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Electronics and InIormation and

Communication System.
Chapter 8
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&ERSTAI RAIOWAVE
When a stone is dropped into a lake, the
potential energy is changed to kinetic energy
and subsequently to wave energy in the Iorm
oI ripples.
These ripples move up and down and travel
outward sending energy across the lake.
WHAT IS A WAVE
isturbance (oIten in the Iorm oI vibration or
oscillation) that is produced repeatedly, and
transIers energy.
Examples: Sound and light
Waves can be described using a number oI
standard variables including Irequency,
wavelength, amplitude and period.
A graphical presentation oI a wave
Amplitude
Wavelength ()
Wavelength ()
Trough Trough
Peak
The frequency,, oI the wave is the number oI
complete waves passing a given point in the medium
Ior each second - measured in Hertz (Hz)
The wavelength, A, is the distance between two
successive points, which are in the same phase -
measured in metres (m).
The amplitude, , oI a wave is the maximum
displacement oI particles Irom their rest position. -
measured in metres (m).
The period, % oI a wave is the time needed Ior each
particle to complete one Iull wave movement -
measured in seconds.
#eflection - the change oI direction oI waves,
due to hitting a reIlective surIace.
#efraction - the change oI direction oI wave
when it enters a new medium.
Diffraction - the spreading out oI waves, Ior
example when they travel through a small
opening or slit.
Interference - the superposition oI two or
more waves Irom coherent sources.
ELECTROMAETIC SPECTR&M
Light wave and radio wave are non-
mechanical waves, known as electromagnetic
waves.
can travel through vacuum.
Example: light Irom the Sun can reach the
Earth because it does not need a medium to
travel.
An electromagnetic wave is a combination oI
electric and magnetic wave.
The electromagnetic waves spectrum
Radio waves, microwaves, light, x-rays and
inIrared rays are made up oI electromagnetic
waves.
All the electromagnetic waves are part oI the
electromagnetic spectrum.
All the waves in this spectrum share the same
speed, which is the speed oI light
RAIO WAVES I COMM&ICATIO
Radio waves are everywhere.
Can send over a very long distance
and they can travel through vacuum.
Carries all the inIormation needed Ior radios,
televisions and mobile phones to
create sound and pictures.
Each radio or television station has a speciIic
Irequency - can tune the radio or television set
according to the Irequency.
Electronic components and their Iunctions
Component Functions
Resistor A resistor is an electronic component that
resists the Ilow oI current.
It produces a voltage drop between its
terminals.
A capacitor is a device that can store energy.
The electric charges are stored in a pair oI
conductors separated by an insulator.
One conductor holds the negative charge
while the other conductor holds the positive
charge.
Component Functions
Capacitor A capacitor is oIten reIerred to as a
condenser.
A capacitor only lets alternating current pass
through it. It does not allow direct current
pass through. There are two main types oI
capacitor; Iixed and variable.
A variable capacitor and inductors are applied
together in a radio receiver to select
inIormation in particular Irequency bands.
A radio receiver relies on a variable capacitor
to tune to the station Irequency.
Component Functions
iode A diode is a component that restricts the direction oI
movement oI charge carriers.
It allows an electric current to Ilow in one direction,
but essentially blocks it in the opposite direction.
iodes are used as demodulation in AM radio
receivers.
Transistor
Electronic device which can be used Ior
ampliIication, switching, voltage stabilisation, signal
modulation and many other Iunctions.
It is based on its input voltage that controls the
current it draws Irom a connected voltage source.
In radio, transistors are used as ampliIiers.
Component Functions
Inductor An inductor is an electronic device used in
electrical circuits Ior its property oI
inductance. Inductance is an eIIect that results
Irom the magnetic Iield that Iorms around a
current carrying conductor. Inductance is
measured in Henrys.
Speaker A speaker converts electrical signals into
sound wave.
Component Functions
TransIormer An electrical or electronic device that transIers
energy Irom one electrical circuit to another by
magnetic coupling without using any moving parts.
&sed to convert between high and low voltages.
Impedance is the eIIective resistance oI an electric.
In radio, small transIormers are oIten used to
isolate and link diIIerent parts oI radio receivers and
audio ampliIiers.
The transIormers convert high current low voltage
circuits to low current high voltage, or vice versa.
TRASMISSIO OF RAIO
SIALS
Combination oI electric wave and magnetic
wave.
These waves are electromagnetic waves that
travel through space at the speed oI light.
Audio waves or sound waves are brought to
the receiver (radio) by the radio waves through
the modulation process.
Radio waves have high Irequencies whereas
sound waves have much lower Irequencies.
To transmit sound by radio it is necessary to
superimpose the sound Irequencies to a radio
wave
As the radio wave carries the electrical
analogue oI the original sound - carrier wave.
Amplitude modulation in AM radio signal
modiIies the energy level oI the individual
carrier waves to produce an envelope oI varying
amplitude corresponding to the sound waves.
In Irequency modulation (in FM radio signal),
the carrier amplitude is kept constant.
The wave Irequency is being increased or
reduced to produce a Irequency analogue oI
sound.
The wave is ampliIied so it is strong enough to
be sent over a long distance through a
transmitter.
RECEPTIO OF SIALS I THE
RAIO RECEIVER SYSTEM.
The radio receiver detects and demodulates
the radio waves.
emodulation - process in which sound waves
are separated Irom the radio waves.
AIter demodulation, the sound waves are
ampliIied through the ampliIying circuits to
produce a signal that is strong enough to be
converted into sound waves using a speaker.
TRASMISSIO OF RAIO
SIALS
RAIO COMM&ICATIO
SYSTEM
A pair oI walkie talkies allow direct
communications between two people.
A walkie-talkie can act as a radio transmitter
and a radio receiver.
Mobile phones use radio waves and physical
lines to transmit call
COMM&ICATI VIA
SATELLITE
A satellite is any object that orbits another object.
The term satellite normally reIers to an artiIicial
satellite that orbits the Earth.
Communication satellites - artiIicial satellites
stationed in space Ior the purposes oI
telecommunications by using radio waves.
The communication satellites contain
radio wave reIlectors.
The reIlectors bounce the radio waves
transmitted Irom ground transmitters, Ior
example, Irom the radio and television stations
to the radio and television at home.
A communication satellite reIlects radio waves
Irom the ground transmitter.
A communication satellite makes it possible to
transmit radio waves over a very long distance.
THE BEEFIT OF IFORMATIO A
COMM&ICATIO TECHOLOY TO
MAI
InIormation and communication technology
(ICT) is the method oI sending and receiving
inIormation via electronic devices.
ICT involves technologies such as radio and
the newer digital technologies like computers,
satellite, mobile phones, and the Internet.
&se mobile phones to chat with your Iriend,
use computers to browse the Internet, and
withdraw money Irom Automated Teller
Machines (ATMs).
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