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The Assessment of Solar Panel in Quezon

Ybut, Jhon Christian P., Loquinario, Lorena, Bajamonde, Marie Fe G. Ybut, Jhon Christian P. College of Arts, Science and Technology De La Salle Araneta University Victoneta Ave. Malabon City, Philippines jcybut@gmail.com Loquinario, Lorena College of Arts, Science and Technology De La Salle Araneta University Victoneta Ave. Malabon City, Philippines red_february@gmail.com Bajamonde, Marie Fe G. College of Arts, Science and Technology De La Salle Araneta University Victoneta Ave. Malabon City, Philippines bajamonde_fe@yahoo.com

Abstract
On a blistering summer day in a tropical country like the Philippines, the sun beams out approximately 1,000 watts of energy per square meter of surface area that it shines on. If we could harness all that energy experts say that we could easily power our homes and offices for free, without the use of exhaustible and thus expensive fossil fuel that has been found to cause the greatest harm to the environment and trigger climate change. We can do this by using solar panels. Assessment of solar panel may possibly help people who want a green environment because with the use of solar panels we are only depends on the sunlight of the sun and it doesnt produce pollution. Another unusual point to consider is the shade provided by the solar panels installed on your roof. This shade can bring down the temperature of your attic during the hot summers. When you think about so many advantages, solar energy is really a good choice to option for. Quezon City is the subject for the cost analysis of the solar panel. Cost analysis model was developed to identify the possible amount of the production of the solar panel. The analysis may help the people who want to build their own solar power home, if they can afford the expenses in building this kind of home.

Keywords
Solar radiation, photovoltaic cells solar panel, solar cell,

1. Introduction
In today's climate of growing energy needs and increasing environmental concern, alternatives to the use of non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels have to be investigated. One such alternative is solar energy. Solar energy begins with the sun. Solar panels, also known as photovoltaics, are used to convert light from the sun, which is composed of particles of energy called "photons", into electricity that can be used to power electrical loads. Light from the sun is a renewable energy resource which provides clean energy, produced by solar panels. As fossil fuel prices have and global climate change have increased, alternative technologies for producing electricity have received greater. Solar power has two big advantages over fossil fuels. The first is in the fact that it is renewable; it is never going to run out. The second is its effect on the environment. The suns energy meanwhile is free and can be stored and utilized even on rainy days and at night. To trap solar energy, one needs to install what is known as a solar photo voltaic energy system, consisting of solar panels, solar charge regulator, battery to store energy, and an inverter system to convert direct current (DC) electricity into alternating current (AC). Solar panels are placed on top of a flat surface, like the roof of a house or building. When activated, the panels absorb the suns rays and convert them into electricity. The solar charge regulator controls the current and serves as monitor for the batteries to ensure that they are not overcharged. The batteries are then connected to a voltage inverter system that converts the 12-volt DC from solar panels to 220-volt AC, which is the electricity needed to power homes. Finally, the electricity is connected to the utility panel in the house so the lights and the appliances will work when these are switched on. In the study, daily totals of solar global radiation from Quezon City that was performed by the National Solar Radiation Center (RF1P) in Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAG-ASA) between the years

2007 2008. There is an average of 2105 hours of sunlight duration per year with an average of 5.8 hours of sunlight per day. Data that was used in this study was gathered from PAG-ASA in Quezon City which is located at the center of southern Quezon City where many government offices are located like Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR), Departments of Agriculture (DA), Agrarian Reform (DAR), Interior and Local Government (DILG), and the Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). Quezon City has the geographic coordinates of 1438N 1212E / 14.633N 121.033E. In 2007, the population of Quezon City was 2,679,450 or 2.93% from year 2000. Solar radiation data provide information on how much of the sun's energy strikes a surface at a location on earth during a particular time period. The data give values of energy per unit of area. By showing naturally occurring changes in the amount of solar radiation over the course of days, months, and years, these data determine the amount of solar radiation for a location. The units of measurement are expressed as kilowatt-hours per square meter (kWh/ m2), megajoules per square meter (Mj/m'), langleys (L), or British thermal units per square foot (Btu/ft'). Photovoltaic comes from the words photo meaning light and volt, a measurement of electricity.

2. Methodology
2.1 Sources of Data
The data that were processed in this research were gotten from the by National Solar Radiation Center - PAG-ASA; Crown Power CoGeneration Services Inc.

2.2 Solar Radiation Assessment


Solar radiation is obvious as daylight when the sun is above the horizon. The data was used to find out the intensity of heat that strike in Quezon City. Figure 2.1 shows the monthly values of global solar radiation in Quezon City for the year 2007-2008. Sunshine duration mean the cumulative time during which an area receives direct irradiance from the Sun of at least 120 watts per square meter. It gives the sunlight intensity specifically in Quezon City which is used to determine the possible numbers of solar panels that were going to use in building a solar power home. Figure 2.2

shows the monthly Quezon City.

sunshine

duration

in

flow of energy from the sun in a solar power system and its location in house as shown in Figure 2.3.3

Figure 2.1 Monthly Values of Global Radiation (Year 2007-2008); Unit: Joules/cm-2; Longitude: 121o 04 Latitude: 14o 36

Figure 2.3.1 Solar Panel Diagram

Figure 2.2 Monthly Average of Sunlight duration in Quezon City.

Figure 2.3.2 Solar Power System Flow

2.3 Solar Panel Review


Solar Energy System Components Solar panels - an array of photovoltaic (PV) cells which collect light energy from the sun and transforms it into direct current (DC) that is stored into batteries. Charge controller - this device ensures that batteries are not overcharged by the solar panels. Power inverter - this device draws DC power from the batteries and converts it alternating current which is then used by electrical appliances. Batteries - this the device that stores electrical power generated by the solar panels. A solar panel is an array of photovoltaic (PV) cells which collect light energy from the sun and transforms it into direct current (DC) that is stored into batteries. With the use of an inverter, the electrical energy from the batteries are drawn and converted into alternating current (AC) that is fed into a household or commercial establishment. Figure 2.3.1 as shown below illustrates the solar panel diagram. Figure 2.3.2 show the

Figure 2.3.3 Solar Power System Installation location

Three Major Types of Solar Panels Monocrystalline - is made up of crystalline silicon that is cut to the size of the panel. This is the most efficient since it is one big piece of crystal absorbing solar energy and at the same time the most expensive. Polycrystalline - is made up of smaller pieces of silicon crystals. This is the most commonly used due to manufacturing cost. This type is less efficient in absorbing solar energy compared to the monocrystalline type.

Thin Film Panels - is made up of amorphous, protocrystalline, nanocrystalline, or black silicon which is then deposited (coated) onto a thin panel such as stainless steel and other materials. While this type less costly to produce and is flexible compared to the fragile crystalline panels. It is the least efficient of the three (3) types.

Table 4.2 Solar Panel Cost Production for Class B resident

Table 4.3 Solar Panel Cost Production for Class C resident

3. Results Discussion

and
For the cost

analysis we use three (3) classes of residents, class A, B and C. We use to classify them in order to identify the amount of their monthly and daily average usage of electricity per kWh. The table shows the average kWh usage of class A, B and C resident in Quezon City.
Table3.1 Average usage kWh per day and month

HOU SEHOLD

CLA SS A CLA SS B CLA SS C

Average U sage per day per m onth kW h Wh kW h 24 24000 720 8 3.2 8000 3200 240 96

Solar Panels can lasts for 20 years. In cost analysis, installation cost is added to total twenty years costs. The approximate electrical energy that will be produced in those twenty years is determined. As a result, if the costs are divided by energy then unit cost is reached. If we make a cost calculation considering only the hours with sunlight then in that region which face the sunlight daily total 5.8h: Pre-cost computation for solar panel in class A, B and C household in Quezon City CLASS A

4. Assessment of Solar Panel Cost Production


Table 4.1 Solar Panel Cost Production for Class A resident

Cost = Solar Panel + Controller + Inverter


+ Battery + Installation

Cost

= 800,000+ 250,000 + 200,000

33,600+

38,820

Cost = 1,202,420.00
The approximate total energy in 20 years = Daily energy*365*no. of years The approximate total energy in 20 years = 24,000Wh*365*20 = 175,200 Kwh or 175,200,000 Wh

Unit cost = Expenses/ Productions Unit Cost for monocrystalline panel = 1,402,420/175,200 = P8.00 CLASS B

Cost = Solar Panel + Controller + Inverter


+ Battery + Installation

Cost

who wants to make used of solar power system for their home in generating electricity from the sun. The cost analysis would ideally give the preference of using solar panel. The computation was applied particularly to the residents of Quezon City, suggests that correctly accounting for the electricity production of solar panels. It is suitable result obtained from the calculation. This calculation shows Quezon City is suitable cities for solar energy implementations. In relation to the redemption calculation, considering the rises in the future the solar cells with 20 year life time, can depreciate the whole investment in 10 years and it occurs to be a profitable investment for 10 years. This is important and easy method that from a practical approach, the PV system efficient and cost analysis. The computation on the production of the solar panel in different classes of residents in Quezon City assumes that even though the cost in building of the solar panel house they can still gain their expenses in production. Besides, a very important advantageous of this is system is its being unaffected from markups and energy cuts. The cost analysis would help out populace who wants to build their own solar home. Different resident class can depend on the cost analysis of the solar panel whether they can avail it or not. Solar power systems setting-up may require high costing initially, in the long run it saves you money in using it rather than the traditional technological energy sources. The multicolored solar panels, which need a large area for installation, having proper battery back up can work 24*7 even on cloudy nights & imperfect weather conditions!

= 330,000 + 16,800 + 14,000 + 96,600 + 75,000

Cost = 532,400.00
The approximate total energy in 20 years = Daily energy*365*no. of years The approximate total energy in 20 years = 8,000Wh*365*20 = 58,400 Kwh or 58,400,000 Wh Unit cost = Expenses/ Productions Unit Cost for monocrystalline panel = 532,400/58,400 = P9.11 CLASS C

Cost = Solar Panel + Controller + Inverter


+ Battery + Installation

Cost = 132,000 + 7,590 + 9,950 + 39,000


+ 36,000

Cost = 224,540
The approximate total energy in 20 years = Daily energy*365*no. of years The approximate total energy in 20 years = 3,200Wh*365*20 = 23,360 Kwh or 23,360,000 Wh Unit cost = Expenses/ Productions Unit Cost for monocrystalline panel = 224,540/23,360 = P9.61

Acknowledgements
The author would like to thank people who helped to complete this project, to my classmates and especially to god.

References
[1] PAG-ASA, Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration [2] National Solar Radiation Center, Daily Totals of Solar Radiation, 2007-2008 [3] Quezon City, http://www.wikipedia/quezon_city.html.

5.CONCLUSION
Assessment of solar panel would help people

[4]Solar Energy, http://www.wikipedia/solar_energy.html.