CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background Since many centuries, literature as the language art has become the media of the people to express their mind, either in imaginative literature or in unimaginative literature. As the opinion of Wellek and Warren: “Literature is an expression of society… It is common place, trite and vague if it means only that literature depicts some aspects of social reality. A writer inevitably expresses his experience and total conception of life, but it would be manifestly untrue to say that he expresses the whole life or even life of given time completely and exhaustively.” (1973: 95) In line with this opinion, Henry Van Dyke in Jheza (2011) argues that literature consists of those writings which interpret the meaning of nature and life, in words of charm and power, touched with the personality of the author, in artistic form of permanent interest. Then Imam Ja‟far al-Sadiq in Jheza (2011), Muslim scholar and philosopher, stated that literature is the garment which one puts on what he says or writes so that it may appear more attractive. One unique way to utilize literature in writing is by composing it in beautiful and fiction form. Novel as the instance is the long fictional written story which presents the more complexity than the other kinds of prose. Literary work, in this term the novel depicts social reality. This is because, human being and literature are intertwined each other. They have interrelationship where literary work can be the representation of social reality and the literary work itself can influence the society. For example, the novel by P.A Daum “Ups and

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Downs of Life in the Indies” which describes social life of colonial in Indies. This means that it is made base on colonial‟s social reality. Then novel which in the contrary influences the society, as instance novel by Dan Brown “The Davinci Code”, which has invited controversy especially among the Christians. We can conclude that literary work is from and for the society. Novel has contributed beneficial advantages for the development of people‟s mind. Not only to entertain, but also to inform and educate the readers. One type of novel that is very useful for entertaining, informing, and educating is historical novel. Goethe in Gaarder (2010: 23) stated that he who cannot draw on three thousand years is living from hand to mouth. So, history is not only past moments which pass away and just become the invaluable story; it is more as the life learning. It becomes more attractive when it is presented in fiction. Sophie‟s World by Jostein Gaarder is one of the examples of this historical novel. But, it is exceptional because Jostein Gaarder presents the history of philosophy from the beginning until the recent in 20th century in one book and also fascinating because it uses mystery genre where the readers will be brought to discover philosophy with the different way. It is about Sophie Amundsen a fourteen years old girl who at first receives a letter consisted of philosophical questions from a mysterious philosopher. At the same day she also received a peculiar postcard from a father which addressed it for his daughter, Hilde Moller Knag but through her. Who are Hilde and her father is the big question here. The strange events that she experienced during her philosophical subject make us in suspense when reading this novel. Just like reading detective story actually. So

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there are two different sides in this novel, about Sophie‟s life which is fully fiction and about history of philosophy which is fully reality. Although for many people philosophy is difficult, but this novel enlightens it sagaciously with the simple description, so we can understand more about philosophy easier. Dr. Abbas Hamami Mintaredja, the dean of Philosophy Faculty in UGM, in Indonesian version of this novel “Dunia Sophie: Sebuah Novel Filsafat” (Gaarder, 2010) said that the expressing of philosophical thought pattern in this novel uses the simple language so that it is undemanding to be comprehended by the people who poor hand at philosophy. It is also equal with the statement in Newsweek about this novel: “Extraordinary… The book will serve as a first-rate introduction for anyone who never took an introductory philosophy course and as a pleasant refresher for those who have” (Pitcock 2007:1) In the growth of philosophy, people‟s mind automatically also grows. From thinking about the nature, human, and then society. From making own story about the Gods such as Thor, Zeus, Apollo, and Athena, and Their correlation with natural phenomenon and human disease, believing it as the mythology, then transforming to be more scientific in thinking. Afterward, their thought pattern developed more to think about how to create good constitutional kingdom or state to make more prosperous social life. Wright Mills in Haviland (1994) argued that we all live in a particular society and during a specific period of history. Thus, the features of that society and the character of that period of history naturally affect how each individual acts and reasons. In the relation with this historical novel, we can see that there are the

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About this social change. Ogburn in Muin (2004: 86). this social aspect will be the researcher‟s focus in this research. 4 . accordingly William F. For instance the conflict between Roman and the Church authority before Renaissance where encouraged social change. These conditions also prove the theory of social change called Cyclical Theory by Oswald Spengler completed by Ronald Toynbee that social changes occur because of the progression and the deterioration of the civilization. and how the society responds the challenges in their social environment Social aspect itself is the important aspect that we should appreciate because in our lives. By reading this novel. we will conceive that social changes occurred because of the differences growing in society which influence each other in the term of creating the better and truer life. Social change is also caused by the social conflicts that arise in the society. So. appear the frictions among them. we cannot stand without maintaining relationship with the other. where because of the complexity of human beings‟ thought.significant changes related with the society of ancient Greece until modern society in 20th century where the philosophy was growing in Europe. social change includes the elements of culture either material or immaterial. As an example the advance in science of Roman in the Middle Ages as the result of social influence of Muslims scholars in Spain and Northern Italy. and from the history we can learn many things about it such as the way how to build a good condition in our social life and how to live in peace beside the other.

Objective of the Research Objectives of the research based on the problem statements are as follow: 1. To explain the social changes in Europe from ancient Greek to modern era in Jostein Gaarder‟s novel “Sophie‟s World” D. What are the social aspects in Jostein Gaarder‟s novel “Sophie‟s World”? 2.B. the researcher formulates research questions as follow: 1. 5 . Problem Statement Based on the background above. To identify the social aspects in Jostein Gaarder‟s novel “Sophie‟s World”. E. How are the social changes in Europe from ancient Greek to modern era in Jostein Gaarder‟s novel “Sophie‟s World”? C. also as the beneficial reference for the readers especially for them who also want to research social aspect or the same novel. 2. Significance of the Research The result of this research expectantly will present useful information about social aspects and valuable life learning about social changes in Europe from ancient Greek to modern era which exist in this Jostein Gaarder‟s historical novel “Sophie‟s World”. Scope of the Research The scope of the research is limited to discuss about social aspects and social changes in Europe from ancient Greek to modern era in Jostein Gaarder‟s novel “Sophie‟s World.

Theme Theme is what the author is trying to tell the reader.CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. Definition of Novel The English word „novel‟ is derived from Italian „novella‟ similar with the French word „new‟ and „small‟. among others are: the title of the fiction.000 words and onwards. In line with the opinion of Watt in book “the Rise of the Novel”: “The novel thus the logical literary vehicle of a culture which in the last few centuries has set an unprecedented value on originality. if we will. the belief in the ultimate good in people or those things is not always what they seem or the moral of the story. Novel refers to a representation of real life and as an extensive work of written. In many cases a novel is about characters and their actions in everyday life. Novel 1. According to Gill in Halim and Sultan (2008) the theme may emerge from the variety of ways. 6 . is not bound by the structural and metrical restrictions of plays and poetry. and generally in story form. on the novel. prose fiction. Elements of Novel a. and it is therefore well named. 2.” (2001: 13) Novel is about 40. This is more complex than either the short story or the novella. often the writer's present. and is not usually composed of the traditional plots of myth and legend. narrative. For example.

important words. b. 2) Rising action is the dramatization of events that complicate the situation (complication) and gradually intensify the conflict. If he decides or closes the story for the reader by stating clearly the destiny of the characters. this is called „open plot‟. actions. or the murderer was convicted and hanged. Plot consists of action and reaction. also referred to as stimulus and response. The story of the novel progresses through various plots. and the reader is left to make a decision what he thinks the resolution or ending of the story might be. this is called „close plot‟. symbol. construction of plot and important events. like they live happily ever after. On the other hand. 3) Climax is where the rising action (complication and conflict) come to further development and to a moment of crisis. Plot A plot or storyline is the rendering and ordering of the events. time. and situation. 4) Falling action is the problem or conflict proceeds toward resolution. and ideas of a story. Charters in Istiqamah (1996: 12) divides plot into four parts: 1) Exposition is the part in which the author introduces the characters. In general. 7 . scene. Plot is often depicted as a curve with a zigzag line to represent the rise and fall of action.common theme. there are two ways for the author to end up the story. sometimes the story ends at the climax.

Character can be fictional or based on real. Antagonist is the character who stands in opposition to the protagonist 4.” (1976: 290) Characters may be of several types: 1. d. a personage in a novel. It may or may not also be the main character in the story. It can be human. mythical. The setting is often a real place. Character A character is a participant who acts in the story. Whereas characterization is a technique used by the author to depict his fictional character. supernatural. Minor character is a character that interacts with the main characters. Protagonist is the main character of a story. Point-of-view character is the character by whom the story is viewed. but may be a fictitious city or country within our own world. 2. They help the story move along. animal. The term of character also denotes the essential qualities or personality traits of functional or real individual. Setting Setting is the locale and time and also the situation of a story. the term of character is: “Character in literature. historical entities. or personifications of abstraction whose existence originates from a fictional work or performance. 3.c. Major character is all the important characters in a story 5. or poem. short story. In The Encyclopedia Americana. Gill in Halim and Sultan (2008) has suggested a broader domain of setting are: 8 . divine.

e. Point of View Point of view refers to particularly created person who will describe the story. In “An Introduction to Fiction” by Kennedy (1987: 20). the author usually chooses one or more characters performing as narrators. The author may begin with a certain point of view and ends the story with others. belief. The atmosphere. The particular locations of events e.a. friend and class c. 9 . The custom. It simply refers to the person who tells the story. and rules of behavior that give identity to a society d. The place in which characters appear b. point of view might be divided into two groups: 1) Narrator a participant (writing in the first person) a) A major character b) A minor character 2) Narrator a non participant (writing in the third person) a) All knowing (seeing into any of the characters) b) Seeing into one major character c) Objective (not seeing into any character) A story can be told from one of the four different points of view and sometimes it may shift. In his writing. mood and feeling that all the above elements create. The social context of characters such as their families. It is important to remember that the narrator is not identical to the writer.

Individual and Family Individual is the human being who lives and exists in this world. and even this is also used often in political discourse. Individual cannot be separated from the society.B. social happiness. Social Aspects Here there are some social aspects that include in society. because society is formed by the interaction or the individuals. We can conclude that social is all about human relation. (Anonym. "non-social" realism. It talks about the people as the institution. Individual cannot stand without 10 . the term "social" is used in many different senses and regarded as a fuzzy concept. justice. psychology. social usage. or behaviors which take the interests. social task. 2011) The term „social‟ is related to people or society or human beings who live in society. a. orientations. social justice. Definition of Social In the absence of agreement about its meaning. For instance terms like social realism. Social 1. intentions. social psychology and social capital imply that there is some social process involved or considered a process that is not there in regular. or needs of other people into account (in contrast to antisocial behavior) has played some role in defining the idea or the principle. or capital. These aspects influence the development of society and social change. 2. referring among other things to: attitude. it is also related to the social interest.

there are also some people who have conflict in their family. 11 . In the relationship with social aspect. how to walk. Here he will learn many things like the technical matters such as how to speak.interacting with the other. George Murdock in Neubeck and Davita (1996) defined family as a social group characterized by common residence. But. and so on. each individual has his own natural personality that affects his way to interact. Custom will also influence the thought pattern of someone. When there is no good interaction in society. and reproduction. because it has the quality to force and make the people habitual with that custom. One who does social deviation will get the sanction that is appropriate in the custom. The relationship of the individuals will make new social rules that function to manage and keep the balance of the differences among those individuals. and the moral attitude that exactly will affect his way to act together in the outer society. Custom Custom is the norms that caused by habit and becomes the rules or well-regulated habit of the society to act. It is as the rule that has to be considered. economic corporation. Family is the first place where individual interact. it will make poor feeling of that individual. because family exists in where society lives. It is as the need of each individual. where of course it will give impact to the society. Custom itself will influence the people in doing everything in the place where this custom is believed. b.

When the government cannot perform the responsible well. Religion also play role as the social control. belief is almost same with religion but in connotation that belief is more traditional or primitive than religion. Religion or belief Religion is the system of belief that consists of the rules of moral and social. economy.c. and the other policies for the society are arranged and managed by government. d. Government Government is the large institution in national degree that has responsible to make the policy for the prosperity or safety of the people in the country where that government governs. for examples of belief are animism and dynamism. it will absolutely influence the prosperity of society and it will become social conflict. way to pray to the God. because. and generally belief to Gods or inanimate objects that is trusted have power. it has power to manage the people and it also has role to grow the progress of the society. this aspect is very significant. 12 . and the guide for improving self to be a kind human being. Politics. Neubeck and Davita in book “Sociology a Critical Approach” (1996) stated that religion exist when the social group embraces a body of beliefs and practices that are concerned with the supernatural and the sacred and encourages its member to conduct themselves in accordance with moral perceptions associated with these beliefs. In the development of society. Whereas.

When skills taught by schools include independent. Definition of Social Change William F. Thus. Analyzing those changes is by seeing the social life of certain society in certain time and compared it with the social life in past time. Then accordingly the cyclical theory by Oswald Spengler. and math. Educational institutions can also be powerful mechanism for social change. the purpose of schools is to teach basic skills such as reading. they produce the potential for challenges to society to alter inequalities and discrimination (Neubect and Davita. The change doesn‟t always bring the goodness. social change is caused by natural cycle of the resurrection and deterioration of a civilization. stated that social change includes the elements of culture either material or immaterial. 1996). critical and creative thinking. in the place of worship or in the other public hall. But here. we have to clarify that education not only found in institution but also can be found in the other places such as in social groups like organization or study club. Ogburn in Muin (2004: 86). As the opinion of Selo Soemardjan. Everyone or society definitely experiences the changes.e. they see a system whose manifest function is to transmit the skills that all young members of society need to become productive members of the economy as adults. Education When structural functionalist sociologists study the institution of education. writing. that adopted by Soekanto in his book “Sosiologi Suatu Pengantar” (2006) as follow: 13 . 3.

Whereas Tonnies looks that society changes from being unpretentious society who has close relation and cooperative to being big society who has specialized and impersonal relation. authority. sikap-sikap. Influential prominent figures in this theory are Emile Durkheim and Ferdinand Tonnies. termasuk di dalamnya nilai-nilai. Theories of Social Change There are some theories that have been formulated by the sociologists about the causes why social changes occur. and so on. Here they are some theories in Muin “Sosiologi Untuk SMA kelas X” (2004: 87-89) as follow: a. behavior pattern. 4. 14 . social interaction.“Perubahan-perubahan sosial adalah segala perubahanperubahan pada lembaga-lembaga kemasyarakatan di dalam suatu masyarakat. organization. social stratification. Evolutionary Theory This theory stands on Darwin‟s evolutionary theory and is influenced by Herbert Spencer‟s thought. Durkheim thinks that changes which are caused by the evolution influence the way of social organizing. Those changes can be as social values. because it has not been able to answer the question why the society changes. structure of government or social agency.” Basically. dan pola-pola perikelakuan di antara kelompok-kelompok masyarakat. This theory has not satisfied many sides. social norms. yang mempengaruhi sistim sosialnya. especially which is related with work. social changes are the indication of society.

This discrepancy will result social and cultural lag in society. Functionalist Theory This theory is success to describe moderate leveled social change. so that these elements will be left behind. adulthood. Oswald Spengler proposed his theory that each society grows through four growing steps: childhood. This condition makes social and cultural discrepancy among the elements which change so fast and the elements which change slowly. adolescence. Cyclical Theory Accordingly this theory. In his view. d. some of these elements may change very fast whereas the other elements not. Conflict Theory According to this theory. He argued that though social elements connected each other. The concept of cultural lag by William Ogburn attempts to explain social change in the framework of functionalist.b. He trusted that conflict and opposition would always exist in each part of society. the basic principle of conflict theory is that social conflict and social change always attach in society. and old. He assumed that west 15 . c. This theory is guided by Karl Marx‟s thought that said that social class conflict is the most essential source and it impacts to all kinds of social change. Ralf Dahrendorf said all those changes are the result of class conflict in society. conflict comes from class contrast between the oppressed group in society and the rulers then aimed at social change. social change is a natural cycle of the resurrection and deterioration of a culture or social system.

so the society will keep standing and grow. Factors of Social Change Based on the theories above. Among the four theories of social change above. we get the knowledge about the causes of social change.society had reached the big time in adulthood that was in Enlightenment 18th century. 5. As what occurred in Babylonia. Selo Soemardjan in Soekanto‟s book “Sosiologi Suatu Pengantar” (2006) explained the differences between the internal and external factors. Egypt. if the society cannot adapt. Arnold Toynbee. Since that. the deterioration of west culture could not be stopped toward old age. they are challenge and response. that civilization will be collapse. The decreasing of the population caused by the migration of inhabitants 16 . In the contrary. and Roman which lost ground till finally fall. These are those factors with the addition of some other explanations: a. the researcher tends to use cyclical theory to analyze social changes in Europe from ancient Greek to modern era in Jostein Gaarder‟s novel “Sophie‟s World”. a historian from England gives addition that the resurrection and deterioration of a civilization can be explained through social concepts which are related each other. He said that if the society is able to respond and adapt with those challenge. Internal Factors 1) The increasing and decreasing of the number of population The increasing of population may make the change in the structure of society especially those which are related to the social institution. Greece. No one could stop this process.

there would modification that is discovered by the other. For example the conflict between young generation and old generation where in the modern era. Social conflict may caused by dissatisfaction toward values and resources determined in society. changed to be dictator proletariat based on Marxism doctrine. The country that was an absolute kingdom. 4) Rebellion or revolution in society For example the revolution in Russia that caused the great changes there. industrial revolution which caused the economic and 17 . it made the change in the people‟s way to communicate. social stratification. These conditions bring the lost of harmony and inequality of the elements in society. and so on. The other example in Seligman (1953). This condition can create the certain changes in society. but occurs in relatively not so long time.from one place to the other place. 2) New invention It is the important social and cultural process. 3) Conflict Conflict can be happen among the human beings or groups of people. For example. the new invention of telephone by Alexander Graham Bell. for example from village to city and makes the vacuity in work distribution. And after that invention. A new invention can cause the change in one field then spread in the other field. young generation is easier to accept cultural elements from outside.

There will be great changes in the society of that lose country.industrial development which was gathering strength and speed in the eighteenth century and produced modern industrialism. It is as the changes in long time. where there are sequences of small changes that follow each other gradually. b. the win country will force the rules or culture to the lose country. Social Changes Which Occur Gradually and Rapidly Changes which occur gradually are also named evolution. as Soekanto (2006) said as follow: a. there will be change in social structure 2) War War can also create the changes. or the other natural disasters may cause the migration of the people and because of that. earthquake. External Factors 1) Natural factor around the human beings For instances. 3) Outer Culture The culture from the other country also can make the changes in the life style of a society. deluge. These changes happen accidentally without 18 . Forms of Social Change Social changes could be distinguished in several forms. For example western culture that comes into Indonesia has made the changes especially to the people‟s life style and thought pattern. 6.

(Encyclopedia of Knowledge. for instance the relationship between the laborer and the employer. These changes can be deliberate or not. The eastern land boundary is traditionally defined by a line following by Ural Mountains. situation. Water bounds Europe on the North Barents Sea. about 10. west Atlantic Ocean. Social Changes Which Have Small and Big Effect The changes which have small effect are the changes in the elements of social structure that don‟t bring the direct and significant effects to the society. And in the contrary with the changes which have big effects. These are because the society tries to adapt with the new need. 1993). Social Changes Which are Planned and Unplanned The changes which are planned or wanted are the changes that have been approximated or arranged by the party who aims to create the changes in a society. These changes are about and caused by the basis of society‟s life. however. and condition which appear in line with the growth of society.623 square kilometers. C. The unplanned changes are the changes that happen intuitively and take place beyond the society‟s supervision reach and can cause the social results that are not expected. and south Mediterranean Sea. The rapid changes always called with “revolution”. c.any plan. b. seems to be an extension 19 . Europe Europe is one of the world's seven continents. Rank six in size among the continents. Europe. it will cause important influences.531.

Russia is the largest by both area and population (although the country has territory in both Europe and Asia). Europeans were the first to make use of machines to replace human labor on a large scale.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europe) In ancient Greek mythology. Europe is the third-most populous continent after Asia and Africa. 1992: 340) Of Europe's approximately 50 states. because Europe has distinctive history and culture. From ancient Greece came the idea of democracy and the spirit scientific inquiry. while the Vatican City is the smallest. geographically. not a geographical designation. Europe and Asia are sometimes regarded as a single great continent called Eurasia. In fact. (The New Book of Knowledge. lowlands people learned to rotate the corps they planted from year to year.org/wiki/Europe) Europe was the birthplace of ideas that helped shape the modern world. Europa stood for central-north Greece. This helped keep the soil fertile and made it possible to establish permanent settlements. From Rome came the idea of just laws and the first attempts to unite Europe. Europe was a mythological queen of Crete. Europa was a Phoenician princess whom Zeus abducted after assuming the form of a dazzling white bull. and by 500 BC its meaning had been extended to the lands to the north.of Asia. For Homer. (http://id. But. Later. The industrial revolution in the 18th and early 20 . He took her to the island of Crete where she gave birth to Minos. it is usually consider as separate continent.wikipedia. with a population of 731 million or about 11% of the world's population. Rhadamanthus and Sarpedon. (http://id. In the northern European. with Europe as its peninsula.

To 21 .org/wiki/Europe) The foundation of European culture was laid by the Greeks. (The New Book of Knowledge. culture. 1992: 341) Historically.19th centuries made Europe the world‟s workshop. found in Kalmykia. with a particularly high number of selfdescribed non-religious people in the Czech Republic. Sweden. (http://id. Albania. actually the largest in the Western world. Germany (East). and Tibetan Buddhism. strengthened by the Romans. Europe is a relatively secular continent and has an increasing number and proportion of irreligious. By modifying one variable at a time. religion in Europe has been a major influence on European art. Analytic Approach The analytic approach seeks to reduce a system to its elementary elements in order to study in detail and understand the types of interaction that exist between them. agnostic and atheistic people. modernised by the 18th century Age of Enlightenment and globalised by successive European empires between the 16th and 20th centuries.org/wiki/Europe) D. Kosovo. Other religions including Judaism and Hinduism are minority religions. it tries to infer general laws that will enable one to predict the properties of a system under very different conditions. Kazakhstan. reformed by the 15th-century Renaissance and Reformation. North Cyprus. philosophy and law. stabilised by Christianity. Eastern Orthodox and Protestant Churches. Turkey and Azerbaijan).wikipedia. (http://id. The largest religion in Europe is Christianity as practiced by Catholic. Estonia. Following these is Islam concentrated mainly in the south east (Bosnia and Herzegovina. and France.wikipedia.

This approach not only explains the object but also gives the understanding of that object (Ratna. Then she learns 22 . 1997). Alberto first tells Sophie that philosophy is extremely relevant to life and that if we do not question and ponder our very existence we are not really living. Modifies one variable at a time 5. Studies the nature of interaction 3.make this prediction possible. This enables one to understand the behavior of the multitude of disorganized complexity. Then he proceeds to go through the history of western philosophy. Validates facts by means of experimental proof within the body of a theory 6. Isolates. Emphasizes the precision of details 4. According to Rosnay (1997). Alberto teaches Sophie about the ancient myths that people had in the days before they tried to come up with natural explanations for the processes in the world. a letter comes to her mailbox with a few questions and then later in the day a package comes with some typed pages describing the ideas of a philosopher who dealt with the questions. Synopsis of Jostein Gaarder’s Novel “Sophie’s World” Sophie Amundsen is fourteen years old when the book begins. Leads to action programmed in detail E. the laws of elementary properties must be invoked (Rosnay. Every day. He sends her packages via his dog Hermes. She begins a strange correspondence course in philosophy. 2004). then concentrates on the elements 2. Although at first she does not know. the traits of analytic approach are as follow: 1. later Sophie learns that Alberto Knox is the name of the philosopher who is teaching her.

about the natural philosophers who were concerned with change. Next Alberto describes Democritus and the theory of indivisible atoms underlying all nature as well as the concept of fate. At the same time, Sophie receives a strange postcard sent to Hilde Møller Knag, care of Sophie. The postcard is from Hilde's father and wishes Hilde happy birthday. Sophie is confused, and more so when she finds a scarf with Hilde's name on it. She does not know what is happening but she is sure that Hilde and the philosophy course must somehow be connected. She learns about Socrates, who was wise enough to know that he knew nothing. Then Alberto sends her a video that shows him in present day Athens and somehow he seems to go back in time to ancient Athens. She learns about Plato and his world of ideas and then about Aristotle, who criticized Plato, classified much of the natural world, and founded logic and our theory of concepts. Then, as Sophie's education continues, the Hilde situation begins to get more complicated. Sophie finds many more postcards to Hilde, and some of them are even dated June 15, the day Sophie will turn 15. The problem is that June 15 is still more than a month away. Sophie discovers some of this with her best friend Joanna, and one of the postcards tells Hilde that one day she will meet Sophie and also mentions Joanna. Strange things are happening that the girls cannot understand. Sophie's relationship with her mother becomes somewhat strained as she tries both to cover up the correspondence with Alberto and to practice her philosophical thinking on her mom. Meanwhile, Alberto teaches Sophie about Jesus and the meeting of Indo-European and Semitic cultures. She learns about St.

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Augustine, St. Aquinas, and the Christianization of Greek philosophy in the middle Ages. By this time, Sophie has met Alberto and he begins hinting that the philosophy is about to get extremely relevant to the strange things that are happening to her. Sophie learns about the focus on humanity in the Renaissance and the extremes of the Baroque and Alberto focuses on the most important philosophers. Urgently, he teaches her about Descartes, who doubted, and who by doing so knew at least that he could doubt. They move on to Spinoza as it becomes clear that Hilde's father has some awesome power over them. Then Sophie learns about the empiricists. Locke believed in natural rights and that everything we know is gained from experience. Hume, an important influence on Kant, showed that our actions are guided by feelings and warned against making laws based upon our experiences. But, Berkeley is most important to Sophie because he suggested that perhaps our entire lives were inside the mind of God. And Alberto says that their lives are inside the mind of Albert Knag, Hilde's father. At this point the story switches to Hilde's point of view. On June 15, the day she turns fifteen, Hilde receives a birthday gift from her father entitled Sophie's World. She begins to read and is enthralled. We follow the rest of Sophie's story from Hilde's perspective. Hilde becomes certain that Sophie exists, that she is not just a character in a book. Alberto has a plan to escape Albert Knag's mind, and they must finish the philosophy course before that can happen. He teaches Sophie about the Enlightenment and its humane values, and about Kant and his unification of empiricist and rationalist thought. Things in Sophie's life

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have become completely insane but she and Alberto know they must find a way to do something. It will have to occur, about a week after Hilde's 15th birthday when Hilde's father returns home. They learn about the world spirit of Romanticism, Hegel's dialectical view of history, and Kierkegaard's belief that the individual's existence is primary. Meanwhile, Hilde plans a surprise for her father on his return home. Sophie and Alberto rush through Marx, Darwin, Freud, and Sartre, desperate to come up with a plan to escape even though everything they do is known by Hilde's father. Then at the end of Sophie's World, the book that Hilde is reading, while at a party for Sophie on June 15, Alberto and Sophie disappear. Hilde's father comes home and they talk about the book, and Hilde is sure that Sophie exists somewhere. Meanwhile, Sophie and Alberto have a new existence as spirit. They have escaped from Albert Knag's mind but they are invisible to other people and can walk right through them. Sophie wants to try to interfere in the world of Hilde and her father, and at the end of the book she is learning how to do so. (Anonym, 2007)

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here the method of collecting data that had been used by the researcher: 1. The secondary data that is used by the researcher is any references. 26 . Source of Data The researcher collected by using method of library research. Technique of Data Collection The next. Research Design The researcher tended to use descriptive method in this research. Through this way. B. for example books and electronic articles related to the research. Secondary data is some literatures that support the research. The primary data in this research is the entire novel “Sophie‟s World” by Jostein Gaarder 2. Descriptive method is a method that is intended to describe everything related to the topic of the research. Primary data is the main data to collect and analyze as an object of the research. C. The researcher first read the novel “Sophie‟s World” carefully and intensively.CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD A. the researcher found the history of philosophy from the ancient philosophy in sixth century BC until modern philosophy. The source of data in this research consists of two: 1.

2. 3. D. The researcher analyzed the social aspects and social changes in this novel carefully. philosophy. Technique of Data Analysis In this research. the researcher collected some related literatures Such as about Europe. and etcetera to support the object that was being analyzed. 27 . data were analyzed by using analytic approach. While analyzing. This is an approach that seeks to reduce a system to its elementary elements in order to study in detail and understand the types of interaction that exist between them.

Still in that day. In chapter about Socrates. Their introduction was begun when Alberto Knox sent her a mysterious letter consisted of philosophical questions: who are you? and where does the world come from?. Such as when she got Hilde‟s necklace in her own bed. he finally introduced his complete name as Alberto Knox. a philosopher all at once as Sophie‟s philosophy teacher. continued about the history of philosophy begins in the mythological world picture before sixth BC until the advance of philosophy and human‟s modern life style in twentieth century in Europe. This was the reason why he sent Sophie those letters. Where fiction is presented in Sophie Amundsen‟s life and fact is presented in the history of philosophy that Sophie was learning from Alberto Knox. she then received a strange postcard for Hilde Moller Knag a girl that she didn‟t know who. but addressed to her home in 3 Clover Close and her name also written there. He sent it without writing his name. Alberto also received the strange postcard from Hilde‟s father. Alberto sent her the package in print out form about the explanation of what philosophy is. fiction and fact. because he was asked by Hilde‟s father to teach Sophie about philosophy. These questions as the opening questions to recognize the base of philosophy. when Alberto intuitively said to Sophie “Happy Birthday 28 . sent from a father that she also didn‟t recognize.CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS As the statement before in background that “Sophie‟s World” novel by Jostein Gaarder is the combination of two sides in the term of its form. In the next days. But who was he? There are many strange events during Sophie‟s philosophy subject with Alberto Knox.

first is social aspect and the second one is social change. we can find them of course in Sophie‟s life. and education. This chapter is divided into two prominent parts. As Hegel (Gaarder. means that it depends on the context. Albert Knag‟s thought. Here both Sophie‟s life and history of philosophy in Europe are included. Social Aspect Social aspect here is as the classification of what kind of social aspects included in this novel. custom. 29 . government. A. It is divided into five parts. or when Sophie met with Winnie the Pooh in the forest. because Sophie herself is the part of her society. included the history of philosophy that they discussed were only in Hilde‟s father. it is said that the objectives of this research are to identify social aspects and to explain social changes in this novel. she and Alberto knew that both of them and their strange lives. In that both sides of “Sophie‟s World” there are social aspects that we can find. They then realized that they were just the characters in a novel arranged by Albert Knag titled “Sophie‟s World” for Hilde‟s fifteenth birthday present. Later. whereas social change here is as the history of social development in Europe. religion.Hilde”. The second one. Where automatically in all history. So. the most we can find them in the history of the growth of philosophy in Europe. First. 2010) said that history created because there are the differences in thinking of the society where that history takes place. In the previous chapter. there are the influences and change of society there. Social aspect here is as the classification of kinds of social aspects in this novel. They are family. here in this chapter is the analysis of those objectives.

3 Clover Close that she received from unknown senders. “Aren‟t you going to open it?” She had to find an excuse. Family a. she still kept it alone without telling her mother about that experience. She didn‟t have sibling at all.” (Gaarder. Sophie is described as a clever. we will assume that Sophie spoke a bit impolite. In page 30. Alberto Knox. Her father was a sailor and always sailed around the world during the years. At first reading the way Sophie communicates to her mother. it would be even worse if her mother found out that she was doing a correspondence course with a complete stranger. Sophie is confuse how to answer her mother‟s question about that letter. even she let her mother to think that that letter is a love letter. 2007: 30) Sophie was an only child in her family. but kind girl. a philosopher who was playing hideand-seek with her. To console Sophie 30 . It is seen when she kept her secret about the mysterious letter about philosophical questions and strange postcard for Hilde Moller Knag c/o Sophie Amundsen. “Have you ever heard of anyone opening a love letter with her mother looking over her shoulder?” Let her mother think it was a love letter. Her mother worked until late in the afternoon. She was also introvert to her mother and sometimes had negative thought about her. stubborn. Sophie’s Familial Conflict Family here only refers to Sophie‟s family. Even when she received a package about philosophy subject from one who sent him the letter about philosophical questions before.1. Although it was embarrassing enough. In this novel.

I‟ve got plenty of questions of my own. I demand to know who you are seeing!” (Gaarder. she clashed with her mother and went to her bedroom playing possum. 2007: 98) Sophie often missed her father. the pets like Sherekan the cat. 2007: 213) Sophie felt disappointed because of the inharmonious relation between her mother and her father. But. Red Ridinghood. in fact because of the inharmonic relation between her parents: “Maybe I should start asking some questions instead. and Black Jack the three goldfishes are given to her. She was closer to her father then her mother. she would tell much about it. and Goldtop. She thought that her mother has a new boyfriend out side. but her mother knew that. Her mother stroked 31 . The reason why Sophie didn‟t really close with her mother. One day. Sophie. Were you out all night? Why did you go to bed with your clothes on? Did you sneak out as soon as I had gone to bed? You‟re only fourteen. Govinda the turtle. Her anxious become higher when she sees the stranger attitude of Sophie day by day when her mother says: “Now I want the truth. although the relationship between Sophie and her mother seemed not so close. It was seen when she was afraid if Sophie consume drugs after noticing her daughter‟s strange behavior. she felt that she really wanted to tell all about it with her father. About her strange experience. actually her mother loved and cared her so much. Why is Dad never home? Is it because you haven‟t got the guts to get a divorce? Maybe you‟ve got a boyfriend you don‟t want Dad and me to know about and so on and so on.during the day without her parents. She said that if only her father is there at home.” (Gaarder.

her philosophy teacher and about philosophy subject itself. He wanted her daughter to become more mature in thinking. He made this novel as the best present for his daughter Hilde in her fifteenth birthday.” but he had waited until now for the final blow. the relation between Sophie and her mother became better and Sophie began to close with her mother about Alberto Knox. We can see in page 472 where he didn‟t want to let her believing in illogical things like superstition. Albert Knag is a sailor in UN Battalion Norway in Lebanon who had high social personality and strong interest in philosophy. And Sophie—it is true that things haven‟t always been easy between Dad and me. 2007: 465) 32 . And her mother explained about her relation with Sophie‟s father: “Yes. we shall. 2007: 217) After that time. his daughter would not be allowed to grow up without a thorough warning against that kind of thing” (Gaarder. His counterattack was deadly accurate. The similarity between her and Sophie is that both of them are an only child.. Through this novel. b. in the contrary. Albert Knag. he wanted to teach his daughter about the history of philosophy in Europe. Hilde‟s family is very harmonious. her father had lectured her about “superstition” and her “critical faculty. But there was never anyone else . Hilde’s Harmonious Family Different from Sophie. “Each time.” (Gaarder. She had a father who really loved her. Clearly. about Sophie Amundsen who is learning philosophy and Alberto Knox as her teacher. That‟s why he made a novel with the same title with this novel “Sophie‟s World”.her hair softly and then they began to talk about other thing..

In that postcard it is really clear how his longing to his daughter. Maintaining the communication in long distance is also essential. that family would be harmonious time by time. “Hilde is too big to sit on my knee any more. To make up for it. Although the distance apart the family. there is a certain ritual to commemorate the birthday. “Dear Hilde. but by optimizing his time when he was at home with the intimacy among him and his wife and daughter. With love from someone who is always thinking about his daughter‟s future. Custom a. it is not the reason to break that family if the communication by letter for example still maintained.” (Gaarder. 2007: 496) Here we see that although Hilde‟s father was busy in UN Battalion Norway. It is seen from how his attitude to his wife. in the morning of that day will come into his bedroom.” (Gaarder. Marit. 2007: 143) Hilde‟s father also really loved his wife.He made that novel as interesting and unique as possible by included his postcard to Hilde in the plot of that novel. I can‟t wait to come home to Lillesand… I would much rather have arrived in time for your 15th birthday but I‟m under military command of course. But you‟re not!” With that he caught Marit round the waist and drew her onto his lap. Parent of a child who has birthday. saying „happy birthday‟ while bringing tray with rolls 33 . 2. Traditional Birthday Morning Ritual In Norway. I promise to devote all my loving care to the huge present you are getting for your birthday.

They usually make party in the evening by setting off firework or bonfires and eating together in the garden or yard. It was the signal for the traditional birthday morning ritual.” (Gaarder. On it were lighted candles.and soda and they also will pack out the presents. Her mother stood awkwardly holding the tray with both hands. 2007: 289) Buttered rolls and soda are food and drink that usually consumed in Norway and other countries in Europe. and a soda. they also do the same ritual. 34 . In that Midsummer Eve. b. along the road. “When she came back she was carrying another tray with rolls and soda. Midsummer Eve Party Midsummer is the special moment for Europeans. with a flag under one arm. they saw how merry that eve. She put it on the end of the bed. Midsummer also the occasion when Sophie made her fifteenth garden party for celebrating her birthday. In the morning of Sophie‟s birthday. buttered rolls with shrimp salad. The presents from family will be brought too and pack out also in that morning in the daughter‟s room. 2007: 303) Buttered rolls and soda on the tray also brought by Hilde‟s mother into Hilde‟s room in the morning of Hilde‟s birthday “Her mother stood leaning over the bed with the tray. with the unpacking of present” (Gaarder. In this novel. Then Sophie and Alberto in their invisible substance came to Oslo invisibly looking for Hilde and Albert Knag in Bjerkely. It is also the time when Alberto and she escaped from Albert Knag‟s imagination or in the other word it is the time setting where Albert Knag‟s novel titled „Sophie‟s World‟ ended. There was also a small package.

especially after they had passed Drammen. Because of that. The word “thunder” in Norwegian—“Thord0n”— means Thor‟s roar” (Gaarder. We call the story about it mythology. Sophie. Zeus. When he swung his hammer it made thunder and lightning. 2007: 24) They also believed that the diseases were from the evil spirit. Offerings to Odin sometimes took the form of human sacrifices” (Gaarder. mortals had to make offerings to the gods to give them the strength to conquer the forces of chaos… The offering to Thor was usually a goat. and there is thunder. Sandvika. Apollo. they believed that that was because Thor was tapping his hammer. Isn‟t it wonderful?” (Gaarder. and down toward Lillesand. Drammen. As they drove they saw more and more Midsummer bonfires. in treating the disease they believed some certain rituals like offering ceremony must be done for giving more power to the gods like Thor and Odin: “For example. Athena. “It‟s Midsummer.“They drove southward out…past Lysaker. Mythology Before Christianity came into Europe. 3. If raining. people believed that Thor rode across the sky in a chariot drawn by two goats. So that the Europeans who have four seasons really appreciate this moment by the happiness in the form of party. most of the society believed in the power of the Gods such as Thor. and etcetera. Religion and Belief a. 2007: 483) Midsummer is the moment where the weather is good. They believed that those Gods influence the natural phenomenon. 2007: 25) 35 . “Before Christianity came to Norway.

Actually. Three of those religions also consider Jerusalem as the holy city. It is therefore deeply tragic that Jerusalem should have become a bone of contention—with people killing each other by the thousand because they cannot agree on who is to have ascendancy over this “Eternal City. (Christian) churches. in the first century. Greece is the land with very good progress in civilization. the missionary who brought Christianity in the land of Greece also a Pharisee who believed on Judaism at first. this city becomes conflict place instead. Christianity Christianity is the largest religion in Europe. Paul. and Islam have same root of culture. three of the largest religion. Judaism Judaism cannot be separated from the history of Christianity in Europe. Old Testament and New Testament which Old Testament is from Judaism. remembering that historically. Accordingly this religion and also in this novel. Jesus from Nazareth came as Messiah to teach the people in Jerusalem to be more human.” (Gaarder. Israeli felt suffer with that condition and waited for 36 . Jerusalem in that time defeated by Roman imperialism. It is because the center where Christianity appeared for the first time is in Jerusalem where Judaism had been the common religion in that time.b. Paul spread Christianity successfully in Greece. the holy book of Christians consists of two. Bible. Unfortunately. “The city comprises prominent (Jewish) synagogues. and (Islamic) mosques.Judaism. Of course this is the strategic beginning for spreading Christianity especially among the Europeans. In that time. 2007: 152) c. Semite. But. Christianity.

Then appeared new Christian sect. 37 . Christians more and more in the important cities in Greco-Roman such as Athena. Paul a Pharisee moved to Christian and became missionary in Greece and Roman.the Messiah who can bring them in the glory. called Protestant. After some decades. Christian became the religion in the whole Hellenistic. After his death. “Paul continued his missionary activities. The prove is that in Europe mainly in the south east like Bosnia and Herzegovina. He made Christian growth fast by writing letters for the congregation. But most of them saw that what he taught was only about human and that had no use for retaking their position from Roman imperialism. It encouraged the protest and reformation in fifteenth century where Martin Luther as one of the pioneers. d. in Ephesos. In the space of three to four hundred years. and in Corinth.” (Gaarder. in Alexandria. in Rome. A few decades after the death of Jesus. Christian congregations were already established in all the important Greek and Roman cities—in Athens. and Alexandria. the entire Hellenistic world had become Christian. Albania. The different precept that he said from God made him died on the cross in the hand of Roman imperialism. Rome. Islam Islam has become the part of European culture. About three or four hundred years. He came to Athena and delivered a speech in Acropolis about the only one God. there were some problems where the Church held the authority on the society where science is delimitated. 2007: 160) In the growth of Christian in Middle Ages.

with popular assemblies and courts of law. Spain also became part of the world of Islamic culture” (Gaarder. after the death of Prophet Muhammad. In the Middle Ages. North Africa and the Middle East had also been part of the Roman Empire. In order for democracy to work. chemistry. Kazakhstan. Shortly thereafter. North Cyprus. Democracy was the system that the society in that time used in managing social problems. Then in seventh century. “However. the Arabs were major in high sciences such as mathematics.org/wiki/Europe). society‟s interest moved to governmental system. Spain also became part of Islam‟s khilafah or government. astronomy. Afterward. Government Governmental system in Europe has been developing century by century. both of North Africa and Middle East became Islam khilafah regions and automatically cultured Arabic either in language or in religion. 4. After about 450 BC. Gradually a democracy evolved. After the death of Muhammad in 632. people had to be educated enough to take part in the democratic process.Kosovo. 2007: 62) 38 . both the Middle East and North Africa were won over to Islam. 2007: 170) Much of the old Greek science was inherited by the Arabs. most of the society there are Muslims (http://id.wikipedia. Popular assemblies and courts of law were also created then. and medicine. interest was now focused on the individual and the individual‟s place in society. Turkey and Azerbaijan. “In Athens.” (Gaarder. In a number of areas Arabic culture was superior to Christian culture. Roman Empire in the Middle Ages expanded its dominance to North Africa and also to Middle East. This area developed during the Middle Ages into an Arabic-speaking Muslim culture.

education especially science and philosophy more and more growth. This academy was named „Academus‟ based on the name of legendary hero in Greece named Academus. While Athens remained the center of philosophy with still functioning schools of philosophy after Plato and Aristotle. 2007: 128) In the middle age. Alexandria became the center of science with the large library. It seemed that philosophy considered as the forbidden material by the church in that time. So the term „academy‟ in English as absorption word from that name. Alexandria became the center for science. studying activity was held by Church. biology. Even in Renaissance.” (Gaarder. astronomy. 5. and Athena still become the center of philosophy study “The town of Alexandria played a key role here as a meeting place between East and West. it became the center for mathematics. Education The first academy in Europe is in Greece in founded by Plato (428-347 BC). In 529. the new thought and invention such as what Galileo Galilei and 39 . until in the modern era where it is more democratic and liberal in capitalism system in most of the countries Europe or socialism growing in Berlin by Karl Marx. From the authoritative system in fifth century where Socrates had to die because of his uncommon thought.It grew more and more appropriate with the progress of social life. Academy Plato was closed by the church. In the first centuries of Roman Imperialism on Greece about 3 B. The conflict between the low class society and the government authority had influence the appearance of the new governmental system in Europe. and medicine. With its extensive library.C until before 4 century.

Although church authority still existed. Over the millennium there are a great many mythological explanations of philosophical questions spread across the world. 2. Kepler. Mythology Mythology was the most popular story handed by generation to generation which describes about the gods and their influence to explain about the phenomenon of life. begun from before sixth B.C to twentieth century: 1. The result is that both of them had to die because of that. Isaac Newton. and the how the society responds the challenges in their social environment. According to this theory. the enemies of gods also play certain life in the invisible life far over the 40 . appeared the scientists like Galileo Galilei. education became more develop in many fields. and Nicolas Copernicus. Before Sixth B. Social Change The theory that the researcher applies for analyzing this social change is Cyclical Theory which is developed by Oswald Spengler and completed by Arnold Toynbee. The society in Europe had believed in the power of gods to manage the nature.Giordano Bruno said about nature also still strongly opposed by the church. The following is the analysis of social change of the society in Europe.C a. Renaissance itself is the era of the significant progress of knowledge especially for science. such as technology and psychology. In modern era like in 19th and 20th century. They believed that the gods like Thor and Odin and the evils. social change is caused by the progression and the deterioration of the civilization.

They called this island as Midgard. it was said that we had to give offering for them. when thundering the people believed that the reason was because god Thor swung his hammer. the domain of the giants who used to plan to destroy the world. which means the kingdom in the middle. So Thor was worshipped as the god of fertility.”” (Gaarder. The goodness trusted caused by the gods and badness trusted caused by the evils who intrude mankind or make troubles in the heavens. then if rain came back. who resorted to all kinds of cunning tricks to try and destroy the world. the domain of the treacherous giants. for Odin sometimes was form of human sacrifices. 2007: 24) The gods had to have strong power to bear down the giants or the evils. Offering for Thor was usually a goat. But. “the kingdom of Utgard. In Midgard lay Asgard. This offering was also trusted for the gods to cure the disease. Of course that it was very useful for the farmers. Then out of the Migdgard was Utgard. 41 . The offering for the gods was usually the animals. then rain came. So. Evil monsters like these are often referred to as the “forces of chaos. In Norway and Scandinavia for example. the realm of the gods.heavens. Then in dry season where there was no water from the sky to grow the plants. The name “influenza” was from the word “influence” that meant the belief that this disease was from the influence of supernatural power of the animals. they believed that Thor‟s hammer was stolen by the evil. The society especially the Vikings believed that the inhabited world was an island threatened by outside dangers. it meant that Thor had already retaken his hammer.

to mention only a few of them. Foreseeing the Fate The ancient Greeks believed that they could consult about their fate with famous oracle at Delphi. this belief wasn‟t counterbalanced with their logical thought. Hera and Athene. much of the Greek mythology was written by Homer and Hesiod.” (Gaarder. Dionysos and Asclepios.In Greece. That priest then sent it to Pythia. Her answer would be so ambiguous so that the priests had to interpret it.C. or advisers. believing that they could know about everything. The priests of Apollo thus functioned more or less as diplomats. Around 700 B. Heracles and Hephaestos. the god of the oracle. In that way. “There were many heads of state who dared not go to war or take other decisive steps until they had consulted the oracle at Delphi. 42 . Unfortunately. even about their future. the people felt that they get the benefit of Apollo‟s advice. They called the gods as Zeus and Apollo. This created the new situation where now that the myths existed in written form. They were still so unscientific in thinking. so that it was possible to discuss them. mythology about the gods had spread heritably. could speak through his priestess named Pythia. b. When people came to Delphi they had to present their question to the priests of the oracle. They believed that Apollo. But this also shows that they had strong faith in the greater power that managed the nature and knew everything. 2007: 54) This shows that the society especially in ancient Greece trusted in oracle so much.

explanations for natural processes. The philosophers in this period who commenced the scientific thought about the natural phenomenon and didn‟t depend anymore with the imaginative story of mythology were like Thales.2. They were also called natural philosopher. Anaximander. The aim of the early Greek philosophers was to find natural. They disagreed with mythology written by Homer because the gods seemed like egoist and dishonest just like human.C) a. Anaxagoras and Democritus. Medical Treatment and History In these centuries. This cannot be separated by the role of the philosophers. All the earliest philosophers shared the belief that there had to be a certain basic substance as the root of all natural changes. from Miletus. During this period. They argued that mythology was only story fiction made by human beings. The Beginning of Philosophy (6 – 3 B. the philosophers in Greece began to pop out. Empedocles. part of people began to think more scientifically especially in Greece. They brought new thought especially about the nature and opposed the mythology. He had ventured on many lands included Egypt and was able to know the high of Pyramid by 43 . It is said that society only made the gods in their mind based on their imagination. Xenophanes was one of these philosophers who lived in about 570 B.C. Anaximenes. rather than supernatural. Thought Progression about Nature. because of their focus on natural phenomenon. Thales was the first philosopher even we can say that he was the pioneer of natural philosopher.

He maybe ever saw the frogs and worms appear from the wet soil.C precisely. As example when we take a cell from our skin. rain falls as the result of condensed vapor. He also had ever been able to predict solar eclipse in 585 B. “…he may have believed that all life originated from water…. Empedocles‟ premise seemed to unite Thales and Anaximenes.” (Gaarder. the number and type of my fingers. and saw the fertile growth of the plants around that river. the color of my hair. hair. Anaxagoras then also assumed that nature was from the super small units which bring the characteristic of thing it came from. After considering. they were earth.” (Gaarder. 2007: 40) 44 . As example. So he thought that earth. Anaximenes. He maybe assumed this because of his experience in Egypt when he came to Nile River. 2007: 34) Different from Thales‟ opinion. fire. and so on.measuring its shadow at the moment when his shadow‟s high was same with his high. water. and fire were created from air.C thought that the basis of the nature was from the air or vapor. He also said that fire was rarefied air. and so on “If I loosen a skin cell from my finger. he argues that the root of nature was four substances. he assumed. the nucleus will contain not only the characteristics of my skin: the same cell will also reveal what kind of eyes I have. and wafer. this will show the whole characteristic of our body such as our eyes. air. During his travels in Egypt he must have observed how the crops began to grow as soon as the floods of the Nile receded from the land areas in the Nile Delta. also from Miletus lived in 570-526 B. His popular opinion is that the whole nature is made by the water.

45 . The best known Greek historians in this period were Herodotus and Thucydides. If we are sick. 2007: 55) Then in history term. Our health is one of natural signals and the tips for healthy lifestyle are moderation. In the field of medical treatment. Accordingly Hippocrates. it means that there is imbalance in our physic or psyches.C) came with his excellent thought about the nature. the most important ways to prevent the disease were moderation and a healthy lifestyle. it is a sign that Nature has gone off course because of physical or mental imbalance. and a “sound mind in a sound body. “Health is the natural condition. we recognize also this „atom‟ term as the smallest unit which forms the material. harmony. They concluded that the history was not caused by the gods. in this period the historians began to observe the cause of the historical change. harmony. and electrons. When sickness occurs. Nowadays.Democritus (460-370 B. His opinion was that all the things are from the smallest units which cannot be parted anymore.”” (Gaarder. The road to health for everyone is through moderation. the modern physics now adds certain explanation about this atom that an atom still has elemental particles protons. neutrons. He named that smallest unit as „atom‟. and a “mensana in corpore sano” or in healthy body there is healthy mind. there was Hippocrates (460 B.C) who was called the founder of Greek medicine. The anger of gods so a country defeated in war was not as the acceptable reason anymore. But.

C. chest. In 399 B. their thoughts focus also on human and society. he was accused of “introducing new gods and corrupting the youth. The third is polity or 46 .C). Inhuman dominance was the evidence. auxiliaries.b. But. First is monarchy. which means there is only one head of a state. “In the year 399 B. where there is a larger or smaller group of rulers. after Socrates sounded his many questions which made the high class people felt offended and many protests about for example condemning people to death. Plato‟s student appeared with their different focus in philosophy. the head of state is forbidden to govern the state for his advantage. Plato for example said that state built up exactly like the three parts of human body. the State has rulers. and laborers like farmers. Democracy system grew. and Development in Education and Science Started in 450 B. With a slender majority. Where the body has head.C. Inhuman Dominance. a jury of five hundred found him guilty” (Gaarder. for example. Socrates‟ student and Aristotle. and abdomen.” as well as not believing in the accepted gods. Whereas according to Aristotle (384-322 B. But. Second is aristocracy. 2007: 66) Plato.C in Greece. or kingship. Unfortunately this democracy seemed like only slogan. Democracy. Same with Socrates. the court of law impeached him introducing new gods and corrupting the youth” and decided that he had to drink hemlock. the focus of social change moved to the case about society and government. this system can be bad if the government only handed by certain group. there are three good forms of constitution. with popular assemblies and courts of law.

He also called as the first Biologist in Europe. who disagreed with Plato. But. This period named Hellenistic. Plato taught his students about his philosophical thought about world of idea that we have perfect knowledge about the nature actually. Egypt. Greece culture had dominated in those many countries as long as 300 years. his own teacher about world of idea.in Persians. 3. He argued that we know something by seeing and learning it first.C. But this form also has its negative aspect. In this academy. where Greece culture played the main role. Hellenistic (3 B. mob rule can develop quickly: “A democracy can quickly develop into mob rule.D) a. Development in Science and Skepticism in Belief Because of the subjugation of Alexander the Great (356-323 B. Roman had more 47 . Then there was Aristotle. Plato became the first person who made an academy. in our Biology material in our school. He named his academy as „Academus‟ inspired by the legendary hero in Greece. This encouraged him to observe the organism in the nature and got conclusion about „Organism Classification‟.) the king of Macedonia and also the student of Aristotle .C – 1 A. east countries until India. (Even if the tyrannic Hitler had not become head of state in Germany all the lesser Nazis could have formed a terrifying mob rule)” (Gaarder. 2007: 115) In the term of education. we study about what Aristotle had discovered about this classification. in 50 B.democracy. That if the governmental officials are not responsible.C. The term „Academy‟ is from this name. Now.

Persians. Roman conquered Greece then. different from the culture of ancient Greeks who had strong faith in the gods. it should also free mankind from pessimism and the fear of death” (Gaarder. there was no the constraint between philosophy and belief. Philosophy was considered able to answer the solution of this scare. The characteristics in this period were the progression in science and the skepticism in belief. Roman actually the part of Greece culture before. With its large library. Alexandria also became the center for science. biology. it became the center for mathematics. Another characteristic was the effort to be free from the scare of death. So. Nevertheless. and Greece became the own of Roman Empire. it was now thought. did not only have its own reward. So that. “Philosophic insight. 2007: 127) In the field of science and education. Hellenistic science was influenced too by the compound of knowledge from those various cultures. While Athens still became the center of philosophical study with still the schools of philosophy of Plato and Aristotle. astronomy. and Syria came into Greece culture which created the syncretism or fusion of creeds. 48 . Greece culture still played important role in Europe though its power in politic had ended.power in politic and military. These conditions were caused by the smelting of cultures. The beliefs from other east country like Egypt. and medicine. Alexandria played a key role here as a meeting place between East and West. This condition then created many versions of beliefs in society and made the skepticism about what the truth is.

2007: 129) Then Stoics (around 300 B. There were the Cynics. statesman. Neo-Platonism in second B. The term „cynicism‟ was based them. death is not here. This called mystical experience. and they imply insensitivity to other people‟s suffering. because as long as we exist.b. 49 . Different from Epicureans who argued that death does not concern us. “Nowadays the terms “cynical” and “cynicism” have come to mean a sneering disbelief in human sincerity. the main figure in this philosophical trend said that we can feel fusion with the god.C then brought different idea. The term „epicurean‟ nowadays used for a negative sense to describe someone who lives only for pleasure. It was also as effort to get the true happiness. who emphasized that true happiness is not found in external advantages such as material luxury. So everybody can reach it. we no longer exist. there are some religions who believe this fusion. political power. True happiness means that we are not being dependent on momentary things. The human must learn to accept his destiny. must be follow the laws of nature. Plotinus. such as disease and death. and philosopher Cicero who created the concept of “Humanism”. One of Stoic famous person is the orator.C) emphasized that all natural processes.” (Gaarder. Nowadays. or good health. New Philosophical Trends The syncretism had created some new philosophical trends. And when it does come. Each of these philosophical trends had tried to give solution of the scare of death that many people felt and how to get happiness. Everything is one for everything is God.

Many of Jews felt that this teaching won‟t be useful to make them retake their land from Roman. Then Jesus came. He said: “Ye men of Athens. and beheld your devotions. him declare I unto you. 2007:159) Paul introduced the new form of God to the Greeks. So Jesus then caught by the Roman and died on the cross. the Jews in Jerusalem were in Roman dominance.4. the Roman Empire also thought that Jesus spread the new tenet which was different from their belief in that time. it was said that there will be the Messiah come for bringing the salvation in Jerusalem.” (Gaarder. the entire Hellenistic world in Greece-Roman had become Christian. I found an altar with this inscription. The God who was not sold in markets or made from the gold. Although at that time part of the society didn‟t want to believe him. Whom therefore ye ignorantly worship. 50 .D or in the year of one is the moment where Jesus the Messiah was born in Nazareth. In that time. TO THE UNKNOWN GOD. a Pharisee named Paul moved to Christianity and became the famous missionary. before second century.D – 4 A. He then came to spread this religion to Europe. but in three to four hundred years. In Old Testament. I perceive that in all things ye are too superstitious. First he came to Athena in Greece which is the center of philosophy. He came to synagogue and discussed with the Epicurean and Stoics in. afterward they brought him on the Aeropagos and asked him to explain about the new religion he spreading. Beside that. For as I passed by.D) According to Christian religion. but different from the Jews want. After the death of Jesus. The Growth of Christianity (1 A. Jesus came with his peace and human teaching. first A.

Arab scholars began to arrive in Northern Italy at the invitation. “the Arabs also took over the ancient Hellenistic city of Alexandria. the Arabs were predominant hi sciences” (Gaarder. These both domains then became the part of Islam in the glory of khilafah. North Africa and the Middle East also had been part of the Roman Empire. Roman Imperialism divided into two. Thus much of the old Greek science was inherited by the Arabs. 5. it is forbidden to draw or make the God‟s statue but we can see in many Catholic Churches nowadays consist of many statues as the influence of Greece and Roman culture which is special in sculpture. West imperialism with Rome as the center. and medicine. in the Old Testament. Islamic government after the death of Prophet Muhammad in 632. astronomy. chemistry. The Arabs successfully developed high science such as mathematics. Nowadays we can see some of countries in Europe which most of their 51 . The Arabs had kept the Aristotelian tradition. 2007: 170) The progression of Arabian culture especially in science next to a certain degree had influenced the society‟s movement to Renaissance. Spain and Alexandria became part of Islamic culture. Not so long after that. As example.D) a. and East imperialism with Constantinople (now Istanbul in Turkey) as the center. Middle Ages (4 A. The influence of the Arabs of Spain began. In the end of the 12th century. Influence of Islam and Arabic Culture In 395 when The Great Constantine was the king. All through the Middle Ages.D – 14 A.Greece and Roman culture had been united with Christianity.

in the term of payment. with big cities that had sewers. The freedom of thinking was really limited. and beautiful architecture. St. b. In the Middle Ages. But many historians argued that Middle Ages is the moment of Europe germination. and libraries. Turkey and Azerbaijan. Church Authority In these middle Ages. In 529.org/wiki/Europe). and the slaves have to work there so they can still live. As instance. church closed Plato‟s academy in Athena. many cathedral schools built and monastery school got the monopoly to organize the education. When in the Roman period there was high culture. “There is no salvation outside the Church. people returned to bartering system. Kosovo. The economy in that time characterized by feudalism. the church had handed the dominance in Rome. Agustin who said that there is no salvation outside the church. Middle ages also called The Dark Ages. This was as the symbol of how the church opposite the philosophy. Not until the Reformation in the sixteenth century was there any protest against the idea that people could only obtain salvation through the Church” (Gaarder. Kazakhstan. So did its trade and economy. most of the society there are Muslims (http://id. Augustine‟s „City of God‟ eventually became identical with the established Church. North Cyprus. 52 . 2007: 175) In education.wikipedia. Albania. in the early centuries of the Middle Ages this entire culture dissolved. means that there are a few nobles who own the land. public baths.societies are Muslims such as in Bosnia and Herzegovina.‟ it was now said. The first centuries after the year 400 really were a cultural crisis. It might be influenced by the view of St.

Renaissance and Reformation (Begun in 15 A. The interest moved to body anatomy and science in general. In 14 A. These conditions impacted to the creativity to create more new methods in science and also new spirit in religiousness. and experiment. They were proud of themselves so much and it gave impact to the unrestrained veneration to their own thought. begun in 15 A. The people really respected themselves as human beings and this referred to the new form of Humanism called Renaissance Humanism. Science and philosophy started to be parted from Christianity.‟ just as they are today.” (Gaarder. “Now it was said that every investigation of natural phenomena must be based on observation. and the subjects to be studied were grouped into various „faculties. experience. Progression in Science The authority of the church which limited the freedom of the society to giving opinion in Middle Ages had encouraged the society to strive against it.D the century of Renaissance. The break in the culture of Christian unifier had begun to appear. 6. the church had begun lost its authority. We call this the empirical method. They believed that their observation and thought could answer many questions about nature. 2007: 199) The empirical method which developed rapidly in Renaissance was characterized by the existence of many new scientists like Nicolaus 53 .D) a. The characteristic of Renaissance was like a human who had just gone out from the prison.around the year 1200 the first universities were founded.D.

had been punished very severely. He was burned at the stake in Rome‟s Flower Market: “Giordano Bruno was a dramatic example of this… He was punished very severely for his ideas He was burned at the stake in Rome‟s Flower Market in the year 1600” (Gaarder. it will back to ground. it was vice versa. In 1600. at rest or in motion. of course it needs steps. The Authority of Church Still Exist In the process of change. Isaac Newton from England. This law states that every object attracts every other object with a force that increases in proportion to the size of the objects and decreases in proportion to the distance between the objects. Giordano Bruno who said the universe was infinite. b. It means there is gravity of the earth. He formulated what we call the Law of Universal Gravitation. 2007: 198) 54 . The very strong power of church authority in Middle Ages could not suddenly vanish without process. Then Nicolaus Copernicus from Poland in 1543 claimed that it was not the sun that moved round the earth. as long as no external force compels it to change its state. Johannes Kepler astronomical scientist from Germany. there was still church authority in Roma. That‟s why all planets in solar system move through their orbits round the sun. Then Isaac Newton tried to give final description of this solar system and the planetary orbits. Galileo came with „Law of Inertia‟ which accordingly he. This is proved when we throw something up. and Galileo Galilei an Italian with his famous words “Measure what can be measured and make measurable what cannot be measured”. a body remains in the state which it is in.Copernicus.

His amnesty doesn‟t depend on the indulgences letter from the church. The amnesty is about the private relation between human and God. The individual‟s personal relationship to God was more important than his relationship to the church as an organization. It was done by authoritarian power of State and Church. This encouraged „Reformation‟. He wanted to return to early Christianity as it was in the New Testament. the people didn‟t have to pay or asked the church interfere in it. anti-humanism flourished too. He 55 . “Luther distanced himself from many of the religious customs and dogmas that had become rooted in ecclesiastical history during the Middle Ages. Then in 16 A. In his opinion. Luther had negative view about human. c. He had proclaimed that human was totally depraved after Adam came out of heaven. One of the famous figures in this reformation was Martin Luther in Germany. But this did not stop the society to express their protest more and more. He went away from Catholic Roma Church and critic the system of payment for sin amnesty. This protest created new ideology in Christianity called Protestant.During the Renaissance. these indulgences letters were forbidden to sell anymore by Catholic Church. a new Christian faithfulness developed. Then the Renaissance arrived with its new view of man. 2007: 209) But. When philosophy and science separated from theology gradually.‟ he said” (Gaarder. This gave effect on religious life. The Scripture alone.D. for getting God‟s amnesty. Reformation the Resurrection of Protestant Renaissance resulted new spirit in religiosity.

In reality. 2007: 224) The Thirty Years‟ War was the worst war in Baroque period which had involved almost all continents from 1618 to 1648. In this period.D) a. there were also a lot of religious and political conflict which for instance between Catholic and Protestant that impacted to the Thirty Years War in Europe: “Europe was ravaged by wars. As the result of that war.believed only through the grace of God human could be saved. Baroque characterized by the irregularity of art. The Baroque (Began in 17 A. The worst was the Thirty Years‟ War which raged over most of the continent from 1618 to 1648… To a great extent they were wars between Protestants and Catholics. But they were also about political power” (Gaarder. The seventeenth century was also the period of class differences in society. because the wages of sin is death. Political Conflicts and Class Difference in Society The word „baroque‟ comes from a word that used to describe a pearl which has irregular shape. This view used by part of Christians nowadays. For examples French aristocracy and the Court of Versailles. France gradually became the dominant power in Europe. The seventeenth century was also characterized by tensions among a lot of contrasts. In one side there was the optimism from Renaissance to change the life and in the other side there were also many people who had chose the opposite attitude by focusing within religion only and cringing worldly life. 7. it was a series of wars which especially damaged Germany so much. which was richer in creative forms than the simple and harmonious art in Renaissance. 56 .

In the theater. intrigue. 2007: 225) In the field of science and philosophy. In short. His works were full of passages about life as a theater. and display of magnificence presupposes a display of power. Calderon de la Barca from Spain and the most famous figure in the field of theatre was William Shakespeare. the political situation was typified by materialistic. and he made important contributions to the science of mathematic. b.poverty of French society. there was Rene Descartes from France with his famous words “Cogito ergo sum” means that I am thinking that‟s why I exist. He died in 1950 because of pneumonia. It actually really described the art in that time. and homicide. This period was the birth of modern theater with all its modern scenery and theatrical. social discrepancy. He was also a great mathematician. Progression in Theatre and Science „Life is a theatre‟ was the popular words in seventeenth century.” (Gaarder. 57 . He was called as father of modern philosophy. It could show that the arrogance would cause the failure and reflect the contemptible of human beings. This theater became a reflection of human life in general. One of them is „As You Like It‟: “All the world‟s a stage. And one man in his time plays many parts. He is considered the father of analytical geometry. There were a lot of dramatists in Baroque period such as Petter Dass from Norway. one created an illusion on the stage to expose that the theatre on that stage was only an illusion. And all the men and women merely players: They have their exits and their entrances.

In England for example there were some philosophers who had contributed extraordinary views like John Locke. Then in 1789 French Revolution came. When they came back in French. 2007: 310) Human‟s intellect was the important thing that most of society especially the philosopher respected in this period. they became ever more opposed the old authority. nobility. these institutions had far more power in France than they had in England… Then came the French Revolution.8. which was more liberal than France. especially Newton and his universal physics. But they were also motivated by British philosophy. Their oppositions especially referred to the king.D) a. The Enlightenment philosophers thought that it was their duty to built foundation for morals. and clergyman. and the nobility. Because. French Revolution The center of the civilization advancement in Europe in the eighteenth century was in England in the first half. During the eighteenth century. and in Germany until the end of it. “The opposition to authority was not least directed against the power of the clergy. the king. particularly by John Locke and his political philosophy. and ethics based on human‟s reason. and Berkeley. That‟s why French Enlightenment is often called the Age of Reason. David Hume. The Enlightenment (18 A. They inspired by the English natural sciences. in France in the middle.” (Gaarder. those three had handled the government authoritatively in French. 58 . religion. Many of the French Enlightenment philosophers visited England.

and humanity such as for slaves‟ right and freedom of thought and utterance. never in any „supernatural‟ way. That‟s why there were many people who held on to Deism which refers to a belief that God created the world ages and ages ago. moral. this was aimed as campaign against censorship for liberty of the press. but has not revealed Himself to the world since that. He only reveals Himself to mankind through nature and natural laws. I refer to the Encyclopedia in 28 volumes published during the years from 1751 to 1772. They had great attention on the education of children and people. Here.People thought that poverty and oppression were the fault of foolishness and superstition. Not only that. 59 . According to them. 2007: 311) In religious. The French Enlightenment philosophers were not only focus on theoretical views about human‟s place in society. But most of the philosophers in Enlightenment thought that it was so irrational to imagine a world without God. All the great philosophers and men of letters contributed to it” (Gaarder. they also fought in the problem of religion. religion needed to be liberated from all the irrational dogmas or doctrines that had attached to Jesus simple teachings during the religious history. and chose the atheism. politic. appeared a lot of materialists who did not believe in God. the science of pedagogy also founded during the Enlightenment. At first. One of the most significant works in this period is „Encyclopedia‟ which published in 1751 to 1772: “The greatest monument to the enlightenment movement was characteristically enough a huge encyclopedia. They also struggled actively for the rights of the citizen.

Beside that. for the change of marriage law. it was women who led the demonstrations that forced the king away from his palace at Versailles. all of their buffetings in demanding the equality of their rights didn‟t result the success as fast as they wished. The declaration on the rights of the citizen had not included any article on women‟s natural rights. But until nowadays actually still a lot of people still have to fight for these rights b. Women‟s groups were formed in Paris. As the new regime ruled. women also totally struggled actively to fight against the old feudal regime.” (Gaarder. “In 1791 two years after the revolution she published a declaration on the rights of women. In that year. the domination of men occurred again. she then 60 . and for the better of the women social condition.” (Gaarder. As an example.“…freedom of thought and utterance had to be secured. 2007: 315) Until 1791 two years after revolution. because of her dissatisfaction to the declaration on the rights of citizen which didn‟t include women‟s right at all. Olympe de Gouges now demanded all the same rights for women as for men. They also fought for the abolition of slavery and for a more humane treatment of criminals. they also demanded for the same rights between women and men in the term of politic. there was Olympe de Gouges as the woman who fought hardest to support women rights during French Revolution. 2007: 313) Then this culminated in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen adopted by the French National Assembly in 1789. But. Feminism During the Revolution in 1789.

The individuals were totally free to interpret the life by their own way. The period in the end of this 18th century toward the middle of 19th century was called Romanticism. This caused the veneration to ego. the rules seemed like only the formalistic written text without realization. and history were the three fields which developed rapidly in Romanticism period especially in Germany. “What happened?” “She was beheaded in 1793. she was beheaded and all of women‟s political activities were forbidden. 61 . This struggle gave the wished result little by little. Romanticism (End of the 18th Century . unfortunately. the people seemed gave the high glorification to the artistic genius. And all political activity for women was banned. But.published declaration on the rights of women. Feminism had just really moved forward in 19th century. Olympe de Gouges now demanded all the same rights for women as for men. That‟s why in this period. she was pushed with her death as the punishment. There was no distinct constraint between the imagination and the reality. Most of them expressed their ego in artistic work. Literature. In that 1793.” (Gaarder.the Middle of the 19th Century) As the explanation before that the center of civilization in the end of 18th century was in Germany. in the next two years. It was because People‟s thought seemed like more interested in something imaginative and romantic here. 2007: 315) Again. 9. music. not only in French but also in the entire Europe.

As the results of this thought. In Norway. the young men with long hair who liked to strum their guitars and lay around. Hansel and Gretel. The Frog Prince. Some of them committed suicide. Then Novalis was also one of the German writers who was very popular in this period. usually of tuberculosis. they seemed like the hippies. Most of them were the university students who were not always serious in studying. this novel is banned. Historical field was also the important and interesting matter in this period. In Romanticism. 2007: 344) The other writer was like Goethe who had created a novel with love theme about unrequited love in 1774 titled „The Sorrows of Young Werther‟ which ended with the suicide of the man named Werther. The Romantics were not unlike the hippies a hundred and fifty years later” (Gaarder. In musical field. 62 . The pioneers of Romanticism were the young generations in about 1800. They named their Romanticism movement as the first European rebellion. “The first generation of Romantics were young in about 1800. Rumpelstiltskin. Later. There was also The Brothers Grimm who wrote Grimm‟s Fairy Tales such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. there were many of the Romantics died in young age. there were a lot of artistic works which was born in this period either in prose form or in music. There was Hegel with his view that history created because there are the differences in thinking of the human beings where that history takes place. there was Bethoven the famous composer in this period. As the result. They considered the police as the materialistic man and enemy. and we could actually call the Romantic Movement Europe‟s first student uprising. the number of suicide cases increased after that novel was published.

The other like laws. or between the slaves or proletariats and the feudalistic landlords created the new political and economical system which named Socialism. capitalism had resulted the high conflict and the fight of social class. Socialism Karl Marx was also a philosopher who was really interested in history like Hegel. He himself said that he had just been Marxism in 1840. sociologist. and economist. it is not too right to say that Marx is Marxism with his own thought. In the middle of nineteenth century. material. philosophy. He argued that social change in history was not determined by the difference of two or more opposite thoughts like Hegel said. art. Nineteenth Century a. and social relations were the basis of society. To him. religion. morals. The system where the materials of society are managed by dividing them based on the needs of 63 . economic. It didn‟t mean that immaterial didn‟t important. about Marxism. He was not only a philosopher. There was no other philosopher who was really influential in political practice besides him. His thought aimed to practical or political purposes. But. and science were society‟s superstructure. here he had different opinion from Hegel‟s opinion.10. But. Marx by seeing the discrepancy of social class between the lower and the higher class. But he said that this because of the change of material where then creates social conflict between higher class and lower class and encourages change. Because Marxism was not philosophical trend which made by him. but also a historian.

“In many places. change can only come about through revolution” (Gaarder. in what he called a bourgeois or capitalist society. he published „Communist Manifesto‟ as the Manifesto to move the proletariats to fight against the ruling class. Then in certain periods. the salary couldn‟t complete their daily needs. The worker becomes alien to his work—but at the same time also alien to himself.” (Gaarder. 2007: 392) He had given argumentation of his thought through his observation about the lower class workers under capitalistic system: “Under the capitalist system. and always. the dictatorship of the proletariat was replaced by a classless society. 2007: 393) In 1848. part of the wages was paid out in the form of cheap liquor. and he said that the way to sort out this problem was only through revolution. 2007: 393) The workers under capitalism used to be paid so low or paid with cheap liquor.each individual. This condition caused new more conflicts in society where the women also had to work hard even though they are pregnant.” (Gaarder. the worker labors for someone else. there was a new social class where the proletariats suppressed the bourgeois forcefully. But after a transition period. He loses touch with his own reality. the conflict was first and foremost between the capitalists and the workers. and women were obliged to supplement their earnings by prostitution. So the conflict stood between those who own the means of production and those who do not. Since the „upper classes‟ do not voluntarily relinquish their power. His labor is thus something external to him—or something that does not belong to him. “But in Marx‟s own time. in where of production are 64 . Their customers were the respected citizenry of the town. or the proletariat. and the girls chose to prostitute themselves to earn more money. The system which was aimed to opposite capitalism.

65 . society forced to use new approach to revise Bible. and the less said about it the better… People were suddenly obliged to revise their whole approach to the Book of Genesis” (Gaarder. there were also the changes which were caused by a form of new invention by the experts. His psychoanalysis result sub-consciousness is from man‟s animal instinct. In this kind of society. Then Charles Darwin from England had brought new thought based on his observation that mankind was the result of a slow biological evolution. the rejections to his theory are more and more. There‟s Sigmund Freud. He implied through that book that human was from the animal. he had sailed around the world by Beagle to observe the organism in southern coasts of South America.owned by all. 2007. 413) Both Freud and Darwin‟s ideas are still in use now. to each according to his needs. who had developed depth psychology or psychoanalysis as description of the human mind in general as therapy for nervous and mental disorders. But nowadays. New Thought in Biology and Progression in Psychology In this nineteenth century. Freud‟s invention of psychoanalysis has been applied in psychology and Darwin‟s theory then becomes one of materials in Biology and History in schools in the world. the Book of Genesis. In that book. Darwin assumed that evolution was caused by natural selection. Then in 1859 he published a book titled „The Origin of Species‟ which brought the controversy among the society and hard protest from the church. b. the policy was from each according to his abilities. In his 22 ages. “A distinguished scientist expressed a similar thought: „An embarrassing discovery. Since that.

computers. VCRs. These made the people didn‟t have to go far to get information. Human has liberty to choose the deeds that he thinks are right. Twentieth Century Twentieth century had come with its new innovations in Europe. He stated that Christianity and traditional philosophy only offered the unclear hopes to the people. means philosophical trend which emphasize human‟s role in his existence in this world without depending himself on religious rules. and fax machines. but he has to responsible to his deeds. his atheistic existentialism brought humanism idea that the human beings cannot be blamed of their weakness or mistake. This period was characterized by the rapid progression of technology. and satellite dishes to mobile phones. He then became important philosopher whom the ideas were influential in twentieth century. There were lot of sophisticated products such as televisions. Friedrich Nietzsche from Germany who lived in 1844 to 1900 was a famous atheistic philosopher who brought this kind of liberalism view. “Both Kierkegaard and some of this century‟s existential philosophers were Christian.” (Gaarder. One of figures in this period who was really influenced by Nietzsche‟s idea was JeanPaul Sartre (1905-1980). In 66 . Sitting in front of television or computer had made them able to enter almost all human‟s experiences in the world. 2007: 450) Sartre‟s thought seemed affected also to society‟s thoughts. Liberalism views resounded more. His philosophy can be seen as a merciless analysis of the human situation when „God is dead. But Sartre‟s allegiance was to what we might call an atheistic existentialism. In one side.‟ The expression „God is dead‟ came from Nietzsche. He brought his idea about atheistic existentialism.11.

It‟s what most people want… They obviously desire something mystical. 2007: 451) Other characteristic of twentieth century showed when Alberto and Sophie walked around the book shop. The producers will produce everything related to pornography and mysticism as long as the society like it to get more income. They began to seek the other different objects which could make them feel comforted. “We can never lay the blame on „human nature. But it is like carrying coals to Newcastle.” (Gaarder. his thought opposed the beliefs in religion. and beside the progression of technology which had caused the over freedom in society. 2007: 460) The people then became farther from religion. So materialistic and hedonic life style growth more.another side. the imaginative figure. Now and then it happens that grown men behave like pigs and then blame it on „the old Adam. 67 .‟ He is merely a figure we clutch at to avoid taking responsibility for our own actions” (Gaarder. they saw that most of the books sold there were about mysticism and pornography. “Publishing such books is a big commercial enterprise. “Much of it is humbug. He said that sometimes the people blame Adam. another serious problem was the problem of environment. something different to break the dreary monotony of everyday life.” (Gaarder. of their mistakes. And these conditions can be still seen nowadays. But it sells as well as pornography.‟ But there is no „old Adam. 2007: 460) The society had been really interested in something about pornography and mysticism like UFO. although actually those things are not so important and educated. A lot of it is a kind of pornography. to break their boredom. Technology had created the sophisticated machines which had brought negative effects to the environment.‟ or „human frailty‟ or anything like that.

that social changes occur because of the progression and the deterioration of the civilization. 68 . government. costume.CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. then were born back to be more free and developed in science and art began in Renaissance 15th century. also the change of society‟s interest and attitude during the centuries show us the proofs of Cyclical Theory. From thinking primitively before 6 B. The society also became more interested in something uneducated which could comfort them like pornography and mysticism. beginning to think more scientifically in 6 B.C. unfortunately. 3. religion. the growth of unrestrained technology caused environmental problem in twentieth century. Conclusion Having analyzed Jostein Gaarder‟s novel “Sophie‟s World”. The collapse of Greek culture in Middle Ages and church authority in Enlightenment. and how the society responds the challenges in their social environment. 2. experiencing deterioration of civilization in Middle Ages. But. Jostein Gaarder‟s novel “Sophie‟s World” is rich with social aspects. and this condition made them hedonic and far from religion.C. Five social aspects mentioned in „Review of Related Literature‟: family. the researcher comes to several conclusions as follow: 1. and education exist in this novel. There have been changes in Europeans social life.

Expectantly. thesis is not only the requisite for graduation. Suggestion This thesis is about social aspects and social changes of Europeans from ancient Greece to modern era which are exist in Jostein Gaarder‟s historical novel “Sophie‟s World”. So. Then by having historical knowledge. we will know how to place our role in society correctly. The researcher also suggests in order that this thesis can be used as beneficial reference about social aspects and social changes in Europe or about Jostein Gaarder‟s novel “Sophie‟s World” for others especially for them who also want to analyze same object or novel. Remembering that literary work is rich with a lot of aspects. but also as the useful work that brings certain values. Because. these suggestions are functional the readers and for better growth of English Literature Study Program. hopefully in the future particularly in English Literature Study Program in FBS UNM. we can talk about everything. and Europe in novel “Sophie‟s World” has the history of civilization which can give valuable life learning to us. the researcher suggests for the next researchers to consider not only aesthetic value but also benefit principle for others and for ourselves in composing a thesis. we will be able to aim ourselves in life.B. in researcher‟s opinion. thesis will be more varied and creative. Social aspect and historical novel themselves cannot be underestimated although there have been the other thesis about these terms before. By learning social aspect. about any fields related with human being‟s life. It will show that by literary works. 69 .

org/wiki/Jostein_Gaarder http://www.http://en.netsons.org/biography/biography_en.html 70 .josteingaarder.wikipedia.

plotting. and assassinations 71 . In a somewhat similar fashion the political situation was typified by intrigue.It has often been said that the political situation in the Baroque period was not unlike its art and architecture. Baroque buildings were typified by a lot of ornate nooks and crannies.

it is forbidden to draw or make the God‟s statue 72 . As a prove. in the Old Testament.Greece and Roman culture had been united with Christianity.

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