Lucknow. It is nearly 80kms from Allahabad.

Western region station 1. (2*155GT+1*120St) Mega Watts. 2. Dadri coal Auta Auraiya Faridabad (4*210) Mega Watts. . 2. (4*60+2*110) Mega Watts. Farakka Kahalgaon Takher (3*200+2*500) Mega Watts. Southern region station 1. 3. Ramagundem Kayamkulam (3*200+3*500) Mega Watts. Eastern region station 1. (3*88 GT+1*149 St) Mega Watts. 3. Korba Vindhyanehal Kawas (3*200+3*500) Mega Watts.4. 2. (4*106 GT+2*105 ST) Mega Watts. 3. 2. (4*210) Mega Watts. 2. 4. (6*210+2*500) Mega watts. 3. 5. 4. Tanda (4*110) Mega Watts. (2*143 GT+1*144 ST) Mega Watts. (4*110 GT+2*106 ST) Mega Watts. Nation capital region station 1.

still in fine particles form is carried out of the boiler to the precipitators as dust. more like a gas than as a solid in convectional domestic or industrial grate. Most of ash. As the coal has been grounded so finely the resultant ash is also a fine powder. with additional amount of air called secondary air supplied by Forced Draft Fan. where it is trapped by electrodes charged with high voltage electricity. Some of this ash binds together to form lumps which fall into the ash pits at the bottom of the furnace. The water quenched ash from the bottom of the furnace is conveyed to pits for subsequent disposal or sale. The finely powdered coal mixed with pre-heated air is then blown into the boiler by fan called Primary Air Fan where it burns. The dust is then conveyed by water to disposal areas or .PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICITY The means and steps involved in the production of electricity in a coal-fired power station are described below. brought to the station by train or other means. from where it is fed to the pulverizing mills which grinds it as fine as face powder. The coal. travels from the coal handling plant by conveyer belt to the coal bunkers.

The condenser contains many kilometres of tubing through which the colder is constantly pumped. The rotor is housed inside the stator having heavy coils of copper bars in which electricity is produced through the movement of the magnetic field created by the rotor.e. The lower the pressure. in turns. Coupled to the end of the turbine is the rotor of the generator – a large cylindrical magnet. This vacuum results in a much lower boiling point which. Meanwhile the heat released from the coal has been absorbed by the many kilometres of tubing which line the boiler walls. . Chemistry at the power station is largely the chemistry of water. so that when the turbine rotates the rotor turns with it. Just the energy of the wind turns the sail of the wind-mill. The cooling water is drawn from the river. some of the water is drawn upwards as vapours by the draught and it is this which forms the familiar white clouds which emerge from the towers seen sometimes. The electricity passes from the stator winding to the step-up transformer which increases its voltage so that it can be transmitted efficiently over the power lines of the grid. Inside the tubes is the boiler feed water which is transformed by the heat into the steam at high pressure and temperature. The steam passing around the tubes looses the heat and is rapidly changed back to water. To condense the large quantities of steam. But the two lots of water (i. Inevitably. The water is sprayed out at the top of towers and as it falls into the pond beneath it is cooled by the upward draught of air. but the boiler feed water must be absolutely pure. In most of the power stations the same water is to be used over and over again. The steam which has given up its heat energy is changed back into water in the condenser so that it is ready for re-use. So the heat which the water extracts from the steam in the condenser is removed by pumping the water out to the cooling towers. The turbine designer want as low boiling point of water as possible because he can only utilize the energy of the steam – when the steam changes back into water he can get NO more work out of it. makes the turbine rotate. which by rapidly changing the steam back into water creates a vacuum. however. the lower the temperature at which water boils. huge and continuous volume of cooling water is essential. Why bother to change steam from the turbine back into water if it has to be heated up again immediately? The answer lies in the law of physics which states that the boiling point of water is related to pressure.to bunkers for sale while the cleaned flue gases pass on through ID Fan to be discharged up the chimney. The cooling towers are simply concrete shells acting as huge chimneys creating a draught (natural/mechanically assisted by fans) of air. So a condenser is built. means he can continue getting work out of the steam well below 100 degree Celsius at which it would normally change into water. striking the blades. boiler feed water & cooling water) must NEVER MIX. so the energy of the steam. The steam super-heated in further tubes (Super Heater) passes to the turbine where it is discharged through the nozzles on the turbine blades. The cold water in the pond is then circulated by pumps to the condensers. far purer than the water we drink. if it is not to damage the boiler tubes.

The entropy of a system can be understood as an index of degradation of energy.Principle of the Steam Power Plant The working principle of a steam plant is based upon the Rankine cycle. The flow of steam in the plant can be very easily be understood by the flow diagram of the plant. A graph plotted between the temperature and the entropy would indicate the technical details of the working by the rankine cycle. . Generally steam is taken as the working medium due to its ability to be stable and that it’s readily stable.

T.SWITCH GEAR .PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM H.

e. It should not operate when an over current flows under healthy condition. Basic principal of operation of circuit breaker: Circuit breaker consists of a fix contact and sliding contact into which moves a moving contact. 2. MOCB (Minimum oil circuit breaker) SF6 (Sulphur hexafluoride circuit breaker) Here oil and SF6 are used to quench the arc.OPERATIONG VOLTAGE . keeping the delay to minimum. For voltage higher than 3.6KV For low voltage circuits fuses may be used to isolate the faulty circuit. Under normal condition the secondary of CT is not energized sufficiently to trip the coil but under false condition the coil is energized fully to operate the trip coil and the circuit breaker is operated.6. After occurrence of fault the switchgears must isolate the faulty circuit as quickly as possible i. .3 kV isolation is achieved by circuit breaker. The end of moving contact it attached to a handle that can be manually operated or may operate automatically with the help of mechanism that has a trip coil energized by secondary of CT. 2. Requirement of circuit breaker: 1. 1.

The arc is resilient and can be stretched.L.Air break circuit breaker Air brake circuit breaker: The arc interruption process of air. the short circuit current drops to zero and arc is extinguished. when arc current is interrupted at low power factor. Reducing the phase difference between the system voltage and the short circuit current assure that when the are current is interrupt at its zero value.415VOLT TYPES OF CIRCUIT BREAKER: . .T SWITCH GEAR OPERATING VOLTAGE. a phenomenon that occurs in most cases. and has a resistance. the recovery voltage has very low value at its not allowed to reach 2-3 times the value of the system peak voltage. which can be increased both by length and confinement.based circuit breaker is based on the natural deionization of gases by cooling action. Hence the arc resistance is increased by stretching the arc and as the resistance increases to higher value.

URGENT AUXILIARIES. SERVICE AUXILIARIES.85 15750 9050 310 2600 3000 50 3 YY Water (stator)& hydrogen (rotor) . 2.GENERATORS AND TRANSFORMERS INTRODUCTIONThe auxiliaries in a plant can be divided into two categories1. gen2) KVA Pf Volts of stator Amperes of stator Volts of rotor Amperes of rotor Rpm Hz Phase Connection Coolant 247000 0. which are associated with running of unit. GENERATOR SPECIFICATIONS- TURBO GENERATOR (gen1.the urgent auxiliaries are those.the service auxiliaries are those whose loss would not affect output.

. It has two exciters. B EXCITATION SYSTEM- 1.Gas pressure Insulation class 3. STATIC EXCITATION SYSTEM-The generators in stage -1(u-1&u-2) have this excitation system. converter and AVR (automatic voltage regulator). STATOR PROTECTION. 2. GENERATOR PROTECTION- 1.The neutral of star connected winding is connected to primary of neutral grounding transformer. so that earth fault current is limited by over voltage relay. It consists of step down transformer. Static excitation system has slip ring and carbon brush arrangement. 2.5) have this excitation system. DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTIONIn case of phase-to-phase fault generator is protected by longitudinal differential relay.5kg/cm-sq. U4& &U. BRUSHLESS EXCITATION SYSTEM –The generators in stage -2(U-3. one is main exciter and other is pilot exciter.

LUBRICATION OIL SYSTEM – Turbine lubrication-oil system seeks to provide proper lubrication of turbo generator bearings and operation of barring gear. The cooling medium for these coolers is circulating water. . The field is biased by a dc voltage. which fly out and close the stop valves if the speed of the set increase more than 10%.Rotor winding may be damaged by earth faults or open circuits. The relay open the main circuit break and the field switch if the over voltage persists. SEAL OIL SYSTEM – Hydrogen in the generator is under very high pressure. ROTOR PROTECTION. So. 7. seal oil is used to seal the gaps so that hydrogen doesn’t come out. OVER SPEED PROTECTION – Mechanically over speed device that is usually in the form of centrifugally operated rings mounted on the rotor shaft. 5. which is very hazardous. 6. which causes current to flow through the relay for an earth fault anywhere on the field system. The oil of the lubrication and the governing system is cooled in the oil coolers. Pumps are used to circulate lubrication-oil inside the generator.3. 4. The relay is usually induction pattern. There is a possibility of this hydrogen to come out of gaps. OVER VOLTAGE PROTECTION – It is provided with an over voltage relay.

GENRATOR TRANSFORMER: -This is a step up transformer. This supply gets its primary supply from generator and its secondary supplies the switchyard from where it is transmitted to grid. The secondary is connected in delta. STATION TRANSFORMER: -. This is oil cooled. UNIT AUXILIARY TRANSFORMER: -. This transformer is oil cooled. These are four in number. It is a step down transformer. 2.TRANSFORMER TYPE PF TRANSFORMERS— 1. NEUTRAL GROUNDED TRANSFORMER: -This transformer is connected with supply coming out of UAT in stage-2.6 KV bus.This transformer has almost the same rating as the generator transformer. 4. The primary receives from generator and secondary supplies a 6. The primary of this transformer is connected in star. 3. These are 4 in number. Its primary is connected in delta and secondary in star. These are 8 in number.This is a step down transformer. . This is used to ground the excess voltage if occurs in the secondary of UAT in spite of rated voltage.

66 50 55 Neural grounded transformer (NGT) .75 597.75/242 250 3 50 Y-D 11 OFAF/ONAF/ONAN 250/150/100 250/150/100 242 15.14/358.86 9175.29/238.SPECIFICATIONS Generator transformer (GT-1 & GT-2) KV MVA Phase Hz Connections Type of cooling Rated HV and IV (MVA) Rated LV (MVA) No Load Voltage HV (KV) No Load Voltage IV (KV) No Load Voltage LV (KV) Line current HV (Amps) Line current IV (Amps) Line current LV (Amps) Temp rise coil oC Temp rise winding oC 15.09/3670.15/5505.

9 2655.5 50 55 .8 50 55 Potential Transformer KVA Phase Hz Type of Cooling 1000 3 50 ONAN No Load Voltage HV (volts) 6600 No Load Voltage LV (volts) Line Current HV (Amps) Line Current LV (Amps) Temp rise oil oC Temp rise winding oC 433 87.53 133.KVA Phase Hz Type of cooling No load voltage HV (volts) No load voltage LV (volts) Line current HV (Amps) Line current LV (Amps) Temp rise oil oC Temp rise winding 1150 3 50 ONAF/ONAN 6600 250 105.

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main distribution board and switch control and signaling board. as AC supply is not fully dependable.D. DISCHARGING PROCESS CHARGING PROCESS BATTERY CHARGER: Battery charger normally operates in two modes. 2. CHARGING EQUIPMENTS: The battery charging equipment comprises of trickle charger. Float charging: It is constant voltage mode and works as a trickle charger. 1. TRICKLE CHARGER: . quick charger. These are the mode of energy storage. Boost charging: It is constant current mode and works as a quick charger.C SYSTEM INTRODUCTION: DC system is generally used for control and protection operation. 1. battery panel. To maintain constant supply in case of power failure we use DC supply. CHARGING EQUATION: In battery PbO2 used as positive plate and Pb as negative plate. 2. DC system consists of a battery charger.

so what we generate should be consumed instantaneously. SWITCH YARD As we know that electrical energy can’t be stored like cells.e. The rectification is obtained through full bridge controlled silicon rectifier. Stack comprising of these SCR and three diode with the surge suppression RC network connected across each SCR and diode. the generation depends upon load. The variation of the dc output voltage is limited to +/. SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF 220KV SWITCH YARD- . The yard is the places from where the electricity is send outside.1% for 0 to 100% load variation and simultaneously ac voltage variation of +/. It has both outdoor and indoor equipments. But as the load is not constants therefore we generate electricity according to need i.10% of frequency variation of +/.5% from 50 Hz.This charger is fed from three-phase ac supply and gives a dc-stabilized output at rated full load current.

4. 5. 10.OUTDOOR EQUIPMENTS 1. 9. 11. 7. 8. 2. 3. 6. BUS BAR LIGHTENING ARRESTER WAVE TRAP BREAKER CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER CORONA RING EARTHING ROD CURRENT TRANSFORMER POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER LIGHTENING MASK LIGHTENING MOOSE .

It extinguishes the arc drawn between the contacts when circuit breaker opens. The basic construction of any circuit breaker requires the separation of contact in an insulating fluid that servers two functions: 1. A circuit breaker in station serves the same purpose as switch but it has many added and complex features. 3.INDOOR EQUIPMENTS 1. Ultra high vacuum Sulphur hexafluorides The Specifications of the circuit breaker used are: . The insulating fluids commonly used in circuit breakers are: 1. 4. 2. It provides adequate insulation between the contacts and from each contact to earth. 2. Circuit breaker is an arrangement by which we can break the circuit or flow of current. 2. Compressed air Oil which produces hydrogen for arc excitation. An electric power system needs some form of switchgear in order to operate it safely & efficiently under both normal and abnormal conditions. RELAYS CONTROL PANELS CIRCUIT BREAKER: The code for circuit breaker is 52.

1. A meter is provided which indicates the surface leakage and internal grading current of arrester. This help to neutralize the system from induced voltage from extra high voltage. 7. AIR BLAST CIRCUITREAKER 245 KV 1050 KV 25 .MAKE TYPE RATED VOLTAGE RATED LIGHTING IMPULSE WITHSTAND VOLTAGE RATED SHORT CIRCUIT BREAKING CURRENT RATED FREQUENCY RATED NORMAL CURRENT RATED CLOSING VOLTAGE RATED OPENING VOLTAGE CROMPTON GREAVES LTD. We have to use the lightning arrester both in primary and secondary of transformer and in reactors. Green – arrester is healthy Red – arrester is defective. 2. AIR BREAK EARTHING SWITCH: The code of earthling switch is 5.40KA 50HZ 2000 A TO 4000 A 220 V DC 220 V DC LIGHTING ARRESTER: It saves the transformer and reactor from over voltage and over currents. This induced power is up to 2KV in case of 400 KV lines. .The work of this equipment comes into picture when we want to shut down the supply for maintenance purpose. 6. In case of red we first de-energize the arrester and then do the operation.

The specification of earthling switch is: MAKE TYPE VOLTAGE CURRENT MOTOR VOLT (AC) CONTROL VOLT (DC) S & S POWER MADRAS 245 KV 10 KA 415 VOLTS 220 VOLTS BUS BAR: Bus bars generally are of high conductive aluminum conforming to IS-5082 or copper of adequate cross section . Current Transformer (CT): A current transformer is a type of instrument transformer designed to provide a current in its secondary winding proportional to the alternating current flowing in its primary . 1. Current Transformer Diagram Application: .Bus bar is preferably cover with polyurethane.Bus bar located in air –insulated enclosures & segregated from all other components .

Similarly potential transformers are used for measuring voltage and monitoring the operation of the power grid. The device has at least four terminals. a ground terminal and at least one set of secondary terminals for connection to the instrumentation or protective relay. . Capacitive Voltage Transformer (CVT): A capacitor voltage transformer (CVT) is a transformer used in power systems to step-down extra high voltage signals and provide low voltage signals either for measurement or to operate a protective relay. protection devices and revenue metering may use separate CTs). 4. 3. They are commonly used in metering and protective relaying in the electrical power industry where they facilitate the safe measurement of large currents. multiple CTs are installed as a "stack" for various uses (for example. The current transformer safely isolates measurement and control circuitry from the high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured. In its most basic form the device consists of three parts: two capacitors across which the voltage signal is split. CVTs are typically single-phase devices used for measuring voltages in excess of one hundred kilovolts where the use of voltage transformers would be uneconomical. often in the presence of high voltages. The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary.1. an inductive element used to tune the device to the supply frequency and a transformer used to isolate and further step-down the voltage for the instrumentation or protective relay as shown in figure below. 2. Often. a high-voltage terminal for connection to the high voltage signal. Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current and monitoring the operation of the power grid.

9 KV Station Transformer .3 220 KV Kanpur Feeders .75/242 kV Generator transformer – 1 Spare 40 MVA 220/7.1 KV Station Transformer .75/242 KV Generator Transformer -2 220 Kv (Chin hut) Luck now Feeder .1 KV Station Transformer . is often replaced by a stack of capacitors connected in series.2 220 KV Kanpur Feeders . and hence the secondary terminals.3 40 MVA 220/7. Out of which we have 3 spare bays.3 210 Mw Generators . C1.3 220 KV Transfer Bus Coupler. The total number of bays is 22.2 220 KV Kanpur Feeders .This results in a large voltage drop across the stack of capacitors that replaced the first capacitor and a comparatively small voltage drop across the second capacitor C2. Bay 1 Bay 2 Bay 3 Bay 4 Bay 6 Bay 7 Bay 8 Bay 9 250 MVA 15.2 220 KV by Pass Breaker 210 MW Generators -3 40 MVA 220/6.1 kV Station Transformer.2 250 MVA 15.1 220 KV Fateful Feeder .In practice the first capacitor.1 40 MVA 220/7.1 220 KV Luck now Feeder -2 Bus couplets 220 KV Bay 10 Bay 11 Bay 12 Bay 13 Bay 14 Bay 16 Bay 17 Bay 19 Bay 20 Bay 21 Bay 22 220 KV Fateful Feeder .1 220 KV Kanpur Feeders .4 .

. Wagons are separated and tippled by using wagon tippler. In this method. Manual Unloading: Previously.5 hours for Unloading 58 BOBR wagons. 2. Now coal is also coming from Australia. the size of the coal is approximately 300mm.It handles and transports the coal to the bunker from the wagons by passing through various conveyors. 3. This is an advanced technology in which we use the compressor system. But it was very time consuming and more workers were required for the job to be done.6/kg Type of unloading the coal: - 1. The Beetle Feeder is used to move the wagon on wagon tippler. The coal from the wagons gets accumulated in The Track Hopper. Type of coal: - BCCL costs Rs. Indian Railway grants 10 hours for unloading the 58 wagons. etc. For this method. BOBR: .4/kg CCl cost Rs. At this time.This method is used in used in stage -2 of NTPC Unchahar. The coal being filled in the wagons of the rail reaches plant. manpower was used for unloading the wagons. Box in (using wagon tippler for unloading): This method is still used in stage -1of NTPC Unchahar. transfer points. Indian Railway grants only 2. as coal produced in India is of low grade and ash content is more. crusher houses. The purpose of this plant is to convey the coal to the bunker in the size not larger than 20mm.COAL HANDLING PLANT Introduction: - NTPC Unchahar gets its coal supply mainly from Bihar.

WAGON TIPPLER: thermal power project. B-VF. It is an automatic device.DS are the parts of the wagon tippler. C. The wagon tippler is a most important device in The Wagon tippler turns back the wagon at 135-degree angle and the structure of the wagon tippler is to be very heavy. The size of the coal here is less than 300mm. When the wagon are tippling then the dust is mixed in the air and that area becomes very dusty then Dust Suppuration operates and water flows through its points and the dust settles down. When the wagon is fixed on the Platform then whole platform is turned back and the coal fall down in the wagon tippler hopper. The unloading time of the Rack is 6hours. Pressure is applied by the compressor to open the bottom gates of the wagon so that the coal gets released over the track hopper and wagon get unloaded quickly. Beetle Charger: The Beetle charger is a traveling device that is used to carry the wagon on the wagon tippler platform. Wagon Tippler Hopper: The Wagon tippler Hoper is a part of the wagon tippler where the coal is stored from the wagon tippler. 1. A. Before Wagon tippler Hoper and Vibrating Feeder the gate is providing to control the flow of the coal.BC. Vibrating Feeder: The vibrating feeder is used for falling the coal on the conveyer through Wagon tippler Hoper.In Bottom Open Bottom Release (BOBR) technology the wagons are opened from side. Here the type of the rack is Box C / Box N type. D. . 4. Upper side of the wagon is fixed with the many angles for supporting the wagon.WTH. Various equipment used in CHP: - 1. Dust Suppuration: Dust Suppuration is a useful device. 3. 2.

It is installed to control the speed of plough 3. End limit switch (left or right)-It provides the limiting motion of the paddle feeders. Plough wheel has 6 blades. 3 Paddle Feeders of each conveyer move to and fro within a limiting range. The vibrating feeders consist of a tray to which vibrator body is fixed on the rear end. It is attached with the rotor of 3-phase slip ring induction motor. 5. In transfer Point the coal is transferred from one conveyer to other conveyer. Anti-collision switch. By the rotation of the plough wheel. Reduction gear boxwheel. TRANSFER POINTS: Transfer Point is provided with flap gate and Conveyer. PADDLE FEEDER: . 4..It provides the prevention from collision between two paddle feeders. 3 on each conveyer. Interlock system-It is provided for safety purpose. 4. . Plough wheel-It is the rotating part consists of 6 blades. The main components of paddle feeder are: 1. The coal is accumulated over the vibrating feeder so by giving vibrations to the vibrating feeder we discharge the coal from track hopper to the conveyors. 3. There are 6 nos. the coal of the track hopper gets accumulated between the blades and is discharged on the conveyor below it. Their main purpose is to provide uniform feeding on the conveyors. The rotating part of the paddle feeder is called as plough wheel. VIBRATING FEEDER: They have been installed below the track hoppers of wagon tippler. of paddle feeders. the conveyor belt moves first then paddle feeder starts. 2.They have been installed on conveyors below the manual unloading track hopper. 2. By this.

5. The Pull Cord Switch is to be operated. PRIMARY CRUSHER (ROTARY BREAKER): . we change the way of coal that fall down on the conveyer.Belt Feeder 1. The rotary breaker is to be . This device is provided on both side of the conveyer.In Primary Crusher House. pulls this cord. 3. the coal breaks in Rotary Breaker. Conveyers: The Conveyer Belt is a moving device. . Both gates cannot operate together. & in Stage –II is 1200MT / hr.Rotary Breaker b. Flap Gate: The flap Gate is a two-way device. The coal falls down the conveyer and goes to the primary Crusher House Platforms. 2. The shape of the conveyer belt is to be flat but on the platforms it is to be in curve shape. It travels on its platforms. c . When the conveyer leaves its way the switch is operated and the conveyer stops. The coal come from the conveyer through the Flap Gate falls down into the rotary breaker. b -Pull Cord Switch. It consists of two gates. the speed of the conveyer is reduced and Zero Speed Switch is operated and stops the conveyer. Pull cord Switch: This is a manual protecting device. By help of the flap Gate. When the conveyer is over loaded. and the Conveyer stops. This is also an automatic protecting device.The Zero Speed Switch prevents the Conveyer from over load run. 2. The capacity of conveyer in Stage – I is 800MT/ hr. This device is provided at Head End of the Conveyer.1.Belt Sway Switch 1. ROTARY BREAKER: The Rotary Breaker has a rotating mechanism. Part of the Primary Crusher House – a. Belt Sway Switch: The Belt Sway Switch also protects the conveyer. Many protecting device provide to the Conveyer--a -Zero Speed Switch. When the Worker sees any mistake like big stone or any dangerous fault. It is rotated on the shaft. Zero Speed Switch: . Here the coal comes from the Transfer point. breaks here and the stone fall down to a separate place. Coal is converted from 300mm to 150mm size. The Zero Speed Switch is a Centrifugal Switch.

SECONDARY CRUSHER (RING GRANULATOR): In Secondary crusher House first the magnetic part separate from the coal and then feed to the Secondary Crusher. The coals are stacked at the Secondary Crusher Coal Heap. motor are used for breaking of the coal. The Secondary crusher is hammer type. Reclaimer: The Reclaimer is position (2). it gives the trip command to the conveyor. It consists of following main parts. This Crusher breaks the coal in 20mm size and coal is sent to the Flap Gate and then feeded to the conveyer. When the rack comes. then reclaiming is to be started . 9. 2. METAL DETECTOR: The purpose of installation is to detect any metallic piece passing through the conveyor. 7.T. It is used for feeding the coal to the conveyer through Flap Gate. 8. sand bag marker will fall on the conveyor belt so that the metal can be searched easily and removed. it is attracted by the magnet and stick to the cross belt below it. When the rack is not coming and there is a shortage of coal.rotated and coal moves up and down and collides and hence breaks. H. 170KW 6. perpendicular to the conveyor belt at certain height. Specifications are 700KW 6. STACKER/RECLAIMER: It is a very important device.T. the excessive coal is send to the stacker through the conveyer from Secondary Crusher house.6KV Motor 2. It is a two-way device. Simultaneously. 1. The CBMS capacity is of 50kg. The whole Structure of it is called Super Structure. Whenever the pieces pass below the search coil of the metal detector. It consists of electromagnet around which a belt is moving. Whenever any iron particle passes below the CBMS. which passes along with the coal. Stacker: The Stack is a position (1). It stacks the excessive coal and reclaims the coal on its requirement. It is suspended from top. BELT FEEDER: The Belt Feeder is a small size of the conveyer. CROSS BELT MAGNETIC SEPRATORS: They will remove the ferrous particles.6KVMotor. The Rotary Breaker is H. The coal falls down from the stacker through Boom Conveyer. 6.

For controlling the up & down position. the limit switch is provided. limit switch is provided. TRANSFER TOWER: Here the coal is send to the Tipper. the Center Chute is to be up and End Chute of the Boom Conveyer is fixed on the conveyer. 3. It is move on its track. when the Bucket of the wheel is full with coal and the wheel is rotated the coal fall down on the Boom conveyer and the coal is send to the Super Structure. Boom Conveyer: The Boom conveyer is a Bi-directional conveyer. When the coal is stored on both the side of the track of travel.The Bucket Wheel is used when there is a requirement of the coal. The Super Structure moves on it. It is always rotated in anticlockwise. The hoist is moved up and down. 4. Travel: It is a slip ring induction motor driven system. It moves clockwise & anticlockwise direction. In stacking position. They are provided with Center Chute and End Chute on the both end. BUNKER: .Here the coal is collected from the tipper and stored. In the Reclaiming position. 10. 5. It is moveable device. 7. The Bucket Wheel rotates. it is moving in clockwise direction and in the reclaiming position its moving in anticlockwise direction. The normal speed of the Travel is 10 meter / minute. 6. Boom hoist: The Boom hoist is a link of the Super Structure. It is a rotary device. then the Slew Drive moves and lifts or fall the coal from Boom Conveyer. Slew drive: The Slew Drive moves at 180-degree. The capacity of the bunker for Stage-I is 4800MT & Stage-II is 8700MT . For control the rotation of Slew Drive. TIPPER: The Tipper is a three-way device to feed the coal in Bunker. Transfer Tower is provided with a coal sampler.and the coal is lifted from the Secondary Crush Coal Heap and feeded to the bunker. 11. 12. It moves on its track from one end to other end. Bucket wheel: .

5 2.(SCR) VIB.SEP. LIGHTING BOARD DE-1 (SCH) MAG.SCREEN-1.6 NR-2. 2(SCH) CON-3A/B CON-4A/B B/F-4 (SCH) MCC-3 37 160 55 22 22 NR-2 37A SF-1 63A SF-3 250A FSU-2 250A SF-2 63A NR-3 64A BKR 269 NR-3 96A NR-2 37A 22 5.25 22 75 125 75 125 NR-3 134A BKR 228A NR-3 143A BKR 228A SF-2 100A NR-34A RV-11A NR-5A RV-0.NO MCC-1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 CON1/A/B/C/D CON2A/B (P) CON2A/B (S) CON10A/B P/F 1-6 LCC PLOUGH WHEEL LONG TRAVEL PCRD SPEED CONTROL B/F-1. (PCH) MCC-2 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 B/F-2 (PCH) SUSPENDED MAG.COAL HANDLING PLANT POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STAGE-1 S.2 0.37A DRIVE (CONVEYOR) RATINGS (KW) TYPE-F.L .

2.FEEDERS 1.71 63A 63A 63A 250A BKR 195A BKR 228 159A BKR 269 BKR 134 159A BKR 228A RV-98A RV-126A SF-63A VIB.4 STAGE 2 .2 110 125 90 160 75 90 125 CHARGER 55 TRIPLER.20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 CBMS-3 TP-8 TT-1 DE-4(BUNKER) DE-3(BUNKER) CON5A/B CON6A/B CON7A/B CON8A/B(P) CON8A/B(S) CON9A/B CON12 BEETLE 1.2 BAGOB 1.3.

B 160 Crusher 450 .Equipment KW Conv14 2*95 Conv15 2*140 Conv16 2*115 Conv17 65 Conv18 160 Conv19 115 Conv20 315 Conv21 140 Conv22 140 Conv23 2*110 Conv24 110 Conv25 110 Conv26 2*115 R.

No.STAGE-2 S. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Drive (conveyor) Ratings (KW) CON14A/B CON15A/B CON16A/B CON17A/B CON18A/B CON19A/B CON20A/B (HT) CON21A/B CON22 CON23 CON24A/B CON25A/B CON26 R.5(DC) VGF 1.2.10 S/R-2 BOOM CONVEYOR S/R-2 BUCKET WHEEL S/R-2 SLEW/TRAVEL MOTOR 7.5 PADDLE FEEDER 7.L 161 237 195 115 269 195 34 237 237 182 182 182 195 269 54 35 47 80 127 127 BELT FEEDER (SCH) 18.4 SWP 1A/B 37 115 45 75 75 22 23 65 195 .5 1.9.3.2 BELT FEEDER (PCH) 25 4.B CRUSHER (HT) 2*95 2*140 2*115 65 160 115 315 140 140 2*110 110 110 2*115 160 450 Type-F.8.

24 25 SWP 2A/B SUMP-PUMP 32 15 TERMS CBMS ILMS PF TT TP MD SM RB VGF RPG CR RH VS BF FG TC WT PH PCH SCH S/R CO CHP TH MCC LCS FULL FORM Cross belt magnetic separator Inline magnetic separator Paddle feeder Transfer tower Transfer point Metal detector Suspended magnet Rotary breaker Vibro grizzly feed Rack and pinion get Crusher rotary Reclaim hopper Vibrating screen Belt feeder Flap gate Telescopic chute Wagon tippler Pent house Primary crusher house Secondary crusher house Stacker/Reclaimer Conveyor Coal handling plant Track hopper Motor control center Local control switch .

HP . Rajesthan.T 400*12=4800 M.T 970acrs 280acrs CCI.U. J & K.5km 2800 M.T Secondary yard coal capacity stage-2 Bunker capacity stage -1 Bunker capacity stage-2 Coal used in 24 hrs(4 unit) Total plant area Total township area Coal import Water source Power line (220kv) Power export 1.T Secondary yard coal capacity stage -1 1.T.5 lac M. Uncr-Kanpur(4 lines) Delhi. Pull card switch Belt swag switch Zero speed switch Vibrating feeder Vibrating fan SOME IMPORTANT FACTS Coal handling plant area Length of conveyor stage-1 Length of conveyor stage-2 M.H coal capacity stage -1 New track hopper coal capacity stage -2 Primary yard coal capacity stage -1 200acrs 13km 13.T 2.8 lac M. Uncr-Fatehpur(2 lines).PCS BSS ZSS VF VF.T 5400M. Haryana. BCCL Sharda and dalmau canal Uncr-Lko(2 lines).5 lac M. Chandigarh. UP.T 730*12=8760 M.T 12000 M. Punjab.

This is the last stage of purification. Strong acid cation exchanger – After passing through the carbon filter.The base produces cations. Mixed bed exchanger – And then water is sent to the chamber of mixed bed exchanger where the remaining ions are removed. COAL.DEMINERAL (DM) PLANT INTRODUCTION: -- Water is required in plant for many purposes like for formation of steam. which get combined with the anions present in the water. The acid produces anions. which get combined with the cations present in the water. WATER & STEAM CYCLES . for safety during fire. for removal of ash. which is filled with the concentrated HCL. 2. 4. Carbon filter – Water taken from the river is first sent to the carbon filter for the removal of carbon contents in the water. which is filled with the concentrated NaOH. etc. PURIFICATION OF WATER: Water is purified in DM plant through a chain of processes as under: -- 1. 3. water is sent to the strong acid cation exchanger. But the water required for the formation of steam should be perfectly devoid of minerals because if minerals are present in the steam and the steam strike the blades of the turbine. then due to being high in pressure it produces scars or holes on the turbine blades. Strong base anion exchanger – After that the water is sent to the strong base anion exchanger.

Ball mail: A ball mill operates normally under suction. 3 Derater Boiler Feed Pump Heater 5. 6 Feed Regulating station Boiler Drum.Two Types of mill are used in the plant. 2. All the grinding elements and the primary air fan are mounted on a single shaft.P Pump 1. The flow of air carries coal to the primary stage where it is reduced to a fine granular state by impact with a series of hammers. Contact mail: This mill uses impact principle. Pulverization mill: Pulverization means exposing a large surface area to the action of oxygen . DERATER: Low Pressure Heater High Pressure Economizer . R. 2. 1.The drum is rotated slowly while coal is fed in to it .C Feeder Pulverization mill 1.The ball pulverize the coal by crushing. A large drum partly filled with steel balls. 2.H.E.COAL CYCLE C.P Plant Boiler section Bunker R.M Plant Hot well C. which determine the Quantity of coal enter in the pulverize mill. 1. is used in this mill . WATER CYCLE D. This type of mill is used in stage-1.C Feeder: It is an induction motor driven device. This type of mill is used in stage-2.

Feed strong tank of water To produce sufficient pressure before feeding to B. 4. 4. Filter the harmful chemicals. economizer. 2. 2. Flux gases coming out of the boilers carry lot of heat. 3. In an induced draft system.1. This fan forces air through the furnace.D. DRAFTS SYSTEM: 3. 3.F. Control the quantity of water in to boiler drum. In forced draft system the fan is installed near the base of the boiler furnace. air preheater and chimney. STEAM CYCLE . FEED REGULATING STATIONS: 1. An economizer extracts a part of this heat from the flue gases and uses it for heating the feed water. the fan is installed near the base of Chimney. ECONOMISER: 2.

BOILER: Boiler drum consists two chambers water chamber.P Turbine Repeater I. The temperature is approx.Boiler Drum Ring Header Boiler Drum (Steam chamber) Super Heater H. SUPER HEATER: The function of super heater is to remove the last traces of moisture from the saturated steam leaving the tube boiler. Before Entering in super heater the steam is going in to boiler drum. Conclusion . The velocity attained during expansions depends on initial and final heat content of the steam. Turbine having number of stages in which the pressure drops takes place.P Turbine condenser 1. TURBINE: Steam turbine converts the heat energy in to mechanical energy and drives the alternator.P Turbine L. 2. 3. where the boiler drum filtered the moisture and stored in to water chamber. steam chamber.530 oC.

electricity is generated.e. . NTPC Unchahar is one the plants in India to be under highest load factor for the maximum duration of time and that to operating at highest plant efficiencies.. The operating plf of the NTPC as compared to the rest of country is the highest with 87.On completion of my vocational training at Feroze Gandhi Unchahar Thermal Power Project. The training gave me an opportunity to clear my concepts from practical point of view with the availability of machinery of such large rating. This plant is an example in terms of working efficiency and management of resources to all other thermal plants in our country. Unchahar I have come to know about how the very necessity of our lives nowadays i. What all processes are needed to generate and run the plant on a 24x7 basis.54% the highest since its inception.

Special gratitude towards Mr.Mukherjee (Motor Maintenance). Honourable DGM (EMD). Mayur Btech Final Year.K.).K. Mr. FGTUP.H. FGTUP (both executives & workers) who helped me in making our training a boon for me.Verma(CHP) under whose able guidance I completed my training. Mr.Switchyard) & Mr.Gupta(HT Switchgear).M V Sathe (Supdt Engg.Singh (HT Switchgear). At last I conclude by thanking all the employees of NTPC.Ranjeet Prasad Singh who provided us the best moral support which I was in need for. for giving his very kind permission to undergo the training programme under the able guidance of NTPC engineers. Always for a desired result.K.Rakesh(Supdt. the number of favourable factors is more.Mr. . All these people were of immense importance regarding the knowledge and supports for the well furnished equipments.Mr. mentally and physically in everything that I do. I greatly acknowledge the help and the mental strength provided by our entire family for encouraging me and providing me knowledge & guidance related with every deptt. Bimal Shah (HR-EDC) and Mr.J. of NTPC.K.A. I acknowledge that I’ve been fortunate enough to get the support. Mr.NTPC Unchahar who led the entire team of FGUTP for functioning of each department in a modernized and techno-commercial atmosphere to make the project touch such peaking performance.Singh (Sr Engg). We would thank Mr ..Acknowledgements Everything that happens in the world is an out come of interaction of various factor. I would give our special thanks to Mr. K. some of which are favourable while other not.Allahabad. First of all I would like to thank Shri Munish Jauhari. This work is NO exception to this fact. Electrical Engineering Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology.Sahu (LT Switchgear).M.

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