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## com INPS MCA ENTRANCE EXAM

Defin it ion .
Let ) (x | be the primitive or anti-derivative of a function f(x) defined on [a, b] i.e., ) ( )] ( [ x f x
dx
d
= | . Then the
definite integral of f(x) over [a, b] is denoted by
}
b
a
dx x f ) ( and is defined as )] ( ) ( [ a b | | i.e.,
}
=
b
a
a b dx x f ) ( ) ( ) ( | | .
This is also called Newton Leibnitz formula.
The numbers a and b are called the limits of integration, a is called t he lower limit and b the upper limit.
The interval [a, b] is called the interval of integration. The interval [a, b] is also known as range of integration.
I m p or t a n t Ti p s
In the above definition it does not matter which anti-derivative is used t o evaluate t he definite integral, because if
( ) ( )
}
+ = , c x dx x f | t hen ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) ). ( ) ( ) ( ) ( a b c a c b
b
a
c x x
b
a
d x f | | | | | = + + = + =
}
In other words, to evaluate the definite integral there is no need to keep the constant of integration.
Every definite int egral has a unique value.
Exa m p le : 1
}

(
(

+
+
+
3
1
2
1
2
1
1
tan
1
tan dx
x
x
x
x
= [ UP MCA 20 0 0 ]
(a) t (b) 2t (c) 3t (d) None of these
Solu t ion : (b) dx
x
x
x
x
I
}

+
+
+
=
3
1
2
1
2
1
1
cot
1
tan

=
3
1 2
dx I
t
t
t t
2 ] 1 3 [
2
] [
2
3
1
= + = =

x I .
Exa m p le : 2
}
t
0
2
sin dx x is equal to [ MP MCA 1999]
(a) t (b) t/ 2 (c) 0 (d) None of these
Solu t ion : (b)
} }
= =
t t
0 0
2
] 2 cos 1 [
2
1
sin 2
2
1
dx x dx x I

t
0
2
2 sin
2
1
(

=
x
x I
2
] [
2
1 t
t = = I .
Defin it e I n t egr a l a s t h e Lim it of a Su m .
Let f(x) be a single valued continuous function defined in the interval , b x a s s where a and b are both
finite. Let this interval be divided into n equal sub-intervals, each of width h by inserting (n 1) points
h n a h a h a h a ) 1 ( ...... 3 , 2 , + + + + between a and b. Then a b nh = .
Now, we form the sum ] ) 1 ( [ ...... ) ( ........ ) 2 ( ) ( ) ( h n a hf rh a hf h a hf h a hf a hf + + + + + + + + + +
= }] ) 1 ( { .... ) ( ..... ) 2 ( ) ( ) ( [ h n a f rh a f h a f h a f a f h + + + + + + + + + +
www.inpsmcalucknow.com INPS MCA ENTRANCE EXAM
2
=

=
+
1
0
) (
n
r
rh a f h
where, a b nh b nh a = = +
The

+
1
0
0
), ( lim
n
r
h
rh a f h if it exists is called the d e fin it e in t egr a l of f(x) with respect to x between the limits a
and b and we denote it by the symbol
}
b
a
dx x f ) ( .
Thus,
}
+ + + + + + + =

b
a h
h n a f h a f h a f a f h dx x f }] ) 1 ( { ...... ) 2 ( ) ( ) ( [ lim ) (
0

+ =
b
a
n
r
h
rh a f h dx x f
1
0
0
) ( lim ) (
where, , a b nh = a and b being the limits of integration.
The process of evaluating a definite integral by using the above definition is called integration from the first
principle or integration as the limit of a sum.
I m p or t a n t Ti p s
In finding the above sum, we have t aken the left end points of the subintervals. We can take t he right end points of t he sub-
intervals throughout.
Then we have,
}
+ + + + + +

=
b
a
nh a f h a f h a f h
h
dx x f )] ( ..... ) 2 ( ) ( [
0
lim ) ( ,
}
=
+ =
b
a
n
r
rh a f h dx x f
1
) ( ) (
where, nh = b a.

( )( )
( ) t o |
| o
|
o
= >

}
x x
dx
( )( ) ( )
2
8
o |
t
| o
|
o
=
}
dx x x
( ) a b dx
x b
a x
b
a
=

}
2
t
( ) ( ) dx x f
n
dx x f
nb
na
b
a
} }
=
1
( ) ( ) dx x f dx c x f
b
a
c b
c a
} }
= +

or ( ) ( ) dx x f dx c x f
b
a
c b
c a
} }
=
+
+
Som e u s efu l r esu lt s for eva lu a t ion of d e fin it e in t egr a ls a s limit for s u m s
(i) 1 + 2 + 3 + .+ n =
2
) 1 ( + n n
(ii)
6
) 1 2 )( 1 (
........ 3 2 1
2 2 2 2
+ +
= + + + +
n n n
n
(iii)
2
3 3 3 3
2
) 1 (
....... 3 2 1
(

+
= + + + +
n n
n (iv) 1 ,
1
) 1 (
........
1 2
=

= + + + +

r
r
r a
ar ar ar a
n
n
,
1 > r
(v) 1 , 1 ,
1
) 1 (
..... ..........
1 2
< =

= + + + +

r r
r
r a
ar ar ar a
n
n
(vi) ] ) 1 ( sin[ ........ ) sin( sin h n a h a a + + + + +
|
.
|

\
|
)
`

)
`

|
.
|

\
|
+
= + =

=
2
sin
2
sin
2
1
sin
)] [sin(
1
0
h
nh
h
n
a
nh a
n
r
(vii) ] ) 1 ( cos[ ..... ) 2 cos( ) cos( cos h n a h a h a a + + + + + + +
|
.
|

\
|
)
`

)
`

|
.
|

\
|
+
= + =

=
2
sin
2
sin
2
1
cos
)] [cos(
1
0
h
nh
h
n
a
nh a
n
r
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(viii)
12
.......... ..........
6
1
5
1
4
1
3
1
2
1
1
2
2 2 2 2 2
t
= + + + (ix)
6
...... ..........
6
1
5
1
4
1
3
1
2
1
1
2
2 2 2 2 2
t
= + + + + +
(x)
8
.......... ..........
5
1
3
1
1
2
2 2
t
= + + + (xi)
24
.......... ..........
6
1
4
1
2
1
2
2 2 2
t
= + + +
(xii)
2
sin and
2
cos
u u u u
u u
i i i i
e e e e

=
+
= (xiii)
2
h sin and
2
h cos
u u u u
u u

=
+
=
e e e e
Eva lu a t ion of Defin it e I n t egr a l by Su bs t it u t ion .
When the variable in a definite integral is changed, the substitutions in terms of new variable should be
effected at three places.
(i) In the integrand (ii) In the differential say, dx (iii) In the limits
For example, if we put t x = ) ( | in the integral
}
b
a
dx x x f ) ( ' )} ( { | | , then
} }
=
b
a
b
a
dt t f dx x x f
) (
) (
) ( ) ( ' )} ( {
|
|
| | .
I m p or t a n t Ti p s
2
sin 1 0
=
+
}
x
dx
t
( ) 1 2 log 2
cos sin
2 /
0
+ =
+
}
x x
dx
t
( ) 0 tan log
2 /
0
=
}
dx x
t

( )
,
2 1 0
a
e
dx
x f
a
=
+
}
where ( ) ( ) x f x a f =

2
2 2
0
t
=

}
x a
dx
a

a a x
dx
a
2
2 2
0
t
=
+
}

4
2
2 2
0
a
dx x a
a
t
=
}
Exa m p le : 3 If ), ( ) ( b h a h = then dx x h x h g x h g f x h g f
b
a
) ( ' )] ( [ ' )]) ( [ ( ' )])] ( [ ( [
1
}

is equal to [ J NU 20 0 1]
(a) 0 (b) ) ( ) ( b f a f (c) )] ( [ )] ( [ b g f a g f (d) None of these
Solu t ion : (a) Put t x h g f = )]) ( [ ( dt dx x h x h g x h g f = ) ( ' )] ( [ ' )]) ( [ ( '
| | 0 ) log(
)]) ( [ (
)]) ( [ (
)]) ( [ (
)]) ( [ (
1
= =
}

b h g f
a h g f
b h g f
a h g f
t dt t )] ( ) ( [ b h a h =
Exa m p le : 4 The value of the integral dx
x
x
e
e
e
}
2
1
log
is [ I I T 20 0 0 ]
(a) 3/ 2 (b) 5/ 2 (c) 3 (d) 5
Solu t ion : (b) Put x e t x
t
e
= = log
dt e dx
t
=
and limits are adjusted as 1 to 2

} }

= =
2
1
2
1
| | dt t dt e
e
t
I
t
t

} }

+ =
0
1
2
0
tdt tdt I
2
0
2
0
1
2
2 2
(
(

+
(
(

t t
I 2 / 5 = I
Exa m p le : 5
}
+
2 /
0 sin 1
t
x
dx
equals [ MNR 198 3; Ra ja s t h a n PET 1990 ; Ku r u ks h et r a CEE 1997]
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 1 (d) 2
Solu t ion : (b)
}
/
+ +
=
2 /
0
2 2
2 / cos 2 / sin 2 2 / cos 2 / sin
t
x x x x
dx
I
} }
+
=
+
=
2 /
0
2
2
2 /
0
2
) 2 / tan 1 (
2 / sec
) 2 / cos 2 / (sin
t t
dx
x
x
x x
dx
I
www.inpsmcalucknow.com INPS MCA ENTRANCE EXAM
4
Put t x = + ) 2 / tan 1 ( dt dx x = 2 / sec
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2 2
2
1
2
1
2
=
(

=
(

= =
}
t t
dt
I
Pr op er t ies of Defin it e I n t egr a l.
(1)
} }
=
b
a
b
a
dt t f dx x f ) ( ) ( i.e., The value of a definite integral remains unchanged if its variable is replaced by
any other symbol.
Exa m p le : 6
}
+
6
3 1
1
dx
x
is equal to
(a) | |
6
3
) 1 log( + x (b)
6
3
] 1 [log( + t (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these
Solu t ion : (c)
}
+ =
+
=
6
3
6
3
)] 1 [log(
1
1
x dx
x
I ,
6
3
6
3
)] 1 [log(
1
1
+ =
+
=
}
t dt
t
I
(2)
} }
=
b
a
a
b
f(x)dx f(x)dx i.e., by the interchange in the limits of definite integral, the sign of the integral is
changed.
Exa m p le : 7 Suppose f is such that f(x) = f(x) for every real x and
}
=
1
0
5 ) ( dx x f , then =
}

0
1
) ( dt t f [ UP MCA 20 0 0 ]
(a) 10 (b) 5 (c) 0 (d) 5
Solu t ion : (d) Given,
}
=
1
0
5 ) ( dx x f
Put dt dx t x = =

} }

= =
1
0
0
1
) ( ) ( dt t f dt t f I 5 = I
(3)
} } }
+ =
b
a
b
c
c
a
dx x f dx x f dx x f ) ( ) ( ) ( , (where a < c < b)
or
} } } }
+ + + =
2
1
1
; ) ( ..... ) ( ) ( ) (
c
c
b
c
c
a
b
a
n
dx x f dx x f dx x f dx x f (where b c c c a
n
< < < < ........
2 1
)
Generally this property is used when the integrand has two or more rules in the integration interval.
I m p or t a n t Ti p s

2
) ( ) ( a b dx b x a x
b
a
= +
}
Not e : Property (3) is useful when ) (x f is not continuous in [a, b] because we can break up the integral
into several integrals at the points of discontinuity so that the function is continuous in the sub-
intervals.
The expression for ) (x f changes at the end points of each of the sub-interval. You might at times
be puzzled about the end points as limits of integration. You may not be sure for x = 0 as the limit
of the first integral or the next one. In fact, it is immaterial, as the area of the line is always zero.
Therefore, even if you write , ) 2 1 (
0
1
dx x
}

## whereas 0 is not included in its domain it is deemed to

be understood that you are approaching x = 0 from the left in the first integral and from right in
the second integral. Similarly for x = 1.
www.inpsmcalucknow.com INPS MCA ENTRANCE EXAM
Exa m p le : 8
}

2
2
2
| 1 | dx x is equal t o [ I I T 198 9; BI T Ra n ch i 1996; Ku r u ks h et r a CEE 1998 ]
(a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 8
Solu t ion : (b)
} } } }
+ + = =

2
1
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
2
2 2
| 1 | | 1 | | 1 | | 1 | dx x dx x dx x dx x I

} } }

+ =
1
1
2
1
2 2
1
2
2
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( dx x dx x dx x I 4
3
4
3
4
3
4
= + + = I .
Exa m p le : 9
}
5 . 1
0
2
] [ dx x , where [.] denot es the greatest int eger function, equals [ DU 20 0 0 , 20 0 1; II T 1988 ; AMU 1998 ]
(a) 2 2 + (b) 2 2 (c) 2 1 + (d) 1 2
Solu t ion : (b)
} } } }
+ + = =
5 . 1
2
2
5 . 1
0
2
1
2
1
0
2 2
] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ dx x dx x dx x dx x I
} }
+ = + + =
2
1
5 . 1
2
2 2 3 1 2 2 1 0 dx dx I 2 2 = I
Exa m p le : 10 If

s
=
otherwise , 2
2 | | , sin .
) (
cos
x x e
x f
x
, then =
}

3
2
) ( dx x f [ I I T 20 0 0 ]
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3
Solu t ion : (c) 2 2 2 | | s s s x x and x e x f
x
sin ) (
cos
= is an odd function.

} } }
+ = =

3
2
2
2
3
2
) ( ) ( ) ( dx x f dx x f dx x f I 2 ] 2 [ 2 0
3
2
3
2
= = + =
}
x dx I [
}

=
a
a
x f 0 ) ( if f(x) is odd and in (2, 3) f(x) is 2]
(4)
} }
=
a a
dx x a f dx x f
0 0
) ( ) ( : This property can be used only when lower limit is zero. It is generally used for
those complicated integrals whose denominators are unchanged when x is replaced by (a x).
Following integrals can be obtained with the help of above property.
(i)
} }
=
+
=
+
2 /
0
2 /
0
4 sin cos
cos
cos sin
sin
t t
t
dx
x x
x
dx
x x
x
n n
n
n n
n
(ii)
} }
=
+
=
+
2 /
0
2 /
0
4 cot 1
cot
tan 1
tan
t t
t
dx
x
x
dx
x
x
n
n
n
n
(iii)
} }
=
+
=
+
/ 2 /
0
2
0
4 cot 1
1
tan 1
1
t t
t
dx
x
dx
x
n n
(iv)
4 sec cos
cos
cos sec
sec
2 /
0
2
0
t
t t
=
+
=
+
} }
/
dx
x x ec
x ec
dx
x ec x
x
n n
n
n n
n
(v)
} }
/
=
2 /
0
2
0
cos ) 2 (sin sin ) 2 (sin
t t
xdx x f xdx x f (vi)
} }
=
2 /
0
2 /
0
) (cos ) (sin
t t
dx x f dx x f
(vii)
} }
=
2 /
0
2 /
0
) (cot ) (tan
t t
dx x f dx x f (viii)
} }
=
1
0
1
0
)] 1 [log( ) (log dx x f dx x f
(ix)
} }
=
2 /
0
2 /
0
cot log tan log
t t
xdx xdx (x)
}
= +
4 /
0
2 log
8
) tan 1 log(
t
t
dx x
(xi)
2
1
log
2
2 log
2
cos log sin log
2 /
0
2 /
0
t t
t t
=

= =
} }
xdx xdx
(xii) ) (
4 cot tan
cot tan
cos sec
cos sec
cos sin
cos sin
2 /
0
2 /
0
2 /
0
b a dx
x x
x b x a
dx
x ec x
x ec b x a
dx
x x
x b x a
+ =
+
+
=
+
+
=
+
+
} } }
t
t t t
Exa m p le : 11
}
t
0
3 sin
cos
2
xdx e
x
=
OR
For any integer n,
}
+
t
0
3 sin
) 1 2 ( cos
2
xdx n e
x
= [ MPMCA20 0 2; MNR 1992,
98 ]
www.inpsmcalucknow.com INPS MCA ENTRANCE EXAM
6
(a) 1 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d) None of these
Solu t ion : (b) Let, ) ( cos ) (
3
1
x f x x f = = t
and ) ( ) 1 2 ( cos ) (
3
2
x f x n x f = + = t
I = 0.
Exa m p le : 12
}
+
a
dx
x a f x f
x f
2
0 ) 2 ( ) (
) (
is equal to [ I I T 198 8 ; Kur u ks h et r a CEE 1999; BHU 20 0 0 ]
(a) a (b) a/ 2 (c) 2a (d) 0
Solu t ion : (a)
} }
+

=
+
=
a a
dx
x f x a f
x a f
dx
x a f x f
x f
I
2
0
2
0 ) ( ) 2 (
) 2 (
) 2 ( ) (
) (
} }
= = =
+
+
=
a
a
a
a x dx dx
x a f x f
x a f x f
I
2
0
2
0
2
0
2 ] [
) 2 ( ) (
) 2 ( ) (
2
a I = .
Exa m p le : 13
} }
+
=
+
2 /
0
2 /
0
cos sin
sin
tan 1
tan
t t
dx
x x
x
x
x
is equal to [ MNR 198 9, 90 J NU 20 0 5]
(a) t/ 4 (b) (c) 1 (d) 1
Solu t ion : (a) We know,
}
=
+
2 /
0 4 tan 1
tan
t
t
x
xdx
n
n
for any value of n
4 / t = I .
(5) dx x f x f dx x f
a a
a
) ( ) ( ) (
0
+ =
} }

.
In special case :

=
=
= }
}

## ) ( ) ( or function odd is odd is ) ( if , 0

) ( ) ( or function even is ) ( if , ) ( 2
) (
0
x f x f x f
x f x f x f dx x f
dx x f
a
a
a
This property is generally used when integrand is either even or odd function of x.
Exa m p le : 14 The int egral
}

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
+
2 / 1
2 / 1 1
1
ln ] [ dx
x
x
x equal t o
(a)
2
1
(b) 0 (c) 1 (d) |
.
|

\
|
2
1
ln 2
Solu t ion : (a) |
.
|

\
|

+
x
x
1
1
log is an odd function of x as ) ( ) ( x f x f =
}

+ =
2 / 1
2 / 1
0 ] [ dx x I
} }
+ =

2 / 1
0
0
2 / 1
] [ ] [ dx x dx x I
}

+ =
0
2 / 1
0 1dx I
2
1
] [
0
2 / 1

=

x .
Exa m p le : 15 The value of the integral dx x x
}

+ +
1
1
2
1 log is [ MP PET 20 0 1]
(a) 0 (b) log 2 (c) log 1/ 2 (d) None of these
Solu t ion : (a) ] 1 log[ ) (
2
+ + = x x x f is a odd function i.e. ) ( ) ( x f x f = 0 ) ( ) ( = + x f x f I = 0.
Exa m p le : 16 The value of
}

t
t
xdx x x
2 2
cos sin ) 1 ( is [ Roor kee 1992; MNR 1998 ]
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3
Solu t ion : (a) Let, ) 1 ( ) (
2
1
x x f = , x x f sin ) (
2
= and x x f
2
3
cos ) ( =
Now, ) ( ) (
1 1
x f x f = , ) ( ) (
2 2
x f x f = and ) ( ) (
3 3
x f x f =

} }

= =
t
t
t
t
dx x f x f x f dx x f I )] ( ). ( ). ( [ ) (
3 2 1
=
}

t
t
dx x f x f x f )] ( ). ( ). ( [
3 2 1
0 = I
(6)
} } }
+ =
a a a
dx x a f dx x f dx x f
0 0
2
0
) 2 ( ) ( ) (
www.inpsmcalucknow.com INPS MCA ENTRANCE EXAM
In particular,

=
=
=
}
}
) ( ) 2 ( if , ) ( 2
) ( ) 2 ( if , 0
) (
0
2
0 x f x a f dx x f
x f x a f
dx x f
a
a
It is generally used to make half the upper limit.
Exa m p le : 17 If n is any int eger, then
}
+
t
0
3 cos
) 1 2 ( cos
2
dx x n e
x
is equal to [ I I T 198 5; Ra ja st h a n PET
1995]
(a) x (b) 1 (c) 0 (d) None of these
Solu t ion : (c) dx x n e I
x
) )( 1 2 ( cos .
3
0
) ( cos
2
+ =
}

t
t
t

}
+ =
t
0
3 cos
) 1 2 ( cos .
2
dx x n e I
x
I I =
0 2 = I . 0 = I
Exa m p le : 18 If
}
=
t 3
0
2
1
) (cos dx x f I and
}
=
t
0
2
2
) (cos dx x f I then
(a)
2 1
I I = (b)
2 1
2I I = (c)
2 1
3I I = (d)
2 1
4I I =
Solu t ion : (c) )) 3 ( (cos ) (cos
2 2
x f x f = t

}
=
t
0
2
1
) (cos 3 dx x f I
2 1
3I I =
(7)
} }
+ =
b
a
b
a
dx x b a f dx x f ) ( ) (
Not e : ) (
2
1
) ( ) (
) (
a b
x b a f x f
dx x f
b
a
=
+ +
}
Exa m p le : 19
}
+
4 / 3
4 / cos 1
t
t x
dx
is equal to [ I I T 1999]
(a) 2 (b) 2 (c) 1/ 2 (d) 1/ 2
Solu t ion : (a)
}

=
4 / 3
4 / cos 1
1
t
t
dx
x
I [
(

= |
.
|

\
|
+ x x cos
4
3
4
cos
t t

}

=
4 / 3
4 /
2
cos 1
2
2
t
t
dx
x
I

}
=
4 / 3
4 /
2
sec 2 2
t
t
xdx co I 4 ] [cot 2 2
4 / 3
4 /
= =
t
t
x I I = 2.
Exa m p le : 20 The value of
}
+
3
2 5 x x
x
dx is
(a) 1 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d) 1/ 2
Solu t ion : (d)
}
+
=
3
2 5
dx
x x
x
I
Put t x + = 3 2 dt dx =
dx
x x
x
dt
t t
t
I
} }
+

=
+

=
2
3
3
2 5
5
) (
5
5
and
} }
=
+
+
=
3
2
3
2
1
5
5
2 dx dx
x x
x x
I
1 ] [ 2
2
2
= = x I 2 / 1 = I
Exa m p le : 21 If ) ( ) ( x f x b a f = + then
}
b
a
dx x f x ) ( is equal to [ Ku r u ks h et r a CEE 1993; AI EEE 20 0 3]
(a)
}

+
b
a
dx x b f
b a
) (
2
(b)
}
+
b
a
dx x f
b a
) (
2
(c)
}

b
a
dx x f
a b
) (
2
(d) None of these
Solu t ion : (b)
}
=
b
a
dx x f x I ) ( and
}
+ + =
b
a
dx x b a f x b a I ) ( ) (
www.inpsmcalucknow.com INPS MCA ENTRANCE EXAM
8

}
+ =
b
a
dx x f x b a I ) ( ) (
} }
+ =
b
a
b
a
dx x f x dx x f b a I ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 2 b a dx x f I
b
a
+
(

=
}

}
+
=
b
a
dx x f
b a
I ) (
2
(8)
} }
=
a a
dx x f a dx x f x
0 0
) (
2
1
) ( if ) ( ) ( x f x a f =
Exa m p le : 22 If
} }
=
t t
0 0
) (sin ) (sin dx x f k dx x f x , then the value of k will be [ I I T 198 2]
(a) t (b) t/ 2 (c) t/ 4 (d) 1
Solu t ion : (b) Given,
} }
=
t t
0 0
) (sin ) (sin dx x f k dx x f x

} }
=
t t
t t t
0 0
)) (sin( ) ) (sin( ) ( dx x f k dx x f x
} } }
=
t t t
t
0 0 0
) (sin ) (sin ) (sin dx x f k dx x f x dx x f

} }
=
t t
t
0 0
0 ) (sin 2 ) (sin dx x f k dx x f
}
=
t
t
0
0 ) (sin ) 2 ( dx x f k
2 / 0 2 t t = = k k .
(9) If ) (x f is a periodic function with period T, then
} }
=
nT T
dx x f n dx x f
0 0
) ( ) ( ,
Ded u ct ion : If ) (x f is a periodic function with period T and
+
eR a , then
} }
+
=
nT a
nT
a
dx x f dx x f
0
) ( ) (
(10) (i) If ) (x f is a periodic function with period T, then
dx x f n dx x f
T nT a
a
) ( ) (
0
} }
=
+
where I n e
(a) In particular, if a = 0
, ) ( ) (
0 0
dx x f n dx x f
T nT
} }
= where I n e
(b) If n = 1, , ) ( ) (
0 0
dx x f dx x f
T T a
} }
=
+
(i) , ) ( ) ( ) (
0
dx x f m n dx x f
T nT
mT
} }
= where n, I m e
(ii) , ) ( ) ( dx x f dx x f
b
a
nT b
nT a
} }
=
+
+
where I n c
(11) If ) (x f is a periodic function with period T, then ) (x f
T a
a
}
+
is independent of a.
(12) ( ) dx a x a b f a b dx x f
b
a
+ =
} }
) ( ) ( ) (
1
0
(13) If ) (t f is an odd function, then dt t f x
x
a
) ( ) (
}
= | is an even function
(14) If ) (x f is an even function, then dt t f x
x
) ( ) (
0
}
= | is on odd function.
Not e : If f(t) is an even function, then for a non zero a, dt t f
x
) (
0
}
is not necessarily an odd function. It
will be odd function if
}
=
a
dt t f
0
0 ) (
Exa m p le : 23 For
}
+
>
t 2
0
2 2
2
cos sin
sin
, 0 dx
x x
x x
n
n n
n
is equal t o [ I I T 1996]
(a)
2
t (b)
2
2t (c)
2
3t (d)
2
4t
Solu t ion : (a)
}
+
=
t 2
0
2 2
2
cos sin
sin
x x
xdx x
I
n n
n
and
}
+

=
t
t t
t t
2
0
2 2
2
) 2 ( cos ) 2 ( sin
) 2 ( sin ) 2 (
x x
dx x x
I
n n
n
(

=
} }
a a
x a f x f
0 0
) ( ) (
www.inpsmcalucknow.com INPS MCA ENTRANCE EXAM

}
+
=
t
t
t
2
0
2 2
2
cos sin
sin
2 2 dx
x x
I
n n
n
dx
x x
x
I
n n
n
}
+
=
t
t
2
0
2 2
2
cos sin
sin
using
} }
=
nT T
dx x f n x f
0 0
) ( ) (

}
+
=
2 /
0
2 2
2
cos sin
sin
4
t
t dx
x x
x
I
n n
n

2
) 4 / ( 4 t t t = = I .
Exa m p le : 24 If ) (x f is a continuous periodic function with period T, then the integral
}
+
=
T a
a
dx x f I ) ( is
(a) Equal to a 2 (b) Equal to 3a (c) Independent of a (d) None of these
Solu t ion : (c) Consider the funct ion
}
+
=
T a
a
dx x f a g ) ( ) ( =
} } }
+
+ +
T a
T
T
a
dx x f dx x f dx x f ) ( ) ( ) (
0
0
Putt ing y T x = in last integral, we get
} } }
= + =
+ a a T a
T
dy y f dy T y f dx x f
0 0
) ( ) ( ) (

} } }
+ + =
a T
a
dx x f dx x f dx x f a g
0 0
0
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( =
}
T
dx x f
0
) (
Hence ) (a g is independent of a.
I m p or t a n t Ti p s
Every continuous function defined on [a, b] is integrable over [a, b].
Every monotonic function defined on [a, b] is integrable over [a, b].
If f(x) is a continuous function defined on [a, b], then there exists ) , ( b a c e such that
}
=
b
a
a b c f dx x f ) ).( ( ) ( .
The number
}

=
b
a
dx x f
a b
c f ) (
) (
1
) ( is called the mean value of the function ) (x f on t he interval [a, b].
If f is cont inuous on [a, b], then the int egral function g defined by g(x) =
}
x
a
dt t f ) ( for ] , [ b a x e is derivable on [a, b] and
) ( ) ( x f x g = ' for all ] , [ b a x e .
If m and M are the smallest and greatest values of a function f(x) on an interval [a, b], then
}
s s
b
a
a b M dx x f a b m ) ( ) ( ) (
If the function ) (x and ), (x are defined on [a, b] and differentiable at a point ) , ( b a xc and f(t) is cont inuous for
) ( ) ( b t a | s s , then ) ( ' )) ( ( ) ( ' )) ( ( ) (
) (
) (
x x f x x f dt t f
x
x
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
}

} }
s
b
a
b
a
dx x f dx x f | ) ( | ) (
If ) (
2
x f and ) (
2
x g are integrable on [a, b], then
2 / 1
2
2 / 1
2
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
s
} } }
b
a
b
a
b
a
dx x g dx x f dx x g x f
Ch a n ge of v a r i a bles : If the funct ion f(x) is cont inuous on [a, b] and the function ) (t x = is continuously differentiable on
the interval ] , [
2 1
t t and ), ( ), (
2 1
t b t a = = then
} }
=
b
a
t
t
dt t t f dx x f
2
1
) ( ' )) ( ( ) ( .
Let a funct ion ) , ( o x f be cont inuous for b x a s s and d c s s o . Then for any ] , [ d c e o , if
}
=
b
a
dx x f I , ) , ( ) ( o o t hen
}
=
b
a
dx x f I , ) , ( ' ) ( ' o o
Where ) ( ' o I is the derivative of ) (o I w.r.t . o and ) , ( ' o x f is the derivative of ) , ( o x f w.r.t . o, keeping x constant.
www.inpsmcalucknow.com INPS MCA ENTRANCE EXAM
10
For a given function ) (x f cont inuous on [a, b] if you are able to find t wo continuous function ) (
1
x f and ) (
2
x f on [a, b] such
that ], , [ ) ( ) ( ) (
2 1
b a x x f x f x f e s s t hen dx x f dx x f dx x f
b
a
b
a
b
a
) ( ) ( ) (
2 1
} } }
s s
Su m m a t ion of Ser ies by I n t egr a t ion .
We know that

}
=

+ =
n
r
n
b
a
rh a f h dx x f
1
) ( lim ) ( , where a b nh =
Now, put a = 0, b = 1, 1 = nh or
n
h
1
= . Hence

}
|
.
|

\
|
=

n
r
f
n
dx x f
n
1
lim ) (
1
0
Not e : Express the given series in the form |
.
|

\
|
h
r
f
n
1
. Replace
n
r
by x,
n
1
by dx and the limit of the sum is
dx x f ) (
1
0
}
.
Exa m p le : 25 If
2
1
........
2 2
1
1
1
n n
n n
S
n
+
+ +
+
+
+
= then
n
n
S

lim is equal to [ Roor kee 20 0 0 ]
(a) log 2 (b) 2 log 2 (c) 2 log 3 (d) 4 log 2
Solu t ion : (b)

(
(

+
=
+

n
r
n
r
n
rn r
n n
1
lim
1
lim

}
+
=

1
0 ) 1 (
1
lim dx
x x
S
n
n
= 2 log 2 )] 1 [log( 2
1
0
= + x
Exa m p le : 26
n
n
n
n
/ 1
) ! (
lim

or
n
n
n
n
n
/ 1
!
lim |
.
|

\
|

is equal to [ WB J EE 1989 BHU 1998 ]
(a) e (b) e
1
(c) 1 (d) None of these
Solu t ion : (b) Let
n
n
A
n
n
/ 1
) ! (
lim

=

n
n
n
n
n
A
/ 1
...... 3 . 2 . 1
log lim log |
.
|

\
|
=

n
n
n
n
n n n
A
/ 1
....
3
.
2
.
1
log lim log |
.
|

\
|
=

=

(

|
.
|

\
|
=
n
r
n
n
r
n
A
1
log
1
lim log

1
0
1
0
] log [ log log x x x xdx A = =
}
1 log = A
1
= e A
Ga m m a Fu n ct ion .
If m and n are non-negative integers, then
|
.
|

\
| + +
I
|
.
|

\
| +
I |
.
|

\
| +
I
=
}
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
cos sin
2 /
0
n m
n m
xdx x
n m
t
where I(n) is called gamma function which satisfied the following properties
! ) ( ) 1 ( n n n n = I = + I i.e. 1 ) 1 ( = I and t = I ) 2 / 1 (
In place of gamma function, we can also use the following formula :
www.inpsmcalucknow.com INPS MCA ENTRANCE EXAM
}
2 /
0
cos sin
t
xdx x
n m
=
) 1 or 2 )....( 2 )( (
1) or 2 ).....( 3 )( 1 )( 1 or 2 ).....( 3 )( 1 (
+ +

n m n m
n n m m
It is important to note that we multiply by (t/ 2); when both m and n are even.
Exa m p le : 27 The value of
}
2 /
0
6 4
cos sin
t
xdx x = [ PUNE 1999]
(a) 312 / 3t (b) 512 / 5t (c) 512 / 3t (d) 312 / 5t
Solu t ion : (c)
512
3
2
.
. 2 . 4 . 6 . 8 . 10
1 . 3 . 5 . 1 . 3
2
.
) 8 6 4 )( 6 6 4 )( 4 6 4 )( 2 6 4 )( 6 4 (
) 5 6 ).( 3 6 ).( 1 6 ).( 3 4 ).( 1 4 ( t t t
= =
+ + + + +

= I
Red u ct ion for m u la e Defin it e I n t egr a t ion .
(1)
2 2
0
sin
b a
b
bxdx e
ax
+
=
}

(2)
2 2
0
cos
b a
a
bxdx e
ax
+
=
}

(3)
1
!
0
+
=
}

n
n ax
a
n
dx x e
Exa m p le : 28 If
}

=
0
1
, dx x e I
n x
n
then dx x e
n x 1
0

}

is equal to
(a)
n
I (b)
n
I

1
(c)
n
n
I

(d)
n
n
I
Solu t ion : (c) Put , , t x = , dt dx = we get,
dt t e dx x e
n t
n
n x 1
0
1
0
1

} }
=

=
n
n n x
n
I
dx x e

=
}

0
1
1
Wa lli' s For m u la .

= =
} }
even is when ,
2
.
2
1
.
4
3
.......
4
5
.
2
3
.
1
odd is when ,
3
2
......
4
5
.
2
3
.
1
cos sin
2 /
0
2 /
0
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
xdx xdx
n n
t
t t
) 2 ( ) (
)........ 3 ( ) 1 .( )......... 3 ( ) 1 (
cos sin
2 /
0
+ +

=
}
n m n m
n n m m
dx x
n m
t
[If m, n are both odd +ve integers or one odd +ve integer]
2
.
) 2 ( ) (
) 3 ( ) 1 ...( )......... 3 ( ) 1 ( t
+ +

=
n m n m
n n m m
[If m, n are both +ve integers]
Exa m p le : 29
}
2 /
0
7
sin
t
xdx has value [ BI T Ra n ch i 1999]
(a)
184
37
(b)
45
17
(c)
35
16
(d)
45
16
Solu t ion : (c) Using Wallis formula,
35
16
3 . 5 . 7
2 . 4 . 6
4 7
5 7
.
2 7
3 7
.
7
1 7
= =

= I
6. 9 Leibn it zs Ru le.
(1) If f(x) is continuous and u(x), v(x) are differentiable functions in the interval [a, b], then,
)} ( { )} ( { )} ( { )} ( { ) (
) (
) (
x u
dx
d
x u f x v
dx
d
x v f dt t f
dx
d
x v
x u
=
}
(2) If the function ) (x | and ) (x are defined on [a,b] and differentiable at a point ), , ( b a x e and ) , ( t x f is
continuous, then,
(

}
dt t x f
dx
d
x
x
) , (
) (
) (

|
)) ( , (
) (
)) ( , (
) (
) , (
) (
) (
x x f
dx
x d
x x f
dx
x d
dt t x f
dx
d
x
x
|
|

|
)
`

)
`

+ =
}
Exa m p le : 30 Let dt t x f
x
}
=
1
2
2 ) ( . Then t he real roots of the equation 0 ) ( '
2
= x f x are [ I I T 20 0 2]
(a) 1 (b)
2
1
(c)
2
1
(d) 0 and 1
www.inpsmcalucknow.com INPS MCA ENTRANCE EXAM
12
Solu t ion : (a) dt t x f
x
}
=
1
2
2 ) (
2 2
2 0 . 1 2 1 . 2 ) ( ' x x x f = =

2 2
2 ) ( ' x x f x = = 0 2
2 4
= + x x 0 ) 1 )( 2 (
2 2
= + x x
1 = x (only real).
Exa m p le : 31 Let R f ) , 0 ( : and
}
=
x
dt t f x f
0
) ( ) ( . If ), 1 ( ) (
2 2
x x x f + = t hen f (4) equals [ I I T 20 0 1]
(a) 5/ 4 (b) 7 (c) 4 (d) 2
Solu t ion : (c) By definit ion of f(x) we have
3 2
0
2
2
) ( ) ( x x dt t f x f
x
+ = =
}
(given)
Differentiat e both sides,
2 2
3 2 0 2 ). ( x x x x f + = +
Put , 4 ) 4 ( 16 ) 4 ( 4 2 = = = f f x
6. 10 I n t egr a ls wit h I n fin it e Lim it s ( I m p r op er I n t egr a l) .
A definite integral
}
b
a
dx x f ) ( is called an improper integral, if
The range of integration is finite and the integrand is unbounded and/ or the range of integration is infinite
and the integrand is bounded.
e.g., The integral dx
x
}
1
0
2
1
is an improper integral, because the integrand is unbounded on [0, 1]. Infact,

2
1
x
as 0 x . The integral dx
x
}

+
0
2
1
1
is an improper integral, because the range of integration is not
finite.
There are following two kinds of improper definite integrals:
(1) I m p r op er in t egr a l of fir s t kin d : A definite integral
}
b
a
dx x f ) ( is called an improper integral of first
kind if the range of integration is not finite (i.e., either a or b or a and b ) and the
integrand f(x) is bounded on [a, b].
dx
x
x
dx
x
dx
x
dx
x
} } } }

+ + +
1
3 2
0
2
1
2
) 2 1 (
3
,
1
1
,
1
1
,
1
are improper integrals of first kind.
I m p or t a n t Ti p s
In an improper integral of first kind, the interval of integration is one of the following types [a, ), ( , b], ( , ).
The improper integral
}

a
dx x f ) ( is said to be convergent, if
}
k
a
k
dx x f ) ( lim exists finitely and this limit is called the value of the
improper integral. If dx x f
k
a
k }
) ( lim is either + or , then the integral is said to be divergent.
The improper integral
}

dx x f ) ( is said to be convergent, if both the limits on t he right -hand side exist finitely and are
independent of each other. The improper integral
}

dx x f ) ( is said t o be divergent if the right hand side is + or
(2) I m p r op er in t egr a l of s econ d kin d : A definite integral
}
b
a
dx x f ) ( is called an improper integral of
second kind if the range of integration [a, b] is finite and the integrand is unbounded at one or more points of
[a, b].
www.inpsmcalucknow.com INPS MCA ENTRANCE EXAM
If
}
b
a
dx x f ) ( is an improper integral of second kind, then a, b are finite real numbers and there exists at least
one point ] , [ b a c e such that + ) (x f or ) (x f as c x i.e., f(x) has at least one point of finite
discontinuity in [a, b].
For example :
(i) The integral ,
2
1
3
1
dx
x
}

is an improper integral of second kind, because = |
.
|

\
|

2
1
lim
2
x
x
.
(ii) The integral ; log
1
0
}
xdx is an improper integral of second kind, because 0 as log x x .
(iii) The integral
}
+
t 2
0
,
cos 1
1
dx
x
is an improper integral of second kind since integrand
x cos 1
1
+
becomes
infinite at ] 2 , 0 [ t t e = x .
(iv)
}
1
0
,
sin
dx
x
x
is a proper integral since 1
sin
lim
0
=

x
x
x
.
I m p or t a n t Ti p s
Let f(x) be bounded funct ion defined on (a, b] such t hat a is the only point of infinite discont inuit y of f(x) i.e., f(x) as x a.
Then the improper integral of f(x) on (a, b] is denoted by dx x f
b
a
) (
}
and is defined as dx x f dx x f
b
a
b
a
) (
0
lim ) (
} }
+
=
c c
. Provided that the
limit on right hand side exists. If l denot es the limit on right hand side, then the improper int egral dx x f
b
a
) (
}
is said t o converge to
l, when l is finit e. If l = + or l = , then the integral is said to be a divergent int egral.
Let f(x) be bounded funct ion defined on [a, b) such that b is the only point of infinite discont inuit y of f(x) i.e. f(x) as x b.
Then the improper integral of f(x) on [a, b) is denoted by
}
b
a
dx x f ) ( and is defined as dx x f dx x f
b
a
b
a
) (
0
lim ) (
} }

=
c
c
Provided t hat t he limit on right hand side exists finitely. If l denotes the limit on right hand side, then the improper integral
dx x f
b
a
) (
}
is said to converge to l, when l is finite.
If + = l or = l , then the int egral is said to be a divergent integral.
Let f(x) be a bounded funct ion defined on (a, b) such t hat a and b are only two points of infinit e discontinuity of f(x) i.e., f(a) ,
f(b) .
Then the improper integral of f(x) on (a, b) is denoted by dx x f
b
a
) (
}
and is defined as
b c a dx x f dx x f dx x f
b
a
c
a
b
a
< <

=
} } }

+
, ) (
0
lim ) (
0
lim ) (
o
c
o c
Provided that both the limits on right hand side exist.
Let f(x) be a bounded function defined [a, b]-{c}, ce[a, b] and c is the only point of infinit e discontinuity of f(x) i.e. f(c). Then
the improper integral of f(x) on [a, b] {c} is denoted by dx x f
b
a
) (
}
and is defined as
dx x f dx x f
x
dx x f
b
c
x c
a
b
a
) (
0
lim ) (
0
lim ) (
} } }
+

=
o
o
Provided that both the limit s on right hand side exist finit ely. The improper integral dx x f
b
a
) (
}
is said t o be convergent if both the
limits on the right hand side exist finitely.
If either of the two or bot h the limit s on RHS are , t hen the integral is said to be divergent .
Exa m p le : 32 The improper integral
}

0
dx e
x
is and the value is.
(a) Convergent, 1 (b) Divergent, 1 (c) Convergent, 0 (d) Divergent, 0
www.inpsmcalucknow.com INPS MCA ENTRANCE EXAM
14
Solu t ion : (a)
} }

= =
0 0
lim
k
x
k
x
dx e dx e I ] [ lim ] [ lim
0
0
e e e I
k
k
k x
k
+ = =

] 0 lim [ 1 0 1 ) 1 ( lim = = = = =

e e e I
k
k
k
k

Thus,
}

k
x
k
dx e
0
lim exists and is finite. Hence the given integral is convergent.
Exa m p le : 33 The int egral 0 ,
1
0
2 2
=
+
}

a dx
x a
is
(a) Convergent and equal to
a
t
(b) Convergent and equal to
a 2
t
(c) Divergent and equal to
a
t
(d) Divergent and equal t o
a 2
t
Solu t ion : (b)
} }

+
=
+
=
0
-
0
2 2
-
2 2
lim
k
k
x a
dx
x a
dx
I

=
(

a
k
a a a
x
a
I
k
k
k
1 1
0
1
tan
1
0 tan
1
lim tan
1
lim
a a a
I
2 2
1
) ( tan
1
0
1
t t
= |
.
|

\
|
= =

Hence int egral is convergent.
Exa m p le : 34 The int egral
}

+
dx
e e
x x
1
is
(a) Convergent and equal to t/ 6 (b) Convergent and equal to t/ 4
(c) Convergent and equal to t/ 3 (d) Convergent and equal to t/ 2
Solu t ion : (d)
} }

+
=
+
= dx
e
e
dx
e e
I
x
x
x x 2
1
1
Put dt dx e t e
x x
= =

+
=
0
2
1
1
dt
t
I ] 0 tan [tan ] [tan
1 1
0
1
= = t I 2 / t = I , which is finite so convergent.
Exa m p le : 35
}

+
2
1
1
1
dx
x
x
is
(a) Convergent and equal to
3
14
(b) Divergent and equal t o
14
3
(c) Convergent and equal to (d) Divergent and equal t o
Solu t ion : (a) dx
x
dx x I
} }

+ =
2
1
2
1
1
2
1 =
2
1
2
1
2 / 3
] 1 4 [ ) 1 (
3
2
+
(

## x x = 3 / 14 which is finite so convergent.

Exa m p le : 36 dx
x x
dx
}
+
2
1
2
4 5
is
(a) Convergent and equal to 2 log
3
1
(b) Convergent and equal to 3/ log2
(c) Divergent (d) None of these
Solu t ion : (c)
}

=
2
1 ) 4 )( 1 ( x x
dx
I = dx
x x
}
|
.
|

\
|

2
1 1
1
4
1
3
1
= = ] 2 [log
3
1
So the given integral is not convergent .
6. 11 Som e I m p or t a n t r es u lt s of Defin it e I n t egr a l.
(1) If
}
=
4 /
0
tan
t
xdx I
n
n
then
1
1
2

= +

n
I I
n n
(2) If
}
=
4 /
0
cot
t
xdx I
n
n
then
n
I I
n n

= +

1
1
2
(3) If
}
=
4 /
0
sec
t
xdx I
n
n
then
2
2
1
2
1
) 2 (

=
n
n
n
I
n
n
n
I
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(4) If
}
=
4 /
0
n
cosec
t
xdx I
n
then
2
2
1
2
1
) 2 (

=
n
n
n
I
n
n
n
I
(5) If
}
=
2 /
0
sin
t
xdx x I
n
n
then
1
2
) 2 / ( ) 1 (

= +
n
n n
n I n n I t
(6) If
}
=
2 /
0
cos
t
xdx x I
n
n
then
n
n n
I n n I ) 2 / ( ) 1 (
2
t = +

(7) If , 0 > > b a then
b a
b a
b a
x b a
dx

=
+

}
1
2 2
2 /
0
tan
2
cos
t
(8) If b a < < 0 then
a b a b
a b a b
a b
x b a
dx
+ +
+

=
+
}
log
1
cos
2 2
2 /
0
t
(9) If 0 > > b a then
}
+

=
+

2 /
0
1
2 2
tan
2
sin
t
b a
b a
b a
x b a
dx
(10) If b a < < 0 , then
}
+
+ +

=
+
2 /
0 2 2
log
1
sin
t
a b a b
a b a b
a b
x b a
dx
(11) If , ,
2 2 2
c b a b a + > > then
2 2 2
1
2 2 2
2 /
0
tan
2
sin cos
c b a
c b a
c b a
x c x b a
dx

+

=
+ +

}
t
(12) If , ,
2 2 2
c b a b a + < > then
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 /
0 2 2 2
log
1
sin cos
a c b c b a
a c b c b a
a c b
x c x b a
dx
+ + +
+ +
+
=
+ +
}
t
(13) If , b a <
2 2 2
c b a + < then
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 /
0 2 2 2
log
1
sin cos
a c b c a b
a c b c a b
a c b
x c x b a
dx
+ +
+
+

=
+ +
}
t
I m p or t a n t Ti p s
) 0 (
) (
lim
0
0
f
x
dx x f
x
x
=
}

| |dt a t a b f a b dx x f
b
a
+ =
} }
) ( ) ( ) (
1
0
I n t egr a t ion of Piecewis e Con t in u ou s Fu n ct ion s.
Any function ) (x f which is discontinuous at finite number of points in an interval [a, b] can be made
continuous in sub-intervals by breaking the intervals into these subintervals. If ) (x f is discontinuous at points
n
x x x x .......... , ,
3 2 1
in (a, b), then we can define subintervals ) , ( ), , ....( )......... , ( ), , (
1 2 1 1
b x x x x x x a
n n n
such that
) (x f is continuous in each of these subintervals. Such functions are called piecewise continuous functions. For
integration of Piecewise continuous function. We integrate ) (x f in these sub-intervals and finally add all the
values.
Exa m p le : 37 dx x] [cot
1
20
10

}
, where [.] denotes great est integer function
(a) 3 cot 1 cot 30 + + (b) 3 cot 2 cot 1 cot 30 + + +
(c) 8 2 cot 1 cot 30 + + (d) None of these
www.inpsmcalucknow.com INPS MCA ENTRANCE EXAM
16
Solu t ion : (b) Let , ] [cot
1
20
10
dx x I

}
=
we know R x x e e

) , 0 ( cot
1
t
t hus,

e
e
e
e
=

) , 1 (cot 0
) 1 cot , 2 (cot 1
) 2 cot , 3 (cot , 2
) 3 cot , ( , 3
] [cot
1
x
x
x
x
x
Hence, dx dx dx dx I 0 1 2 3
20
1 cot
1 cot
2 cot
2 cot
3 cot
3 cot
10
} } } }
+ + + =

## 3 cot 2 cot 1 cot 30 + + + =

Exa m p le : 38 dx x x ] 1 [
2
2
0
+
}
, where [.] denotes greatest integer function
(a)
2
5 7
(b)
2
5 7 +
(c)
2
3 5
(d) None of these
Solu t ion : (a) Let dx x x I ] 1 [
2
2
0
+ =
}
dx x x dx x x ] 1 [ ] 1 [
2
2
2
5 1
2 2
5 1
0
+ + + =
} }
+
+
2
5 7
2 1
2
2
5 1
2
5 1
0

= + =
} }
+
+
dx dx