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Section A: Review of concepts

JC2 H2 Physics Tutorial 2011 Chapter 19: Nuclear Physics

This section helps you to consolidate your learning for this chapter. Complete the following summary of concepts before attempting the tutorial questions; all answers can be found in your lecture notes. (I) Atomic Structure a) In the space below, draw a well labeled sketch for the set up of the Experiment.

Detector Vacuum

-particle Scattering

Source Slit Gold foil

State and explain what the expected results of the experiment, based on Thomson’s model. • -particles carry a charge of +2e and are about 7300 times more massive than electrons.

• If Thomson’s model was correct, maximum deflecting force on the -particle as it passes near a positive charge will be far too small to deflect the particle by even 1º. • Electrons in the atom would also have very little effect on the massive, energetic -particle. b) Describe the actual results of the -particle Scattering Experiment and infer from the results, the possible structure of the nucleus. 1. Large deflection of -particles • To produce such a large deflection, there must be a large force • Such a large force is only possible if we assume that the atom consists of a positively charged nucleus of very small dimensions compared with the ordinarily accepted magnitude of the diameter of the atom. When an -particle gets close to the centre of the concentration of positive charges (nucleus), it cannot penetrate the nucleus but gets deflected instead due to the large repulsive force between it and the positively charged nucleus. 2. Most particles passed through undeflected or with a small deflection

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From Einstein’s mass energy relationship. 3. the nucleus). h) Define nuclear binding energy of a nucleus.Mn M = Zmp + Nmn + Zme – Ma g) Explain the relation of mass defect to binding energy.• Since very few of the particles were scattered through large angles. i) Sketch the graph of binding energy per nucleon against mass number. Few particles are reflected backwards. The nuclear binding energy of a nucleus is defined as the work done on the nucleus to separate it into its constituent neutrons and protons. One electron-volt is the energy gained by a charge equal to that on an electron in moving through a potential difference of one volt. we can infer from this increase in mass. that the total energy of the separated components is greater than the total energy of the bound system (i. f) Define mass defect and list the two equations for mass defect for a nucleus and for a neutral atom. The energy is released when the nucleons are separated in a nucleus is known as nuclear binding energy. E = mc2 e) Define one electron-volt. through an angle close to 180o • The nucleus is small and very massive. This shows that the nucleus occupies only a small proportion of the available space. c) Define Isotope Isotopes are atoms that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.e. II) Nuclear Physics d) State Einstein’s mass-energy relation. Page 2 of 5 . The mass defect of a nucleus is defined as the difference between the mass of the separated nucleons and the combined mass of the nucleus. M = Zmp + Nmn . the probability of the particle getting close to the centre of the positive charge is small.

The decay of a radioactive atom is not affected by any chemical condition or the chemical compound that it exists in and is independent of physical conditions such as temperature. and corresponds to the most stable nuclei. Except for the lighter nuclei.the nucleus may split to give two daughter nuclei with the release of neutrons. k) State the quantities conserved in a nuclear reaction. i. i. iv. The daughter nuclei will possess a greater binding energy per nucleon. the average binding energy per nucleon is about 8 MeV. may undergo nuclear fusion. the process cannot be speeded up or slowed down by physical means such as changes in pressure or temperature. pressure and most importantly the decay of other atoms. per nucleon value of approximately 8. per nucleon occurs at around mass number A = 50.j) Explain the relevance of binding energy per nucleon to nuclear fusion and to nuclear fission. m) Define Nuclear fission Nuclear fission is the disintegration of a heavy nucleus into two lighter nuclei of approximately equal masses. Page 3 of 5 . From the graph. • Radiation is emitted at random. Radioactive decay occurs spontaneously. it can be seen that the iron nucleus 56 26 Fe is located close to the peak with a B. ii. • • • • l) nucleon number proton number (charge) mass-energy momentum Explain the spontaneous and random nature of nuclear decay. per nucleon.8 MeV. The peak. the maximum B. iii.E. n) Define Nuclear fusion Nuclear fusion is the combining of two light nuclei to produce a heavier nucleus. Nuclei with very low or very high mass numbers have lesser binding energy per nucleon and are less stable because the less the B. Nuclei with high mass numbers may undergo nuclear fission --. Nuclei with low mass numbers (located to the left of the peak). where light nuclei are joined together under certain conditions so that the final product may have a greater binding energy per nucleon v. the easier it is to separate the nucleus into its constituent nucleons. By random.e. we mean that it is impossible to predict which nucleus and when any particular nucleus will disintegrate. It is one of the most stable nuclides that exist.E.E.

rays × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × .particles × × × × × × × × × × × × × . Chromosomes are particularly sensitive to ionising radiation at the moment of cell division resulting in genetic mutations which are probably harmful. The decay constant of a nucleus is defined as its probability of decay per unit time.o) Sketch the path of alpha. Radiation can cause immediate severe damage to body tissue such as radiation burns. Page 4 of 5 . others cannot and the effects on tissues are cumulative. Such genetic mutations can lead to birth defects if an unborn child and / or the mother is exposed to radiation.particles × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × p) Define activity and decay constant. Hereditary defects may also occur in succeeding generations due to genetic damage. beta and gamma rays in a strong magnetic field pointing into the paper in the space below. Some cells can recover. Delayed effects such as cancer and eye cataracts may appear many years later. both direct and indirect. it can damage the structure of molecules leading to the malfunction or death of living cells. The activity of a radioactive substance is defined as the average number of atoms disintegrating per unit time. When radiation passes through living tissues. q) Define Half-life Half-life is defined as the time taken for half the original number of radioactive nuclei to decay. r) Discuss qualitatively the effects. . of ionising radiation on living tissues and cells.

Which diagram could represent their paths (in the plane of the paper)? [N96P1Q29] Ans: A 2 a) Find the sum of masses of the constituents of the 12 C atom. You are given that mp = 1. Why is your answer to a) not 12 u Loss of mass in the form of mass defect when the protons.099 u b) By definition.00728u. Total mass of nucleons and electrons = 6mp + 6mn + 6me = 12. neutrons and electrons come together to form the atom. mn = 1.00055u. giving your answer in the 6 unified atomic mass unit.Section B: Question-Solving 1 Two alpha-particles with equal energies are fired towards the nucleus of a gold atom.00867u and me = 0. Page 5 of 5 . the mass of the exactly? 12 6 C atom is 12 u exactly.

(v) Page 6 of 5 . Using a positively charged projectile like an alpha or a proton means that the projectile will have to overcome the large electrical repulsion from the positively charged nucleus. determine the mass of the bromine nuclide in terms of the unified atomic mass constant u to 4 significant figures. Calculate the binding energy of 235 92 U in MeV to 4 significant figures. If you want a particle to hit the nucleus with a lot of energy.18930 MeV and that the energy released in the above reaction is 197 MeV. A similar reaction is used in nuclear power plants to generate nuclear energy. 235 92 U 1 + 0n → 236 92 U → 139 57 La + A Z 1 Br + 3 0 n + γ Use the following masses in answering this question: mass of 235 U nucleus = 235. can identify from the periodic table that the element is nitrogen.044 u 92 mass of mass of (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 139 57 La nucleus = 138. The unstable uranium-236 92 nucleus undergoes nuclear fission to form stable products of a lathium-139 nucleus ( 139 La) 57 A and a nuclide of bromine ( Z Br). a deuteron 2 H is emitted.00866 u neutron mass of 1 p proton 1 1 0n Explain the meaning of the term nuclide.906 u = 1. Neutrons can penetrate directly to the nucleus and cause nuclear reactions. What is the resulting nucleus? 16 8 2 O + 01n → 1 H + 15 N 7 Use conservation of nucleon number and proton number. uranium-235 ( 235 U) nuclei are transformed into unstable uranium-236 92 nuclei ( 236 U) through bombardment by slow-moving neutrons. 4 In a nuclear reaction. b) Why are neutrons such good projectiles for produing nuclear reactions? Neutrons are good projectiles for producing nuclear reactions because they are neutral and they are massive. Write down 1 8 the reaction equation. Determine the mass number A and proton number Z of the bromine nuclide. a more massive particle is the better choice. Given that the nuclear binding energy per nucleon of lathium-139 nucleus is 8.3 a) When an 16 O nucleus is bombarded by a neutron. Explain the subsequent behaviour of the neutrons produced in such reactions and a potential problem they present.00728 u = 1. A light electron would not be as effective. Based on proton number.

If the reaction is not controlled.641 MeV = 1741 MeV (4 sf) (iv) 235 92 U 1 + 0n → 236 92 U → 139 57 La + A Z 1 Br + 3 0 n + γ Energy released = BELa + BEBr – BeU 197 MeV = (8.00866) u c2 mBr = 93.00728u)–(799.00866u)+(35x1. it will produce an enormous amount of energy and possibly lead to an explosion.91 u (4 sf) Alternatively: Energy released = (minitial – mfinal) c2 = (mU + mn – mLa – mBr – 3mn) c2 197 MeV = (235.906 – mBr – 3x1.86414 u c2 = (1.66x10-27) (3.279x10-10 J) Since BEBr = (Mass of neutrons + Mass of protons – Mass of Br) c2 Mass of Br = Mass of neutrons + Mass of protons – BEBr / c2 =(59x1.3x106)(1.91 u (v) The neutrons produced can trigger a chain reaction. Page 7 of 5 .18930 x139) = 799.00x108)2] = 93. (ii) 94 35 Br : A=94 .00 x 108)2 = 2.044 + 1.66x10-27)(3.Z=35 (both must be correct) (iii) Binding energy of 235 U 92 = (mass of neutrons + mass of protons – mass of nucleus) c2 = [((235-92) x 1.00728) – (235.7850 x10-10 J = 1740.6x10-19)/[(1.3 MeV (1.18930 x139) + BEBr – 1740.86414 ) (1.00866 – 138.00866) + (92 x 1.4 (i) A nuclide is a species of nucleus with a particular nuclear structure.64073 BEBr = Energy released + BeU – BELa = 197 + 1740.044)] u c2 = 1.64073 – (8.

11 × 10-14 J Page 8 of 5 . a) Write an equation for this nuclear reaction.N + EK.007285u EK.002602u m(p) = 1. Given that: m(N) = 14. the kinetic energy of the α particle can be found by making it the subject of the equation: EK.000409 u) c2 = 6.998800u m(He) = 4.003074u m(O) = 16.α = [(mO + mp ) – (mN + m α)] c2 = (0. A nitrogen nucleus an oxygen nuclues 14 7 17 8 N is bombarded with an α-particle of a certain energy and transmutes to O and a proton.α + mN c2 + m α c2 = EK. will only be able to create product particles but not any excess energy for them Hence. 14 7 4 1 N + 2 He → 17O + 1 H 8 b) Find the minimum energy of the α-particle to make this reaction occur.5.p + mO c2 + mp c2 Assume nitrogen nucleus is originally at rest If α particle has minimum energy.O + EK.

00867 u Mass defect of U-238 atom = 92(1.48580 × 10-4 u 1. + 10p + 22n 206 82 Pb ---------. (iii) Equating mass number on both sides of the reaction: x=8 Equating proton number on both sides of the reaction: y=6 238 = 206 + 4x 92 = 82 + 8(2) .) (iii) For reaction (II).60×10-19) = 1.92)(1. state the values of x and y. show that the binding energy of uranium-238 is 1807 MeV given the following data: rest mass of electron: rest mass of proton: rest mass of neutron: (ii) 5.00728) + 92(5. Nuclear binding energy is the amount of energy released when individual protons and neutrons come together to form a nucleus.00728 u 1.6.00867) .0×108)2 ÷ (1.48580 × 10-4) + (238 .(I) 238 92 U + x 4 He + ye 2 ---------. From the principle of conservation of mass-energy.05080 u.935249 u Binding energy of U-238 = 1.05080 = 1. it follows that the release in energy results in a corresponding decrease in mass of the nucleus as compared to the total mass of the individual protons and neutrons that make up the nucleus. The uranium isotope 238 92 U naturally by a series of stages to the lead isotope Two schemes for the decay are suggested: 206 82 Pb 238 92 U decays 206 82 Pb .(II) (i) Define the term nuclear binding energy and explain how it is related to the mass-defect of a nucleus.807 × 109 eV = 1807 MeV (4 s. This decrease in mass is known as the mass-defect.66×10-27) x (3.f. (ii) Given that the atomic mass of uranium-238 is 238.y Page 9 of 5 .935249 × (1.238.

4 MeV of energy.(I) ---------. Reaction (II) however.(II) 206 82 4 Pb + 8 2 He + 6e (iv) For reaction (I): Energy released = 1613 – 1807 = -194 MeV For reaction (II): Energy released = 1613 + 8(28.(iv) The total binding energy of 206 Pb is 1613 MeV and that of 4 He is 28.4 MeV From the calculation of the energy changes involved. the activity of a sample mass m of this isotope is A mN A λM B mλ MN A C λmN A M D λmN A m Ans: C A = λN → A = λ m NA M 8. it appears that 194 MeV per nucleus of U-238 must be supplied in order for reaction (I) to proceed.3 MeV. and a molar mass M. (a) Explain the meaning of the term half life. Hence. 7. this reaction might proceed with greater ease than the first reaction. discuss the feasibilities of the two schemes.3) – 1807 = 32. results in the release of 32. Half life means the time taken for half the number of nuclei of a radioactive element to decay Page 10 of 5 . Taking the Avogadro constant to be NA. The total binding energy of the products is greater than that of the parent nucleus. Based on 82 2 energy considerations. 238 92 U 238 92 U 206 82 Pb + 10p + 22n ---------. This implies that the products might be more stable than the parent. A radioactive isotope has a decay constant λ.

(i) Calculate the number of C-14 atoms in one gram of living wood. (a) Show that the number of nuclei of Y in the sample.(b) Carbon-14 has a half life of 5600 years. ( ) N X = N0 e − λt N = N0 − N X = N0 − N0 e − λ t = N0 1 − e − λ t ( ) Page 11 of 5 .0 g of living wood.t 6. of C-14 atoms.0 x 104 yrs 9 Nuclide X of decay constant = 7. N. after time t is given by N = N 0 1 − e − λt .5 = 75 e-(ln 2 / 5600) t t = -(5600 / ln 2) [ln (6.0 g wood has an activity of 6.5 decays min-1.5/75)] = 1. N = 15 / [ln 2 / (5600 x 365 x 24 x 60)] = 6.4 x 1010 (ii) Determine the age of an ancient ship from which a sample of 5. A sample initially contains N0 number of nuclei of X.98 x 104 yrs = 2.85 x 10-10 s-1 is a beta emitter which decays to a stable nuclide Y. The activity of each gram of living wood due to C14 is 15 decays min-1. Activity of 5. A0 = 15 x 5 = 75 decays min-1 Since A = A0 e. = ln 2 / t1/2 = ln 2 / 5600 Since A = N No.37 x 1010 = 6.

40 × 1010 s Page 12 of 5 . A= 5.(b) Sketch labeled graphs showing the variation of the number of nuclei of X and Y with time on the same axes.25 × 1013 = 5.83x10 8 t/s (c) It was found that a fresh sample of X emits 5.68 × 107 = 5. A0 = 5.83 × 108 s 7.25 × 1012 Bq 10 − 7. Calculate the time taken by a 50 year-old sample of X to emit the same number of particles.5s 1.52 × 1012 Calculate the age of a sample of X if it takes 1 week to emit the same number of particles.85 × 10−10 N N0 Y N0/2 X 0 8. T1 = 2 ln 2 λ = ln 2 = 8.25 × 1013 = 8.25 × 1012 e −7.52 × 1012 Bq t= (ii) 5.25 × 1013 = 34.25 x 1013 particles in (i) 10 s.68 × 107 Bq 7 × 24 × 60 × 60 −10 8.85×10 t t = 1.25 × 1012 e ( ) = 1.85×10−10 ( 50×365× 24× 60×60 ) A = 5.

4 × 10 −4 × N N ≈ 2. The decay constant λ of a radioactive isotope is the fraction of the total number of atoms that decay per unit time. the activity drops to 4.5 × 10 7 = 3. find a. (i) Calculate the decay constant of the radioactive isotope. A power source with an output of 1. the mass of radium required to produce this power. Since ρ = M .53 g cm–3.66 × 10 −27 × 10 3 2.53 = V 3 −10 V ≈ 1.34 kg 11 (a) Define the decay constant of a radioactive isotope.6 × 10 8 Bq.4 × 10 −4 s–1 (ii) Deduce the number of radioactive nuclei present initially in the freshly prepared sample.3 × 10 cm Page 13 of 5 .0 h.00 x 103 / 6. (b) A freshly prepared sample of an unknown radioactive isotope X−80 has an initial activity of 3. V 2.02 x 1023 x M/ 0.5 × 10 7 Bq. 4.35 x 10-12 = 1.57 x 1014 s-1 = (ln2/1622 x 3.00 kW is required for use in a research laboratory. (Take one year = 3. After 4.15 x 107) (6.35 x 10-12 J of energy released in the decay of a Given that the half-life of radium is 1622 years. This power is derived from the 6.5 × 1012 nuclei (iii) Given that the density of the sample is 2.5 × 10 12 × 80 × 1.6 × 10 8 × e − λ ×4×3600 λ ≈ 1.57 x 1014 s-1 226 88 Ra nucleus. Since A = λN .10. calculate the volume of the sample. Using A = Ao e − λt .15 x 107 s) A= N =( ln 2 /t1/2) (NA M/Mm) 1.6 × 10 8 = 1. the activity A= dN/dt = dN/dE x dE/dt = P/(dE/dN) = 1. 3. b.226) M = 4.

0 t1/2 n = 3. 1.409 801 n' A ' C ' 801 1 = = = A0 C0 6409 2 lg 801 1 = n lg 6409 2 6.1 shows a simple experiment set up by a student to estimate the activity of a radioactive source.1 (i) Explain why the detector does not detect the emission of α -particles in the above set-up.0 + 6. Random – do not know when or which particular nucleus will decay. The source emits α and β -particles and is placed 10 cm from a detector that is connected to a counter. (ii) Without the source. 2. Spontaneous – not affected by external factors (b) Fig. Alpha particles are highly ionizing and will not penetrate far in air.0 = 14.12 (a) Radioactive decay is a random and spontaneous process.0 Count-rate / min−1 7009 1401 Find the time t at which the observed count-rate falls to 650 min−1. 12. The detector is capable of detecting all types of radioactive emissions.0 × 2. the following count rates are observed at two different times t.0 50 1 = 801 2 50 1 lg = n' lg n ' 4.0 n True count-rate / min-1 6.0hrs Page 14 of 5 .0 hrs (Ans) ∴ t1/ 2 = 2. When the source is placed 10 cm in front of the detector. t / hour 0 6. counter 10 cm source detector Fig. True count = observed count – background count t / hour 0 6. 12.0 = 801 2 t = 4. the counter gives a count-rate of 600 min−1. Explain what is meant by random and spontaneous.0 hrs = 3.

gradient m’ = .4) = −4 − 0 −4 -1 = cm 9.0 − 0 9 Since gradient m’ = .3 = 0.037 cm2g-1 Therefore approximate µ for concrete = µm ρ = (0.037 + 0.037)(2.µ = µ = 0.035 + 0. (b) (i) let graph be ln CX = m ' x (comparing to y = mx + c) .09cm-1 Page 15 of 5 .Extra Question: Radioactive Decay Data Analysis Question: TYS [N98/II/9] (a) (i) A photon is a ‘packet’ or quantum of electromagnetic radiation.039 (d) (i) Average value = (0. y-intercept =0.444 cm -1 (from bii) µm of lead = 0.444 cm -1 −4 9 (c) (i) the unit for µ m = unit of µ / unit of ρ = (cm-1)/g cm-3) = cm2g-1 (ii) Complete the table for lead: µ of lead = 0.0888 = 0. the count-rate approaches to a very small value but never reaches zero. (iii) As the thickness is increased. (ii) A parallel beam is used to ensure that the radiation travels straight and incident normally on the absorber so that none will be deflected and reflected from other surfaces to bypass the absorber to get to the detector.039) /3 = 0.µ (ii) Gradient of the graph (Fig 4.444/11.4) = 0. C0 gradient = m’ C ln X = x C0 taking exp on both sides: Cx = em ' x Co C x = Co e m ' x Comparing it with C x = Co e − µ x .

per unit thickness is more effective than concrete for radioactive shielding. a very high temperature is required. 0. Japan. the thickness of concrete required for shielding is 5 times more than lead for the same degree of shielding. It was a test of an implosion-design fission bomb with a 6.16 = . Lead is a good thermal conductor and the heat transmitted through it by the radioactive source may result in fire hazard. Hence the heat generated by the radioactive source can be contained within it more easily. New Mexico. This shows that lead .16 = (0. from the graph Fig 43. Page 16 of 5 . conducted by the United States on July 16. However concrete is often used for shielding because it can be much more easily made into a fluid mixture to be molded and used to encase the radiaoactive source before solidifying (as in the Chernobyl disaster). nuclear fusion or a multistage cascading combination of the two. The "bubble" seen represents the wavefront of the advancing blast wave.16 Co Given Cx = e− µ x Co For concrete. Concrete is also a poor thermal conductor compared to lead. The "Trinity" test was the outcome of the Manhattan Project and the first ever test of a nuclear weapon. The driving reaction may be nuclear fission.025 s after detonation.09)x x =20.(ii) For 4. A nuclear explosion occurs as a result of the rapid release of energy from an uncontrolled nuclear chain reaction. Assignment Solution 14. headquartered near Alamogordo.09cm-1 ln 0.4 = 20 cm (e) From answer in d(ii). The picture below is obtained using high speed photography of the Trinity test shot 0.16 = e− µ x where µ =0. 1945 at what is now White Sands Missile Range.2 kg plutonium core.0cm lead. Cx = 0. This was the same type of weapon later dropped on Nagasaki. in which the plutonium core was rapidly compressed by high explosives to achieve super-criticality.µ x ln 0. In order to melt lead to encase the radioactive source.

The yield is often expressed as the equivalent tonnage of conventional explosive TNT detonated instead of in joules.184 x 1012 J Mass of plutonium-239 atom. Half-life of caesium-137. The majority of the energy released is in the form of the blast wave and thermal radiation. Page 17 of 5 [1] . 90 38 90 38 Sr : 89.07 years (decay mode : β -) 131 53 I : 8.052 u 94 Mass of strontium-90 atom.908 u Sr : 28.280 m High speed photograph of Trinity test shot after detonation The yield or total energy released by a nuclear explosion can be estimated from the blast radius at a known time using the formula: cρR 5 yield. neutrons and protons in plutonium-239.00 kg m-3 Energy equivalent of 1 kiloton of TNT detonated : 4. These can cause serious illnesses to humans if they are exposed to fallout through external radiation exposure as well as internal hazards due to inhalation and ingestion of radiocontaminants.033 in air. E = t2 equation (1) where E is the energy (in joules).04 days (decay mode : β-) (a) Write down the number of nucleons. t is the time (in seconds).90 years (decay mode : β-) 137 55 Cs : 30. Half-life of iodine-131. Examples of these radioactive isotopes include relatively short-lived iodine-131 or long-lived strontium-90 and caesium-137. 239 Pu : 239. Additional data is provided below: Density of air : 1. and c is a constant of 1. is the ambient density of air (in kg m-3) and R is the blast radius (in metres). Half-life of strontium-90. named from the fact that it "falls out" of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. One of the delayed hazards of a nuclear explosion is the radioactive fallout. It commonly refers to the radioactive dust created when a nuclear weapon explodes.

[2] 0.) ) 5 [1] In kiloton TNT equivalent = (8.60 × 10 −19 =2. [2] E= (1. The value to Part (ii) is the mass equivalent of the total energy released.f.2 kg) x (0.00 × 10 ) = 9.184x1012) = 21. using equation (1) and other information from the passage.1873 x1024 = 2.19 x 1024 (3s. (iii) .8892 × 10 (3. E = mc2 m= [1] 13 8 2 [2] 8.f.) [1] (iii) The efficiency of a fission weapon is the fraction of the fissile material (plutonium) that actually fissions.8892 x 1013 = 8.88 x 10-4 kg (3s. 137Cs. [1] (6. determine how many plutonium-239 nuclei underwent fission.f.131I) (v) Using your answer to (iii). while the mass in Part (iii) is the mass of the Plutonium that fissions to release the energy.868 kg [1] (iv) Compare the answers to part (ii) and (iii) and comment on why they are different. of which some is converted to energy and released while the rest constitute the mass of [1] the product nuclei/fission fragments (like 90Sr. calculate the mass of the plutonium core that underwent fission.14) = 0.239 nucleons. calculate the energy in MeV released per fission of plutonium-239.f.2 kilotons TNT [1] (ii) Calculate the amount of mass converted to energy.The main difference bet (iii) and (ii) value is due to the total mass of the product nuclei/fission fragments. i. [2] 8.89x1013 J (3s. [1] Other comments Part (ii) also represents the INCREASE in total mass defect/binding energy of the nuclei that undergo fission.1873 × 10 Page 18 of 5 .8892 × 1013 ÷ 1.0252 ( 2 = 8.868 = 2.00) 280 0.8892x1013) ÷ (4. as it does not represent the total mass defect/binding energy of the Pu that fissions) Part (ii) value > Part (iii) value.033)(1. 145 neutrons.052) × 1.66 × 10− 27 ( ) [2] (vi) Hence.5399x109 eV = 254 MeV (3s.) 24 2. Given that the efficiency of the weapon used in the “Trinity” test was 14%.(ii) = mass of fission fragments (just saying "mass defect" or "the binding energy" insufficient.) (239. in kiloton TNT equivalent. 94 protons [1] (b) (i) Estimate the yield of the Trinity nuclear explosion.e.

(c) Assuming equal numbers of caesium-137.org/nuke/guide/usa/doctrine/dod/fm8-9/1ch5.f.3 x 1011 Bq? Give your answer in days. Thus the shortest half-life translates into the highest activity for the same number of radioactive nuclei present. which might lead to organ failure and death. and λ = (ln 2)/t½.7 × 1012 4. P2. Thus.62x10-2 day-1 (3 s. explain briefly which will have the highest activity. then λ ∝ 1/t½.8525 = 31. [2] A = Aoe-λt ln t= Ao A ln = λ 6. [2] N = A/λ = (6. iodine131 will have the highest activity. [2] (d) Write an equation to represent the radioactive decay of strontium-90. assuming equal numbers of each nuclide present. [1] 90 38 90 0 Sr →39 X + −1 e [1] (e) (i) Calculate the decay constant λ of iodine-131.htm (HCI Prelim 2006. Alpha emitters ingested are extremely dangerous in the body even though they are not penetrating but highly ionizing. in the case of the 3 radionuclides mentioned in the passage) ionize matter it encounters.fas. This is especially so if it is inhaled or ingested.04 (iii) How long will it take for the activity of the above mentioned sample to fall to 4. Beta emitters being both penetrating and ionizing and can cause significant damage from inside and outside the body. [1] The radiation/radioactive emissions given off by the fallout (beta particles. [1] Other comments The harmful property of the radiation given off is ionization.04) = 0. If the radiation damages DNA. See http://www. If the activity is measured to be 6.3 × 1011 = 31. Q8) Page 19 of 5 . the mutations can result in cancers/tumours.f. Since N is assumed the same initially.71 x 1018 s-1 (3s.086212 [2] (f) Suggest why exposure to radioactive fallout can be hazardous to one’s health. not penetration (save for neutrons). [2] As A = λN.9 days 0.7 x 1012 Bq. This will affect cells/tissue.7 x 1012)/ [1] ln 2 ÷ [24 × 60 × 60] s-1 = 6.7146x1018 = 6. iodine-131 and strontium-90 nuclides. λ = (ln 2)/t½ = (ln2)/(8.0086212 = 8.) [1] [1] (ii) Iodine-131 is extracted from a sample of rock collected near a nuclear test explosion. determine the number of iodine-131 atoms present in the rock sample. Gamma radiation on the other hand is so penetrating that a significant portion will pass through the human body without interaction.) [1] 8. You may use the symbol X to represent the daughter nucleus after the decay.

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