Manual Therapy for the Professional Physical Therapist

by

Brennan Leyendecker, SPT

A capstone project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Physical Therapy University of Central Florida College of Health and Public Affairs Program in Physical Therapy

2010

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To all those who seek healing through the art of touch.

To my family, whose love, encouragement and discouragement of my dreams have been equally motivational.

To Bill Hanney, Karis Zbaraschuk and Tim Ahlip for opening my eyes and granting my hands the world of manual therapy.

To Judi Schack Dugre, Jennifer Tucker and Charlene McLachlan whose openness to wellness inspired my path.

To Jenny, my friend.

To Zach, my touchstone.

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Contents
Manual Therapy for the Professional Physical Therapist ................................................ 1  Focus and Scope of this Booklet.................................................................................. 1  Chapter 1: What is Manual Therapy and Who Utilizes it? .............................................. 3  Chapter 2: A Brief History of Manual Therapy ................................................................ 5  Early Manual Therapy .................................................................................................. 5  Medicine in the 1800’s ................................................................................................. 5  Physiotherapy is Born .................................................................................................. 6  Physical Therapy in the United States ......................................................................... 6  Manual Therapy in the United States and Around the World ....................................... 7  Physical and Manual Therapy Organizations ............................................................... 8  Chapter 3: Organizations and Governing Bodies of Manual Therapy in Physical Therapy ......................................................................................................................... 11  American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists (AAOMPT) ............ 11  Overview ................................................................................................................. 11  History and Vision ................................................................................................... 11  Overview of certifications offered ............................................................................ 12  Contact information................................................................................................. 12  The International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapy (IFOMT) ............ 13  Overview ................................................................................................................. 13  Vision ...................................................................................................................... 13  Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association ......................... 14  Overview ................................................................................................................. 14  An Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy Fellowship is offered. ........................... 14  Contact information................................................................................................. 14  North American Institute of Orthopaedic Manual Therapy (NAIOMT) ........................ 14  Overview ................................................................................................................. 14  Contact information................................................................................................. 15  World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) ................................................... 15  Overview ................................................................................................................. 15  Contact information................................................................................................. 15  Chapter 4: Certifications in Manual Therapy—a Detailed View of Choices .................. 17  v

..................................................... 46  Rolfing ............................................................................................................................................ 45  Cranial Sacral Therapy ....... 45  Alternative Therapy...... 20  Licensed Massage Therapist (LMT).. 24  Rolfing (Structural Integration).............................................................................................................................................. 29  Certified Manual Therapist (CMPT) (NAIOMT Level III)15 ................................. 50  vi ........ certifying body (accreditation)12 ...............Level II ......................... 31  Mechanical Diagnosis & Therapy (MDT)/OMPT Criteria (McKenzie)17 ....................... 47  Journals ......................................................................................................... 45  Books ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 17  Cranial Sacral Therapist (CST/ CST-D)12 ....... 17  Bowen Technique11 ................................. 39  Chapter 5: Additional Resources ............................................................................................................................ 16 ................International Massage & Somatic Therapies Accreditation Council13....... 35  Certified Mulligan Practitioner (CMP)18 ............................................................................................. 47  References .................................................................................................... 45  Orthopaedic Manual Therapy ...................................... 22  Lymphedma: LDT /CDP/LLCC Certification ....... 26  Orthopedic Manual Therapy......................................Complementary and Alternative Medicine...................... Rolf Institute of Structural Integration14 ................................... certified by IMSTAC .. 37  Manual Therapy Certication20 (MTC) (Stanley Paris) ................ 30  Fellow of the NAIOMT and AAOMPT9.......................................................... 29  Certified Manual Therapist (COMT) (NAIOMT Level IV+)15 ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The best way to fully understand what a particular type of therapy entails is to undergo at least one treatment from a qualified practitioner. 1 .Manual Therapy for the Professional Physical Therapist Focus and Scope of this Booklet The profession of physical therapy encourages clinicians to increase their therapeutic skill set beyond that of the entry level degree. The reader is encouraged to become a consumer of therapy services. There are educational offerings to complement a wide array of practitioner interest and talent. guidance from mentors or other useful sources of information. cost. The main focus is to assist physical therapists in determining which educational opportunities align with their interests and professional goals. training hours. it is a way to demonstrate a knowledge base in a particular area of study. all touting the benefits of their particular derivation. Physical therapists interested in manual therapy have a daunting task when it comes to sifting through the certification and educational information regarding manual therapy. continuing educational units (CEU) required with each certification will be outlined. Manual therapy is encompassed by several disciplines. While it is not necessary to obtain certifications in specialized fields. Under each discipline umbrella lay a variety of degrees and certifications. This booklet is not a comprehensive guide meant to replace individual research. Additional resources will be included for further exploration into topics surrounding manual therapy. To this end. the skills. This booklet will concentrate on the educational choices available to physical therapists in North America. A practitioner who focuses on manual therapy uses a hands-on approach to help patients heal.

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joint mobilization and a myriad of other hands-on techniques. chiropractors have questioned the physical therapist’s use of manual therapy. The principle practitioners of manual therapy are osteopaths.3 Manual therapy and TJM is supported in entry level academic curricula. 3 Small-amplitude and high-velocity therapeutic movements are also known as thrust joint manipulation (TJM) and have long been used by physical therapists. However.” 2.1 The Guide to Physical Therapy Practice defines manual therapy as “comprising a continuum of skilled passive movements to the joints and/or related soft tissues that are applied at varying speeds and amplitudes. since the 1960’s. Other health care workers use forms of therapeutic touch as well. especially concerning manipulation due to the overlap and competition in services. chiropractors. physical therapist.Chapter 1: What is Manual Therapy and Who Utilizes it? Manual therapy is broadly described here as the use of hands in a healing way. This definition includes massage. The American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) published a document entitled “Position on Thrust Joint Manipulation Provided by Physical Therapists” in order to establish the professional stance on use of TJM in physical therapy practice. and massage therapists. The assertion is that physical therapists have the skills and knowledge to provide TJM’s safely and within the scope of practice for physical therapy. Manual therapy is an interdisciplinary skill that has great usefulness across a wide variety of patients.3 3 . including small-amplitude and high-velocity therapeutic movement. lymphatic flow techniques.

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did much to raise the standard of what is now orthopaedic surgery. who described in 1543 the detailed anatomy of the human body. with illustrations of many of his manipulative techniques. and a first book had been devoted to the subject.Chapter 2: A Brief History of Manual Therapy Early Manual Therapy The first record of manual therapy techniques occurs in medical writings by Hippocrates (460-355 BC). including many of the techniques described by Hippocrates. wrote extensively on the work of Hippocrates. John Hunter (1728-1793) advocated movement of joints after injury was necessary in order to prevent stiffness and the accumulation of adhesions due to inflammation. In particular. Hippocrates describes a combination of traction and pressure exerted on a patient lying prone on a wooden bed. It was the topic of meetings and papers. then called “bone-setting” because it was once thought small bones were being put into place during manipulation. manipulation was firmly established in contemporary medicine.4 The Renaissance brought fresh insight to medicine with Andreus Versalius. “On Setting Joints by Leverage”. the first such book by an orthodox medical practitioner. he used a considerable amount of manipulation. The Hippocratic Oath admonishes physicians to do no harm. This preceded both the founding of American Osteopathy by 4 years and chiropractic by 28 years. In addition. Medical doctors continued to practice and speak about manual therapy. a surgeon to four successive French kings. Hood believed that the sound of 5 . Claudius Galen (131-202 AD). Ambrose Pare.4 Medicine in the 1800’s By 1870. Hippocrates is known as the Father of Medicine. In 1871 Wharton Hood published On Bone-Setting. In 1579.

later known as the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. He encouraged his medical colleagues to send patients to this group by prescription. The two medical names most associated with instruction of manipulation to physical therapists were James and John Mennell. medical practitioners such as Marlin. During World War I. these aides were mostly women with backgrounds in physical education and training in 3-month-long courses run by physicians and nurses to train them in massage and muscle re-education. both father and son. As in nursing. In the 20th century. One of the early therapists. trained with Mennell during World War II and carried her knowledge to New Zealand after the war. and Humphris were publishing on manipulation.4 Physical Therapy in the United States The injured veterans of World War I created a great need for physical therapy in the United States.D.cavitation heard with manipulation was that of adhesions being broken. 4 Physiotherapy is Born Physiotherapy was founded in England in 1899. Helen Hislop. James Mennell published a number of texts for physical therapists concerning rehabilitaion. Coltart. (1917-1918) “reconstruction aides” were employed in hospitals and army rehabilitation camps to do rehabilitation work. not that of bones going back into place. Blundell-Bankart. Burrows.4 In 1907 James Mennell. M. or massage and movement. In other countries. respectively. and Edger and James Cyriax. the same therapies were called massage and medical gymnastics.5 6 . instructed joint and soft tissue manipulation techniques to the newly formed Society of Trained Masseuses.

5 By 1928. rehabilitation aides battled the raging polio epidemic that began in 1924 (it would last until 1956). she became the founding president of the American Physical Therapy Association.000 cases each year until Dr. in the early 1950s there were still more than 20.000 more. Physical therapy historians agree that physical therapy evolved as a professional field as a response to the polio epidemic.S. Under her leadership.In 1921.5 Manual Therapy in the United States and Around the World James Mennell was awarded the Golden Keys with Life membership in the American Congress of Physical Medicine and in the American Physical Therapy Association in 1949. Army because she was the first physical therapy aide in World War I. Later. where she oversaw the training of reconstruction aides and. The polio epidemic in the United States would kill 6. Mary McMillan founded the American Women's Physical Therapeutic Association. during which therapists worked in conjunction with physicians to battle the disease.S.000 people and paralyze 27. Education remained under the direction of the AMA until 1977. and these nascent physical therapists worked hard to strengthen and rehabilitate victims. and a standard for length of PT education was set at 9 months. and she established the first physical therapy training center in China at Peiping Union Medical College. Salk's vaccine proved successful in 1955. reeducating weakened muscles through exercise and applying thermal hot packs to painful joints. She also organized one of the first courses in physical therapy in the U.. He is believed to be the first to use the term “manual therapy”-- 7 . at Reed College in Oregon. a council on physical therapy was established within the American Medical Association (AMA). Mary McMillan became known as "The Mother of Physical Therapy" in the U.

partial absence or total absence of joint movement. resisted movement. Maitland’s two books. passive movement. He concentrated it on the treatment of what he called reproducible signs. and to test again. In 1968.” 6 Physical and Manual Therapy Organizations In 1966. It represented physiotherapists from Canada and the United States for recognition of spinal and extremity joint manipulation as requiring additional post-professional education. He addressed the topics of massage. to oscillate that joint.which he chose for the title of his book. Grieve. Maitland treated the painful joint with what he hypothesized would be the next most likely to succeed until relief was found. His approach was to identify either an active or passive movement that was painful.4 Geoffrey Maitland of Australia published Vertebral Manipulation. detail the method. a physical therapist named McCaleb published “An Introduction to Spinal Manipulation” in Physical Therapy... Kaltenborn. in which he refined the art of oscillatory manipulation. He wrote on the concepts of joint play and stated that manipulation was helpful for joint dysfunction. assisted movement. called a joint lock. He described the latter as a “. Massachusetts. In all. By process of elimination. and Paris met in London and discussed setting up an international body to exchange educational ideas and to maintain standards in manual and manipulative therapy. and chaired by Paris. and joint manipulation.4. five countries were represented and the World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) was formed and the International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapists (IFOMPT) was created to steer it.4 In 1969. physical therapists Maitland. the North American Academy of Manipulation Therapy was founded in Boston. 7 8 . Peripheral Manipulation and Vertebral Manipulation.

The Academy was accepted for membership in IFOMT (International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapists). a status that has since helped member nations gain increasing acceptance for joint manipulation within physical therapy. The AAOMPT established residency standards for manual therapy training in the United States.The Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association was formed in 1974.4 9 . The North American Academy of Manual & Manipulative Therapy was subsequently dissolved as it had reached its goal of seeing manipulation become a specialty section of the American Physical Therapy Association. Paris became the first president of the Section. the IFOMT became the first specialty subsection of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy. The President of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) is the official liaison to the Academy. In 1978. 4 The American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists (AAOMPT) was founded in 1991.

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The members. This was the first time in the 20 year history of the IFOMT that the United States had been a voting member. PT.8 The AAOMPT was the vehicle for the United States to become a voting member of the International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapists (IFOMT). OCS. and Micheal Moore. Ola Grimsby PT. PT. Joe Farrell.D. DC. Rogers. History and Vision The American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists (AAOMPT) was founded in 1991 by a group of manual therapists. research or clinical institution with an interest in orthopaedic manual physical therapy. PT. PT became the Founding Fellows of the AAOMPT. MS. and Bjorn Svendsen. Michael D. Stanley V. DHSc. This was the first time that leaders of various manual therapy residency programs had come together under one roof. PT.8 11 . PT. Richard Erhard.Chapter 3: Organizations and Governing Bodies of Manual Therapy in Physical Therapy American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists (AAOMPT) Overview The AAOMPT is a professional organization dedicated to physical therapists and any educational. The AAOMPT is active within the APTA and the APTA Orthopedic Section. PhD. Kornelia Kulig. PH. The Standards for Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy Residency Training in the United States standards form the basis for Fellowship programs to be recognized by the AAOMPT and have been a model for the development of other residency/fellowship programs with the APTA. They met at Oakland University to discuss common issues facing manual therapy in the United States. Paris PT.

education.aaompt. and research. An AAOMPT Fellow is a physical therapist who has demonstrated advanced clinical. analytical. To achieve the Fellow credential. The programs in orthopaedics allocate approximately 10% of their overall hours to clinical practice. MS 39535-4777 Phone: (228) 392-0028 Fax: (228) 392-0666 12 . Fellows serve their patients and the public by demonstrating excellence in clinical practice. is both a membership classification and a professional credential.9 Contact information American Academy Of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy (AAOMPT) http://www. Box 4777 Biloxi. a physical therapist must complete a credentialed fellowship program in orthopaedic manual physical therapy.org P. a "Fellow" in AAOMPT is an international recognition of competence and expertise in the practice of orthopaedic manual physical therapy by a physical therapist licensed in the USA. in the AAOMPT.O.Overview of certifications offered Fellow. and hands-on skills in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders.8 A clinical fellowship should be completed within a minimum of 1000 hours in no fewer than six (6) months in duration and no more than 36 months. As a professional credential. Programs whose timeframe falls outside of these parameters will be reviewed on a case-by-case basis.

10 Vision The IFOMT seeks to promote and maintain the high standards of specialist education and clinical practice in manual/musculoskeletal physiotherapists. and was formed in 1974. The IFOMT works towards international unity and conformity of educational standards of practice amongst manual/musculoskeletal physiotherapists by collaboration with individuals within the organization and with other organizations. It is a Federation that sets Educational and Clinical Standards in manual therapy.The International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapy (IFOMT) Overview The International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapists represents groups of Physical Therapists around the world. 13 . Contact the national group: AAOMPT for United States Citizens (see below). It also endeavors to promote and facilitate evidence based practice and research amongst its members as well as communicate widely the purpose and level of the specialization of manual/musculoskeletal physiotherapists amongst physiotherapists. IFOMT is a subgroup of the World Confederation of Physical Therapy. who have completed stringent postgraduate specialization programs in musculoskeletal disorders. other healthcare disciplines and the general public.10 Group membership is offered. No certifications are offered directly from the IFOMT.

in a comfortable time frame without need to relocate or leave job or family commitments. clinical fellowship program.org North American Institute of Orthopaedic Manual Therapy (NAIOMT) Overview The NAIOMT program offers advanced training in orthopaedic manual physical therapy. Inc. 2920 East Ave.orthopt. mentoring and a series of examinations. Students choose their own pace and level of training to fit their educational goals. The North American Institute of Orthopaedic Manual Therapy Inc (NAIOMT) Fellowship Program is credentialed by the American Physical Therapy 14 . APTA. South Suite 200 La Crosse. An Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy Fellowship is offered. supervised clinical instruction. WI 54601 http://www. The Orthopaedic Section will provide and support professional development for physical therapy clinicians as the preferred autonomous and evidence-based practitioners of choice for musculoskeletal care.Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association Overview This section of the APTA was created to serve as an advocate and resource for the practice of Orthopaedic Physical Therapy by fostering quality patient care and promoting professional growth. Contact information Orthopaedic Section. The training includes didactic and practical instruction in the classroom.

WCPT promotes physical therapy as a profession and its contribution to global health. It encourages high standards of physical therapy research. 1574 Coburg Road.com World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) Overview The World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) is an international voice for physical therapy. Charles House 375 Kensington High Street London W14 8QH Tel: +44 (0)20 7471 6765 Fax: +44 (0)20 7471 6766 Email: info@wcpt.000 physical therapists worldwide through its 101 member organizations. OR 97401-4802 Phone: (800) 706-5550 Fax: (541) 349-1172 http://naiomt.org 15 . Contact information PMB 129. education and practice. Eugene. It represents more than 300.Association as a postprofessional clinical fellowship program for physical therapists in orthopaedic manual physical therapy. Contact information World Confederation for Physical Therapy Kensington Charity Centre 4th Floor.

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Inc. The manual therapy is performed using the thumbs and fingers applying only gentle. nerves and fascia. but not as firm as in Rolfing therapy. Cost Course Cost is about $700-$800 per seminar. Clinical hours In the United States. 17 . myofascial manipulation and energy flows. There is a Basic Bowen course and an Advanced course. It incorporates Chinese meridians. seminars range from 2-3 days in duration.hour merit diploma is awarded at the end of the Basic Bowen class. Students receive a manual written by Bowen Therapy Training. with frequent pauses to allow time for the body to respond. Bowen therapists claim to be only a catalyst. setting the stimulus in motion for the body to heal itself. and a 22 . A treatment consists of a series of specific sequences of moves called procedures. This form of therapy was discovered by Tom Bowen of Australia in the 1950’s. non-invasive pressure.Chapter 4: Certifications in Manual Therapy—a Detailed View of Choices Complementary and Alternative Medicine Bowen Technique11 Overview The Bowen Technique is described as a holistic system in which the practitioner uses subtle and precise mobilizations called "Bowen moves" over muscles. tendons.. When compared to craniosacral therapy. a firmer touch is applied.

as well as addressing the neck. pelvis. sacrum. vagus nerve and pubic nerve. The Basic Bowen Moves include 17 Bowen Technique Sequences for the low back. the Bowtech procedures are taught in seven modules. Moves to help frozen shoulder. vastus lateralis. and ankle. Overall. psoas. kidneys. Hayfever. torso. tennis elbow. sacrum. stroke and headache issues are also covered. The last seminar. breast / lymph drainage. over a period of six months or more. arm. Asthma. shin. sartorius. philosophy and basic skills. These modules are generally taught in two consecutive days each. charts and manual. breast with lymphatic drainage. back. "Module 7. a DVD. shoulder. each 16 classroom hours long. with a maximum of two modules taught back-to-back. draining sinuses . pain under the scapula. TMJ. pelvis. and learning how Bowen's philosophy is individualized to each client. ankles. deep sciatic and tibialis posterior. The modules must be taken in sequence because each one reviews and builds on what was taught previously. coccyx. The Advanced Course is 2 days long and includes advanced moves for abdominal disorders. TMJ. hamstrings. groin pull or spasm. Emphasis is placed on reading the body. Basic Bowen covers Bowen history." is a thorough assessment of the material taught in the first six modules. upper thoracic for breathing and digestive issues. headaches. Students are provided with a complete reference guide for their practice. knees. carpal tunnel syndrome. neck. the Basic Bowen moves are presented in a hands-on atmosphere where students participation is encouraged.Skills/Coursework Over the Three-Day period. hip pain. Requirements for taking Module 7 include satisfactory completion 18 .

and a current First Aid and/or CPR certificate.aone. practitioners must complete 32 contact hours of Bowtech-approved continuing education every two years.au 19 . Contact Information Bowtech Pty Ltd PO Box 733 Hamilton. Students must provide proof of the following (depending on Country requirements): A recognized qualification in Anatomy and Physiology (100 .net. Duration of Certification Lifetime. 3300 Australia Telephone: +61 (0) 3 5572 3000 Fax: +61 (0) 3 5572 3144 Email: bowtech@h140. experience running a business or a minimum of 20 hours of business education. with the requirement due on the anniversary of the accreditation date. In order to maintain Bowenwork skills and accreditation.of the written assessments and case study requirements at Modules 3 through 6. Victoria.120 hours in most countries). and waiting at least one month after Module 6.

It is the lightest touch therapy. Locate the source of physical problems by traveling through the fascial system. Skills CST’s learn to: Identify the subtle craniosacral rhythm and interpret its patterns to accurately evaluate dysfunction and improvements. Using a soft touch which is generally no greater than 5 grams – about the weight of a nickel – practitioners release restrictions in the soft tissues that surround the central nervous system. It was pioneered and developed by Osteopathic Physician John E. CST is increasingly used as a preventive health measure for its ability to bolster resistance to disease. Duration of certification The CST/CST-D certification must be renewed every 4 years. and it's effective for a wide range of medical problems associated with pain and dysfunction. including Direction of Energy and StillPoint Induction. when compared to Rolfing and Bowen therapies. Release dural tube restrictions to enhance interactions between the central nervous system and the rest of the body. Use techniques that produce dramatic health and relaxation effects. Upledger after years of clinical testing and research at Michigan State University where he served as professor of biomechanics. Work with approaches to a number of common ailments such as TMJ 20 . hands-on approach that releases tensions deep in the body to relieve pain and dysfunction and improve whole-body health and performance. that complex web of tissue that impacts all body structures and systems.Cranial Sacral Therapist (CST/ CST-D)12 Overview CranioSacral Therapy (CST) is a gentle.

Inc. 11211 Prosperity Farms Rd. Hours of training Seminars are held for 3 to 5 days duration depending on instructor. Continuing Education 24 hours every four years of approved continuing education. head and neck pain.com 21 . Cost Seminar Cost: $500-$800 per class. central nervous system disorders and other physical disorders. Suite D-325 Palm Beach Gardens. $300 for level two (CST-Diplomate) Reduced fees offered through some schools for full-time students.. Exams: $300 for level one (CST) exam.dysfunction. Contact Information The Upledger Institute. FL 33410 Phone: 561-622-4334 800-233-5880 Fax: 561-622-4771 Email: upledger@upledger.

percussion. the LMT is clearly not of the same level. When compared to programs of physical therapy that require a bachelor degree and rigorous science coursework. Physical therapy education overlaps somewhat with massage therapy education. The public has difficulty distinguishing the profession of physical therapy and the vocation of massage therapy. Licensed massage therapists (LMT’s) provide hands-on therapies to target somatic pain. Considering the drastic difference in education. However.Licensed Massage Therapist (LMT). rebalance muscles and improve circulation. 22 .International Massage & Somatic Therapies Accreditation Council13 Massage and therapeutic touch are within the scope of practice for physical therapists. Hours of training: Between 500-1000 hours. some physical therapists find the additional hands-on practice and techniques to be valuable. Apply oils. Applying nonforceful passive or active movement to affect the energetic systems of the body and movement re-education. effleurage. this is an area of contention for PT’s. vibration or friction to the muscular structure or soft tissues of the human body. powders or other lubricants to clients' bodies to aid in various massage techniques. compression. tapotement. certified by IMSTAC . lotions. The educational requirements to enter into a LMT program are high school diploma or GED. Massage is often termed soft tissue manipulation and is a subject taught in schools of physical therapy. Skills: LMT’s learn to: Perform various types of massage techniques such as petrissage.

Some states do not require CEU’s. 23 .Duration of certification Varies by State. Most commonly 12 CEU’s annually or 24 CEU’s biannually. Continuing Education Varies by State. Renewals occur annually in most cases.

as well as the latest information on documentation and insurance reimbursement. post-radiation. post-surgery. Special lymphatic reroutes for lymphedema. Applications for chronic scars: Scar Release Therapy. Skills The LDT will learn how to: Explore use short-stretch bandages. Select the right product for the particular type of edema. and quality of the lymph and interstitial fluid flow in the superficial and deep tissue layers. 12 Manual Lymphatic Mapping (MLM) is used to assess the specific direction of the superficial and deep lymph and interstitial fluids in physiological and pathological conditions. Identify the specific direction. pressure/depth. Fibrotic techniques are learned: 15 different techniques to apply on the collagen fibers/fascia before applying the lymphatic strokes (used for lymphedema.Level II .Lymphedma: LDT /CDP/LLCC Certification . 12 24 . Discover new products on the market. etc. and how to measure for a garment. Perform bandaging applications for the upper and lower extremities. Duration of certification The LDT certification must be renewed every 3 years.) Techniques of releasing fascia restrictions (Lymphofascia Release)/Connective Tissue Fibers Release (CTFR) will be learned. certifying body (accreditation)12 Overview Lymphedema therapy is used to relieve the build up of interstitial fluid that can pathologically accumulate through trauma and disease process. garments and sequential pumps in lymphedema.

state. 170 hours for level 2.g. rib cage. There are specific maneuvers to access the cisterna chili and to facilitate drainage of the central and peripheral nervous system. e. gums. teeth. including drainage of the pia and dura maters as well as peripheral nerves such as the sciatic nerve. Continuing Education Recertification is earned by attending the Lymphedema/CDP Advanced Techniques & Recertification (LCAR) workshop 25 . for manual therapy on the whole body. synovial fluid. acupressure points. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).. including tonsils and Eustachian tubes. Drainage of the ears.12 Other LDT skills include: Applications for trigger points (TP).LDT’s learn the Clinical connection between deep breathing and the lymph flow. Drainage of the nasal cavity. Extensive breast protocol (Lymphatic Breast Care). TMJ. including the spine. oral cavity. blood (veins and arteries). LDT’s work with other fluids. including the interstitial fluid. Drainage of the synovial fluid. applications for body joints/articulations. Chapman reflexes. skull and cranial sutures as well as the upper and lower extremities 12 Hours of training 140 hours for level one. including the cochlea and the semicircular canals. The practioner is required to be licensed or certified in the area of practice.

There are 1600 Certified Rolfers in 26 countries. In the U. bringing physical balance in the gravitational field. and is distributed equally between genders. 14 Certification is earned through the Rolf Institute of Structural Integration. and offer this work to the public. with concentrations on the East and West Coast and in Colorado. Ida Rolf discovered that she could achieve remarkable changes in posture and structure by manipulating the body's myofascial system. She eventually named this system "structural integration. quality and temperature to determine where we need to work. Dr. Finally. or separate fascial layers that adhere and muscles that have been pulled out of position by strain or injury." although some still refer to it as "Rolfing. Rolfers integrate the body.. Rolf Institute of Structural Integration14 Overview More than 50 years ago. internationally. relating its segments in an improved relationship. Client population ranges from infancy to old age. lengthening and repositioning the fascia.Rolfing (Structural Integration).S. or touch the tissue. restoring its normal length and flexibility.14 Duration of certification Renewals are every 3-7 years depending on certification type. feeling for imbalances in tissue texture. Rolfers discriminate. referring to themselves as "Certified Rolfers" and Rolf Movement Practitioners. This certification enables graduates of the training program to become members of the Rolf Institute. school and caseby-case basis." after its founder. Other soft-tissue 26 . Rolfers practice in nearly all-50 states. Skills Rolfers palpate. Structural integration balances and aligns the body along a natural vertical axis by gradually stretching.

830.525. including massage. Costs: $6. Certified Rolfers may take workshops in specific 27 .000 plus books ($250-$500). Costs: $4. gentle pressure with the client’s breathing and movement to free fascial restrictions.700 plus books ($250-$500). meets four to five days a week. Eight-week intensive. meets twelve days starting on a Sunday. The range of subject matter for continuing education is great. Hours of Training & Associated Costs Foundations of Rolfing Structural Integration (level 1) is 218 Hours. Continuing Education Graduates agree to attend a minimum of eighteen days of approved continuing education over a period of three to seven years in preparation for Advanced Rolfing Training.14 The pressure of these techniques are markedly higher than in craniosacral and Bowen therapy. If certified as a Movement Practitioner. Two-week intensive. Costs: $3. 87 Hours. Clinical Application of Rolfing Theory is 269 Hours. Rolfing is said to improve alignment at any stage in life. meets four to five days a week. Must complete level 1 first.manipulation methods. Six-week intensive. Eight-week intensive. Embodiment of Rolfing and Rolf Movement Integration (level 3) is 244 Hours. but do not balance the body in gravity. are quite good at the first two. Rolf Movement Integration Certification involves 144 hours.200. Rolfers have up to 9 years to complete CE Credits and participate in the Advanced Training. Costs: $6. Advanced Foundations of Rolfing Structural Integration (level 2). Costs: $1. meets four to five days a week. 14 The practitioner combines deep.

Some credit requirements can also be met through approved mentoring programs.14 28 .manipulative techniques. The continuing education requirement is one of the many ways in which The Rolf Institute upholds its standards and demonstrates them to the community. and explore other related subjects such as CranioSacral Therapy and Visceral Manipulation.

Cyriax’s principles are introduced. NAIOMT Level II: Intermediate Upper Quadrant. Signs. Specific biomechanical assessment of each area is taught along with appropriate and effective treatment techniques for common injuries and mechanical dysfunctions. NAIOMT Level II: Intermediate Lower Quadrant. Integrates information generated 29 . knee ankle and foot. A comprehensive biomechanical and anatomical review of the lower thoracic and lumbar spines. Appropriate skills in basic and objective selective tissue examination necessary for generating a provisional differential diagnosis of spinal dysfunction. symptoms.Orthopedic Manual Therapy Certified Manual Therapist (CMPT) (NAIOMT Level III)15 Skills/Coursework NAIOMT Level I: Intro. Specific biomechanical assessment of each area is taught along with appropriate treatment techniques for common injuries and dysfunctions. A comprehensive biomechanical and anatomical review of the upper thoracic. the hip. elbow. Selective tissue tensioning techniques for the peripheral joints are introduced. NAIOMT Level III: Advanced Upper Quadrant Builds on the techniques learned in Level II and helps the student understand the kinetic chain inter-relationships of the upper quadrant. and management of common spinal pathologies are reviewed. wrist and hand. shoulder. upper and lower cervical spine. pathology. to the Fundamentals: Orthopedic Manual Therapy & Differential Diagnosis.

pelvic. as well as. NAIOMT Level IV: High Velocity Manipulation Instructs the student on the indications and contra-indications. NAIOMT Level III: Advanced Lower Quadrant Builds on the techniques learned in Level II and helps the student understand the kinetic chain inter-relationships in the lower quadrant. Presents advanced biomechanical tests and treatment and includes the sacroiliac and pubic joints. 30 . and costal manipulation techniques. Discusses the integration of examination and treatment techniques. Advanced techniques are demonstrated along with new material on temporo-mandibular joint material and peripheral manipulation skills. Certified Manual Therapist (COMT) (NAIOMT Level IV+)15 Skills/Coursework Certified Orthopedic Manual Therapist (COMT)(NAIOMT Level IV+) builds on the skill learned to attain NAIOMT Level III. the safe and effective application of spinal.in the assessment to understand how remote dysfunctions can be casual or contributory.

and when they have a clear temporal plan mapped out with their clinical instructors. education. The Fellowship Program requirement is 1500 hours of post-professional study.8 The minimum time frame for the clinical fellowship is 12 months the maximum is 36 months. analytical. To achieve the Fellow credential. Intakes are flexible and year -round (rolling).Fellow of the NAIOMT and AAOMPT9. The student begins when the time is right for them. As a professional credential. 31 . clinical and self-study hours needs to be completed within 36 months and total in excess of 1500 hours. APTA requires 1000 hours for an APTAcredentialed fellowship. planned dates for classes and examinations. practical. and the remaining hours from the fellowship project. Fellows serve their patients and the public by demonstrating excellence in clinical practice. The majority of the total didactic. NAIOMT identifies 568 hours (of the 1500 total) to be didactic and practical hours. and a plan that they be able to complete in 36 months. 440 clinical. A Fellow is a physical therapist who has demonstrated advanced clinical. AAOMPT requirements include a component of 440 clinically supervised hours. and hands-on skills in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. a "Fellow" is an international recognition of competence and expertise in the practice of orthopaedic manual physical therapy by a physical therapist licensed in the USA. 16 Overview The designation Fellow is both a membership classification and a professional credential. and research. a physical therapist must complete a credentialed fellowship program in orthopaedic manual physical therapy.

Fellowship credentialing and annual dues : Annual dues are $60. 32 . is variable dependent on work situation Skills/Coursework15 Level I: Introduction to the Fundamentals: Orthopedic Manual Therapy & Differential Diagnosis. Selective tissue tensioning techniques for the peripheral joints are introduced. elbow. Level II: Intermediate Upper Quadrant. wrist and hand. A comprehensive biomechanical and anatomical review of the upper thoracic. Cyriax’s principles are introduced. upper and lower cervical spine. Clinical hours 130 hours of 1:1 training. 270 hours of other clinical and 40 hours tutorial. credentialing $125. Exams: Approximately $2000. Specific biomechanical assessment of each area is taught along with appropriate and effective treatment techniques for common injuries and mechanical dysfunctions. Signs. shoulder. symptoms. 36 days @ average $160 per day Specialty/elective classes: 326 hrs & $150-200 per day or structured home study classes.Cost Core courses levels I-IV approx. pathology. registration fee is $75. and management of common spinal pathologies are reviewed. Appropriate skills in basic and objective selective tissue examination necessary for generating a provisional differential diagnosis of spinal dysfunction.

Level IV: High Velocity Manipulation Instructs the student on the indications and contra-indications. Level III: Advanced Upper Quadrant Builds on the techniques learned in Level II and helps the student understand the kinetic chain inter-relationships of the upper quadrant.to-1 model. as well as. and costal manipulation techniques. Discusses the integration of examination and treatment techniques. the safe and effective application of spinal. students will be required to do a minimum of 60 supervised clinical hours applying hands-on techniques with patients under the 33 . knee ankle and foot. Specific biomechanical assessment of each area is taught along with appropriate treatment techniques for common injuries and dysfunctions. Integrates information generated in the assessment to understand how remote dysfunctions can be casual or contributory. pelvic. Presents advanced biomechanical tests and treatment and includes the sacroiliac and pubic joints.Level II: Intermediate Lower Quadrant. A comprehensive biomechanical and anatomical review of the lower thoracic and lumbar spines. Level III: Advanced Lower Quadrant Builds on the techniques learned in Level II and helps the student understand the kinetic chain inter-relationships in the lower quadrant. Advanced techniques are demonstrated along with new material on temporo-mandibular joint material and peripheral manipulation skills. the hip. Supervised Clinical Practice Using a 3.

Duration of Certification Renewal every 10 years. 34 . variable dues required.supervision of a certified clinical instructor. These hours can be done all at one time or split up according to the student’s wishes.

500 completed with Fellows of AAOMPT Thrust Manipulation Course: $615 Clinical hours 300 hours Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy Clinical Residency (360 hours) through MII (USA) Successfully complete McKenzie MDT Diploma Final Examinations Attain the McKenzie Institute Diploma in MDT 310 hours OMPT Problem Solving Experience with a FAAOMPT Complete Thrust Manipulation Course (24 hours) 35 . APTA requires 1000 hours for an APTA-credentialed fellowship. Costs: MII Diploma Program: Between $11.$13. Intakes are flexible and year -round (rolling). and a plan that they be able to complete in 36 months. The majority of the total didactic.Mechanical Diagnosis & Therapy (MDT)/OMPT Criteria (McKenzie)17 Overview The minimum time frame for the clinical Fellowship is 12 months the maximum is 36 months. 440 clinical.500 OMPT Mentorship: $3. NAIOMT identifies 568 hours (of the 1500 total) to be didactic and practical hours. and the remaining hours from the fellowship project. AAOMPT requirements include a component of 440 clinically supervised hours. planned dates for classes and examinations. The Fellowship Program requirement is 1500 hours of postprofessional study.500. The student begins when the time is right for them. clinical and self-study hours needs to be completed within 36 months and total in excess of 1500 hours. and when they have a clear temporal plan mapped out with their clinical instructors. practical.

Completion of 130 hours direct 1:1 OMPT Clinical Mentorship experience with a FAAOMPT Apply for Fellow status in AAOMPT 36 .

the therapist investigates various combinations of parallel or perpendicular glides to find the correct treatment plane and grade of movement.S. lateral elbow pain with resisted wrist extension. M. (Hon).e.Certified Mulligan Practitioner (CMP)18 Overview The Mulligan Concept is a unique approach to manual therapy discovered and developed by Brian Mulligan F. from Wellington. 37 . adverse neural tension). Utilising his/her knowledge of joint arthrology.P.. pain associated with movement.Z. Dip. or pain associated with specific functional activities (i.T. These signs may be a loss of joint movement. This accessory glide must itself be pain free. a well-developed sense of tissue tension and clinical reasoning. This simple yet effective manual approach addresses musculoskeletal disorders with pain free manual joint “repositioning” techniques for restoration of function and abolition of pain.N. The therapist must continuously monitor the patient's reaction to ensure no pain is recreated. A passive accessory joint mobilization is applied following the principles of Kaltenborn (i.. Skills/Coursework Specific to the application of MWM and SNAGS in clinical practice. parallel or perpendicular to the joint plane). Cost: Approximately $450 per seminar for 4 two-day seminars. the following basic principles have been developed:19 During assessment the therapist will identify one or more comparable signs as described by Maitland. New Zealand.e.

the patient is requested to perform the comparable sign. FAAOMPT. and a significantly decreased or better yet. It is expected that this overpressure is again. CMP. treatment plane. The previously restricted and/or painful motion or activity is repeated by the patient while the therapist continues to maintain the appropriate accessory glide. grade or direction of mobilization.e. Further gains are expected with repetition during a treatment session typically involving three sets of ten repetitions. Further gains may be realized through the application of passive overpressure at the end of available range. PT. increased range of motion. pain-free.. MCTA Address: 6714 Antilope Street Location: Carlsbad State: California Zip Code: 92009 Business Phone: 760-518-0249 Fax: 760-438-7987 38 . Failure to improve the comparable sign would indicate that the therapist has not found the correct contact point. absence of the original pain). Contact information Brian Folk. spinal segment or that the technique is not indicated.While sustaining the accessory glide. The comparable sign should now be significantly improved (i.

the student should feel confident to examine & treat most common spinal conditions. active movements and palpation for condition. are instructed and practiced to a limited degree.800. Cost: Total MTC tuition is approximately $5. Skills/Coursework S1‐Introduction to Spinal Evaluation and Manipulation   This is a 5-day seminar emphasizing interpretation of basic science knowledge toward the development of clinical skills needed for differential evaluation & effective treatment of spinal dysfunction. oral and practical testing--to define competency in the selected clinical area. 39 . Clinical hours 201 hours over a total 29 days of seminar training. General principles of functional anatomy. tissue & joint biomechanics. such as exercises & distraction. which culminate in comprehensive examination--written. Manipulation techniques are instructed at all levels of the spine except the subcranial area. Certification Preparation and Exam is a six-day process which provides a review and update of the contents of each prerequisite seminar. Includes instruction & techniques of evaluating structure. At the conclusion of the seminar. The objective is the safe application and interpretation of advanced clinical skills. position & mobility of the spine. pathology and treatments are applied to clinical examination and treatment.Manual Therapy Certication20 (MTC) (Stanley Paris) Overview The MTC incorporates a series of seminars. Supportive treatments. Most seminars are 2 to 6 days long.

E2 ‐ Extremity Integration  This three day seminar is carried out in seminar format which includes lecture and lab. The lecture component consists of discussion of functional anatomy. and places special emphasis on palpatory techniques such as end-feel. along with thorax and spinal influences with emphasis on kinetic chain events. In order for the body to maintain normal physiological motion & postural efficiency. MF1‐Myofascial Manipulation  This seminar deals with the evaluation & treatment techniques of myofascial manipulation. The emphasis of this seminar is placed on the relationship of the soft tissue structures to the mechanics of the spine. Soft tissue and joint techniques for both examination and treatment are practiced in lab sessions. The content of this seminar highlights the interrelationships of extremity joint complexes. soft tissue anatomy. then proceeds to treatment. both normal & pathological treatment principles & the biomechanics of soft tissue. there needs to be freedom from restrictions in the myofascial unit. tissue & joint biomechanics. General principles of functional anatomy. The clinical content of the seminar includes physical examination. and treatment are presented.E1‐Extremity Evaluation and Manipulation  This seminar emphasizes the interpretation of basic science knowledge & the development of basic clinical skills which are needed to complete a differential evaluation of extremity dysfunction. pathology. Non-thrust manipulations are instructed & supportive treatments are discussed. Clinical cases are presented for discussion of management and treatment based upon clinical reasoning skills. posture. Soft tissue techniques directed at normalizing 40 .

Special emphasis is placed on the management of syndromes & particular attention is paid to posture. lumbar. Exercises. Research documentation of the anatomical and mechanical roles of the related structures is provided. Special emphasis will be placed on the subcranial & mid cervical regions. The utilization of biomechanical & anatomical principles for the enhancement of patient care through manipulation & exercise is emphasized as is the patients' role in their own welfare. particularly those requiring a higher level of skill & decisionmaking. spondylosis & myelopathy. Emphasis is placed on the functional relations within this region so as to understand pelvic girdle dysfunction. Lumbar & Thoracic Spine Including  Thrust   The S2 seminar focus is the lumbar spine. Topic areas include: functional 41 . S 2‐Advanced Evaluation & Manipulation of Pelvic. Cervical & Upper Thoracic Spine    Advanced spinal seminars begin with a brief review & update of anatomy. S4‐Functional Analysis & Management of the Lumbo‐Pelvic‐Hip Complex   A biomechanical & neurophysiological approach to the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex is presented. S3‐Advanced Evaluation & Manipulation of Cranio‐Facial. Self help & exercise programs are instructed. problem solving & treatment strategies are explored. Techniques of S1 are reviewed & advanced techniques instructed. are added. thoracic and cervico-thoracic spines.function will be demonstrated & practiced for the hip. The techniques in the S1 seminar are reviewed. and additional techniques. mechanics & pathology of dysfunction. thoracic spine. rib cage & the pelvis. pelvis. Lectures & evaluation techniques will assist with the evaluation & treatment of cervical dysfunction including disc degeneration.

Manual Therapy Certification Review  A five day review seminar. respiratory assist mobilization & muscle energy. the therapist 42 . injection or ADL may also be included in management. effects of the pregnancy. Patient education strategies integrating therapeutic exercise with manual interventions will be presented. comprehension & applied skills. Laboratory experience involves the demonstration & practice of clinical evaluation methods for assessing dysfunction in the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex. Duration of Certification In order to maintain use of the certification letters. spinal and extremity joint. labor & delivery as well as dysfunction in the form of pathomechanics and pathophysiology. Methods for self-mobilization & stabilization are demonstrated. biomechanics of the sacroiliac & pubic joints. Over a 24-month period. On the fifth day. Treatment of pelvic dysfunction is also multi-dimensional & therefore soft tissue and joint mobilization is offered. and soft tissue manipulation. select pathologies. On the sixth day each candidate receives four to five twenty-minute oral/practical examinations to test retention. In addition. The evaluation process approaches the problem from both joint & muscular standpoints.anatomy. with 4 or more instructors. Additional suggestions relating to bracing. covering each area in the prerequisite courses: namely basic science. An update is also presented by the instructors where such an update seems appropriate. a three hour multiple choice examination is conducted. the University requires evidence of continuing professional development. time is provided for an introduction to the concepts & application of techniques such as positional release. muscular & ligament influences.

Development and/or teaching of a rehabilitation-related course in a degreegranting program. with a copy of the certificates for each seminar attended. Post-professional degree coursework (3 credits over 24 months).is expected to maintain either full or part-time clinical practice and meet one or more of the following activities: 30 hours (3. HIV updates. Requires a copy of an unofficial transcript. clinical pearl. This could be a research study. not just manual therapy. medical errors. call: (904) 826-0084 43 . etc. Publication of article(s) in peer-reviewed journal. Just send us the copy of the article with citation. It does not include seminars related to employment topics such as blood borne pathogens. Augustine Campus 1 University Boulevard St. Development and/or teaching of a seminar. FL 32086 In U. call: (800) 241-1027 Outside of the U.0 CEU) of continuing education attendance every 2 years. Augustine for Health Sciences St. These seminars may be any physical therapy practice management area. A copy of the letter and/or the certificate will suffice for verification. HIPPA requirements. Completion and passing of the ABPTS certification examination. Augustine. CPR certification.S. position paper. Contact information University of St.S.

44 .

Donald. Upledger.F. the points of contact. D.O.. Craniosacral Therapy. Jon D. this book is one of the most comprehensive sources of cranial techniques available. and the movement of hands and fingers in relation to the cranial motion. Alan. The concise text systematically describes the purpose of the technique. defining the physiology and anatomy of the craniosacral system. Mosby. Eastland Press. each technique is illustrated to depict the placement and movement of the practitioner's hands on the patient's head.A. 2000. John E. 1983 This is one of the most practical. comprehensive textbooks in this rapidly growing field of therapy. F. and relationship to disease processes. Atlas of Manipulative Techniques for the Cranium & Face. 1985 With more than one hundred illustrated techniques. Cranial Sacral Therapy Gehin. Clinician’s Complete Reference to Complementary & Alternative Medicine. M. MD.A. its function in health.Chapter 5: Additional Resources Books Alternative Therapy A comprehensive guide to alternative therapies including and beyond manual therapy can be found in this outstanding book: Novey. Eastland Press. Organized by bone. It provides practical instruction 45 . the position of both patient and practitioner.O.A. & Vredevoogd.

A. Elsevier. An Osteopathic Perpective. Inc. Orthopaedic Manual Therapy Edmond. 1993. Neurology & Psychology. 1994 Lederman. clinical techniques. the temporomandibular joint. and an extensive glossary of terms and concepts. Boyling & Nigel Palastanga. Eastland Press.. 1974. 2005. 1997. Hydrotherapy & Psychotherapy. Inc.O. Diagnosis from the Spine: A Practical Method of Diagnosis & Non-Medical Treatment. Eyal.. Gordon Press Publishers.. P. as well as basic physical diagnosis.D. Tehan. E. Jones. Churchill Livingstone.A. John E. B. Gibbons.H. Manipulation of the Spine Thorax and Pelvis. Susan. Jeffrey D. 2006.in developing and extending palpatory skills which will greatly benefit all forms of manipulation. G. Fundamentals of Manual Therapy: Physiology. Manipulation and Mobilization: Extremity and Spinal Techniques. Topics included in this book are cranial nerves.. Craniosacral Therapy II: Beyond the Dura. Hengeveld. Maitland’s Peripheral Manipulation. Vertebral Manipulation. Churchill Livingstone Elsevier. Banks. Upledger. the anatomy of the neck. P. 46 . Dr. Mosby-Year Book. Butterworth-Heinemann. 2005. D.O. 1987 Building upon concepts in Craniosacral Therapy. Grieve's Modern Manual Therapy: The Vertebral Column. Upledger further explores the anatomical and physiological bases and clinical implications of several important aspects of the craniosacral system. F.. Maitland. K. Combining Manual Therapy.. Churchill Livingstone.

December 1990 Ida Rolf. Inner Traditions International. Sharon. It will provide readers with both a general fund of knowledge on the assessment and management of specific problems 47 .Mitchell. Valley Park: Mitchell Moran and Pruzzo Associates. Integrative Manual Therapy for the Pelvis. Sacrum.edu/jbmr/ Practical information about musculoskeletal rehabilitation to clinicians who treat patients with back and musculoskeletal pain complaints. North Atlantic Books. 1996. Weiselfish-Giammatteo.D. Weiselfish-Giammatteo. Cervical. Winkel. Andry. 1979.vcu. The Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation http://www. MP. North Atlantic Books. Dos. 1977 Ida Rolf.D. Onno G. Rolfing: The Integration of Human Structures. Rolfing and Physical Reality. Inner Traditions International. Aspen Publishers. Rolfing: Reestablishing the Natural Alignment and Structural Integration of the Human Body for Vitality and Well-Being. Ph. 1999. Thoracic.D. Rolf. Integrative Manual Therapy for the Upper and Lower Extremities: Introducing Muscle Energy & Beyond Techniques. New York: Harper and Row. Sharon. Ph. & Lumbar Spine with Muscle Energy & Beyond Technique: A Contemporary Clinical Analysis of Biomechanics. Limited. Meier. An Evaluation and Treatment Manual of Osteopathic Muscle Energy Procedures. There are many internet search engines that will find articles from these journals and more on the topic of manual therapy. Rolfing Ida P. Diagnosis & Treatment of the Spine: Nonoperative Orthopaedic Medicine & Manual Therapy. Vleeming. Limited.pmr. Ph. This is not an exhaustive list of manual therapy journals. 1998. November 1990 Journals Research based treatments are the lifeblood of the profession of physical therapy.

It provides the latest information on current developments in therapeutics. Journal of Orthopaedic Research http://www. Manual Therapy http://www.net/jmmt This journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists includes clinical studies pertinent to manual and manipulative medicine. which reports new information on experimental. as well as reviews of clinically oriented research and practical information 48 .org/jor/index. and prevention of musculoskeletal disorder.ors. Journal of Manual and Manipulative Therapy http://home1.gte. case studies that describe innovative approaches to patient care.html This peer-reviewed journal of the Manipulation Association of Chartered Physiotherapists is written for the diverse needs of the various professions engaged in all aspects of manual therapy. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics (JMPT) http://www. and more. including prospective clinical studies.org/ JMPT JMPT is dedicated to the advancement of chiropractic health care but it is also useful for PT’s.html This is the official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society. original research from the basic sciences relevant to assessment.jmptonline. Topics covered are relevant to how elements of the neuromusculoskeletal system influence therapy outcomes and effectiveness. theoretical.churchillmed.and new information considered to be state-of-the-art in the field. The intended audience is multidisciplinary as well as multi-specialty. and clinical aspects of orthopaedic research.com/Journals/ManTherapy/jhome. treatment.

Readers include chiropractors.for use in clinical settings. the premier biomedical publication in the chiropractic profession. case reports. JMPT. radiologists. 49 . commentary. physical therapists. osteopaths. publishes peer-reviewed original articles. and new media reviews. physiatrists. journal abstracts. and sports medicine specialists.

APTA. 13. MN: Olaf Norlis . 6.bellevuemassageschool.org. Accessed 1/15/2010.pdf.edu/files/fef40c8b-2f40-4b46a534-07fe797ff68c.andrews. Upledger I. Accessed 1/15/2010. http://www. Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. Andrews U. Accessed 03/20/2009.org. 2009:11. McCaleb B. Accessed 4/15/2009. APTA-Orthopaedic.com/.bowtech. 15.na-mcta. 18. London: Elsevier.aaompt. VA: American Physical Therapy Association. Morgan D. http://www. Bowtech. North American Region of the Mulligan Concept Teachers Association (NAMCTA). The Science and Practice of Manual Therapy. Phys Ther.mckenziemdt. 2009. http://www. http://www. IFOMT.com. 50 . 7.edu/cas/pt/programs/courses. http://www. 2009.org.html. Evjenth O. OPTP (Orthopedic Physical Therapy Products) distributor in the U.com/more-information/worldwide-directory-ofmassage-schools. Position on Thrust Joint Manipulation Provided by Physical Therapists. NA-MCTA. 9. 8. 2005. 14. http://www. 5. 4. Lederman E.html. 2009. 3. Available at.49(12):13691374. USA. Pettman E.orthopt. J Man Manip Ther.. Accessed 02/10/2009. Kaltenborn FM. A history of manipulative therapy. Manual Therapy Certification. 2. 2007. Accessed 4/10/2009. 11. Accessed 1/12/2010. Oslo. 1989.ifomt.htm. 17. 4th ed. 2010.17:10.org. http://www. http://www.A. 20.rolf. 12. http://www. Bellevue Worldwide Directory of Massage Schools.bmulligan. American Physical Therapy Association White Paper.org. 16.15(3):165-174. MDT MI. AAOMPT. An introduction to spinal manipulation. Dec 1969. 2009. 2004. Accessed 1/15/2010. Rolf I. http://www.com. http://www. 10.com/index. Revised 2nd Edition ed. Certified Mulligan Practitioner. http://www. Accessed 2/12/2009. 19. 2nd ed. Accessed 2/12/2009. Bowtech. APTA. 2003.References 1.apta. Bellevue. J Phys Ther Ed. Accessed 2/12/2009.org. Alexandria. Accessed 03/13/2009. Mulligan C. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists. Minneapolis.upledger. Manual mobilization of the extremity joints : basic examination and treatment techniques. The history of physical therapy practice in the United States. http://www.usa.S. Moffat M. 2010.

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