Manual Therapy for the Professional Physical Therapist

by

Brennan Leyendecker, SPT

A capstone project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Physical Therapy University of Central Florida College of Health and Public Affairs Program in Physical Therapy

2010

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To all those who seek healing through the art of touch.

To my family, whose love, encouragement and discouragement of my dreams have been equally motivational.

To Bill Hanney, Karis Zbaraschuk and Tim Ahlip for opening my eyes and granting my hands the world of manual therapy.

To Judi Schack Dugre, Jennifer Tucker and Charlene McLachlan whose openness to wellness inspired my path.

To Jenny, my friend.

To Zach, my touchstone.

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Contents
Manual Therapy for the Professional Physical Therapist ................................................ 1  Focus and Scope of this Booklet.................................................................................. 1  Chapter 1: What is Manual Therapy and Who Utilizes it? .............................................. 3  Chapter 2: A Brief History of Manual Therapy ................................................................ 5  Early Manual Therapy .................................................................................................. 5  Medicine in the 1800’s ................................................................................................. 5  Physiotherapy is Born .................................................................................................. 6  Physical Therapy in the United States ......................................................................... 6  Manual Therapy in the United States and Around the World ....................................... 7  Physical and Manual Therapy Organizations ............................................................... 8  Chapter 3: Organizations and Governing Bodies of Manual Therapy in Physical Therapy ......................................................................................................................... 11  American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists (AAOMPT) ............ 11  Overview ................................................................................................................. 11  History and Vision ................................................................................................... 11  Overview of certifications offered ............................................................................ 12  Contact information................................................................................................. 12  The International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapy (IFOMT) ............ 13  Overview ................................................................................................................. 13  Vision ...................................................................................................................... 13  Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association ......................... 14  Overview ................................................................................................................. 14  An Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy Fellowship is offered. ........................... 14  Contact information................................................................................................. 14  North American Institute of Orthopaedic Manual Therapy (NAIOMT) ........................ 14  Overview ................................................................................................................. 14  Contact information................................................................................................. 15  World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) ................................................... 15  Overview ................................................................................................................. 15  Contact information................................................................................................. 15  Chapter 4: Certifications in Manual Therapy—a Detailed View of Choices .................. 17  v

............ 46  Rolfing . 47  Journals ......................................................... 39  Chapter 5: Additional Resources .......................International Massage & Somatic Therapies Accreditation Council13................................................................................................Level II ......................................................... certified by IMSTAC .................................................................................................................................... 17  Bowen Technique11 .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 45  Orthopaedic Manual Therapy ......................... 29  Certified Manual Therapist (COMT) (NAIOMT Level IV+)15 ......................................................... 20  Licensed Massage Therapist (LMT)................................................................................................................................... certifying body (accreditation)12 .................................... Rolf Institute of Structural Integration14 . 45  Cranial Sacral Therapy ................................................................................................................................................................................... 30  Fellow of the NAIOMT and AAOMPT9................................................................................... 22  Lymphedma: LDT /CDP/LLCC Certification ............ 31  Mechanical Diagnosis & Therapy (MDT)/OMPT Criteria (McKenzie)17 ... 45  Books ................................................. 26  Orthopedic Manual Therapy................................. 29  Certified Manual Therapist (CMPT) (NAIOMT Level III)15 ...... 47  References ..... 37  Manual Therapy Certication20 (MTC) (Stanley Paris) ................................................. 16 ........ 45  Alternative Therapy.................... 35  Certified Mulligan Practitioner (CMP)18 ................................................................................................................................................................... 17  Cranial Sacral Therapist (CST/ CST-D)12 ...................Complementary and Alternative Medicine....................... 24  Rolfing (Structural Integration)....................................................................................... 50  vi .....................................

all touting the benefits of their particular derivation. The reader is encouraged to become a consumer of therapy services. Manual therapy is encompassed by several disciplines. guidance from mentors or other useful sources of information. continuing educational units (CEU) required with each certification will be outlined. There are educational offerings to complement a wide array of practitioner interest and talent. it is a way to demonstrate a knowledge base in a particular area of study. training hours. Physical therapists interested in manual therapy have a daunting task when it comes to sifting through the certification and educational information regarding manual therapy. Under each discipline umbrella lay a variety of degrees and certifications. To this end. the skills. cost. This booklet is not a comprehensive guide meant to replace individual research. A practitioner who focuses on manual therapy uses a hands-on approach to help patients heal. The best way to fully understand what a particular type of therapy entails is to undergo at least one treatment from a qualified practitioner.Manual Therapy for the Professional Physical Therapist Focus and Scope of this Booklet The profession of physical therapy encourages clinicians to increase their therapeutic skill set beyond that of the entry level degree. 1 . The main focus is to assist physical therapists in determining which educational opportunities align with their interests and professional goals. Additional resources will be included for further exploration into topics surrounding manual therapy. This booklet will concentrate on the educational choices available to physical therapists in North America. While it is not necessary to obtain certifications in specialized fields.

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Manual therapy is an interdisciplinary skill that has great usefulness across a wide variety of patients. including small-amplitude and high-velocity therapeutic movement. joint mobilization and a myriad of other hands-on techniques. Other health care workers use forms of therapeutic touch as well. especially concerning manipulation due to the overlap and competition in services. and massage therapists. since the 1960’s.1 The Guide to Physical Therapy Practice defines manual therapy as “comprising a continuum of skilled passive movements to the joints and/or related soft tissues that are applied at varying speeds and amplitudes.3 Manual therapy and TJM is supported in entry level academic curricula.Chapter 1: What is Manual Therapy and Who Utilizes it? Manual therapy is broadly described here as the use of hands in a healing way. chiropractors have questioned the physical therapist’s use of manual therapy. The principle practitioners of manual therapy are osteopaths. 3 Small-amplitude and high-velocity therapeutic movements are also known as thrust joint manipulation (TJM) and have long been used by physical therapists. The assertion is that physical therapists have the skills and knowledge to provide TJM’s safely and within the scope of practice for physical therapy. chiropractors. However. physical therapist. This definition includes massage.3 3 .” 2. The American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) published a document entitled “Position on Thrust Joint Manipulation Provided by Physical Therapists” in order to establish the professional stance on use of TJM in physical therapy practice. lymphatic flow techniques.

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he used a considerable amount of manipulation. In 1871 Wharton Hood published On Bone-Setting. Ambrose Pare.4 The Renaissance brought fresh insight to medicine with Andreus Versalius. John Hunter (1728-1793) advocated movement of joints after injury was necessary in order to prevent stiffness and the accumulation of adhesions due to inflammation. Hood believed that the sound of 5 . In 1579. and a first book had been devoted to the subject.Chapter 2: A Brief History of Manual Therapy Early Manual Therapy The first record of manual therapy techniques occurs in medical writings by Hippocrates (460-355 BC). including many of the techniques described by Hippocrates. did much to raise the standard of what is now orthopaedic surgery.4 Medicine in the 1800’s By 1870. This preceded both the founding of American Osteopathy by 4 years and chiropractic by 28 years. It was the topic of meetings and papers. “On Setting Joints by Leverage”. then called “bone-setting” because it was once thought small bones were being put into place during manipulation. wrote extensively on the work of Hippocrates. In addition. with illustrations of many of his manipulative techniques. a surgeon to four successive French kings. Medical doctors continued to practice and speak about manual therapy. The Hippocratic Oath admonishes physicians to do no harm. Hippocrates describes a combination of traction and pressure exerted on a patient lying prone on a wooden bed. Claudius Galen (131-202 AD). Hippocrates is known as the Father of Medicine. In particular. the first such book by an orthodox medical practitioner. manipulation was firmly established in contemporary medicine. who described in 1543 the detailed anatomy of the human body.

cavitation heard with manipulation was that of adhesions being broken. the same therapies were called massage and medical gymnastics. instructed joint and soft tissue manipulation techniques to the newly formed Society of Trained Masseuses. Coltart. trained with Mennell during World War II and carried her knowledge to New Zealand after the war. James Mennell published a number of texts for physical therapists concerning rehabilitaion.4 In 1907 James Mennell. (1917-1918) “reconstruction aides” were employed in hospitals and army rehabilitation camps to do rehabilitation work. In the 20th century. Helen Hislop. respectively. these aides were mostly women with backgrounds in physical education and training in 3-month-long courses run by physicians and nurses to train them in massage and muscle re-education. In other countries. During World War I. and Humphris were publishing on manipulation.D. 4 Physiotherapy is Born Physiotherapy was founded in England in 1899. The two medical names most associated with instruction of manipulation to physical therapists were James and John Mennell. One of the early therapists. He encouraged his medical colleagues to send patients to this group by prescription. M.4 Physical Therapy in the United States The injured veterans of World War I created a great need for physical therapy in the United States. Burrows. or massage and movement. later known as the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. As in nursing. both father and son. medical practitioners such as Marlin. not that of bones going back into place. Blundell-Bankart. and Edger and James Cyriax.5 6 .

Education remained under the direction of the AMA until 1977.5 Manual Therapy in the United States and Around the World James Mennell was awarded the Golden Keys with Life membership in the American Congress of Physical Medicine and in the American Physical Therapy Association in 1949.S. in the early 1950s there were still more than 20. and these nascent physical therapists worked hard to strengthen and rehabilitate victims.S. Under her leadership.5 By 1928. she became the founding president of the American Physical Therapy Association. She also organized one of the first courses in physical therapy in the U. reeducating weakened muscles through exercise and applying thermal hot packs to painful joints. Physical therapy historians agree that physical therapy evolved as a professional field as a response to the polio epidemic. rehabilitation aides battled the raging polio epidemic that began in 1924 (it would last until 1956)..000 more. Salk's vaccine proved successful in 1955. during which therapists worked in conjunction with physicians to battle the disease. The polio epidemic in the United States would kill 6. Later. Mary McMillan founded the American Women's Physical Therapeutic Association.000 people and paralyze 27. He is believed to be the first to use the term “manual therapy”-- 7 . where she oversaw the training of reconstruction aides and. at Reed College in Oregon. and a standard for length of PT education was set at 9 months. Army because she was the first physical therapy aide in World War I. Mary McMillan became known as "The Mother of Physical Therapy" in the U. a council on physical therapy was established within the American Medical Association (AMA).In 1921.000 cases each year until Dr. and she established the first physical therapy training center in China at Peiping Union Medical College.

Grieve. Maitland’s two books. In 1968. His approach was to identify either an active or passive movement that was painful.. By process of elimination. physical therapists Maitland. Peripheral Manipulation and Vertebral Manipulation. Kaltenborn. He described the latter as a “.4 In 1969. and to test again. and Paris met in London and discussed setting up an international body to exchange educational ideas and to maintain standards in manual and manipulative therapy. resisted movement.4 Geoffrey Maitland of Australia published Vertebral Manipulation. passive movement.4. He concentrated it on the treatment of what he called reproducible signs. the North American Academy of Manipulation Therapy was founded in Boston. called a joint lock. Massachusetts.. assisted movement. five countries were represented and the World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) was formed and the International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapists (IFOMPT) was created to steer it. It represented physiotherapists from Canada and the United States for recognition of spinal and extremity joint manipulation as requiring additional post-professional education. and joint manipulation. 7 8 . a physical therapist named McCaleb published “An Introduction to Spinal Manipulation” in Physical Therapy.” 6 Physical and Manual Therapy Organizations In 1966. to oscillate that joint.which he chose for the title of his book. Maitland treated the painful joint with what he hypothesized would be the next most likely to succeed until relief was found. In all. detail the method. He wrote on the concepts of joint play and stated that manipulation was helpful for joint dysfunction. in which he refined the art of oscillatory manipulation. He addressed the topics of massage.partial absence or total absence of joint movement. and chaired by Paris.

4 9 . the IFOMT became the first specialty subsection of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy. In 1978. The AAOMPT established residency standards for manual therapy training in the United States. 4 The American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists (AAOMPT) was founded in 1991. The Academy was accepted for membership in IFOMT (International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapists). The President of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) is the official liaison to the Academy. a status that has since helped member nations gain increasing acceptance for joint manipulation within physical therapy. Paris became the first president of the Section. The North American Academy of Manual & Manipulative Therapy was subsequently dissolved as it had reached its goal of seeing manipulation become a specialty section of the American Physical Therapy Association.The Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association was formed in 1974.

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Kornelia Kulig. Paris PT. DHSc. They met at Oakland University to discuss common issues facing manual therapy in the United States. PT. DC. The AAOMPT is active within the APTA and the APTA Orthopedic Section. Stanley V. History and Vision The American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists (AAOMPT) was founded in 1991 by a group of manual therapists. Michael D. Rogers. This was the first time that leaders of various manual therapy residency programs had come together under one roof. The Standards for Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy Residency Training in the United States standards form the basis for Fellowship programs to be recognized by the AAOMPT and have been a model for the development of other residency/fellowship programs with the APTA.Chapter 3: Organizations and Governing Bodies of Manual Therapy in Physical Therapy American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists (AAOMPT) Overview The AAOMPT is a professional organization dedicated to physical therapists and any educational. PH. The members. OCS. PT. PhD. research or clinical institution with an interest in orthopaedic manual physical therapy. PT. and Micheal Moore. Richard Erhard.8 11 . Ola Grimsby PT. Joe Farrell. PT became the Founding Fellows of the AAOMPT. This was the first time in the 20 year history of the IFOMT that the United States had been a voting member. PT.8 The AAOMPT was the vehicle for the United States to become a voting member of the International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapists (IFOMT). MS. and Bjorn Svendsen. PT.D.

and hands-on skills in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. is both a membership classification and a professional credential. An AAOMPT Fellow is a physical therapist who has demonstrated advanced clinical. Fellows serve their patients and the public by demonstrating excellence in clinical practice.8 A clinical fellowship should be completed within a minimum of 1000 hours in no fewer than six (6) months in duration and no more than 36 months.aaompt. and research.Overview of certifications offered Fellow. Box 4777 Biloxi. analytical. The programs in orthopaedics allocate approximately 10% of their overall hours to clinical practice. Programs whose timeframe falls outside of these parameters will be reviewed on a case-by-case basis. As a professional credential. To achieve the Fellow credential. MS 39535-4777 Phone: (228) 392-0028 Fax: (228) 392-0666 12 .O.9 Contact information American Academy Of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy (AAOMPT) http://www. a physical therapist must complete a credentialed fellowship program in orthopaedic manual physical therapy.org P. education. in the AAOMPT. a "Fellow" in AAOMPT is an international recognition of competence and expertise in the practice of orthopaedic manual physical therapy by a physical therapist licensed in the USA.

The IFOMT works towards international unity and conformity of educational standards of practice amongst manual/musculoskeletal physiotherapists by collaboration with individuals within the organization and with other organizations. 13 . Contact the national group: AAOMPT for United States Citizens (see below). who have completed stringent postgraduate specialization programs in musculoskeletal disorders.The International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapy (IFOMT) Overview The International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapists represents groups of Physical Therapists around the world. No certifications are offered directly from the IFOMT. other healthcare disciplines and the general public.10 Vision The IFOMT seeks to promote and maintain the high standards of specialist education and clinical practice in manual/musculoskeletal physiotherapists. and was formed in 1974.10 Group membership is offered. It also endeavors to promote and facilitate evidence based practice and research amongst its members as well as communicate widely the purpose and level of the specialization of manual/musculoskeletal physiotherapists amongst physiotherapists. It is a Federation that sets Educational and Clinical Standards in manual therapy. IFOMT is a subgroup of the World Confederation of Physical Therapy.

WI 54601 http://www. An Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy Fellowship is offered. The North American Institute of Orthopaedic Manual Therapy Inc (NAIOMT) Fellowship Program is credentialed by the American Physical Therapy 14 . South Suite 200 La Crosse. The training includes didactic and practical instruction in the classroom. supervised clinical instruction. 2920 East Ave. APTA. mentoring and a series of examinations. The Orthopaedic Section will provide and support professional development for physical therapy clinicians as the preferred autonomous and evidence-based practitioners of choice for musculoskeletal care.org North American Institute of Orthopaedic Manual Therapy (NAIOMT) Overview The NAIOMT program offers advanced training in orthopaedic manual physical therapy. in a comfortable time frame without need to relocate or leave job or family commitments. Contact information Orthopaedic Section.orthopt. Students choose their own pace and level of training to fit their educational goals. clinical fellowship program. Inc.Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association Overview This section of the APTA was created to serve as an advocate and resource for the practice of Orthopaedic Physical Therapy by fostering quality patient care and promoting professional growth.

Eugene. It encourages high standards of physical therapy research.org 15 . OR 97401-4802 Phone: (800) 706-5550 Fax: (541) 349-1172 http://naiomt.com World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) Overview The World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) is an international voice for physical therapy. 1574 Coburg Road.Association as a postprofessional clinical fellowship program for physical therapists in orthopaedic manual physical therapy. It represents more than 300. education and practice.000 physical therapists worldwide through its 101 member organizations. WCPT promotes physical therapy as a profession and its contribution to global health. Contact information World Confederation for Physical Therapy Kensington Charity Centre 4th Floor. Charles House 375 Kensington High Street London W14 8QH Tel: +44 (0)20 7471 6765 Fax: +44 (0)20 7471 6766 Email: info@wcpt. Contact information PMB 129.

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Cost Course Cost is about $700-$800 per seminar. seminars range from 2-3 days in duration. but not as firm as in Rolfing therapy. a firmer touch is applied. A treatment consists of a series of specific sequences of moves called procedures. Clinical hours In the United States.. It incorporates Chinese meridians. When compared to craniosacral therapy. There is a Basic Bowen course and an Advanced course. with frequent pauses to allow time for the body to respond.Chapter 4: Certifications in Manual Therapy—a Detailed View of Choices Complementary and Alternative Medicine Bowen Technique11 Overview The Bowen Technique is described as a holistic system in which the practitioner uses subtle and precise mobilizations called "Bowen moves" over muscles. Bowen therapists claim to be only a catalyst. non-invasive pressure. tendons.hour merit diploma is awarded at the end of the Basic Bowen class. The manual therapy is performed using the thumbs and fingers applying only gentle. setting the stimulus in motion for the body to heal itself. Inc. and a 22 . Students receive a manual written by Bowen Therapy Training. This form of therapy was discovered by Tom Bowen of Australia in the 1950’s. 17 . myofascial manipulation and energy flows. nerves and fascia.

coccyx. Overall. upper thoracic for breathing and digestive issues. the Basic Bowen moves are presented in a hands-on atmosphere where students participation is encouraged. Moves to help frozen shoulder. psoas. hamstrings. Requirements for taking Module 7 include satisfactory completion 18 . as well as addressing the neck. breast / lymph drainage. groin pull or spasm. These modules are generally taught in two consecutive days each. and ankle. Basic Bowen covers Bowen history. stroke and headache issues are also covered. neck. tennis elbow. pelvis. TMJ. arm. carpal tunnel syndrome. sacrum. deep sciatic and tibialis posterior. the Bowtech procedures are taught in seven modules. back. knees. Asthma. shin. "Module 7. with a maximum of two modules taught back-to-back. philosophy and basic skills. TMJ. hip pain. sacrum. vastus lateralis. The Basic Bowen Moves include 17 Bowen Technique Sequences for the low back. pelvis. The Advanced Course is 2 days long and includes advanced moves for abdominal disorders. shoulder. Hayfever. a DVD. each 16 classroom hours long. kidneys. headaches. pain under the scapula. and learning how Bowen's philosophy is individualized to each client. Students are provided with a complete reference guide for their practice. vagus nerve and pubic nerve. breast with lymphatic drainage. over a period of six months or more. ankles." is a thorough assessment of the material taught in the first six modules. The last seminar. The modules must be taken in sequence because each one reviews and builds on what was taught previously. charts and manual.Skills/Coursework Over the Three-Day period. torso. draining sinuses . sartorius. Emphasis is placed on reading the body.

net.of the written assessments and case study requirements at Modules 3 through 6. Duration of Certification Lifetime. with the requirement due on the anniversary of the accreditation date.au 19 . 3300 Australia Telephone: +61 (0) 3 5572 3000 Fax: +61 (0) 3 5572 3144 Email: bowtech@h140. Victoria. Students must provide proof of the following (depending on Country requirements): A recognized qualification in Anatomy and Physiology (100 . Contact Information Bowtech Pty Ltd PO Box 733 Hamilton. and waiting at least one month after Module 6. experience running a business or a minimum of 20 hours of business education.120 hours in most countries). In order to maintain Bowenwork skills and accreditation. practitioners must complete 32 contact hours of Bowtech-approved continuing education every two years. and a current First Aid and/or CPR certificate.aone.

Work with approaches to a number of common ailments such as TMJ 20 . hands-on approach that releases tensions deep in the body to relieve pain and dysfunction and improve whole-body health and performance. Locate the source of physical problems by traveling through the fascial system. when compared to Rolfing and Bowen therapies. Use techniques that produce dramatic health and relaxation effects. and it's effective for a wide range of medical problems associated with pain and dysfunction.Cranial Sacral Therapist (CST/ CST-D)12 Overview CranioSacral Therapy (CST) is a gentle. that complex web of tissue that impacts all body structures and systems. It was pioneered and developed by Osteopathic Physician John E. It is the lightest touch therapy. Using a soft touch which is generally no greater than 5 grams – about the weight of a nickel – practitioners release restrictions in the soft tissues that surround the central nervous system. Upledger after years of clinical testing and research at Michigan State University where he served as professor of biomechanics. CST is increasingly used as a preventive health measure for its ability to bolster resistance to disease. including Direction of Energy and StillPoint Induction. Skills CST’s learn to: Identify the subtle craniosacral rhythm and interpret its patterns to accurately evaluate dysfunction and improvements. Release dural tube restrictions to enhance interactions between the central nervous system and the rest of the body. Duration of certification The CST/CST-D certification must be renewed every 4 years.

11211 Prosperity Farms Rd. Suite D-325 Palm Beach Gardens. FL 33410 Phone: 561-622-4334 800-233-5880 Fax: 561-622-4771 Email: upledger@upledger. Continuing Education 24 hours every four years of approved continuing education. head and neck pain.com 21 . Exams: $300 for level one (CST) exam. Contact Information The Upledger Institute. Hours of training Seminars are held for 3 to 5 days duration depending on instructor. Cost Seminar Cost: $500-$800 per class..dysfunction. central nervous system disorders and other physical disorders. Inc. $300 for level two (CST-Diplomate) Reduced fees offered through some schools for full-time students.

Massage is often termed soft tissue manipulation and is a subject taught in schools of physical therapy. percussion. Licensed massage therapists (LMT’s) provide hands-on therapies to target somatic pain. Skills: LMT’s learn to: Perform various types of massage techniques such as petrissage. effleurage. However. lotions. the LMT is clearly not of the same level. The public has difficulty distinguishing the profession of physical therapy and the vocation of massage therapy. Considering the drastic difference in education. powders or other lubricants to clients' bodies to aid in various massage techniques. When compared to programs of physical therapy that require a bachelor degree and rigorous science coursework. this is an area of contention for PT’s. Apply oils. Hours of training: Between 500-1000 hours. Applying nonforceful passive or active movement to affect the energetic systems of the body and movement re-education. some physical therapists find the additional hands-on practice and techniques to be valuable. certified by IMSTAC . compression. vibration or friction to the muscular structure or soft tissues of the human body.International Massage & Somatic Therapies Accreditation Council13 Massage and therapeutic touch are within the scope of practice for physical therapists. tapotement. The educational requirements to enter into a LMT program are high school diploma or GED. 22 . Physical therapy education overlaps somewhat with massage therapy education. rebalance muscles and improve circulation.Licensed Massage Therapist (LMT).

Continuing Education Varies by State. Most commonly 12 CEU’s annually or 24 CEU’s biannually.Duration of certification Varies by State. Renewals occur annually in most cases. Some states do not require CEU’s. 23 .

garments and sequential pumps in lymphedema. as well as the latest information on documentation and insurance reimbursement. Identify the specific direction. Applications for chronic scars: Scar Release Therapy. 12 24 .Lymphedma: LDT /CDP/LLCC Certification .Level II . post-radiation. etc. Discover new products on the market. Select the right product for the particular type of edema.) Techniques of releasing fascia restrictions (Lymphofascia Release)/Connective Tissue Fibers Release (CTFR) will be learned. and quality of the lymph and interstitial fluid flow in the superficial and deep tissue layers. certifying body (accreditation)12 Overview Lymphedema therapy is used to relieve the build up of interstitial fluid that can pathologically accumulate through trauma and disease process. Perform bandaging applications for the upper and lower extremities. post-surgery. Fibrotic techniques are learned: 15 different techniques to apply on the collagen fibers/fascia before applying the lymphatic strokes (used for lymphedema. Special lymphatic reroutes for lymphedema. Duration of certification The LDT certification must be renewed every 3 years. and how to measure for a garment. Skills The LDT will learn how to: Explore use short-stretch bandages. pressure/depth. 12 Manual Lymphatic Mapping (MLM) is used to assess the specific direction of the superficial and deep lymph and interstitial fluids in physiological and pathological conditions.

blood (veins and arteries).LDT’s learn the Clinical connection between deep breathing and the lymph flow. TMJ. applications for body joints/articulations.. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The practioner is required to be licensed or certified in the area of practice. Continuing Education Recertification is earned by attending the Lymphedema/CDP Advanced Techniques & Recertification (LCAR) workshop 25 . Chapman reflexes. including the spine. e. acupressure points. There are specific maneuvers to access the cisterna chili and to facilitate drainage of the central and peripheral nervous system. teeth.g. state. including tonsils and Eustachian tubes. including drainage of the pia and dura maters as well as peripheral nerves such as the sciatic nerve. Drainage of the synovial fluid. LDT’s work with other fluids. including the interstitial fluid. Drainage of the nasal cavity. Extensive breast protocol (Lymphatic Breast Care). Drainage of the ears. skull and cranial sutures as well as the upper and lower extremities 12 Hours of training 140 hours for level one. including the cochlea and the semicircular canals. for manual therapy on the whole body. 170 hours for level 2. gums. rib cage.12 Other LDT skills include: Applications for trigger points (TP). oral cavity. synovial fluid.

Rolfing (Structural Integration). restoring its normal length and flexibility. bringing physical balance in the gravitational field." after its founder. This certification enables graduates of the training program to become members of the Rolf Institute. She eventually named this system "structural integration.S. quality and temperature to determine where we need to work. school and caseby-case basis. Finally. Dr. and is distributed equally between genders.14 Duration of certification Renewals are every 3-7 years depending on certification type. Rolf Institute of Structural Integration14 Overview More than 50 years ago. referring to themselves as "Certified Rolfers" and Rolf Movement Practitioners. Rolfers integrate the body. and offer this work to the public. with concentrations on the East and West Coast and in Colorado. Structural integration balances and aligns the body along a natural vertical axis by gradually stretching. 14 Certification is earned through the Rolf Institute of Structural Integration. Rolfers discriminate. or touch the tissue. relating its segments in an improved relationship. or separate fascial layers that adhere and muscles that have been pulled out of position by strain or injury. Skills Rolfers palpate. internationally. Rolfers practice in nearly all-50 states. Other soft-tissue 26 . Ida Rolf discovered that she could achieve remarkable changes in posture and structure by manipulating the body's myofascial system. Client population ranges from infancy to old age. feeling for imbalances in tissue texture." although some still refer to it as "Rolfing.. In the U. lengthening and repositioning the fascia. There are 1600 Certified Rolfers in 26 countries.

Rolf Movement Integration Certification involves 144 hours. Embodiment of Rolfing and Rolf Movement Integration (level 3) is 244 Hours. Clinical Application of Rolfing Theory is 269 Hours. Rolfers have up to 9 years to complete CE Credits and participate in the Advanced Training. 14 The practitioner combines deep. Two-week intensive.14 The pressure of these techniques are markedly higher than in craniosacral and Bowen therapy. are quite good at the first two. Costs: $3. Rolfing is said to improve alignment at any stage in life.000 plus books ($250-$500). meets twelve days starting on a Sunday.200. Must complete level 1 first.manipulation methods. Certified Rolfers may take workshops in specific 27 .830. Costs: $4. meets four to five days a week. Eight-week intensive. If certified as a Movement Practitioner.700 plus books ($250-$500). Eight-week intensive. including massage. Advanced Foundations of Rolfing Structural Integration (level 2). Continuing Education Graduates agree to attend a minimum of eighteen days of approved continuing education over a period of three to seven years in preparation for Advanced Rolfing Training. gentle pressure with the client’s breathing and movement to free fascial restrictions. 87 Hours. meets four to five days a week. Costs: $1. meets four to five days a week. but do not balance the body in gravity.525. Hours of Training & Associated Costs Foundations of Rolfing Structural Integration (level 1) is 218 Hours. Costs: $6. Costs: $6. Six-week intensive. The range of subject matter for continuing education is great.

and explore other related subjects such as CranioSacral Therapy and Visceral Manipulation. Some credit requirements can also be met through approved mentoring programs.14 28 . The continuing education requirement is one of the many ways in which The Rolf Institute upholds its standards and demonstrates them to the community.manipulative techniques.

Cyriax’s principles are introduced. and management of common spinal pathologies are reviewed. Signs. Selective tissue tensioning techniques for the peripheral joints are introduced. upper and lower cervical spine. pathology. symptoms. Integrates information generated 29 . shoulder. the hip. A comprehensive biomechanical and anatomical review of the upper thoracic.Orthopedic Manual Therapy Certified Manual Therapist (CMPT) (NAIOMT Level III)15 Skills/Coursework NAIOMT Level I: Intro. to the Fundamentals: Orthopedic Manual Therapy & Differential Diagnosis. Specific biomechanical assessment of each area is taught along with appropriate treatment techniques for common injuries and dysfunctions. Specific biomechanical assessment of each area is taught along with appropriate and effective treatment techniques for common injuries and mechanical dysfunctions. NAIOMT Level II: Intermediate Lower Quadrant. knee ankle and foot. elbow. wrist and hand. A comprehensive biomechanical and anatomical review of the lower thoracic and lumbar spines. NAIOMT Level II: Intermediate Upper Quadrant. NAIOMT Level III: Advanced Upper Quadrant Builds on the techniques learned in Level II and helps the student understand the kinetic chain inter-relationships of the upper quadrant. Appropriate skills in basic and objective selective tissue examination necessary for generating a provisional differential diagnosis of spinal dysfunction.

Advanced techniques are demonstrated along with new material on temporo-mandibular joint material and peripheral manipulation skills. Discusses the integration of examination and treatment techniques. and costal manipulation techniques. the safe and effective application of spinal. NAIOMT Level III: Advanced Lower Quadrant Builds on the techniques learned in Level II and helps the student understand the kinetic chain inter-relationships in the lower quadrant. NAIOMT Level IV: High Velocity Manipulation Instructs the student on the indications and contra-indications.in the assessment to understand how remote dysfunctions can be casual or contributory. as well as. 30 . pelvic. Certified Manual Therapist (COMT) (NAIOMT Level IV+)15 Skills/Coursework Certified Orthopedic Manual Therapist (COMT)(NAIOMT Level IV+) builds on the skill learned to attain NAIOMT Level III. Presents advanced biomechanical tests and treatment and includes the sacroiliac and pubic joints.

The student begins when the time is right for them. and research. planned dates for classes and examinations. AAOMPT requirements include a component of 440 clinically supervised hours. a physical therapist must complete a credentialed fellowship program in orthopaedic manual physical therapy.Fellow of the NAIOMT and AAOMPT9. Fellows serve their patients and the public by demonstrating excellence in clinical practice. clinical and self-study hours needs to be completed within 36 months and total in excess of 1500 hours. and hands-on skills in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. Intakes are flexible and year -round (rolling). analytical. NAIOMT identifies 568 hours (of the 1500 total) to be didactic and practical hours. a "Fellow" is an international recognition of competence and expertise in the practice of orthopaedic manual physical therapy by a physical therapist licensed in the USA. The Fellowship Program requirement is 1500 hours of post-professional study. 440 clinical. and the remaining hours from the fellowship project. practical. and when they have a clear temporal plan mapped out with their clinical instructors. education. 31 . The majority of the total didactic. APTA requires 1000 hours for an APTAcredentialed fellowship. As a professional credential. To achieve the Fellow credential. 16 Overview The designation Fellow is both a membership classification and a professional credential. and a plan that they be able to complete in 36 months. A Fellow is a physical therapist who has demonstrated advanced clinical.8 The minimum time frame for the clinical fellowship is 12 months the maximum is 36 months.

A comprehensive biomechanical and anatomical review of the upper thoracic. Fellowship credentialing and annual dues : Annual dues are $60. Cyriax’s principles are introduced. credentialing $125. Exams: Approximately $2000. Appropriate skills in basic and objective selective tissue examination necessary for generating a provisional differential diagnosis of spinal dysfunction. Specific biomechanical assessment of each area is taught along with appropriate and effective treatment techniques for common injuries and mechanical dysfunctions. wrist and hand. 270 hours of other clinical and 40 hours tutorial. symptoms. Signs. shoulder. pathology. elbow. 32 . is variable dependent on work situation Skills/Coursework15 Level I: Introduction to the Fundamentals: Orthopedic Manual Therapy & Differential Diagnosis. Level II: Intermediate Upper Quadrant. Selective tissue tensioning techniques for the peripheral joints are introduced. Clinical hours 130 hours of 1:1 training. upper and lower cervical spine. 36 days @ average $160 per day Specialty/elective classes: 326 hrs & $150-200 per day or structured home study classes. and management of common spinal pathologies are reviewed.Cost Core courses levels I-IV approx. registration fee is $75.

the safe and effective application of spinal. Integrates information generated in the assessment to understand how remote dysfunctions can be casual or contributory. knee ankle and foot. Presents advanced biomechanical tests and treatment and includes the sacroiliac and pubic joints. Level IV: High Velocity Manipulation Instructs the student on the indications and contra-indications. as well as. Advanced techniques are demonstrated along with new material on temporo-mandibular joint material and peripheral manipulation skills. and costal manipulation techniques. Level III: Advanced Lower Quadrant Builds on the techniques learned in Level II and helps the student understand the kinetic chain inter-relationships in the lower quadrant.Level II: Intermediate Lower Quadrant. students will be required to do a minimum of 60 supervised clinical hours applying hands-on techniques with patients under the 33 . Discusses the integration of examination and treatment techniques. pelvic. Level III: Advanced Upper Quadrant Builds on the techniques learned in Level II and helps the student understand the kinetic chain inter-relationships of the upper quadrant. the hip. Specific biomechanical assessment of each area is taught along with appropriate treatment techniques for common injuries and dysfunctions. A comprehensive biomechanical and anatomical review of the lower thoracic and lumbar spines. Supervised Clinical Practice Using a 3.to-1 model.

variable dues required. 34 . These hours can be done all at one time or split up according to the student’s wishes.supervision of a certified clinical instructor. Duration of Certification Renewal every 10 years.

500 completed with Fellows of AAOMPT Thrust Manipulation Course: $615 Clinical hours 300 hours Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy Clinical Residency (360 hours) through MII (USA) Successfully complete McKenzie MDT Diploma Final Examinations Attain the McKenzie Institute Diploma in MDT 310 hours OMPT Problem Solving Experience with a FAAOMPT Complete Thrust Manipulation Course (24 hours) 35 . practical. clinical and self-study hours needs to be completed within 36 months and total in excess of 1500 hours. The student begins when the time is right for them. 440 clinical.Mechanical Diagnosis & Therapy (MDT)/OMPT Criteria (McKenzie)17 Overview The minimum time frame for the clinical Fellowship is 12 months the maximum is 36 months. The majority of the total didactic.500. and when they have a clear temporal plan mapped out with their clinical instructors. Costs: MII Diploma Program: Between $11. and the remaining hours from the fellowship project. and a plan that they be able to complete in 36 months. The Fellowship Program requirement is 1500 hours of postprofessional study. AAOMPT requirements include a component of 440 clinically supervised hours.500 OMPT Mentorship: $3. APTA requires 1000 hours for an APTA-credentialed fellowship. planned dates for classes and examinations. NAIOMT identifies 568 hours (of the 1500 total) to be didactic and practical hours.$13. Intakes are flexible and year -round (rolling).

Completion of 130 hours direct 1:1 OMPT Clinical Mentorship experience with a FAAOMPT Apply for Fellow status in AAOMPT 36 .

. the therapist investigates various combinations of parallel or perpendicular glides to find the correct treatment plane and grade of movement.e.Certified Mulligan Practitioner (CMP)18 Overview The Mulligan Concept is a unique approach to manual therapy discovered and developed by Brian Mulligan F. New Zealand.. (Hon).e. pain associated with movement. or pain associated with specific functional activities (i. M. This accessory glide must itself be pain free. Utilising his/her knowledge of joint arthrology.N. parallel or perpendicular to the joint plane).P. 37 . the following basic principles have been developed:19 During assessment the therapist will identify one or more comparable signs as described by Maitland. adverse neural tension). from Wellington. Dip.S. These signs may be a loss of joint movement. The therapist must continuously monitor the patient's reaction to ensure no pain is recreated.T.Z. A passive accessory joint mobilization is applied following the principles of Kaltenborn (i. Cost: Approximately $450 per seminar for 4 two-day seminars. a well-developed sense of tissue tension and clinical reasoning. Skills/Coursework Specific to the application of MWM and SNAGS in clinical practice. This simple yet effective manual approach addresses musculoskeletal disorders with pain free manual joint “repositioning” techniques for restoration of function and abolition of pain. lateral elbow pain with resisted wrist extension.

The previously restricted and/or painful motion or activity is repeated by the patient while the therapist continues to maintain the appropriate accessory glide.e. grade or direction of mobilization. PT. Further gains may be realized through the application of passive overpressure at the end of available range. increased range of motion. The comparable sign should now be significantly improved (i. and a significantly decreased or better yet.. FAAOMPT. the patient is requested to perform the comparable sign. Failure to improve the comparable sign would indicate that the therapist has not found the correct contact point. It is expected that this overpressure is again.While sustaining the accessory glide. Further gains are expected with repetition during a treatment session typically involving three sets of ten repetitions. pain-free. absence of the original pain). CMP. spinal segment or that the technique is not indicated. MCTA Address: 6714 Antilope Street Location: Carlsbad State: California Zip Code: 92009 Business Phone: 760-518-0249 Fax: 760-438-7987 38 . Contact information Brian Folk. treatment plane.

Clinical hours 201 hours over a total 29 days of seminar training. 39 . oral and practical testing--to define competency in the selected clinical area. which culminate in comprehensive examination--written. At the conclusion of the seminar. Cost: Total MTC tuition is approximately $5. are instructed and practiced to a limited degree. Includes instruction & techniques of evaluating structure. Manipulation techniques are instructed at all levels of the spine except the subcranial area. Skills/Coursework S1‐Introduction to Spinal Evaluation and Manipulation   This is a 5-day seminar emphasizing interpretation of basic science knowledge toward the development of clinical skills needed for differential evaluation & effective treatment of spinal dysfunction. The objective is the safe application and interpretation of advanced clinical skills. position & mobility of the spine. the student should feel confident to examine & treat most common spinal conditions. General principles of functional anatomy. such as exercises & distraction. Supportive treatments.800. Most seminars are 2 to 6 days long. Certification Preparation and Exam is a six-day process which provides a review and update of the contents of each prerequisite seminar. active movements and palpation for condition. pathology and treatments are applied to clinical examination and treatment.Manual Therapy Certication20 (MTC) (Stanley Paris) Overview The MTC incorporates a series of seminars. tissue & joint biomechanics.

there needs to be freedom from restrictions in the myofascial unit. tissue & joint biomechanics. The lecture component consists of discussion of functional anatomy. E2 ‐ Extremity Integration  This three day seminar is carried out in seminar format which includes lecture and lab. soft tissue anatomy. Non-thrust manipulations are instructed & supportive treatments are discussed. In order for the body to maintain normal physiological motion & postural efficiency.E1‐Extremity Evaluation and Manipulation  This seminar emphasizes the interpretation of basic science knowledge & the development of basic clinical skills which are needed to complete a differential evaluation of extremity dysfunction. Soft tissue and joint techniques for both examination and treatment are practiced in lab sessions. and places special emphasis on palpatory techniques such as end-feel. Soft tissue techniques directed at normalizing 40 . along with thorax and spinal influences with emphasis on kinetic chain events. General principles of functional anatomy. The emphasis of this seminar is placed on the relationship of the soft tissue structures to the mechanics of the spine. and treatment are presented. pathology. posture. Clinical cases are presented for discussion of management and treatment based upon clinical reasoning skills. both normal & pathological treatment principles & the biomechanics of soft tissue. then proceeds to treatment. The clinical content of the seminar includes physical examination. MF1‐Myofascial Manipulation  This seminar deals with the evaluation & treatment techniques of myofascial manipulation. The content of this seminar highlights the interrelationships of extremity joint complexes.

Techniques of S1 are reviewed & advanced techniques instructed. Lumbar & Thoracic Spine Including  Thrust   The S2 seminar focus is the lumbar spine. problem solving & treatment strategies are explored. lumbar. Topic areas include: functional 41 . Special emphasis is placed on the management of syndromes & particular attention is paid to posture. S4‐Functional Analysis & Management of the Lumbo‐Pelvic‐Hip Complex   A biomechanical & neurophysiological approach to the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex is presented. The utilization of biomechanical & anatomical principles for the enhancement of patient care through manipulation & exercise is emphasized as is the patients' role in their own welfare. Emphasis is placed on the functional relations within this region so as to understand pelvic girdle dysfunction. mechanics & pathology of dysfunction. Special emphasis will be placed on the subcranial & mid cervical regions. rib cage & the pelvis. Cervical & Upper Thoracic Spine    Advanced spinal seminars begin with a brief review & update of anatomy. Research documentation of the anatomical and mechanical roles of the related structures is provided. and additional techniques.function will be demonstrated & practiced for the hip. Self help & exercise programs are instructed. S 2‐Advanced Evaluation & Manipulation of Pelvic. The techniques in the S1 seminar are reviewed. thoracic and cervico-thoracic spines. S3‐Advanced Evaluation & Manipulation of Cranio‐Facial. Lectures & evaluation techniques will assist with the evaluation & treatment of cervical dysfunction including disc degeneration. particularly those requiring a higher level of skill & decisionmaking. pelvis. Exercises. are added. thoracic spine. spondylosis & myelopathy.

biomechanics of the sacroiliac & pubic joints. muscular & ligament influences. Methods for self-mobilization & stabilization are demonstrated.anatomy. effects of the pregnancy. with 4 or more instructors. spinal and extremity joint. injection or ADL may also be included in management. On the sixth day each candidate receives four to five twenty-minute oral/practical examinations to test retention. Over a 24-month period. select pathologies. time is provided for an introduction to the concepts & application of techniques such as positional release. Treatment of pelvic dysfunction is also multi-dimensional & therefore soft tissue and joint mobilization is offered. the therapist 42 . the University requires evidence of continuing professional development. On the fifth day. respiratory assist mobilization & muscle energy. Duration of Certification In order to maintain use of the certification letters. covering each area in the prerequisite courses: namely basic science. Manual Therapy Certification Review  A five day review seminar. Laboratory experience involves the demonstration & practice of clinical evaluation methods for assessing dysfunction in the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex. Patient education strategies integrating therapeutic exercise with manual interventions will be presented. In addition. labor & delivery as well as dysfunction in the form of pathomechanics and pathophysiology. Additional suggestions relating to bracing. An update is also presented by the instructors where such an update seems appropriate. a three hour multiple choice examination is conducted. The evaluation process approaches the problem from both joint & muscular standpoints. comprehension & applied skills. and soft tissue manipulation.

FL 32086 In U. Requires a copy of an unofficial transcript. Contact information University of St. Development and/or teaching of a seminar. A copy of the letter and/or the certificate will suffice for verification. HIPPA requirements. These seminars may be any physical therapy practice management area. call: (904) 826-0084 43 . not just manual therapy.S. Development and/or teaching of a rehabilitation-related course in a degreegranting program. Augustine Campus 1 University Boulevard St.S. It does not include seminars related to employment topics such as blood borne pathogens. position paper. Augustine for Health Sciences St. clinical pearl. This could be a research study. Publication of article(s) in peer-reviewed journal.0 CEU) of continuing education attendance every 2 years. medical errors. Completion and passing of the ABPTS certification examination.is expected to maintain either full or part-time clinical practice and meet one or more of the following activities: 30 hours (3. HIV updates. Just send us the copy of the article with citation. Post-professional degree coursework (3 credits over 24 months). with a copy of the certificates for each seminar attended. etc. Augustine. call: (800) 241-1027 Outside of the U. CPR certification.

44 .

& Vredevoogd. and the movement of hands and fingers in relation to the cranial motion.A. the points of contact.A. MD. Eastland Press.A. Donald. this book is one of the most comprehensive sources of cranial techniques available. Organized by bone. defining the physiology and anatomy of the craniosacral system. Cranial Sacral Therapy Gehin.Chapter 5: Additional Resources Books Alternative Therapy A comprehensive guide to alternative therapies including and beyond manual therapy can be found in this outstanding book: Novey. D. M. and relationship to disease processes. Jon D. It provides practical instruction 45 . 2000. Alan. F.O. 1985 With more than one hundred illustrated techniques. comprehensive textbooks in this rapidly growing field of therapy. Mosby.F.. the position of both patient and practitioner. its function in health. Upledger. The concise text systematically describes the purpose of the technique. Clinician’s Complete Reference to Complementary & Alternative Medicine.O. Atlas of Manipulative Techniques for the Cranium & Face. Eastland Press. John E. Craniosacral Therapy. each technique is illustrated to depict the placement and movement of the practitioner's hands on the patient's head. 1983 This is one of the most practical.

1974. Upledger. Vertebral Manipulation. Banks.H.O.A. Mosby-Year Book. Dr.O. Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.. 46 . Orthopaedic Manual Therapy Edmond. Fundamentals of Manual Therapy: Physiology. 1987 Building upon concepts in Craniosacral Therapy. Butterworth-Heinemann. 1997. and an extensive glossary of terms and concepts. G. F. Grieve's Modern Manual Therapy: The Vertebral Column. Churchill Livingstone. John E. 2005. B.in developing and extending palpatory skills which will greatly benefit all forms of manipulation..A. the anatomy of the neck. Manipulation of the Spine Thorax and Pelvis. Hydrotherapy & Psychotherapy. P. Upledger further explores the anatomical and physiological bases and clinical implications of several important aspects of the craniosacral system. Maitland. An Osteopathic Perpective.. 1993. 2006. Craniosacral Therapy II: Beyond the Dura. Manipulation and Mobilization: Extremity and Spinal Techniques. clinical techniques. Inc. Tehan. Susan.. as well as basic physical diagnosis.. Topics included in this book are cranial nerves. P. Eastland Press. Inc. Diagnosis from the Spine: A Practical Method of Diagnosis & Non-Medical Treatment.D. Gibbons. D. Elsevier. 2005. Jeffrey D. Boyling & Nigel Palastanga. Neurology & Psychology. K. Combining Manual Therapy. Maitland’s Peripheral Manipulation. Hengeveld. Churchill Livingstone. the temporomandibular joint. E. Eyal. Jones. 1994 Lederman. Gordon Press Publishers..

Cervical. Limited. 1999.Mitchell.D. Inner Traditions International. Inner Traditions International. An Evaluation and Treatment Manual of Osteopathic Muscle Energy Procedures. Thoracic. 1996. It will provide readers with both a general fund of knowledge on the assessment and management of specific problems 47 . November 1990 Journals Research based treatments are the lifeblood of the profession of physical therapy. Dos. Andry. Diagnosis & Treatment of the Spine: Nonoperative Orthopaedic Medicine & Manual Therapy. Onno G. Rolfing: The Integration of Human Structures. Meier. Integrative Manual Therapy for the Pelvis. Weiselfish-Giammatteo. Sharon. Winkel. Valley Park: Mitchell Moran and Pruzzo Associates. 1998. North Atlantic Books.edu/jbmr/ Practical information about musculoskeletal rehabilitation to clinicians who treat patients with back and musculoskeletal pain complaints. Limited. Rolf. Ph. & Lumbar Spine with Muscle Energy & Beyond Technique: A Contemporary Clinical Analysis of Biomechanics.D. New York: Harper and Row. Rolfing: Reestablishing the Natural Alignment and Structural Integration of the Human Body for Vitality and Well-Being. December 1990 Ida Rolf. Ph. North Atlantic Books. 1977 Ida Rolf.pmr. MP.vcu. Vleeming. There are many internet search engines that will find articles from these journals and more on the topic of manual therapy. Integrative Manual Therapy for the Upper and Lower Extremities: Introducing Muscle Energy & Beyond Techniques.D. Rolfing and Physical Reality. Weiselfish-Giammatteo. 1979. Sharon. This is not an exhaustive list of manual therapy journals. Sacrum. Aspen Publishers. The Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation http://www. Rolfing Ida P. Ph.

churchillmed. theoretical.org/ JMPT JMPT is dedicated to the advancement of chiropractic health care but it is also useful for PT’s.gte.org/jor/index. Journal of Manual and Manipulative Therapy http://home1.ors.jmptonline. It provides the latest information on current developments in therapeutics. The intended audience is multidisciplinary as well as multi-specialty. Manual Therapy http://www. and prevention of musculoskeletal disorder.html This peer-reviewed journal of the Manipulation Association of Chartered Physiotherapists is written for the diverse needs of the various professions engaged in all aspects of manual therapy. which reports new information on experimental.net/jmmt This journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists includes clinical studies pertinent to manual and manipulative medicine. original research from the basic sciences relevant to assessment. including prospective clinical studies. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics (JMPT) http://www.com/Journals/ManTherapy/jhome. Topics covered are relevant to how elements of the neuromusculoskeletal system influence therapy outcomes and effectiveness. as well as reviews of clinically oriented research and practical information 48 .and new information considered to be state-of-the-art in the field. and more. treatment. and clinical aspects of orthopaedic research. case studies that describe innovative approaches to patient care.html This is the official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society. Journal of Orthopaedic Research http://www.

osteopaths. radiologists.for use in clinical settings. the premier biomedical publication in the chiropractic profession. JMPT. Readers include chiropractors. journal abstracts. 49 . case reports. publishes peer-reviewed original articles. physiatrists. and new media reviews. and sports medicine specialists. commentary. physical therapists.

Accessed 1/12/2010.mckenziemdt.17:10. Phys Ther. http://www.References 1. Certified Mulligan Practitioner. Accessed 4/10/2009.html.S.com. Lederman E. http://www. 18. APTA. http://www. AAOMPT. The Science and Practice of Manual Therapy. 2009. Accessed 02/10/2009. 19.apta.aaompt. 50 . Morgan D. 14. Accessed 03/13/2009. A history of manipulative therapy. Oslo. OPTP (Orthopedic Physical Therapy Products) distributor in the U. http://www. North American Region of the Mulligan Concept Teachers Association (NAMCTA). J Man Manip Ther. Bowtech. 12.com/more-information/worldwide-directory-ofmassage-schools. Minneapolis. 2005. 10. Accessed 1/15/2010. American Physical Therapy Association White Paper.org. IFOMT. Position on Thrust Joint Manipulation Provided by Physical Therapists. 7. 1989. Available at. 2nd ed. Dec 1969. http://www. 11. Accessed 1/15/2010. 4th ed.com/index. 2007. Accessed 2/12/2009. 2. http://www.upledger. Accessed 03/20/2009. Kaltenborn FM. Manual mobilization of the extremity joints : basic examination and treatment techniques. Pettman E.. 2003. 17. Accessed 4/15/2009. http://www. Accessed 2/12/2009. 2004. http://www. London: Elsevier. Accessed 1/15/2010. Guide to Physical Therapist Practice.edu/cas/pt/programs/courses. 2010. 13. 2009. NA-MCTA. USA. Rolf I. http://www. Moffat M.ifomt. Bellevue. Alexandria. 6. 15.edu/files/fef40c8b-2f40-4b46a534-07fe797ff68c.org.rolf. http://www.A.html. APTA. 3. Manual Therapy Certification.andrews. 2009. APTA-Orthopaedic. 8. 20. McCaleb B.org. 16. 4.pdf.orthopt.bellevuemassageschool. 2010. 9.org. Bellevue Worldwide Directory of Massage Schools. An introduction to spinal manipulation.htm. J Phys Ther Ed.15(3):165-174.com/. Accessed 2/12/2009. Bowtech.com. http://www. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists.bowtech. Revised 2nd Edition ed. 2009. Andrews U.bmulligan.org. VA: American Physical Therapy Association. Evjenth O. 5. http://www.org. The history of physical therapy practice in the United States.usa.na-mcta. 2009:11.49(12):13691374. MN: Olaf Norlis . Mulligan C. Upledger I. http://www. MDT MI.

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