Reprinted without change of pagination from

The Physical Review, V O ~ 133, No. 1A, A I 82-A 183, January 6, 1964 .

Effect of Electron Spin Paramagnetism on the Velocity of Sound in Metals

This paper presents the results of one phase of research carried out at the Jet Propulsion Loboratory, C lifornia Institute of Technology, under Contract No. NAS 7 - 1 9 sponsored b y the National Aerona@cs and Space Administration.

January 6, 1964

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A change of this magnitude ~ "Ii. Kef. Furthermore. No. Phys.K) (3) ) cs= (??Z/32M)%F ) (8) with k F = ( 3 ~ ~ i V ) the Fermi momentum divided by h. A. J. these terms being of the order of l e 3 . H. M. T. Phys. A. with 2 the number of conduction electrons per atom. T. A. .H (the Pauli term) induces a change in the Fermi distribution. J. w ) = l -+-. 8. (9) 'r.etters'l1. I'hvs.Reprinted from THEPHYSICAL REVIEW. California Institute of Technology. A182-Al83. I). 19. Effect of Electron Spin Paramagnetism on the Velocity of Sound in Metals OLDWIGVON Roos Jet Propulsion Laboratory. hl. the velocity of sound and V F the Fermi velocity. 6 January 1964 Printed in U. say. We start with the well-known dispersion relation for longitudinal phonons in the random phase approximation (RPLI)~ T in. 72 (1963).l But as we mentioned earlier the effects. For electrons with spin up. 133. Substituting then Eqs. de Haas-van Alphen type oscillations are predicted in the magnetic field dependence. Letters 9. being small. California (Received 5 August 1963) By means of simple calculation it is shown that the interaction of an external magnetic field with'the magnetic moment of the conduction electrons in a metal gives rise to an increase in the velocity of sound which is independent of the angle between the direction of the magnetic field and the tion of the sound wave.( k ) = S ( [ k 2 . Rev. Of course we did not take into account the influence of the magnetic field on the orbital motion of the electrons. being .3 x 10-19~2. J. I. l A . A. Harrison. 81. are simply additive. This has been done by Quinn and R0driguez.C.>/C. Phys. All we have to do now is to replace F ( k ) in expression (2) by 4F+(k)+$F-(k) in order to obtain the proper dielectric constant in a magnetic field. 28.2 I n this paper we wish to show that the interaction of the magnetic field with the magnetic moment of the conduction electrons also leads to a finite though small increase of the velocity of sound. G.If. All these effects have been confirmed experimentally. 1 (1954). J. we may concentrate exclusively on the magnetic moment interaction and merely add all previously calculated effects to our final result.!ll7.Ifat. Swim. Alers and I<. all such changes are additive. (5) Here p is the magnetic moment of an electron and H is the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. that for potassium ( d . Letters 9. Rodriguez. JIedtl. InJq a A- HE effect of magnetic fields on the velocity of sound has been studied recently by many authors.(2mp/h"H]'l"K} . S. I'hvs. 2 G.145 (1962) : . I . Instr.Inserting Eq. (4) and ( 5 ) into expression ( 2 ) and expanding in powers of H we find to lowest order in H : 30p2 € ( a . Pasadena. it becomes F+(k) =S ( [ k F ~ + ( 2 9 ~ p / h ~ ) H ] "k~} and for electrons with spin down (4) F . = 4. (7) where The Ferini distribution a t 0°K is simply given by a step function: F (K) = S(K F. YYS. Equation (8) is the well-known Bohm-Staver result for the velocity of sound. 836 (1952). AiIers and K. (1) we finally obtain: cp'= cs[l+ ( e ? p 2 / 3 ~ h 3 v ~ ~ p 2 ) H 2 ] . '/~ Upon application of a uniform constant magnetic field J. Bohm and Staver. Since all effects of magnetic fields on the velocity of sound appear through small changes in the dielectric behavior of the conduction electrons. However. Kgl. (6) into Eq. Vol. Therefore. and W. as we will see. Swim. We also neglected terms of the order of c s / v ~c. No. Rev.937 (1960) . I t turns out. Rev. 299 (1962). for instance. Lindhart. Forgacs. Rev. the z direction the magnetic moment interaction -pu. L. Harrison. Danske Videnshab. this effect is independent of the angle between the direction of the magnetic field and the direction of sound propagation. 359 (1960). Quinn and S. 2e2p2H2 (6) vF2K2 ?rfL3V~3K2 where w i is the ionic plasma frequency and electric constant in the RPA4: E the di- Equation (6) is valid in the long-wavelength limit. IRE Trans. A change in the velocity of sound of 1 part in lo7can be measured at p r e ~ e n t . Cohen.' The theory predicts an increase in the velocity of sound which depends quadratically on the magnetic field and depends also on the angle between the magnetic field and the direction of propagation of the sound wave. I ' A182 . even for the highest attainable fields. Harrison.3That the effect isquite small may be seen by actually inserting numbers. Rev.

A183 V E L O C I T Y OF S O U N D I N M E T A L S requires a field of 4. (7) shows that the effect considered here is independent of the direction of propagation of sound wave.8X lo5 G according to (9). . the effect will depend on crystal orientation. For transition metals with their high paramagnetic susceptibilities we expect a much larger effect. As opposed to the other effects calculated previously. Therefore. an increase in accuracy of measurement is required to make the effect observable. however. Fields of this strength are presently unavailable.’ Eq. Owing to their nonspherical Fermi surfaces.

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