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Vaishnav Evening College Department Of Human Resource Management Migration and Poverty Name of the Student Roll No.: E 8025 : Kaushik G.Tarwadi

What is Human Migration? Migration (human) is the movement of people from one place in the world to another for the purpose of taking up permanent or semi permanent residence, usually across a political boundary. An example of "semi permanent residence" would be the seasonal movements of migrant farm laborers. People can either choose to move ("voluntary migration") or be forced to move ("involuntary migration"). Migrations have occurred throughout human history, beginning with the movements of the first human groups from their origins in East Africa to their current location in the world. Migration occurs at a variety of scales: intercontinental (between continents), intracontinental (between countries on a given continent), and interregional (within countries). One of the most significant migration patterns has been rural to urban migrationthe movement of people from the countryside to cities in search of opportunities. Types of Migration Internal Migration: Moving to a new home within a state, country, or continent. External Migration: Moving to a new home in a different state, country, or continent. Emigration: Leaving one country to move to another (e.g., the Pilgrims emigrated from England). Immigration: Moving into a new country (e.g., the Pilgrims immigrated to America). Population Transfer: When a government forces a large group of people out of a region, usually based on ethnicity or religion. This is also known as an involuntary or forced migration. Impelled Migration (also called "reluctant" or "imposed" migration): Individuals are not forced out of their country, but leave

because of unfavorable situations such as warfare, political problems, or religious persecution. Step Migration: A series of shorter, less extreme migrations from a person's place of origin to final destinationsuch as moving from a farm, to a village, to a town, and finally to a city. Chain Migration: A series of migrations within a family or defined group of people. A chain migration often begins with one family member who sends money to bring other family members to the new location. Chain migration results in migration fieldsthe clustering of people from a specific region into certain neighborhoods or small towns. Return Migration: The voluntary movements of immigrants back to their place of origin. This is also known as circular migration. Seasonal Migration: The process of moving for a period of time in response to labor or climate conditions (e.g., farm workers following crop harvests or working in cities off-season; "snowbirds" moving to the southern and southwestern United States during winter). People Who Migrate Emigrant: A person who is leaving a country to reside in another. Immigrant: A person who is entering a country from another to take up new residence. Refugee: A person who is residing outside the country of his or her origin due to fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion. Internally Displaced Person (IDP): A person who is forced to leave his or her home region because of unfavorable conditions (political, social, environmental, etc.) but does not cross any boundaries. Migration Stream: A group migration from a particular country, region, or city to a certain destination. Why Do People Migrate? People move for a variety of reasons. They consider the advantages and disadvantages of staying versus moving, as well as factors such as distance, travel costs, travel time, modes of transportation, terrain, and cultural barriers. Push Factors: Reasons for emigrating (leaving a place) because of a difficulty (such as a food shortage, war, flood, etc.). Pull Factors: Reasons for immigrating (moving into a place) because of something desirable (such as a nicer climate, better food supply, freedom, etc.).

Several types of push and pull factors may influence people in their movements (sometimes at the same time), including: 1. Environmental (e.g., climate, natural disasters) 2. Political (e.g., war) 3. Economic (e.g., work) 4. Cultural (e.g., religious freedom, education) Place Utility: The desirability of a place based on its social, economic, or environmental situation, often used to compare the value of living in different locations. An individuals idea of place utility may or may not reflect the actual conditions of that location. Intervening Opportunities: Opportunities nearby are usually considered more attractive than equal or slightly better opportunities farther away, so migrants tend to settle in a location closer to their point of origin if other factors are equal. Distance Decay: As distance from a given location increases, understanding of that location decreases. People are more likely to settle in a (closer) place about which they have more knowledge than in a (farther) place about which they know and understand little. Laws of Migration Geographer E.G. Ravenstein developed a series of migration 'laws' in the 1880s that form the basis for modern migration theory. In simple language, these principles state: Most migrants travel only a short distance. Migrants traveling long distances usually settle in urban areas. Most migration occurs in steps. Most migration is rural to urban. Each migration flow produces a movement in the opposite direction ("counterflow"). Most migrants are adults. Most international migrants are young males, while more internal migrants are female. Impacts of Migration Human migration affects population patterns and characteristics, social and cultural patterns and processes, economies, and physical environments. As people move, their cultural traits and ideas diffuse along with them, creating and modifying cultural landscapes. Diffusion: The process through which certain characteristics (e.g., cultural traits, ideas, disease) spread over space and through time.

Relocation Diffusion: Ideas, cultural traits, etc. that move with people from one place to another and do not remain in the point of origin. Expansion Diffusion: Ideas, cultural traits, etc., that move with people from one place to another but are not lost at the point of origin, such as language. Cultural markers: Structures or artifacts (e.g., buildings, spiritual places, architectural styles, signs, etc.) that reflect the cultures and histories of those who constructed or occupy them. Measuring Migration In-migration: people moving into one place from another place within a nation (internal migration). Out-migration: people moving out of one place to another place within a nation (internal migration). Gross migration: total number of in-migrants and out-migrants (internal migration). Net internal migration: the difference between in-migration and outmigration. Movers from abroad: people coming into a nation from another country or part of the world. Net migration: the difference between net internal migration and movers from abroad. Legal Provisions The Government of India made an enactment in 1979 in the name of Interstate Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act 1979. It is an Act to regulate the employment of inter-State migrant workmen and to provide for their conditions of service and for matters connected therewith. It extends to the whole of India. CHAPTER V WAGES, WELFARE AND OTHER FACILITIES TO BE PROVIDED TO INTER-STATE MIGRANT WORKMEN Section 13. Wage rates and other conditions of service of interState migrant workmen.- The wage rates, holidays, hours of work and other conditions of service of an inter-State migrant workman shall,- be the same as those applicable to such other workman. Provided that an interState migrant workman shall in no case be paid less than the wages fixed under the Minimum Wages Act, 1948 and they shall be paid in cash. Section 14. Displacement allowance.- Every inter-State migrant workman is entitled to a displacement allowance at the time of recruitment, which may be either seventy-five rupees or half of the monthly wages payable to him, whichever is higher.

Section 15. Journey allowance etc.- A journey allowance of a sum not less than the fare from the place of residence of the inter-State migrant workman in his State to the place of work in the other State shall be payable by the contractor to the workman both for the outward and return journeys and such workman shall be entitled to payment of wages during the period of such journeys as if he were on duty. Section 16. Other facilities.- It shall be the duty of every contractor employing inter-State migrant workmen in connection with the work of an establishment to which this Act applies,a) to ensure regular payment of wages to such workmen; b) to ensure equal pay for equal work irrespective of sex; c) to ensure suitable conditions of work to such workmen having regard to the fact that they are required to work in a State different from their own State; d) to provide and maintain suitable residential accommodation to such workmen during the period of their employment; e) to provide the prescribed medical facilities to the workmen, free of charge; f) to provide such protective clothing to the workmen as may be prescribed; and g) in case of fatal accident or serious bodily injury to any such workman, to report to the specified authorities of both the States and also the next of kin of the workman. Section 17. Responsibility for payment of wages.- (1) A contractor shall be responsible for payment of wages to each inter-State migrant workman employed by him and such wages shall be paid before the expiry of such period as may be prescribed. (2) Every principal employer shall nominate a representative duly authorised by him to be present at the time of disbursement of wages by the contractor and it shall be the duty of such representative to certify the amounts paid as wages in such manner as may be prescribed. (3) It shall be the duty of the contractor to ensure the disbursement of wages in the presence of the authorised representative of the principal employer. (4) In case the contractor fails to make payment of wages within the prescribed period or makes short payment, then the principal employer shall be liable to make payment of the wages in full or the unpaid balance due, as the case may be, to the inter-State migrant workman employed by the contractor and recover the amount so paid from the contractor either by deduction from any amount payable to the contractor under any contract or as a debt payable by the contractor. POVERTY

POVERTY: Poverty is about not having enough money to meet basic needs including food, clothing and shelter. However, Poverty is more, much more than just not having enough money. The World Bank describes Poverty as: Poverty is hunger. Poverty is lack of shelter. Poverty is being sick and not being able to see a doctor. Poverty is not having access to school and not knowing how to read. Poverty is not having a job, is fear for the future, living one day at a time. WHAT IS POVERTY LINE? Poverty line is the line which indicates the level of purchasing power required to satisfy the minimum needs of a person. It represents the capacity to satisfy the minimum level of human needs. The line divides the people into 2 groups: 1. above Poverty line 2. below Poverty line TWO WAYS OF POVERTY RELATIVE POVERTY: The economic conditions of different regions or countries are compared. The capita income and the national income are the two indicators of relative Poverty. According to the UNO those countries are treated poor whose per capita income is less than US $725 per annum. ABSOLUTE POVERTY: Absolute Poverty refers to the measure of Poverty, keeping in view the per capita intake of calories and minimum level of consumption. Per capita income: National income Population TYPES OF Poverty Cyclical Poverty:

Refers to Poverty that may be widespread throughout a population, but the occurrence itself is of limited duration. In non-industrial societies (past or present), this sort of inability to provide for ones basic needs rest mainly upon temporary food shortages caused by natural phenomena or poor agricultural planning. Collective Poverty:

In contrast of the cyclical Poverty which is temporary, widespread or collective Poverty involves a relatively permanent insufficiency of means to secure basic needs.
o o o o

Low life expectancy, high levels of infant mortality and poor health characterize life in this societies. It is usually related to economic underdevelopment. Examples: Africa, Asia, South and Central America Proposed remedy: Expansion of the GNP through improved agriculture and industrialization or both Population limitation. Improve population control programs

Concentrated Collective poverty:

Parts of an industrialized country suffer from poverty because most of the developments took place in selected area particularly in urban places.

Their chief economic traits are unemployment and underemployment, unskilled occupations and job instability. The government must have programs that will develop regions or rural areas in terms of agriculture and raising the level of skills of employable members of these areas.

Case Poverty:

It refers to the inability of an individual or family to secure basic needs even social surroundings of general prosperity. This inability is generally related to the lack of some basic attributes that would permit the individual to maintain himself. The helpless aged, the blind, the physically handicapped, the chronically ill, etc. Solution: education, sheltered employment and economic maintenance


Overpopulation Global Distribution of Resources High Standard of Living and Cost of Living Inadequate Education and Employment

Environmental Degradation


Malnutrition and Starvation Infectious Diseases Mental Illness and Drug Dependence Crime and Violence Long-Term Effects


Education and Job Training Long-Term Economic Plans Eliminating Job Discrimination Better Tax Reform Programs Work for the Unemployable

Kinds of poverty The different kinds of poverty are income poverty, non-income poverty, relative poverty and absolute poverty. Absolute poverty or destitution refers to being unable to afford basic human needs, which commonly includes clean and fresh water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter. Relative poverty refers to lacking a usual or socially acceptable level of resources or income as compared with others within a society or country.[1] Income poverty describes a person or family who lives on or below the minimum acceptable way of life. It's most likely to occur in people who have a low income. Women, disabled and lone parents are at higher risk of of being in income poverty. Changes in the economy, employment being terminated and low income can have a factor on income poverty. Non-income poverty happens when people may have a little bit of money but they do not have access to good schooling or safe water. People living with non-income poverty are likely to have stunted growth and to die young. It is also unlikely that they participate in making the decisions that affect their lives.

There are seven poverties that are affecting us: 1. Economic poverty: lack of food, clothing and shelter 2. Bodily poverty: lack of health and hygiene, malnutrition 3. Mental poverty: lack of thinking and education 4. Cultural poverty: lack of cultural activities and practices 5. Spiritual poverty: lack of mental peace and feeling of brotherhood 6. Political poverty: not casting ones vote, lack of development 7. Societal poverty: lack of unity and neighborliness

Causes of poverty Poverty is an exceptionally complicated social phenomenon, and trying to discover its causes is equally complicated. The stereotypic (and simplistic) explanation persiststhat the poor cause their own poverty based on the notion that anything is possible in America. Some theorists have accused the poor of having little concern for the future and preferring to live for the moment; others have accused them of engaging in self-defeating behavior. Still other theorists have characterized the poor as fatalists, resigning themselves to a culture of poverty in which nothing can be done to change their economic outcomes. In this culture of povertywhich passes from generation to generationthe poor feel negative, inferior, passive, hopeless, and powerless. The blame the poor perspective is stereotypic and not applicable to all of the underclass. Not only are most poor people able and willing to work hard, they do so when given the chance. The real trouble has to do with such problems as minimum wages and lack of access to the education necessary for obtaining a better-paying job. More recently, sociologists have focused on other theories of poverty. One theory of poverty has to do with the flight of the middle class, including employers, from the cities and into the suburbs. This has limited the opportunities for the inner-city poor to find adequate jobs. According to another theory, the poor would rather receive welfare payments than work in demeaning positions as maids or in fast-food restaurants. As a result of this view, the welfare system has come under increasing attack in recent years.

Again, no simple explanations for or solutions to the problem of poverty exist. Although varying theories abound, sociologists will continue to pay attention to this issue in the years to come. The effects of poverty The effects of poverty are serious. Children who grow up in poverty suffer more persistent, frequent, and severe health problems than do children who grow up under better financial circumstances. Many infants born into poverty have a low birth weight, which is associated with many preventable mental and physical disabilities. Not only are these poor infants more likely to be irritable or sickly, they are also more likely to die before their first birthday.

Children raised in poverty tend to miss school more often because of illness. These children also have a much higher rate of accidents than do other children, and they are twice as likely to have impaired vision and hearing, iron deficiency anemia, and higher than normal levels of lead in the blood, which can impair brain function.

Levels of stress in the family have also been shown to correlate with economic circumstances. Studies during economic recessions indicate that job loss and subsequent poverty are associated with violence in families, including child and elder abuse. Poor families experience much more stress than middle-class families. Besides financial uncertainty, these families are more likely to be exposed to series of negative events and bad luck, including illness, depression, eviction, job loss, criminal victimization, and family death. Parents who experience hard economic times may become excessively punitive and erratic, issuing demands backed by insults, threats, and corporal punishment. Homelessness, or extreme poverty, carries with it a particularly strong set of risks for families, especially children. Compared to children living in poverty but having homes, homeless children are less likely to receive proper nutrition and immunization. Hence, they experience more health problems. Homeless women experience higher rates of low-birth-weight babies, miscarriages, and infant mortality, probably due to not having access to adequate prenatal care for their babies. Homeless families experience even greater life stress than other families, including increased disruption in work, school, family relationships, and friendships. Sociologists have been particularly concerned about the effects of poverty on the black underclass, the increasing numbers of jobless,

welfare-dependent African Americans trapped in inner-city ghettos. Many of the industries (textiles, auto, steel) that previously offered employment to the black working class have shut down, while newer industries have relocated to the suburbs. Because most urban jobs either require advanced education or pay minimum wage, unemployment rates for inner-city blacks are high. Even though Hispanic Americans are almost as likely as African Americans to live in poverty, fewer inner-city Hispanic neighborhoods have undergone the same massive changes as many black neighborhoods have. Middle and working class Hispanic families have not left their barrio, or urban Spanish-speaking neighborhood, in large numbers, so most Hispanic cultural and social institutions there remain intact. In addition, local Hispanic-owned businesses and low-skill industries support the barrio with wage-based, not welfare-based, businesses. Climbing out of poverty is difficult for anyone, perhaps because, at its worst, poverty can become a self-perpetuating cycle. Children of poverty are at an extreme disadvantage in the job market; in turn, the lack of good jobs ensures continued poverty. The cycle ends up repeating itself until the pattern is somehow broken. Feminist perspective on poverty Finally, recent decades have witnessed the feminization of poverty, or the significant increase in the numbers of single women in poverty alone, primarily as single mothers. In the last three decades the proportion of poor families headed by women has grown to more than 50 percent. This feminization of poverty has affected African-American women more than any other group. This feminization of poverty may be related to numerous changes in contemporary America. Increases in unwanted births, separations, and divorces have forced growing numbers of women to head poor households. Meanwhile, increases in divorced fathers avoiding child support coupled with reductions in welfare support have forced many of these women-headed households to join the ranks of the underclass. Further, because wives generally live longer than their husbands, growing numbers of elderly women must live in poverty. Some usual effects of poverty are: Lack of opportunity Mental and physical aliments Drug abuse and addiction

Increase in Crimes Child and woman abuse Homelessness Debt Pressures Educational deprivation POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGIES AREAS OF ACTION

Promoting opportunity Facilitating Empowerment Enhancing Security

OPPORTUNITY Expanding economic opportunity for poor people by stimulating overall growth and by building up their assets e.g., land and education Increasing the returns on these assets through a combination of market and non-market actions


Encourage effective private investment. Investment and technological innovation are the main drivers of growth in jobs and labour incomes. Reducing risk for private investors o Through stable fiscal and monetary policy, stable investment regimes, sound financial systems, and clear and transparent business environment. Also ensuring the rule of law and taking measures to fight corruption o Tackling business environments based on kickbacks, subsidies for large investors, special deals, and favoured monopolies

Poverty in India: Current Situation Poverty is one of the main issues, attracting the attention of

sociologists and economists. It indicates a condition in which a person fails to maintain a living standard adequate for a comfortable lifestyle. Though India boasts of a high economic growth, it is shameful that there is still large scale Poverty in India. Poverty in India can be defined as a situation when a certain section of people are unable to fulfil their basic needs. India has the world's largest number of poor people living in a single country. Out of its total population of more than 1 billion, 350 to 400 million people are living below the Poverty line. Nearly 75% of the poor people are in rural areas, most of them are daily wagers, landless labourers and self employed house holders. There are a number of reasons for Poverty in India. Poverty in India can be classified into two categories namely rural Poverty and urban Poverty. REASON FOR RURAL POVERTY Some of the basic reasons of rural Poverty in India are:

Unequal distribution of income. High population growth. Illiteracy. Large families. Caste system.

PROBLEMS OF RURAL POVERTY Presence of malnutrition, illiteracy, diseases and long term health problems. Unhygienic living conditions, lack of proper housing, high infant mortality rate, injustice to women and social ill-treatment of certain sections of society.

STEPS TAKEN BY GOVERNMENT TO REDUCE RURAL POVERTY The government of India has been trying its best to remove Poverty. Some of the measures which the government has taken to remove rural Poverty are:

Small farmers development Programme. Drought area development Programme. Minimum needs Programme. National rural employment Programme.

Assurance on employment.

CAUSES FOR URBAN POVERTY The causes of urban Poverty in India are:

Improper training Slow job growth.


Restricted access to employment opportunities and income. Lack of proper housing facilities Unhygienic environments No social security schemes Lack of opportunity to quality health and educational services.


Nehru Rozgar Yojna. Prime Minister Rozgar Yojna. Urban Basic services for the poor Programme. National social Assistance Programme.

But these processes can be helpful only if the policies go to those people for whom it is meant. The clash between the central government and the state government often results in the lack of implementation of these policies. So it is very important that the governments do not play power politics when it comes to a serious issue such as Poverty.