Manual Therapy for the Professional Physical Therapist

by

Brennan Leyendecker, SPT

A capstone project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Physical Therapy University of Central Florida College of Health and Public Affairs Program in Physical Therapy

2010

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To all those who seek healing through the art of touch.

To my family, whose love, encouragement and discouragement of my dreams have been equally motivational.

To Bill Hanney, Karis Zbaraschuk and Tim Ahlip for opening my eyes and granting my hands the world of manual therapy.

To Judi Schack Dugre, Jennifer Tucker and Charlene McLachlan whose openness to wellness inspired my path.

To Jenny, my friend.

To Zach, my touchstone.

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Contents
Manual Therapy for the Professional Physical Therapist ................................................ 1  Focus and Scope of this Booklet.................................................................................. 1  Chapter 1: What is Manual Therapy and Who Utilizes it? .............................................. 3  Chapter 2: A Brief History of Manual Therapy ................................................................ 5  Early Manual Therapy .................................................................................................. 5  Medicine in the 1800’s ................................................................................................. 5  Physiotherapy is Born .................................................................................................. 6  Physical Therapy in the United States ......................................................................... 6  Manual Therapy in the United States and Around the World ....................................... 7  Physical and Manual Therapy Organizations ............................................................... 8  Chapter 3: Organizations and Governing Bodies of Manual Therapy in Physical Therapy ......................................................................................................................... 11  American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists (AAOMPT) ............ 11  Overview ................................................................................................................. 11  History and Vision ................................................................................................... 11  Overview of certifications offered ............................................................................ 12  Contact information................................................................................................. 12  The International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapy (IFOMT) ............ 13  Overview ................................................................................................................. 13  Vision ...................................................................................................................... 13  Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association ......................... 14  Overview ................................................................................................................. 14  An Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy Fellowship is offered. ........................... 14  Contact information................................................................................................. 14  North American Institute of Orthopaedic Manual Therapy (NAIOMT) ........................ 14  Overview ................................................................................................................. 14  Contact information................................................................................................. 15  World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) ................................................... 15  Overview ................................................................................................................. 15  Contact information................................................................................................. 15  Chapter 4: Certifications in Manual Therapy—a Detailed View of Choices .................. 17  v

... 29  Certified Manual Therapist (COMT) (NAIOMT Level IV+)15 .................... Rolf Institute of Structural Integration14 ..............Level II ..................................................................................... 45  Alternative Therapy............................. 45  Cranial Sacral Therapy ............................................ certified by IMSTAC ................................................ 26  Orthopedic Manual Therapy.................................. 37  Manual Therapy Certication20 (MTC) (Stanley Paris) .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 47  Journals ................ 24  Rolfing (Structural Integration).............................. 17  Cranial Sacral Therapist (CST/ CST-D)12 .................................................. 29  Certified Manual Therapist (CMPT) (NAIOMT Level III)15 ................................................................................International Massage & Somatic Therapies Accreditation Council13.......... 22  Lymphedma: LDT /CDP/LLCC Certification ............ 35  Certified Mulligan Practitioner (CMP)18 .......................... 16 ...................... 47  References ................................................................. 31  Mechanical Diagnosis & Therapy (MDT)/OMPT Criteria (McKenzie)17 .. certifying body (accreditation)12 ...... 30  Fellow of the NAIOMT and AAOMPT9............................................................................................................................................................................. 45  Books ............................................................................................................................................... 20  Licensed Massage Therapist (LMT).............................................................................................. 45  Orthopaedic Manual Therapy ............... 46  Rolfing ................................................Complementary and Alternative Medicine.................................................................. 17  Bowen Technique11 ........................................................................................................ 50  vi ............................... 39  Chapter 5: Additional Resources ..............................................................................................................................

training hours. all touting the benefits of their particular derivation. The reader is encouraged to become a consumer of therapy services. Additional resources will be included for further exploration into topics surrounding manual therapy. continuing educational units (CEU) required with each certification will be outlined. Manual therapy is encompassed by several disciplines. the skills.Manual Therapy for the Professional Physical Therapist Focus and Scope of this Booklet The profession of physical therapy encourages clinicians to increase their therapeutic skill set beyond that of the entry level degree. A practitioner who focuses on manual therapy uses a hands-on approach to help patients heal. The main focus is to assist physical therapists in determining which educational opportunities align with their interests and professional goals. 1 . While it is not necessary to obtain certifications in specialized fields. This booklet is not a comprehensive guide meant to replace individual research. it is a way to demonstrate a knowledge base in a particular area of study. There are educational offerings to complement a wide array of practitioner interest and talent. Physical therapists interested in manual therapy have a daunting task when it comes to sifting through the certification and educational information regarding manual therapy. This booklet will concentrate on the educational choices available to physical therapists in North America. cost. To this end. guidance from mentors or other useful sources of information. The best way to fully understand what a particular type of therapy entails is to undergo at least one treatment from a qualified practitioner. Under each discipline umbrella lay a variety of degrees and certifications.

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especially concerning manipulation due to the overlap and competition in services. joint mobilization and a myriad of other hands-on techniques.1 The Guide to Physical Therapy Practice defines manual therapy as “comprising a continuum of skilled passive movements to the joints and/or related soft tissues that are applied at varying speeds and amplitudes.3 Manual therapy and TJM is supported in entry level academic curricula. since the 1960’s. The American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) published a document entitled “Position on Thrust Joint Manipulation Provided by Physical Therapists” in order to establish the professional stance on use of TJM in physical therapy practice. Manual therapy is an interdisciplinary skill that has great usefulness across a wide variety of patients. including small-amplitude and high-velocity therapeutic movement. However. lymphatic flow techniques. The principle practitioners of manual therapy are osteopaths. physical therapist. 3 Small-amplitude and high-velocity therapeutic movements are also known as thrust joint manipulation (TJM) and have long been used by physical therapists. chiropractors have questioned the physical therapist’s use of manual therapy. Other health care workers use forms of therapeutic touch as well. chiropractors. and massage therapists.Chapter 1: What is Manual Therapy and Who Utilizes it? Manual therapy is broadly described here as the use of hands in a healing way. This definition includes massage. The assertion is that physical therapists have the skills and knowledge to provide TJM’s safely and within the scope of practice for physical therapy.3 3 .” 2.

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The Hippocratic Oath admonishes physicians to do no harm. In 1579. Hippocrates describes a combination of traction and pressure exerted on a patient lying prone on a wooden bed. then called “bone-setting” because it was once thought small bones were being put into place during manipulation. with illustrations of many of his manipulative techniques. the first such book by an orthodox medical practitioner. It was the topic of meetings and papers. Medical doctors continued to practice and speak about manual therapy. Hood believed that the sound of 5 . Ambrose Pare. who described in 1543 the detailed anatomy of the human body. manipulation was firmly established in contemporary medicine. and a first book had been devoted to the subject. he used a considerable amount of manipulation. a surgeon to four successive French kings.4 The Renaissance brought fresh insight to medicine with Andreus Versalius. In 1871 Wharton Hood published On Bone-Setting. In particular. In addition. including many of the techniques described by Hippocrates.Chapter 2: A Brief History of Manual Therapy Early Manual Therapy The first record of manual therapy techniques occurs in medical writings by Hippocrates (460-355 BC). John Hunter (1728-1793) advocated movement of joints after injury was necessary in order to prevent stiffness and the accumulation of adhesions due to inflammation. “On Setting Joints by Leverage”. wrote extensively on the work of Hippocrates. Claudius Galen (131-202 AD). did much to raise the standard of what is now orthopaedic surgery.4 Medicine in the 1800’s By 1870. Hippocrates is known as the Father of Medicine. This preceded both the founding of American Osteopathy by 4 years and chiropractic by 28 years.

In the 20th century. (1917-1918) “reconstruction aides” were employed in hospitals and army rehabilitation camps to do rehabilitation work. In other countries. not that of bones going back into place. One of the early therapists. He encouraged his medical colleagues to send patients to this group by prescription. respectively. M. Coltart. trained with Mennell during World War II and carried her knowledge to New Zealand after the war. During World War I.5 6 . both father and son. and Humphris were publishing on manipulation.cavitation heard with manipulation was that of adhesions being broken. medical practitioners such as Marlin.4 Physical Therapy in the United States The injured veterans of World War I created a great need for physical therapy in the United States. or massage and movement. and Edger and James Cyriax. 4 Physiotherapy is Born Physiotherapy was founded in England in 1899. Burrows.D. later known as the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. these aides were mostly women with backgrounds in physical education and training in 3-month-long courses run by physicians and nurses to train them in massage and muscle re-education. As in nursing. Helen Hislop. James Mennell published a number of texts for physical therapists concerning rehabilitaion. The two medical names most associated with instruction of manipulation to physical therapists were James and John Mennell. Blundell-Bankart.4 In 1907 James Mennell. instructed joint and soft tissue manipulation techniques to the newly formed Society of Trained Masseuses. the same therapies were called massage and medical gymnastics.

She also organized one of the first courses in physical therapy in the U. where she oversaw the training of reconstruction aides and. during which therapists worked in conjunction with physicians to battle the disease. rehabilitation aides battled the raging polio epidemic that began in 1924 (it would last until 1956). Army because she was the first physical therapy aide in World War I. Salk's vaccine proved successful in 1955. Mary McMillan became known as "The Mother of Physical Therapy" in the U. Mary McMillan founded the American Women's Physical Therapeutic Association. reeducating weakened muscles through exercise and applying thermal hot packs to painful joints.S. and these nascent physical therapists worked hard to strengthen and rehabilitate victims. at Reed College in Oregon. Later. and a standard for length of PT education was set at 9 months.5 By 1928. in the early 1950s there were still more than 20. Under her leadership.5 Manual Therapy in the United States and Around the World James Mennell was awarded the Golden Keys with Life membership in the American Congress of Physical Medicine and in the American Physical Therapy Association in 1949. The polio epidemic in the United States would kill 6. Education remained under the direction of the AMA until 1977.S. a council on physical therapy was established within the American Medical Association (AMA).. she became the founding president of the American Physical Therapy Association.000 people and paralyze 27.000 cases each year until Dr.000 more. and she established the first physical therapy training center in China at Peiping Union Medical College. Physical therapy historians agree that physical therapy evolved as a professional field as a response to the polio epidemic. He is believed to be the first to use the term “manual therapy”-- 7 .In 1921.

detail the method. He addressed the topics of massage. He concentrated it on the treatment of what he called reproducible signs.which he chose for the title of his book. He wrote on the concepts of joint play and stated that manipulation was helpful for joint dysfunction. 7 8 . the North American Academy of Manipulation Therapy was founded in Boston.4 In 1969.4. and Paris met in London and discussed setting up an international body to exchange educational ideas and to maintain standards in manual and manipulative therapy. His approach was to identify either an active or passive movement that was painful.” 6 Physical and Manual Therapy Organizations In 1966. in which he refined the art of oscillatory manipulation. called a joint lock..4 Geoffrey Maitland of Australia published Vertebral Manipulation. and joint manipulation. Massachusetts.partial absence or total absence of joint movement. a physical therapist named McCaleb published “An Introduction to Spinal Manipulation” in Physical Therapy. physical therapists Maitland. Maitland’s two books. and chaired by Paris. five countries were represented and the World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) was formed and the International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapists (IFOMPT) was created to steer it. It represented physiotherapists from Canada and the United States for recognition of spinal and extremity joint manipulation as requiring additional post-professional education. Maitland treated the painful joint with what he hypothesized would be the next most likely to succeed until relief was found. In all. Kaltenborn. In 1968. By process of elimination. resisted movement.. Grieve. assisted movement. passive movement. He described the latter as a “. and to test again. to oscillate that joint. Peripheral Manipulation and Vertebral Manipulation.

The AAOMPT established residency standards for manual therapy training in the United States. The President of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) is the official liaison to the Academy.The Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association was formed in 1974. 4 The American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists (AAOMPT) was founded in 1991. Paris became the first president of the Section.4 9 . a status that has since helped member nations gain increasing acceptance for joint manipulation within physical therapy. the IFOMT became the first specialty subsection of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy. The North American Academy of Manual & Manipulative Therapy was subsequently dissolved as it had reached its goal of seeing manipulation become a specialty section of the American Physical Therapy Association. The Academy was accepted for membership in IFOMT (International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapists). In 1978.

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Kornelia Kulig. DC. PT.8 The AAOMPT was the vehicle for the United States to become a voting member of the International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapists (IFOMT). PH. DHSc. Richard Erhard. The AAOMPT is active within the APTA and the APTA Orthopedic Section. Paris PT. They met at Oakland University to discuss common issues facing manual therapy in the United States. Joe Farrell. PT.8 11 . Michael D. PT.D. PT. MS. research or clinical institution with an interest in orthopaedic manual physical therapy. PhD. History and Vision The American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists (AAOMPT) was founded in 1991 by a group of manual therapists. This was the first time in the 20 year history of the IFOMT that the United States had been a voting member. The Standards for Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy Residency Training in the United States standards form the basis for Fellowship programs to be recognized by the AAOMPT and have been a model for the development of other residency/fellowship programs with the APTA.Chapter 3: Organizations and Governing Bodies of Manual Therapy in Physical Therapy American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists (AAOMPT) Overview The AAOMPT is a professional organization dedicated to physical therapists and any educational. Rogers. PT became the Founding Fellows of the AAOMPT. PT. Ola Grimsby PT. OCS. and Micheal Moore. This was the first time that leaders of various manual therapy residency programs had come together under one roof. and Bjorn Svendsen. Stanley V. The members.

Fellows serve their patients and the public by demonstrating excellence in clinical practice. is both a membership classification and a professional credential. in the AAOMPT.8 A clinical fellowship should be completed within a minimum of 1000 hours in no fewer than six (6) months in duration and no more than 36 months. To achieve the Fellow credential.Overview of certifications offered Fellow.org P. and research. Box 4777 Biloxi. education.9 Contact information American Academy Of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy (AAOMPT) http://www. MS 39535-4777 Phone: (228) 392-0028 Fax: (228) 392-0666 12 .O. Programs whose timeframe falls outside of these parameters will be reviewed on a case-by-case basis. a physical therapist must complete a credentialed fellowship program in orthopaedic manual physical therapy. An AAOMPT Fellow is a physical therapist who has demonstrated advanced clinical. The programs in orthopaedics allocate approximately 10% of their overall hours to clinical practice.aaompt. As a professional credential. analytical. and hands-on skills in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. a "Fellow" in AAOMPT is an international recognition of competence and expertise in the practice of orthopaedic manual physical therapy by a physical therapist licensed in the USA.

Contact the national group: AAOMPT for United States Citizens (see below). and was formed in 1974. IFOMT is a subgroup of the World Confederation of Physical Therapy. who have completed stringent postgraduate specialization programs in musculoskeletal disorders. other healthcare disciplines and the general public.The International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapy (IFOMT) Overview The International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapists represents groups of Physical Therapists around the world. It also endeavors to promote and facilitate evidence based practice and research amongst its members as well as communicate widely the purpose and level of the specialization of manual/musculoskeletal physiotherapists amongst physiotherapists. No certifications are offered directly from the IFOMT.10 Group membership is offered.10 Vision The IFOMT seeks to promote and maintain the high standards of specialist education and clinical practice in manual/musculoskeletal physiotherapists. It is a Federation that sets Educational and Clinical Standards in manual therapy. 13 . The IFOMT works towards international unity and conformity of educational standards of practice amongst manual/musculoskeletal physiotherapists by collaboration with individuals within the organization and with other organizations.

APTA. mentoring and a series of examinations. clinical fellowship program.org North American Institute of Orthopaedic Manual Therapy (NAIOMT) Overview The NAIOMT program offers advanced training in orthopaedic manual physical therapy. The Orthopaedic Section will provide and support professional development for physical therapy clinicians as the preferred autonomous and evidence-based practitioners of choice for musculoskeletal care. 2920 East Ave. Contact information Orthopaedic Section. The North American Institute of Orthopaedic Manual Therapy Inc (NAIOMT) Fellowship Program is credentialed by the American Physical Therapy 14 . Students choose their own pace and level of training to fit their educational goals. South Suite 200 La Crosse. in a comfortable time frame without need to relocate or leave job or family commitments. An Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy Fellowship is offered.orthopt.Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association Overview This section of the APTA was created to serve as an advocate and resource for the practice of Orthopaedic Physical Therapy by fostering quality patient care and promoting professional growth. supervised clinical instruction. WI 54601 http://www. The training includes didactic and practical instruction in the classroom. Inc.

Association as a postprofessional clinical fellowship program for physical therapists in orthopaedic manual physical therapy. It encourages high standards of physical therapy research. Contact information PMB 129. education and practice. WCPT promotes physical therapy as a profession and its contribution to global health. Eugene. It represents more than 300. OR 97401-4802 Phone: (800) 706-5550 Fax: (541) 349-1172 http://naiomt. Contact information World Confederation for Physical Therapy Kensington Charity Centre 4th Floor. 1574 Coburg Road.org 15 .000 physical therapists worldwide through its 101 member organizations. Charles House 375 Kensington High Street London W14 8QH Tel: +44 (0)20 7471 6765 Fax: +44 (0)20 7471 6766 Email: info@wcpt.com World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) Overview The World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) is an international voice for physical therapy.

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hour merit diploma is awarded at the end of the Basic Bowen class. Clinical hours In the United States. The manual therapy is performed using the thumbs and fingers applying only gentle. Inc. There is a Basic Bowen course and an Advanced course. and a 22 . non-invasive pressure. This form of therapy was discovered by Tom Bowen of Australia in the 1950’s. seminars range from 2-3 days in duration. nerves and fascia.. A treatment consists of a series of specific sequences of moves called procedures. setting the stimulus in motion for the body to heal itself. but not as firm as in Rolfing therapy.Chapter 4: Certifications in Manual Therapy—a Detailed View of Choices Complementary and Alternative Medicine Bowen Technique11 Overview The Bowen Technique is described as a holistic system in which the practitioner uses subtle and precise mobilizations called "Bowen moves" over muscles. It incorporates Chinese meridians. a firmer touch is applied. myofascial manipulation and energy flows. Cost Course Cost is about $700-$800 per seminar. Bowen therapists claim to be only a catalyst. with frequent pauses to allow time for the body to respond. Students receive a manual written by Bowen Therapy Training. tendons. When compared to craniosacral therapy. 17 .

carpal tunnel syndrome. upper thoracic for breathing and digestive issues. and ankle. breast / lymph drainage. groin pull or spasm. the Basic Bowen moves are presented in a hands-on atmosphere where students participation is encouraged. deep sciatic and tibialis posterior. TMJ. Hayfever. tennis elbow. neck. pain under the scapula." is a thorough assessment of the material taught in the first six modules. over a period of six months or more. torso. sartorius. arm. TMJ. hip pain. hamstrings. psoas. ankles. as well as addressing the neck.Skills/Coursework Over the Three-Day period. pelvis. charts and manual. the Bowtech procedures are taught in seven modules. back. shoulder. Basic Bowen covers Bowen history. The Advanced Course is 2 days long and includes advanced moves for abdominal disorders. stroke and headache issues are also covered. shin. with a maximum of two modules taught back-to-back. breast with lymphatic drainage. The Basic Bowen Moves include 17 Bowen Technique Sequences for the low back. vastus lateralis. philosophy and basic skills. These modules are generally taught in two consecutive days each. Students are provided with a complete reference guide for their practice. Asthma. pelvis. Moves to help frozen shoulder. kidneys. coccyx. sacrum. knees. "Module 7. Overall. vagus nerve and pubic nerve. Emphasis is placed on reading the body. The last seminar. The modules must be taken in sequence because each one reviews and builds on what was taught previously. a DVD. draining sinuses . sacrum. and learning how Bowen's philosophy is individualized to each client. Requirements for taking Module 7 include satisfactory completion 18 . headaches. each 16 classroom hours long.

3300 Australia Telephone: +61 (0) 3 5572 3000 Fax: +61 (0) 3 5572 3144 Email: bowtech@h140. Contact Information Bowtech Pty Ltd PO Box 733 Hamilton.au 19 . practitioners must complete 32 contact hours of Bowtech-approved continuing education every two years.aone. Duration of Certification Lifetime. In order to maintain Bowenwork skills and accreditation.of the written assessments and case study requirements at Modules 3 through 6. and waiting at least one month after Module 6. experience running a business or a minimum of 20 hours of business education.net. and a current First Aid and/or CPR certificate.120 hours in most countries). Students must provide proof of the following (depending on Country requirements): A recognized qualification in Anatomy and Physiology (100 . with the requirement due on the anniversary of the accreditation date. Victoria.

Cranial Sacral Therapist (CST/ CST-D)12 Overview CranioSacral Therapy (CST) is a gentle. Using a soft touch which is generally no greater than 5 grams – about the weight of a nickel – practitioners release restrictions in the soft tissues that surround the central nervous system. Use techniques that produce dramatic health and relaxation effects. Work with approaches to a number of common ailments such as TMJ 20 . hands-on approach that releases tensions deep in the body to relieve pain and dysfunction and improve whole-body health and performance. Release dural tube restrictions to enhance interactions between the central nervous system and the rest of the body. Skills CST’s learn to: Identify the subtle craniosacral rhythm and interpret its patterns to accurately evaluate dysfunction and improvements. It is the lightest touch therapy. Locate the source of physical problems by traveling through the fascial system. CST is increasingly used as a preventive health measure for its ability to bolster resistance to disease. Duration of certification The CST/CST-D certification must be renewed every 4 years. It was pioneered and developed by Osteopathic Physician John E. Upledger after years of clinical testing and research at Michigan State University where he served as professor of biomechanics. including Direction of Energy and StillPoint Induction. when compared to Rolfing and Bowen therapies. and it's effective for a wide range of medical problems associated with pain and dysfunction. that complex web of tissue that impacts all body structures and systems.

central nervous system disorders and other physical disorders. Suite D-325 Palm Beach Gardens.dysfunction. Contact Information The Upledger Institute. Exams: $300 for level one (CST) exam. $300 for level two (CST-Diplomate) Reduced fees offered through some schools for full-time students. Hours of training Seminars are held for 3 to 5 days duration depending on instructor. Continuing Education 24 hours every four years of approved continuing education. FL 33410 Phone: 561-622-4334 800-233-5880 Fax: 561-622-4771 Email: upledger@upledger. Inc. Cost Seminar Cost: $500-$800 per class.com 21 . 11211 Prosperity Farms Rd.. head and neck pain.

percussion. When compared to programs of physical therapy that require a bachelor degree and rigorous science coursework. effleurage. Skills: LMT’s learn to: Perform various types of massage techniques such as petrissage. The educational requirements to enter into a LMT program are high school diploma or GED. tapotement. this is an area of contention for PT’s. the LMT is clearly not of the same level. Licensed massage therapists (LMT’s) provide hands-on therapies to target somatic pain. However. Apply oils. The public has difficulty distinguishing the profession of physical therapy and the vocation of massage therapy. vibration or friction to the muscular structure or soft tissues of the human body. Massage is often termed soft tissue manipulation and is a subject taught in schools of physical therapy. 22 . certified by IMSTAC . compression. rebalance muscles and improve circulation. lotions. Physical therapy education overlaps somewhat with massage therapy education.Licensed Massage Therapist (LMT). Hours of training: Between 500-1000 hours. Applying nonforceful passive or active movement to affect the energetic systems of the body and movement re-education. some physical therapists find the additional hands-on practice and techniques to be valuable. Considering the drastic difference in education.International Massage & Somatic Therapies Accreditation Council13 Massage and therapeutic touch are within the scope of practice for physical therapists. powders or other lubricants to clients' bodies to aid in various massage techniques.

Continuing Education Varies by State. 23 . Some states do not require CEU’s.Duration of certification Varies by State. Most commonly 12 CEU’s annually or 24 CEU’s biannually. Renewals occur annually in most cases.

Level II . 12 Manual Lymphatic Mapping (MLM) is used to assess the specific direction of the superficial and deep lymph and interstitial fluids in physiological and pathological conditions. Select the right product for the particular type of edema. Skills The LDT will learn how to: Explore use short-stretch bandages. pressure/depth. Fibrotic techniques are learned: 15 different techniques to apply on the collagen fibers/fascia before applying the lymphatic strokes (used for lymphedema. certifying body (accreditation)12 Overview Lymphedema therapy is used to relieve the build up of interstitial fluid that can pathologically accumulate through trauma and disease process. 12 24 . and quality of the lymph and interstitial fluid flow in the superficial and deep tissue layers. post-surgery.) Techniques of releasing fascia restrictions (Lymphofascia Release)/Connective Tissue Fibers Release (CTFR) will be learned. Identify the specific direction. etc.Lymphedma: LDT /CDP/LLCC Certification . Special lymphatic reroutes for lymphedema. and how to measure for a garment. Perform bandaging applications for the upper and lower extremities. Applications for chronic scars: Scar Release Therapy. garments and sequential pumps in lymphedema. Discover new products on the market. post-radiation. as well as the latest information on documentation and insurance reimbursement. Duration of certification The LDT certification must be renewed every 3 years.

LDT’s learn the Clinical connection between deep breathing and the lymph flow. The practioner is required to be licensed or certified in the area of practice. including the interstitial fluid.g. blood (veins and arteries). teeth. oral cavity. LDT’s work with other fluids. including drainage of the pia and dura maters as well as peripheral nerves such as the sciatic nerve. e. There are specific maneuvers to access the cisterna chili and to facilitate drainage of the central and peripheral nervous system. rib cage.. Extensive breast protocol (Lymphatic Breast Care). Continuing Education Recertification is earned by attending the Lymphedema/CDP Advanced Techniques & Recertification (LCAR) workshop 25 . 170 hours for level 2. including tonsils and Eustachian tubes. including the cochlea and the semicircular canals. for manual therapy on the whole body. Drainage of the synovial fluid. skull and cranial sutures as well as the upper and lower extremities 12 Hours of training 140 hours for level one. state. Drainage of the ears. acupressure points. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Drainage of the nasal cavity.12 Other LDT skills include: Applications for trigger points (TP). including the spine. TMJ. gums. Chapman reflexes. applications for body joints/articulations. synovial fluid.

feeling for imbalances in tissue texture." after its founder. Dr. She eventually named this system "structural integration. Client population ranges from infancy to old age. Rolfers discriminate. Rolf Institute of Structural Integration14 Overview More than 50 years ago. or touch the tissue. internationally. In the U. Rolfers practice in nearly all-50 states. Structural integration balances and aligns the body along a natural vertical axis by gradually stretching. school and caseby-case basis. Other soft-tissue 26 . Skills Rolfers palpate." although some still refer to it as "Rolfing. referring to themselves as "Certified Rolfers" and Rolf Movement Practitioners. and offer this work to the public. Finally. quality and temperature to determine where we need to work. and is distributed equally between genders.S.Rolfing (Structural Integration). lengthening and repositioning the fascia. or separate fascial layers that adhere and muscles that have been pulled out of position by strain or injury. bringing physical balance in the gravitational field. restoring its normal length and flexibility.14 Duration of certification Renewals are every 3-7 years depending on certification type. This certification enables graduates of the training program to become members of the Rolf Institute. There are 1600 Certified Rolfers in 26 countries. Rolfers integrate the body. with concentrations on the East and West Coast and in Colorado. Ida Rolf discovered that she could achieve remarkable changes in posture and structure by manipulating the body's myofascial system. relating its segments in an improved relationship.. 14 Certification is earned through the Rolf Institute of Structural Integration.

meets four to five days a week. Certified Rolfers may take workshops in specific 27 . Costs: $6.830. Two-week intensive.000 plus books ($250-$500). 14 The practitioner combines deep. Must complete level 1 first. meets four to five days a week. Advanced Foundations of Rolfing Structural Integration (level 2). Rolfing is said to improve alignment at any stage in life. Costs: $3. The range of subject matter for continuing education is great. Six-week intensive. Rolf Movement Integration Certification involves 144 hours.525. Hours of Training & Associated Costs Foundations of Rolfing Structural Integration (level 1) is 218 Hours. Rolfers have up to 9 years to complete CE Credits and participate in the Advanced Training. Embodiment of Rolfing and Rolf Movement Integration (level 3) is 244 Hours.manipulation methods. Costs: $6. meets twelve days starting on a Sunday.700 plus books ($250-$500). gentle pressure with the client’s breathing and movement to free fascial restrictions. Eight-week intensive. Continuing Education Graduates agree to attend a minimum of eighteen days of approved continuing education over a period of three to seven years in preparation for Advanced Rolfing Training. are quite good at the first two.14 The pressure of these techniques are markedly higher than in craniosacral and Bowen therapy. Eight-week intensive. including massage. Costs: $1. but do not balance the body in gravity. 87 Hours. If certified as a Movement Practitioner. meets four to five days a week.200. Clinical Application of Rolfing Theory is 269 Hours. Costs: $4.

The continuing education requirement is one of the many ways in which The Rolf Institute upholds its standards and demonstrates them to the community.14 28 . and explore other related subjects such as CranioSacral Therapy and Visceral Manipulation.manipulative techniques. Some credit requirements can also be met through approved mentoring programs.

NAIOMT Level II: Intermediate Lower Quadrant. symptoms. Appropriate skills in basic and objective selective tissue examination necessary for generating a provisional differential diagnosis of spinal dysfunction. knee ankle and foot. Specific biomechanical assessment of each area is taught along with appropriate and effective treatment techniques for common injuries and mechanical dysfunctions. Integrates information generated 29 . the hip. Signs. Selective tissue tensioning techniques for the peripheral joints are introduced. Specific biomechanical assessment of each area is taught along with appropriate treatment techniques for common injuries and dysfunctions.Orthopedic Manual Therapy Certified Manual Therapist (CMPT) (NAIOMT Level III)15 Skills/Coursework NAIOMT Level I: Intro. A comprehensive biomechanical and anatomical review of the lower thoracic and lumbar spines. wrist and hand. shoulder. elbow. and management of common spinal pathologies are reviewed. NAIOMT Level III: Advanced Upper Quadrant Builds on the techniques learned in Level II and helps the student understand the kinetic chain inter-relationships of the upper quadrant. A comprehensive biomechanical and anatomical review of the upper thoracic. upper and lower cervical spine. NAIOMT Level II: Intermediate Upper Quadrant. Cyriax’s principles are introduced. to the Fundamentals: Orthopedic Manual Therapy & Differential Diagnosis. pathology.

pelvic. and costal manipulation techniques. Certified Manual Therapist (COMT) (NAIOMT Level IV+)15 Skills/Coursework Certified Orthopedic Manual Therapist (COMT)(NAIOMT Level IV+) builds on the skill learned to attain NAIOMT Level III. 30 . Presents advanced biomechanical tests and treatment and includes the sacroiliac and pubic joints. NAIOMT Level IV: High Velocity Manipulation Instructs the student on the indications and contra-indications. the safe and effective application of spinal. NAIOMT Level III: Advanced Lower Quadrant Builds on the techniques learned in Level II and helps the student understand the kinetic chain inter-relationships in the lower quadrant. as well as. Discusses the integration of examination and treatment techniques. Advanced techniques are demonstrated along with new material on temporo-mandibular joint material and peripheral manipulation skills.in the assessment to understand how remote dysfunctions can be casual or contributory.

The majority of the total didactic. Fellows serve their patients and the public by demonstrating excellence in clinical practice. a "Fellow" is an international recognition of competence and expertise in the practice of orthopaedic manual physical therapy by a physical therapist licensed in the USA. analytical. AAOMPT requirements include a component of 440 clinically supervised hours. and hands-on skills in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. and a plan that they be able to complete in 36 months. As a professional credential. A Fellow is a physical therapist who has demonstrated advanced clinical. Intakes are flexible and year -round (rolling). a physical therapist must complete a credentialed fellowship program in orthopaedic manual physical therapy. 440 clinical.8 The minimum time frame for the clinical fellowship is 12 months the maximum is 36 months. The Fellowship Program requirement is 1500 hours of post-professional study. clinical and self-study hours needs to be completed within 36 months and total in excess of 1500 hours.Fellow of the NAIOMT and AAOMPT9. NAIOMT identifies 568 hours (of the 1500 total) to be didactic and practical hours. The student begins when the time is right for them. 31 . APTA requires 1000 hours for an APTAcredentialed fellowship. To achieve the Fellow credential. practical. planned dates for classes and examinations. and research. education. and when they have a clear temporal plan mapped out with their clinical instructors. 16 Overview The designation Fellow is both a membership classification and a professional credential. and the remaining hours from the fellowship project.

Level II: Intermediate Upper Quadrant. registration fee is $75. Signs. credentialing $125. Appropriate skills in basic and objective selective tissue examination necessary for generating a provisional differential diagnosis of spinal dysfunction. Selective tissue tensioning techniques for the peripheral joints are introduced. Specific biomechanical assessment of each area is taught along with appropriate and effective treatment techniques for common injuries and mechanical dysfunctions. Clinical hours 130 hours of 1:1 training.Cost Core courses levels I-IV approx. 36 days @ average $160 per day Specialty/elective classes: 326 hrs & $150-200 per day or structured home study classes. elbow. 270 hours of other clinical and 40 hours tutorial. and management of common spinal pathologies are reviewed. wrist and hand. is variable dependent on work situation Skills/Coursework15 Level I: Introduction to the Fundamentals: Orthopedic Manual Therapy & Differential Diagnosis. A comprehensive biomechanical and anatomical review of the upper thoracic. Fellowship credentialing and annual dues : Annual dues are $60. shoulder. pathology. 32 . symptoms. upper and lower cervical spine. Cyriax’s principles are introduced. Exams: Approximately $2000.

Level III: Advanced Lower Quadrant Builds on the techniques learned in Level II and helps the student understand the kinetic chain inter-relationships in the lower quadrant. A comprehensive biomechanical and anatomical review of the lower thoracic and lumbar spines. Level III: Advanced Upper Quadrant Builds on the techniques learned in Level II and helps the student understand the kinetic chain inter-relationships of the upper quadrant. pelvic. Level IV: High Velocity Manipulation Instructs the student on the indications and contra-indications. as well as. the safe and effective application of spinal.to-1 model. Supervised Clinical Practice Using a 3. Integrates information generated in the assessment to understand how remote dysfunctions can be casual or contributory. Specific biomechanical assessment of each area is taught along with appropriate treatment techniques for common injuries and dysfunctions.Level II: Intermediate Lower Quadrant. Discusses the integration of examination and treatment techniques. the hip. Advanced techniques are demonstrated along with new material on temporo-mandibular joint material and peripheral manipulation skills. students will be required to do a minimum of 60 supervised clinical hours applying hands-on techniques with patients under the 33 . Presents advanced biomechanical tests and treatment and includes the sacroiliac and pubic joints. knee ankle and foot. and costal manipulation techniques.

These hours can be done all at one time or split up according to the student’s wishes.supervision of a certified clinical instructor. variable dues required. Duration of Certification Renewal every 10 years. 34 .

and the remaining hours from the fellowship project. NAIOMT identifies 568 hours (of the 1500 total) to be didactic and practical hours. Costs: MII Diploma Program: Between $11. AAOMPT requirements include a component of 440 clinically supervised hours. planned dates for classes and examinations. practical.500 completed with Fellows of AAOMPT Thrust Manipulation Course: $615 Clinical hours 300 hours Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy Clinical Residency (360 hours) through MII (USA) Successfully complete McKenzie MDT Diploma Final Examinations Attain the McKenzie Institute Diploma in MDT 310 hours OMPT Problem Solving Experience with a FAAOMPT Complete Thrust Manipulation Course (24 hours) 35 . The majority of the total didactic. and a plan that they be able to complete in 36 months. 440 clinical.Mechanical Diagnosis & Therapy (MDT)/OMPT Criteria (McKenzie)17 Overview The minimum time frame for the clinical Fellowship is 12 months the maximum is 36 months. clinical and self-study hours needs to be completed within 36 months and total in excess of 1500 hours. The Fellowship Program requirement is 1500 hours of postprofessional study. The student begins when the time is right for them.$13.500 OMPT Mentorship: $3. APTA requires 1000 hours for an APTA-credentialed fellowship.500. Intakes are flexible and year -round (rolling). and when they have a clear temporal plan mapped out with their clinical instructors.

Completion of 130 hours direct 1:1 OMPT Clinical Mentorship experience with a FAAOMPT Apply for Fellow status in AAOMPT 36 .

the following basic principles have been developed:19 During assessment the therapist will identify one or more comparable signs as described by Maitland. lateral elbow pain with resisted wrist extension. pain associated with movement.S. parallel or perpendicular to the joint plane). Cost: Approximately $450 per seminar for 4 two-day seminars.P. (Hon).e.Certified Mulligan Practitioner (CMP)18 Overview The Mulligan Concept is a unique approach to manual therapy discovered and developed by Brian Mulligan F.. from Wellington. Utilising his/her knowledge of joint arthrology. adverse neural tension). the therapist investigates various combinations of parallel or perpendicular glides to find the correct treatment plane and grade of movement. This simple yet effective manual approach addresses musculoskeletal disorders with pain free manual joint “repositioning” techniques for restoration of function and abolition of pain. a well-developed sense of tissue tension and clinical reasoning.T. A passive accessory joint mobilization is applied following the principles of Kaltenborn (i. 37 . Dip. M. These signs may be a loss of joint movement. New Zealand. This accessory glide must itself be pain free. The therapist must continuously monitor the patient's reaction to ensure no pain is recreated.N. Skills/Coursework Specific to the application of MWM and SNAGS in clinical practice.e. or pain associated with specific functional activities (i..Z.

CMP. the patient is requested to perform the comparable sign. and a significantly decreased or better yet. It is expected that this overpressure is again.. spinal segment or that the technique is not indicated. pain-free. Further gains are expected with repetition during a treatment session typically involving three sets of ten repetitions.While sustaining the accessory glide. FAAOMPT. grade or direction of mobilization. Failure to improve the comparable sign would indicate that the therapist has not found the correct contact point. The previously restricted and/or painful motion or activity is repeated by the patient while the therapist continues to maintain the appropriate accessory glide. treatment plane. MCTA Address: 6714 Antilope Street Location: Carlsbad State: California Zip Code: 92009 Business Phone: 760-518-0249 Fax: 760-438-7987 38 . PT. increased range of motion. The comparable sign should now be significantly improved (i.e. Further gains may be realized through the application of passive overpressure at the end of available range. Contact information Brian Folk. absence of the original pain).

Clinical hours 201 hours over a total 29 days of seminar training. which culminate in comprehensive examination--written. active movements and palpation for condition. Cost: Total MTC tuition is approximately $5. At the conclusion of the seminar. Supportive treatments. such as exercises & distraction.800. oral and practical testing--to define competency in the selected clinical area. Includes instruction & techniques of evaluating structure. position & mobility of the spine. 39 . General principles of functional anatomy. are instructed and practiced to a limited degree. tissue & joint biomechanics.Manual Therapy Certication20 (MTC) (Stanley Paris) Overview The MTC incorporates a series of seminars. Skills/Coursework S1‐Introduction to Spinal Evaluation and Manipulation   This is a 5-day seminar emphasizing interpretation of basic science knowledge toward the development of clinical skills needed for differential evaluation & effective treatment of spinal dysfunction. Most seminars are 2 to 6 days long. The objective is the safe application and interpretation of advanced clinical skills. the student should feel confident to examine & treat most common spinal conditions. Manipulation techniques are instructed at all levels of the spine except the subcranial area. Certification Preparation and Exam is a six-day process which provides a review and update of the contents of each prerequisite seminar. pathology and treatments are applied to clinical examination and treatment.

tissue & joint biomechanics. posture. both normal & pathological treatment principles & the biomechanics of soft tissue. The emphasis of this seminar is placed on the relationship of the soft tissue structures to the mechanics of the spine. Soft tissue and joint techniques for both examination and treatment are practiced in lab sessions. and treatment are presented. and places special emphasis on palpatory techniques such as end-feel. soft tissue anatomy. The lecture component consists of discussion of functional anatomy. General principles of functional anatomy. MF1‐Myofascial Manipulation  This seminar deals with the evaluation & treatment techniques of myofascial manipulation. Non-thrust manipulations are instructed & supportive treatments are discussed. In order for the body to maintain normal physiological motion & postural efficiency. Soft tissue techniques directed at normalizing 40 . along with thorax and spinal influences with emphasis on kinetic chain events. pathology.E1‐Extremity Evaluation and Manipulation  This seminar emphasizes the interpretation of basic science knowledge & the development of basic clinical skills which are needed to complete a differential evaluation of extremity dysfunction. there needs to be freedom from restrictions in the myofascial unit. Clinical cases are presented for discussion of management and treatment based upon clinical reasoning skills. The clinical content of the seminar includes physical examination. E2 ‐ Extremity Integration  This three day seminar is carried out in seminar format which includes lecture and lab. The content of this seminar highlights the interrelationships of extremity joint complexes. then proceeds to treatment.

function will be demonstrated & practiced for the hip. The techniques in the S1 seminar are reviewed. S4‐Functional Analysis & Management of the Lumbo‐Pelvic‐Hip Complex   A biomechanical & neurophysiological approach to the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex is presented. Research documentation of the anatomical and mechanical roles of the related structures is provided. S 2‐Advanced Evaluation & Manipulation of Pelvic. Emphasis is placed on the functional relations within this region so as to understand pelvic girdle dysfunction. mechanics & pathology of dysfunction. Topic areas include: functional 41 . thoracic spine. Lumbar & Thoracic Spine Including  Thrust   The S2 seminar focus is the lumbar spine. pelvis. Self help & exercise programs are instructed. rib cage & the pelvis. particularly those requiring a higher level of skill & decisionmaking. Cervical & Upper Thoracic Spine    Advanced spinal seminars begin with a brief review & update of anatomy. thoracic and cervico-thoracic spines. lumbar. Special emphasis is placed on the management of syndromes & particular attention is paid to posture. spondylosis & myelopathy. problem solving & treatment strategies are explored. Special emphasis will be placed on the subcranial & mid cervical regions. Techniques of S1 are reviewed & advanced techniques instructed. Exercises. S3‐Advanced Evaluation & Manipulation of Cranio‐Facial. and additional techniques. The utilization of biomechanical & anatomical principles for the enhancement of patient care through manipulation & exercise is emphasized as is the patients' role in their own welfare. Lectures & evaluation techniques will assist with the evaluation & treatment of cervical dysfunction including disc degeneration. are added.

On the fifth day. Over a 24-month period. comprehension & applied skills. Additional suggestions relating to bracing. respiratory assist mobilization & muscle energy. labor & delivery as well as dysfunction in the form of pathomechanics and pathophysiology. Methods for self-mobilization & stabilization are demonstrated. Patient education strategies integrating therapeutic exercise with manual interventions will be presented.anatomy. In addition. An update is also presented by the instructors where such an update seems appropriate. a three hour multiple choice examination is conducted. the University requires evidence of continuing professional development. spinal and extremity joint. covering each area in the prerequisite courses: namely basic science. the therapist 42 . effects of the pregnancy. time is provided for an introduction to the concepts & application of techniques such as positional release. The evaluation process approaches the problem from both joint & muscular standpoints. select pathologies. Duration of Certification In order to maintain use of the certification letters. with 4 or more instructors. On the sixth day each candidate receives four to five twenty-minute oral/practical examinations to test retention. biomechanics of the sacroiliac & pubic joints. Treatment of pelvic dysfunction is also multi-dimensional & therefore soft tissue and joint mobilization is offered. Manual Therapy Certification Review  A five day review seminar. injection or ADL may also be included in management. Laboratory experience involves the demonstration & practice of clinical evaluation methods for assessing dysfunction in the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex. and soft tissue manipulation. muscular & ligament influences.

medical errors. HIV updates. Just send us the copy of the article with citation. with a copy of the certificates for each seminar attended. Development and/or teaching of a seminar.is expected to maintain either full or part-time clinical practice and meet one or more of the following activities: 30 hours (3. call: (904) 826-0084 43 . It does not include seminars related to employment topics such as blood borne pathogens. These seminars may be any physical therapy practice management area. Completion and passing of the ABPTS certification examination.0 CEU) of continuing education attendance every 2 years. Augustine for Health Sciences St. Requires a copy of an unofficial transcript. Development and/or teaching of a rehabilitation-related course in a degreegranting program. Post-professional degree coursework (3 credits over 24 months). Publication of article(s) in peer-reviewed journal. FL 32086 In U. call: (800) 241-1027 Outside of the U. A copy of the letter and/or the certificate will suffice for verification. HIPPA requirements. etc. CPR certification. This could be a research study. Augustine Campus 1 University Boulevard St. not just manual therapy. Augustine. clinical pearl. Contact information University of St.S. position paper.S.

44 .

A. 1985 With more than one hundred illustrated techniques. F. The concise text systematically describes the purpose of the technique. Craniosacral Therapy. each technique is illustrated to depict the placement and movement of the practitioner's hands on the patient's head.Chapter 5: Additional Resources Books Alternative Therapy A comprehensive guide to alternative therapies including and beyond manual therapy can be found in this outstanding book: Novey. the position of both patient and practitioner. and relationship to disease processes. Mosby. M.. defining the physiology and anatomy of the craniosacral system. 1983 This is one of the most practical. Eastland Press. comprehensive textbooks in this rapidly growing field of therapy.O. Donald.A.F. Alan.A. this book is one of the most comprehensive sources of cranial techniques available. MD. John E. its function in health. Cranial Sacral Therapy Gehin. Upledger. Organized by bone. and the movement of hands and fingers in relation to the cranial motion. 2000. the points of contact. & Vredevoogd. Atlas of Manipulative Techniques for the Cranium & Face. Clinician’s Complete Reference to Complementary & Alternative Medicine. It provides practical instruction 45 . Eastland Press. Jon D.O. D.

B. An Osteopathic Perpective.. Craniosacral Therapy II: Beyond the Dura. Topics included in this book are cranial nerves. Manipulation of the Spine Thorax and Pelvis. 1993. F. Eastland Press. Churchill Livingstone Elsevier. Gordon Press Publishers. 1994 Lederman. Churchill Livingstone. Maitland’s Peripheral Manipulation. P. Fundamentals of Manual Therapy: Physiology. Manipulation and Mobilization: Extremity and Spinal Techniques.A. Inc. Orthopaedic Manual Therapy Edmond.A. Butterworth-Heinemann. and an extensive glossary of terms and concepts. G.O.in developing and extending palpatory skills which will greatly benefit all forms of manipulation.D. Elsevier.. Grieve's Modern Manual Therapy: The Vertebral Column. Susan. Combining Manual Therapy. Churchill Livingstone. Hengeveld. Maitland. D. 1997. Jones. E. Upledger further explores the anatomical and physiological bases and clinical implications of several important aspects of the craniosacral system.H. Eyal. Inc. Diagnosis from the Spine: A Practical Method of Diagnosis & Non-Medical Treatment.. Dr. Vertebral Manipulation.O. Upledger. Banks. Boyling & Nigel Palastanga. 46 . 2005. the anatomy of the neck. John E. 2006. Jeffrey D. Hydrotherapy & Psychotherapy. Gibbons. 1987 Building upon concepts in Craniosacral Therapy. clinical techniques. the temporomandibular joint. Tehan. Neurology & Psychology. P.. as well as basic physical diagnosis.. 1974. Mosby-Year Book. K.. 2005.

Vleeming. Aspen Publishers. Cervical.D. Weiselfish-Giammatteo. MP.Mitchell. The Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation http://www. It will provide readers with both a general fund of knowledge on the assessment and management of specific problems 47 . Andry. 1996. Winkel.D. & Lumbar Spine with Muscle Energy & Beyond Technique: A Contemporary Clinical Analysis of Biomechanics.D. Rolf. Sharon.vcu. Limited. 1998. Ph. North Atlantic Books. November 1990 Journals Research based treatments are the lifeblood of the profession of physical therapy. Ph. Sharon.pmr. Rolfing and Physical Reality. North Atlantic Books. 1977 Ida Rolf. Sacrum. Meier. Rolfing: Reestablishing the Natural Alignment and Structural Integration of the Human Body for Vitality and Well-Being. Rolfing Ida P. Diagnosis & Treatment of the Spine: Nonoperative Orthopaedic Medicine & Manual Therapy. Onno G. Limited. Inner Traditions International. Ph.edu/jbmr/ Practical information about musculoskeletal rehabilitation to clinicians who treat patients with back and musculoskeletal pain complaints. Rolfing: The Integration of Human Structures. Integrative Manual Therapy for the Upper and Lower Extremities: Introducing Muscle Energy & Beyond Techniques. Valley Park: Mitchell Moran and Pruzzo Associates. December 1990 Ida Rolf. 1979. New York: Harper and Row. Thoracic. This is not an exhaustive list of manual therapy journals. 1999. An Evaluation and Treatment Manual of Osteopathic Muscle Energy Procedures. Dos. Integrative Manual Therapy for the Pelvis. Weiselfish-Giammatteo. There are many internet search engines that will find articles from these journals and more on the topic of manual therapy. Inner Traditions International.

html This peer-reviewed journal of the Manipulation Association of Chartered Physiotherapists is written for the diverse needs of the various professions engaged in all aspects of manual therapy. Manual Therapy http://www.ors. which reports new information on experimental. and prevention of musculoskeletal disorder. case studies that describe innovative approaches to patient care.net/jmmt This journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists includes clinical studies pertinent to manual and manipulative medicine.gte. and clinical aspects of orthopaedic research. as well as reviews of clinically oriented research and practical information 48 . treatment.com/Journals/ManTherapy/jhome. It provides the latest information on current developments in therapeutics.jmptonline.and new information considered to be state-of-the-art in the field. including prospective clinical studies. Journal of Manual and Manipulative Therapy http://home1. The intended audience is multidisciplinary as well as multi-specialty. theoretical.org/ JMPT JMPT is dedicated to the advancement of chiropractic health care but it is also useful for PT’s. Topics covered are relevant to how elements of the neuromusculoskeletal system influence therapy outcomes and effectiveness.html This is the official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society. original research from the basic sciences relevant to assessment.churchillmed. and more. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics (JMPT) http://www.org/jor/index. Journal of Orthopaedic Research http://www.

case reports. commentary. Readers include chiropractors. radiologists. 49 . and sports medicine specialists. and new media reviews. publishes peer-reviewed original articles. osteopaths.for use in clinical settings. physical therapists. the premier biomedical publication in the chiropractic profession. journal abstracts. JMPT. physiatrists.

USA. 2nd ed. Bowtech.pdf.ifomt. 5. Revised 2nd Edition ed. Accessed 4/15/2009. http://www.17:10.S. http://www. 2. AAOMPT. 4th ed. Oslo. 13.com/more-information/worldwide-directory-ofmassage-schools. MDT MI.References 1.. The history of physical therapy practice in the United States. APTA-Orthopaedic. http://www. 12. 2004. Alexandria. NA-MCTA.apta. http://www. http://www.org. Accessed 2/12/2009. Upledger I. 9.usa.aaompt. 17.org.org. Manual mobilization of the extremity joints : basic examination and treatment techniques. 2009. 6. 2010. Certified Mulligan Practitioner. London: Elsevier. Moffat M. http://www.com. Andrews U. J Phys Ther Ed. Accessed 03/13/2009. Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. Accessed 1/15/2010.org. McCaleb B. 7.rolf. Bellevue. American Physical Therapy Association White Paper.mckenziemdt.andrews. 8. 1989. 20. 2009.orthopt. 18. 16. The Science and Practice of Manual Therapy.A. http://www. A history of manipulative therapy. OPTP (Orthopedic Physical Therapy Products) distributor in the U. APTA.edu/files/fef40c8b-2f40-4b46a534-07fe797ff68c. 10. Position on Thrust Joint Manipulation Provided by Physical Therapists. 50 . Pettman E. 2009.com/index. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists.edu/cas/pt/programs/courses. Accessed 03/20/2009.com.htm. Accessed 2/12/2009. Rolf I. 14. Mulligan C. Kaltenborn FM. J Man Manip Ther. 2009. 19. Morgan D.html. 11. 2009:11.org. Bowtech. Accessed 1/15/2010. Accessed 1/12/2010. Lederman E.49(12):13691374. North American Region of the Mulligan Concept Teachers Association (NAMCTA).upledger. 2003. VA: American Physical Therapy Association. An introduction to spinal manipulation.org.15(3):165-174. Dec 1969.bellevuemassageschool. Accessed 1/15/2010.bowtech. Available at. Minneapolis. http://www. APTA.html. Phys Ther. http://www. 15. IFOMT. Manual Therapy Certification.com/. 2007. 2010. http://www. Bellevue Worldwide Directory of Massage Schools. http://www.na-mcta. Accessed 4/10/2009. Accessed 02/10/2009. Accessed 2/12/2009. http://www. 2005. MN: Olaf Norlis . http://www. 4. 3. Evjenth O.bmulligan.

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