Manual Therapy for the Professional Physical Therapist

by

Brennan Leyendecker, SPT

A capstone project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Physical Therapy University of Central Florida College of Health and Public Affairs Program in Physical Therapy

2010

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To all those who seek healing through the art of touch.

To my family, whose love, encouragement and discouragement of my dreams have been equally motivational.

To Bill Hanney, Karis Zbaraschuk and Tim Ahlip for opening my eyes and granting my hands the world of manual therapy.

To Judi Schack Dugre, Jennifer Tucker and Charlene McLachlan whose openness to wellness inspired my path.

To Jenny, my friend.

To Zach, my touchstone.

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Contents
Manual Therapy for the Professional Physical Therapist ................................................ 1  Focus and Scope of this Booklet.................................................................................. 1  Chapter 1: What is Manual Therapy and Who Utilizes it? .............................................. 3  Chapter 2: A Brief History of Manual Therapy ................................................................ 5  Early Manual Therapy .................................................................................................. 5  Medicine in the 1800’s ................................................................................................. 5  Physiotherapy is Born .................................................................................................. 6  Physical Therapy in the United States ......................................................................... 6  Manual Therapy in the United States and Around the World ....................................... 7  Physical and Manual Therapy Organizations ............................................................... 8  Chapter 3: Organizations and Governing Bodies of Manual Therapy in Physical Therapy ......................................................................................................................... 11  American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists (AAOMPT) ............ 11  Overview ................................................................................................................. 11  History and Vision ................................................................................................... 11  Overview of certifications offered ............................................................................ 12  Contact information................................................................................................. 12  The International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapy (IFOMT) ............ 13  Overview ................................................................................................................. 13  Vision ...................................................................................................................... 13  Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association ......................... 14  Overview ................................................................................................................. 14  An Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy Fellowship is offered. ........................... 14  Contact information................................................................................................. 14  North American Institute of Orthopaedic Manual Therapy (NAIOMT) ........................ 14  Overview ................................................................................................................. 14  Contact information................................................................................................. 15  World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) ................................................... 15  Overview ................................................................................................................. 15  Contact information................................................................................................. 15  Chapter 4: Certifications in Manual Therapy—a Detailed View of Choices .................. 17  v

.................. 24  Rolfing (Structural Integration)...........................Level II .................................................................................................. certifying body (accreditation)12 .................................................................................................................................................................... 29  Certified Manual Therapist (COMT) (NAIOMT Level IV+)15 .......International Massage & Somatic Therapies Accreditation Council13...................................... 46  Rolfing . 35  Certified Mulligan Practitioner (CMP)18 .......................................................... 37  Manual Therapy Certication20 (MTC) (Stanley Paris) ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... certified by IMSTAC ...... 17  Cranial Sacral Therapist (CST/ CST-D)12 .......... 22  Lymphedma: LDT /CDP/LLCC Certification ................................................. 17  Bowen Technique11 ......................................................................................................... 16 ..................................................... 50  vi ................................................................. 29  Certified Manual Therapist (CMPT) (NAIOMT Level III)15 ..................................................................... 30  Fellow of the NAIOMT and AAOMPT9..................................................................................................... 39  Chapter 5: Additional Resources .....................................................................Complementary and Alternative Medicine................. 47  References .............. 45  Alternative Therapy.................... 45  Orthopaedic Manual Therapy ..................... 26  Orthopedic Manual Therapy................. 45  Cranial Sacral Therapy .... 20  Licensed Massage Therapist (LMT).................................................................................................................................................. 45  Books ................................... 47  Journals ........ 31  Mechanical Diagnosis & Therapy (MDT)/OMPT Criteria (McKenzie)17 ......................................................................................... Rolf Institute of Structural Integration14 ................................................

This booklet is not a comprehensive guide meant to replace individual research. 1 . continuing educational units (CEU) required with each certification will be outlined. all touting the benefits of their particular derivation. To this end. it is a way to demonstrate a knowledge base in a particular area of study. guidance from mentors or other useful sources of information. the skills. Under each discipline umbrella lay a variety of degrees and certifications. cost. There are educational offerings to complement a wide array of practitioner interest and talent. The reader is encouraged to become a consumer of therapy services. Manual therapy is encompassed by several disciplines.Manual Therapy for the Professional Physical Therapist Focus and Scope of this Booklet The profession of physical therapy encourages clinicians to increase their therapeutic skill set beyond that of the entry level degree. A practitioner who focuses on manual therapy uses a hands-on approach to help patients heal. The main focus is to assist physical therapists in determining which educational opportunities align with their interests and professional goals. Additional resources will be included for further exploration into topics surrounding manual therapy. This booklet will concentrate on the educational choices available to physical therapists in North America. Physical therapists interested in manual therapy have a daunting task when it comes to sifting through the certification and educational information regarding manual therapy. The best way to fully understand what a particular type of therapy entails is to undergo at least one treatment from a qualified practitioner. training hours. While it is not necessary to obtain certifications in specialized fields.

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The assertion is that physical therapists have the skills and knowledge to provide TJM’s safely and within the scope of practice for physical therapy. Manual therapy is an interdisciplinary skill that has great usefulness across a wide variety of patients.3 3 . and massage therapists. chiropractors. physical therapist. since the 1960’s. The principle practitioners of manual therapy are osteopaths.3 Manual therapy and TJM is supported in entry level academic curricula. chiropractors have questioned the physical therapist’s use of manual therapy.” 2. The American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) published a document entitled “Position on Thrust Joint Manipulation Provided by Physical Therapists” in order to establish the professional stance on use of TJM in physical therapy practice. especially concerning manipulation due to the overlap and competition in services. 3 Small-amplitude and high-velocity therapeutic movements are also known as thrust joint manipulation (TJM) and have long been used by physical therapists. joint mobilization and a myriad of other hands-on techniques. However. lymphatic flow techniques.1 The Guide to Physical Therapy Practice defines manual therapy as “comprising a continuum of skilled passive movements to the joints and/or related soft tissues that are applied at varying speeds and amplitudes. This definition includes massage. including small-amplitude and high-velocity therapeutic movement. Other health care workers use forms of therapeutic touch as well.Chapter 1: What is Manual Therapy and Who Utilizes it? Manual therapy is broadly described here as the use of hands in a healing way.

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a surgeon to four successive French kings.4 Medicine in the 1800’s By 1870. with illustrations of many of his manipulative techniques.4 The Renaissance brought fresh insight to medicine with Andreus Versalius. “On Setting Joints by Leverage”. he used a considerable amount of manipulation. In particular. the first such book by an orthodox medical practitioner. Hippocrates describes a combination of traction and pressure exerted on a patient lying prone on a wooden bed. and a first book had been devoted to the subject. It was the topic of meetings and papers. The Hippocratic Oath admonishes physicians to do no harm. In 1579.Chapter 2: A Brief History of Manual Therapy Early Manual Therapy The first record of manual therapy techniques occurs in medical writings by Hippocrates (460-355 BC). In 1871 Wharton Hood published On Bone-Setting. Medical doctors continued to practice and speak about manual therapy. Hippocrates is known as the Father of Medicine. who described in 1543 the detailed anatomy of the human body. Hood believed that the sound of 5 . Claudius Galen (131-202 AD). This preceded both the founding of American Osteopathy by 4 years and chiropractic by 28 years. including many of the techniques described by Hippocrates. then called “bone-setting” because it was once thought small bones were being put into place during manipulation. John Hunter (1728-1793) advocated movement of joints after injury was necessary in order to prevent stiffness and the accumulation of adhesions due to inflammation. did much to raise the standard of what is now orthopaedic surgery. manipulation was firmly established in contemporary medicine. In addition. Ambrose Pare. wrote extensively on the work of Hippocrates.

not that of bones going back into place. and Edger and James Cyriax. In the 20th century. During World War I. Coltart. or massage and movement. The two medical names most associated with instruction of manipulation to physical therapists were James and John Mennell. medical practitioners such as Marlin. 4 Physiotherapy is Born Physiotherapy was founded in England in 1899. James Mennell published a number of texts for physical therapists concerning rehabilitaion. Blundell-Bankart.D. In other countries. trained with Mennell during World War II and carried her knowledge to New Zealand after the war. both father and son. As in nursing. and Humphris were publishing on manipulation. Helen Hislop. these aides were mostly women with backgrounds in physical education and training in 3-month-long courses run by physicians and nurses to train them in massage and muscle re-education. One of the early therapists. (1917-1918) “reconstruction aides” were employed in hospitals and army rehabilitation camps to do rehabilitation work.4 Physical Therapy in the United States The injured veterans of World War I created a great need for physical therapy in the United States.4 In 1907 James Mennell. instructed joint and soft tissue manipulation techniques to the newly formed Society of Trained Masseuses. respectively.cavitation heard with manipulation was that of adhesions being broken. Burrows. the same therapies were called massage and medical gymnastics. later known as the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy.5 6 . M. He encouraged his medical colleagues to send patients to this group by prescription.

Mary McMillan became known as "The Mother of Physical Therapy" in the U. Under her leadership.S. The polio epidemic in the United States would kill 6. at Reed College in Oregon. Physical therapy historians agree that physical therapy evolved as a professional field as a response to the polio epidemic..S. She also organized one of the first courses in physical therapy in the U. she became the founding president of the American Physical Therapy Association.5 By 1928. Mary McMillan founded the American Women's Physical Therapeutic Association. and these nascent physical therapists worked hard to strengthen and rehabilitate victims. Army because she was the first physical therapy aide in World War I.5 Manual Therapy in the United States and Around the World James Mennell was awarded the Golden Keys with Life membership in the American Congress of Physical Medicine and in the American Physical Therapy Association in 1949. Later. where she oversaw the training of reconstruction aides and.000 cases each year until Dr. a council on physical therapy was established within the American Medical Association (AMA). in the early 1950s there were still more than 20.In 1921. Education remained under the direction of the AMA until 1977. rehabilitation aides battled the raging polio epidemic that began in 1924 (it would last until 1956). He is believed to be the first to use the term “manual therapy”-- 7 . during which therapists worked in conjunction with physicians to battle the disease.000 people and paralyze 27. reeducating weakened muscles through exercise and applying thermal hot packs to painful joints. and she established the first physical therapy training center in China at Peiping Union Medical College. Salk's vaccine proved successful in 1955. and a standard for length of PT education was set at 9 months.000 more.

Massachusetts. In 1968. Maitland treated the painful joint with what he hypothesized would be the next most likely to succeed until relief was found.4. and joint manipulation. to oscillate that joint. His approach was to identify either an active or passive movement that was painful. He wrote on the concepts of joint play and stated that manipulation was helpful for joint dysfunction. Peripheral Manipulation and Vertebral Manipulation. assisted movement. Kaltenborn. the North American Academy of Manipulation Therapy was founded in Boston.which he chose for the title of his book. By process of elimination. and to test again. It represented physiotherapists from Canada and the United States for recognition of spinal and extremity joint manipulation as requiring additional post-professional education. resisted movement. detail the method. 7 8 .4 In 1969.” 6 Physical and Manual Therapy Organizations In 1966.partial absence or total absence of joint movement. In all. and Paris met in London and discussed setting up an international body to exchange educational ideas and to maintain standards in manual and manipulative therapy. He described the latter as a “. five countries were represented and the World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) was formed and the International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapists (IFOMPT) was created to steer it. He concentrated it on the treatment of what he called reproducible signs. a physical therapist named McCaleb published “An Introduction to Spinal Manipulation” in Physical Therapy.4 Geoffrey Maitland of Australia published Vertebral Manipulation. in which he refined the art of oscillatory manipulation. physical therapists Maitland. and chaired by Paris. passive movement. Maitland’s two books.. Grieve. He addressed the topics of massage.. called a joint lock.

a status that has since helped member nations gain increasing acceptance for joint manipulation within physical therapy. The President of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) is the official liaison to the Academy. The Academy was accepted for membership in IFOMT (International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapists). the IFOMT became the first specialty subsection of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy. In 1978.The Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association was formed in 1974. The North American Academy of Manual & Manipulative Therapy was subsequently dissolved as it had reached its goal of seeing manipulation become a specialty section of the American Physical Therapy Association. The AAOMPT established residency standards for manual therapy training in the United States.4 9 . 4 The American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists (AAOMPT) was founded in 1991. Paris became the first president of the Section.

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and Micheal Moore.D. They met at Oakland University to discuss common issues facing manual therapy in the United States.8 11 . DC. research or clinical institution with an interest in orthopaedic manual physical therapy. PH. This was the first time in the 20 year history of the IFOMT that the United States had been a voting member. Stanley V. Michael D. The Standards for Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy Residency Training in the United States standards form the basis for Fellowship programs to be recognized by the AAOMPT and have been a model for the development of other residency/fellowship programs with the APTA. PhD. PT became the Founding Fellows of the AAOMPT. Kornelia Kulig. PT. PT. MS. The members. Richard Erhard. PT. OCS. PT. PT. The AAOMPT is active within the APTA and the APTA Orthopedic Section.Chapter 3: Organizations and Governing Bodies of Manual Therapy in Physical Therapy American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists (AAOMPT) Overview The AAOMPT is a professional organization dedicated to physical therapists and any educational. DHSc. Joe Farrell. This was the first time that leaders of various manual therapy residency programs had come together under one roof. Rogers.8 The AAOMPT was the vehicle for the United States to become a voting member of the International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapists (IFOMT). History and Vision The American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists (AAOMPT) was founded in 1991 by a group of manual therapists. Paris PT. and Bjorn Svendsen. Ola Grimsby PT.

analytical. Fellows serve their patients and the public by demonstrating excellence in clinical practice. a "Fellow" in AAOMPT is an international recognition of competence and expertise in the practice of orthopaedic manual physical therapy by a physical therapist licensed in the USA. in the AAOMPT. and research. MS 39535-4777 Phone: (228) 392-0028 Fax: (228) 392-0666 12 . As a professional credential. and hands-on skills in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. An AAOMPT Fellow is a physical therapist who has demonstrated advanced clinical.O.8 A clinical fellowship should be completed within a minimum of 1000 hours in no fewer than six (6) months in duration and no more than 36 months. To achieve the Fellow credential.org P. is both a membership classification and a professional credential.Overview of certifications offered Fellow. Programs whose timeframe falls outside of these parameters will be reviewed on a case-by-case basis.9 Contact information American Academy Of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy (AAOMPT) http://www. education. Box 4777 Biloxi. The programs in orthopaedics allocate approximately 10% of their overall hours to clinical practice.aaompt. a physical therapist must complete a credentialed fellowship program in orthopaedic manual physical therapy.

other healthcare disciplines and the general public. No certifications are offered directly from the IFOMT.The International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapy (IFOMT) Overview The International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapists represents groups of Physical Therapists around the world. Contact the national group: AAOMPT for United States Citizens (see below). IFOMT is a subgroup of the World Confederation of Physical Therapy. 13 . and was formed in 1974. It also endeavors to promote and facilitate evidence based practice and research amongst its members as well as communicate widely the purpose and level of the specialization of manual/musculoskeletal physiotherapists amongst physiotherapists. It is a Federation that sets Educational and Clinical Standards in manual therapy.10 Group membership is offered.10 Vision The IFOMT seeks to promote and maintain the high standards of specialist education and clinical practice in manual/musculoskeletal physiotherapists. who have completed stringent postgraduate specialization programs in musculoskeletal disorders. The IFOMT works towards international unity and conformity of educational standards of practice amongst manual/musculoskeletal physiotherapists by collaboration with individuals within the organization and with other organizations.

clinical fellowship program. Inc. Contact information Orthopaedic Section. WI 54601 http://www. The training includes didactic and practical instruction in the classroom. The North American Institute of Orthopaedic Manual Therapy Inc (NAIOMT) Fellowship Program is credentialed by the American Physical Therapy 14 . supervised clinical instruction. APTA. An Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy Fellowship is offered. Students choose their own pace and level of training to fit their educational goals.org North American Institute of Orthopaedic Manual Therapy (NAIOMT) Overview The NAIOMT program offers advanced training in orthopaedic manual physical therapy. South Suite 200 La Crosse. in a comfortable time frame without need to relocate or leave job or family commitments.orthopt. mentoring and a series of examinations.Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association Overview This section of the APTA was created to serve as an advocate and resource for the practice of Orthopaedic Physical Therapy by fostering quality patient care and promoting professional growth. The Orthopaedic Section will provide and support professional development for physical therapy clinicians as the preferred autonomous and evidence-based practitioners of choice for musculoskeletal care. 2920 East Ave.

OR 97401-4802 Phone: (800) 706-5550 Fax: (541) 349-1172 http://naiomt.org 15 . WCPT promotes physical therapy as a profession and its contribution to global health. 1574 Coburg Road.com World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) Overview The World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) is an international voice for physical therapy. It represents more than 300. Contact information World Confederation for Physical Therapy Kensington Charity Centre 4th Floor. Charles House 375 Kensington High Street London W14 8QH Tel: +44 (0)20 7471 6765 Fax: +44 (0)20 7471 6766 Email: info@wcpt. Contact information PMB 129. education and practice.Association as a postprofessional clinical fellowship program for physical therapists in orthopaedic manual physical therapy. Eugene.000 physical therapists worldwide through its 101 member organizations. It encourages high standards of physical therapy research.

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with frequent pauses to allow time for the body to respond. but not as firm as in Rolfing therapy. A treatment consists of a series of specific sequences of moves called procedures. nerves and fascia. myofascial manipulation and energy flows. a firmer touch is applied. seminars range from 2-3 days in duration. Cost Course Cost is about $700-$800 per seminar. 17 . There is a Basic Bowen course and an Advanced course. It incorporates Chinese meridians. This form of therapy was discovered by Tom Bowen of Australia in the 1950’s.Chapter 4: Certifications in Manual Therapy—a Detailed View of Choices Complementary and Alternative Medicine Bowen Technique11 Overview The Bowen Technique is described as a holistic system in which the practitioner uses subtle and precise mobilizations called "Bowen moves" over muscles. Students receive a manual written by Bowen Therapy Training. setting the stimulus in motion for the body to heal itself.hour merit diploma is awarded at the end of the Basic Bowen class. The manual therapy is performed using the thumbs and fingers applying only gentle. Clinical hours In the United States. non-invasive pressure. tendons.. Bowen therapists claim to be only a catalyst. When compared to craniosacral therapy. and a 22 . Inc.

Skills/Coursework Over the Three-Day period. carpal tunnel syndrome. and ankle. sartorius. each 16 classroom hours long. Moves to help frozen shoulder. neck. Requirements for taking Module 7 include satisfactory completion 18 . and learning how Bowen's philosophy is individualized to each client. deep sciatic and tibialis posterior. TMJ. over a period of six months or more. Basic Bowen covers Bowen history. hamstrings. hip pain. pelvis." is a thorough assessment of the material taught in the first six modules. arm. "Module 7. tennis elbow. pelvis. breast / lymph drainage. vagus nerve and pubic nerve. shoulder. coccyx. breast with lymphatic drainage. the Basic Bowen moves are presented in a hands-on atmosphere where students participation is encouraged. knees. The Basic Bowen Moves include 17 Bowen Technique Sequences for the low back. sacrum. Asthma. psoas. stroke and headache issues are also covered. back. Students are provided with a complete reference guide for their practice. The modules must be taken in sequence because each one reviews and builds on what was taught previously. These modules are generally taught in two consecutive days each. as well as addressing the neck. headaches. TMJ. groin pull or spasm. vastus lateralis. torso. The last seminar. philosophy and basic skills. upper thoracic for breathing and digestive issues. ankles. pain under the scapula. Emphasis is placed on reading the body. draining sinuses . sacrum. Hayfever. The Advanced Course is 2 days long and includes advanced moves for abdominal disorders. a DVD. charts and manual. the Bowtech procedures are taught in seven modules. shin. Overall. with a maximum of two modules taught back-to-back. kidneys.

practitioners must complete 32 contact hours of Bowtech-approved continuing education every two years.aone. Duration of Certification Lifetime. with the requirement due on the anniversary of the accreditation date.au 19 . and a current First Aid and/or CPR certificate.net. Students must provide proof of the following (depending on Country requirements): A recognized qualification in Anatomy and Physiology (100 . 3300 Australia Telephone: +61 (0) 3 5572 3000 Fax: +61 (0) 3 5572 3144 Email: bowtech@h140. Victoria. In order to maintain Bowenwork skills and accreditation.120 hours in most countries). Contact Information Bowtech Pty Ltd PO Box 733 Hamilton.of the written assessments and case study requirements at Modules 3 through 6. and waiting at least one month after Module 6. experience running a business or a minimum of 20 hours of business education.

Cranial Sacral Therapist (CST/ CST-D)12 Overview CranioSacral Therapy (CST) is a gentle. that complex web of tissue that impacts all body structures and systems. CST is increasingly used as a preventive health measure for its ability to bolster resistance to disease. Use techniques that produce dramatic health and relaxation effects. when compared to Rolfing and Bowen therapies. Upledger after years of clinical testing and research at Michigan State University where he served as professor of biomechanics. Skills CST’s learn to: Identify the subtle craniosacral rhythm and interpret its patterns to accurately evaluate dysfunction and improvements. Release dural tube restrictions to enhance interactions between the central nervous system and the rest of the body. Locate the source of physical problems by traveling through the fascial system. including Direction of Energy and StillPoint Induction. Duration of certification The CST/CST-D certification must be renewed every 4 years. Using a soft touch which is generally no greater than 5 grams – about the weight of a nickel – practitioners release restrictions in the soft tissues that surround the central nervous system. hands-on approach that releases tensions deep in the body to relieve pain and dysfunction and improve whole-body health and performance. It was pioneered and developed by Osteopathic Physician John E. Work with approaches to a number of common ailments such as TMJ 20 . and it's effective for a wide range of medical problems associated with pain and dysfunction. It is the lightest touch therapy.

11211 Prosperity Farms Rd. $300 for level two (CST-Diplomate) Reduced fees offered through some schools for full-time students. Inc. FL 33410 Phone: 561-622-4334 800-233-5880 Fax: 561-622-4771 Email: upledger@upledger. head and neck pain. Continuing Education 24 hours every four years of approved continuing education. Contact Information The Upledger Institute. Hours of training Seminars are held for 3 to 5 days duration depending on instructor.. Cost Seminar Cost: $500-$800 per class.dysfunction.com 21 . Suite D-325 Palm Beach Gardens. central nervous system disorders and other physical disorders. Exams: $300 for level one (CST) exam.

International Massage & Somatic Therapies Accreditation Council13 Massage and therapeutic touch are within the scope of practice for physical therapists. Licensed massage therapists (LMT’s) provide hands-on therapies to target somatic pain. rebalance muscles and improve circulation. certified by IMSTAC . the LMT is clearly not of the same level. powders or other lubricants to clients' bodies to aid in various massage techniques. compression. lotions. Considering the drastic difference in education. effleurage. However. vibration or friction to the muscular structure or soft tissues of the human body. The educational requirements to enter into a LMT program are high school diploma or GED. percussion. Massage is often termed soft tissue manipulation and is a subject taught in schools of physical therapy. The public has difficulty distinguishing the profession of physical therapy and the vocation of massage therapy. this is an area of contention for PT’s.Licensed Massage Therapist (LMT). When compared to programs of physical therapy that require a bachelor degree and rigorous science coursework. some physical therapists find the additional hands-on practice and techniques to be valuable. tapotement. Physical therapy education overlaps somewhat with massage therapy education. Skills: LMT’s learn to: Perform various types of massage techniques such as petrissage. Applying nonforceful passive or active movement to affect the energetic systems of the body and movement re-education. 22 . Apply oils. Hours of training: Between 500-1000 hours.

Continuing Education Varies by State. Most commonly 12 CEU’s annually or 24 CEU’s biannually. Renewals occur annually in most cases. Some states do not require CEU’s.Duration of certification Varies by State. 23 .

12 Manual Lymphatic Mapping (MLM) is used to assess the specific direction of the superficial and deep lymph and interstitial fluids in physiological and pathological conditions. garments and sequential pumps in lymphedema. post-surgery. and quality of the lymph and interstitial fluid flow in the superficial and deep tissue layers. Special lymphatic reroutes for lymphedema. Select the right product for the particular type of edema. Duration of certification The LDT certification must be renewed every 3 years.Lymphedma: LDT /CDP/LLCC Certification . 12 24 . etc. Perform bandaging applications for the upper and lower extremities. certifying body (accreditation)12 Overview Lymphedema therapy is used to relieve the build up of interstitial fluid that can pathologically accumulate through trauma and disease process. and how to measure for a garment. as well as the latest information on documentation and insurance reimbursement. Discover new products on the market. Skills The LDT will learn how to: Explore use short-stretch bandages. Fibrotic techniques are learned: 15 different techniques to apply on the collagen fibers/fascia before applying the lymphatic strokes (used for lymphedema. Applications for chronic scars: Scar Release Therapy. Identify the specific direction. pressure/depth. post-radiation.) Techniques of releasing fascia restrictions (Lymphofascia Release)/Connective Tissue Fibers Release (CTFR) will be learned.Level II .

including tonsils and Eustachian tubes. Continuing Education Recertification is earned by attending the Lymphedema/CDP Advanced Techniques & Recertification (LCAR) workshop 25 . gums.g. acupressure points. applications for body joints/articulations. e. skull and cranial sutures as well as the upper and lower extremities 12 Hours of training 140 hours for level one. for manual therapy on the whole body. Chapman reflexes. including the spine. Drainage of the nasal cavity. teeth. Extensive breast protocol (Lymphatic Breast Care). LDT’s work with other fluids. blood (veins and arteries). including the interstitial fluid. synovial fluid. rib cage. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). including the cochlea and the semicircular canals. The practioner is required to be licensed or certified in the area of practice. Drainage of the synovial fluid. 170 hours for level 2. Drainage of the ears.. state.LDT’s learn the Clinical connection between deep breathing and the lymph flow. TMJ. including drainage of the pia and dura maters as well as peripheral nerves such as the sciatic nerve. There are specific maneuvers to access the cisterna chili and to facilitate drainage of the central and peripheral nervous system.12 Other LDT skills include: Applications for trigger points (TP). oral cavity.

In the U. There are 1600 Certified Rolfers in 26 countries. Other soft-tissue 26 . Rolf Institute of Structural Integration14 Overview More than 50 years ago. This certification enables graduates of the training program to become members of the Rolf Institute. Ida Rolf discovered that she could achieve remarkable changes in posture and structure by manipulating the body's myofascial system. and is distributed equally between genders. 14 Certification is earned through the Rolf Institute of Structural Integration. Dr. lengthening and repositioning the fascia. restoring its normal length and flexibility. Rolfers discriminate." after its founder. or separate fascial layers that adhere and muscles that have been pulled out of position by strain or injury. Finally. Rolfers integrate the body.14 Duration of certification Renewals are every 3-7 years depending on certification type. or touch the tissue. internationally. bringing physical balance in the gravitational field. Structural integration balances and aligns the body along a natural vertical axis by gradually stretching. school and caseby-case basis. relating its segments in an improved relationship. and offer this work to the public. She eventually named this system "structural integration. with concentrations on the East and West Coast and in Colorado." although some still refer to it as "Rolfing. Skills Rolfers palpate. Client population ranges from infancy to old age. feeling for imbalances in tissue texture. Rolfers practice in nearly all-50 states.. quality and temperature to determine where we need to work.Rolfing (Structural Integration). referring to themselves as "Certified Rolfers" and Rolf Movement Practitioners.S.

meets four to five days a week. Two-week intensive.525.000 plus books ($250-$500). Rolfers have up to 9 years to complete CE Credits and participate in the Advanced Training. Costs: $1. 14 The practitioner combines deep. Advanced Foundations of Rolfing Structural Integration (level 2). Eight-week intensive.14 The pressure of these techniques are markedly higher than in craniosacral and Bowen therapy.manipulation methods. but do not balance the body in gravity. Costs: $6. 87 Hours. including massage.830.200. Costs: $3. Six-week intensive. Certified Rolfers may take workshops in specific 27 . meets twelve days starting on a Sunday. Costs: $4. Rolfing is said to improve alignment at any stage in life.700 plus books ($250-$500). Continuing Education Graduates agree to attend a minimum of eighteen days of approved continuing education over a period of three to seven years in preparation for Advanced Rolfing Training. The range of subject matter for continuing education is great. Embodiment of Rolfing and Rolf Movement Integration (level 3) is 244 Hours. If certified as a Movement Practitioner. Clinical Application of Rolfing Theory is 269 Hours. Costs: $6. gentle pressure with the client’s breathing and movement to free fascial restrictions. are quite good at the first two. Eight-week intensive. meets four to five days a week. Rolf Movement Integration Certification involves 144 hours. Hours of Training & Associated Costs Foundations of Rolfing Structural Integration (level 1) is 218 Hours. Must complete level 1 first. meets four to five days a week.

Some credit requirements can also be met through approved mentoring programs.manipulative techniques.14 28 . The continuing education requirement is one of the many ways in which The Rolf Institute upholds its standards and demonstrates them to the community. and explore other related subjects such as CranioSacral Therapy and Visceral Manipulation.

elbow. symptoms. Specific biomechanical assessment of each area is taught along with appropriate treatment techniques for common injuries and dysfunctions. A comprehensive biomechanical and anatomical review of the lower thoracic and lumbar spines. pathology. the hip. and management of common spinal pathologies are reviewed.Orthopedic Manual Therapy Certified Manual Therapist (CMPT) (NAIOMT Level III)15 Skills/Coursework NAIOMT Level I: Intro. knee ankle and foot. wrist and hand. Specific biomechanical assessment of each area is taught along with appropriate and effective treatment techniques for common injuries and mechanical dysfunctions. shoulder. Integrates information generated 29 . Selective tissue tensioning techniques for the peripheral joints are introduced. A comprehensive biomechanical and anatomical review of the upper thoracic. upper and lower cervical spine. Appropriate skills in basic and objective selective tissue examination necessary for generating a provisional differential diagnosis of spinal dysfunction. NAIOMT Level III: Advanced Upper Quadrant Builds on the techniques learned in Level II and helps the student understand the kinetic chain inter-relationships of the upper quadrant. Cyriax’s principles are introduced. Signs. NAIOMT Level II: Intermediate Upper Quadrant. NAIOMT Level II: Intermediate Lower Quadrant. to the Fundamentals: Orthopedic Manual Therapy & Differential Diagnosis.

Certified Manual Therapist (COMT) (NAIOMT Level IV+)15 Skills/Coursework Certified Orthopedic Manual Therapist (COMT)(NAIOMT Level IV+) builds on the skill learned to attain NAIOMT Level III. Advanced techniques are demonstrated along with new material on temporo-mandibular joint material and peripheral manipulation skills. Presents advanced biomechanical tests and treatment and includes the sacroiliac and pubic joints. and costal manipulation techniques. pelvic. the safe and effective application of spinal.in the assessment to understand how remote dysfunctions can be casual or contributory. as well as. Discusses the integration of examination and treatment techniques. 30 . NAIOMT Level IV: High Velocity Manipulation Instructs the student on the indications and contra-indications. NAIOMT Level III: Advanced Lower Quadrant Builds on the techniques learned in Level II and helps the student understand the kinetic chain inter-relationships in the lower quadrant.

NAIOMT identifies 568 hours (of the 1500 total) to be didactic and practical hours. clinical and self-study hours needs to be completed within 36 months and total in excess of 1500 hours. education. a "Fellow" is an international recognition of competence and expertise in the practice of orthopaedic manual physical therapy by a physical therapist licensed in the USA. 440 clinical. planned dates for classes and examinations. and research. practical. To achieve the Fellow credential. The Fellowship Program requirement is 1500 hours of post-professional study. Fellows serve their patients and the public by demonstrating excellence in clinical practice. As a professional credential. and when they have a clear temporal plan mapped out with their clinical instructors. 31 .8 The minimum time frame for the clinical fellowship is 12 months the maximum is 36 months. 16 Overview The designation Fellow is both a membership classification and a professional credential. AAOMPT requirements include a component of 440 clinically supervised hours. Intakes are flexible and year -round (rolling). and a plan that they be able to complete in 36 months. a physical therapist must complete a credentialed fellowship program in orthopaedic manual physical therapy. analytical. and the remaining hours from the fellowship project. APTA requires 1000 hours for an APTAcredentialed fellowship. The student begins when the time is right for them. A Fellow is a physical therapist who has demonstrated advanced clinical.Fellow of the NAIOMT and AAOMPT9. and hands-on skills in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. The majority of the total didactic.

Exams: Approximately $2000. elbow. symptoms. credentialing $125. upper and lower cervical spine. Clinical hours 130 hours of 1:1 training. and management of common spinal pathologies are reviewed. wrist and hand. Signs. Specific biomechanical assessment of each area is taught along with appropriate and effective treatment techniques for common injuries and mechanical dysfunctions. registration fee is $75.Cost Core courses levels I-IV approx. Fellowship credentialing and annual dues : Annual dues are $60. Level II: Intermediate Upper Quadrant. is variable dependent on work situation Skills/Coursework15 Level I: Introduction to the Fundamentals: Orthopedic Manual Therapy & Differential Diagnosis. 270 hours of other clinical and 40 hours tutorial. A comprehensive biomechanical and anatomical review of the upper thoracic. shoulder. Cyriax’s principles are introduced. Appropriate skills in basic and objective selective tissue examination necessary for generating a provisional differential diagnosis of spinal dysfunction. 32 . Selective tissue tensioning techniques for the peripheral joints are introduced. 36 days @ average $160 per day Specialty/elective classes: 326 hrs & $150-200 per day or structured home study classes. pathology.

students will be required to do a minimum of 60 supervised clinical hours applying hands-on techniques with patients under the 33 . Specific biomechanical assessment of each area is taught along with appropriate treatment techniques for common injuries and dysfunctions. Advanced techniques are demonstrated along with new material on temporo-mandibular joint material and peripheral manipulation skills. Supervised Clinical Practice Using a 3. A comprehensive biomechanical and anatomical review of the lower thoracic and lumbar spines. Level IV: High Velocity Manipulation Instructs the student on the indications and contra-indications. the hip. knee ankle and foot.Level II: Intermediate Lower Quadrant. pelvic. Presents advanced biomechanical tests and treatment and includes the sacroiliac and pubic joints. Level III: Advanced Lower Quadrant Builds on the techniques learned in Level II and helps the student understand the kinetic chain inter-relationships in the lower quadrant. Discusses the integration of examination and treatment techniques. Integrates information generated in the assessment to understand how remote dysfunctions can be casual or contributory. and costal manipulation techniques.to-1 model. as well as. the safe and effective application of spinal. Level III: Advanced Upper Quadrant Builds on the techniques learned in Level II and helps the student understand the kinetic chain inter-relationships of the upper quadrant.

These hours can be done all at one time or split up according to the student’s wishes.supervision of a certified clinical instructor. variable dues required. 34 . Duration of Certification Renewal every 10 years.

500 completed with Fellows of AAOMPT Thrust Manipulation Course: $615 Clinical hours 300 hours Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy Clinical Residency (360 hours) through MII (USA) Successfully complete McKenzie MDT Diploma Final Examinations Attain the McKenzie Institute Diploma in MDT 310 hours OMPT Problem Solving Experience with a FAAOMPT Complete Thrust Manipulation Course (24 hours) 35 . clinical and self-study hours needs to be completed within 36 months and total in excess of 1500 hours. The majority of the total didactic. planned dates for classes and examinations. Costs: MII Diploma Program: Between $11. 440 clinical.500 OMPT Mentorship: $3.$13. NAIOMT identifies 568 hours (of the 1500 total) to be didactic and practical hours.500. and when they have a clear temporal plan mapped out with their clinical instructors. APTA requires 1000 hours for an APTA-credentialed fellowship. The Fellowship Program requirement is 1500 hours of postprofessional study. practical. AAOMPT requirements include a component of 440 clinically supervised hours. The student begins when the time is right for them. Intakes are flexible and year -round (rolling). and a plan that they be able to complete in 36 months.Mechanical Diagnosis & Therapy (MDT)/OMPT Criteria (McKenzie)17 Overview The minimum time frame for the clinical Fellowship is 12 months the maximum is 36 months. and the remaining hours from the fellowship project.

Completion of 130 hours direct 1:1 OMPT Clinical Mentorship experience with a FAAOMPT Apply for Fellow status in AAOMPT 36 .

A passive accessory joint mobilization is applied following the principles of Kaltenborn (i..N. adverse neural tension).T.Certified Mulligan Practitioner (CMP)18 Overview The Mulligan Concept is a unique approach to manual therapy discovered and developed by Brian Mulligan F. pain associated with movement. This simple yet effective manual approach addresses musculoskeletal disorders with pain free manual joint “repositioning” techniques for restoration of function and abolition of pain.e. the following basic principles have been developed:19 During assessment the therapist will identify one or more comparable signs as described by Maitland. Utilising his/her knowledge of joint arthrology.. a well-developed sense of tissue tension and clinical reasoning. from Wellington. the therapist investigates various combinations of parallel or perpendicular glides to find the correct treatment plane and grade of movement. (Hon). This accessory glide must itself be pain free. lateral elbow pain with resisted wrist extension.e. New Zealand. The therapist must continuously monitor the patient's reaction to ensure no pain is recreated. 37 . Cost: Approximately $450 per seminar for 4 two-day seminars. parallel or perpendicular to the joint plane).S. Dip. or pain associated with specific functional activities (i. Skills/Coursework Specific to the application of MWM and SNAGS in clinical practice. These signs may be a loss of joint movement.P. M.Z.

CMP.While sustaining the accessory glide. The comparable sign should now be significantly improved (i. Further gains may be realized through the application of passive overpressure at the end of available range. Further gains are expected with repetition during a treatment session typically involving three sets of ten repetitions. spinal segment or that the technique is not indicated. and a significantly decreased or better yet. pain-free. Contact information Brian Folk. MCTA Address: 6714 Antilope Street Location: Carlsbad State: California Zip Code: 92009 Business Phone: 760-518-0249 Fax: 760-438-7987 38 . absence of the original pain). treatment plane. grade or direction of mobilization. the patient is requested to perform the comparable sign. Failure to improve the comparable sign would indicate that the therapist has not found the correct contact point. The previously restricted and/or painful motion or activity is repeated by the patient while the therapist continues to maintain the appropriate accessory glide. PT. increased range of motion. It is expected that this overpressure is again. FAAOMPT..e.

39 . Certification Preparation and Exam is a six-day process which provides a review and update of the contents of each prerequisite seminar.Manual Therapy Certication20 (MTC) (Stanley Paris) Overview The MTC incorporates a series of seminars. At the conclusion of the seminar. pathology and treatments are applied to clinical examination and treatment. The objective is the safe application and interpretation of advanced clinical skills. General principles of functional anatomy. Most seminars are 2 to 6 days long. Cost: Total MTC tuition is approximately $5. Skills/Coursework S1‐Introduction to Spinal Evaluation and Manipulation   This is a 5-day seminar emphasizing interpretation of basic science knowledge toward the development of clinical skills needed for differential evaluation & effective treatment of spinal dysfunction.800. are instructed and practiced to a limited degree. oral and practical testing--to define competency in the selected clinical area. such as exercises & distraction. tissue & joint biomechanics. the student should feel confident to examine & treat most common spinal conditions. active movements and palpation for condition. Manipulation techniques are instructed at all levels of the spine except the subcranial area. Supportive treatments. Includes instruction & techniques of evaluating structure. Clinical hours 201 hours over a total 29 days of seminar training. position & mobility of the spine. which culminate in comprehensive examination--written.

and places special emphasis on palpatory techniques such as end-feel.E1‐Extremity Evaluation and Manipulation  This seminar emphasizes the interpretation of basic science knowledge & the development of basic clinical skills which are needed to complete a differential evaluation of extremity dysfunction. E2 ‐ Extremity Integration  This three day seminar is carried out in seminar format which includes lecture and lab. and treatment are presented. both normal & pathological treatment principles & the biomechanics of soft tissue. Soft tissue and joint techniques for both examination and treatment are practiced in lab sessions. tissue & joint biomechanics. soft tissue anatomy. along with thorax and spinal influences with emphasis on kinetic chain events. MF1‐Myofascial Manipulation  This seminar deals with the evaluation & treatment techniques of myofascial manipulation. The emphasis of this seminar is placed on the relationship of the soft tissue structures to the mechanics of the spine. Non-thrust manipulations are instructed & supportive treatments are discussed. Soft tissue techniques directed at normalizing 40 . The lecture component consists of discussion of functional anatomy. Clinical cases are presented for discussion of management and treatment based upon clinical reasoning skills. The content of this seminar highlights the interrelationships of extremity joint complexes. In order for the body to maintain normal physiological motion & postural efficiency. there needs to be freedom from restrictions in the myofascial unit. then proceeds to treatment. The clinical content of the seminar includes physical examination. General principles of functional anatomy. posture. pathology.

are added. Special emphasis is placed on the management of syndromes & particular attention is paid to posture. lumbar. S3‐Advanced Evaluation & Manipulation of Cranio‐Facial. Lumbar & Thoracic Spine Including  Thrust   The S2 seminar focus is the lumbar spine. The utilization of biomechanical & anatomical principles for the enhancement of patient care through manipulation & exercise is emphasized as is the patients' role in their own welfare. Emphasis is placed on the functional relations within this region so as to understand pelvic girdle dysfunction. Cervical & Upper Thoracic Spine    Advanced spinal seminars begin with a brief review & update of anatomy. Lectures & evaluation techniques will assist with the evaluation & treatment of cervical dysfunction including disc degeneration. mechanics & pathology of dysfunction. Techniques of S1 are reviewed & advanced techniques instructed. Research documentation of the anatomical and mechanical roles of the related structures is provided. Exercises. Special emphasis will be placed on the subcranial & mid cervical regions. pelvis. thoracic spine. S 2‐Advanced Evaluation & Manipulation of Pelvic. and additional techniques. spondylosis & myelopathy. The techniques in the S1 seminar are reviewed. S4‐Functional Analysis & Management of the Lumbo‐Pelvic‐Hip Complex   A biomechanical & neurophysiological approach to the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex is presented. Self help & exercise programs are instructed. Topic areas include: functional 41 . problem solving & treatment strategies are explored. particularly those requiring a higher level of skill & decisionmaking. thoracic and cervico-thoracic spines. rib cage & the pelvis.function will be demonstrated & practiced for the hip.

Methods for self-mobilization & stabilization are demonstrated. with 4 or more instructors. Treatment of pelvic dysfunction is also multi-dimensional & therefore soft tissue and joint mobilization is offered. The evaluation process approaches the problem from both joint & muscular standpoints. covering each area in the prerequisite courses: namely basic science. time is provided for an introduction to the concepts & application of techniques such as positional release. labor & delivery as well as dysfunction in the form of pathomechanics and pathophysiology. On the fifth day. spinal and extremity joint. An update is also presented by the instructors where such an update seems appropriate. injection or ADL may also be included in management. biomechanics of the sacroiliac & pubic joints. Duration of Certification In order to maintain use of the certification letters. Manual Therapy Certification Review  A five day review seminar. respiratory assist mobilization & muscle energy. Patient education strategies integrating therapeutic exercise with manual interventions will be presented. the therapist 42 . muscular & ligament influences. comprehension & applied skills. a three hour multiple choice examination is conducted. Additional suggestions relating to bracing. Laboratory experience involves the demonstration & practice of clinical evaluation methods for assessing dysfunction in the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex. In addition. and soft tissue manipulation. Over a 24-month period. effects of the pregnancy. select pathologies.anatomy. the University requires evidence of continuing professional development. On the sixth day each candidate receives four to five twenty-minute oral/practical examinations to test retention.

call: (800) 241-1027 Outside of the U.is expected to maintain either full or part-time clinical practice and meet one or more of the following activities: 30 hours (3. Development and/or teaching of a seminar. These seminars may be any physical therapy practice management area. HIV updates.0 CEU) of continuing education attendance every 2 years. not just manual therapy. Publication of article(s) in peer-reviewed journal.S. It does not include seminars related to employment topics such as blood borne pathogens. CPR certification. etc. Requires a copy of an unofficial transcript. with a copy of the certificates for each seminar attended. position paper. Contact information University of St. Development and/or teaching of a rehabilitation-related course in a degreegranting program. Just send us the copy of the article with citation. HIPPA requirements. clinical pearl. medical errors. A copy of the letter and/or the certificate will suffice for verification. FL 32086 In U. Augustine for Health Sciences St. Augustine Campus 1 University Boulevard St. call: (904) 826-0084 43 . Post-professional degree coursework (3 credits over 24 months).S. Augustine. This could be a research study. Completion and passing of the ABPTS certification examination.

44 .

O. Jon D. John E. Donald. Craniosacral Therapy. Mosby.O. & Vredevoogd. Organized by bone. Cranial Sacral Therapy Gehin. and relationship to disease processes. 1985 With more than one hundred illustrated techniques. It provides practical instruction 45 .. F. 2000. 1983 This is one of the most practical. and the movement of hands and fingers in relation to the cranial motion. D. its function in health.A. this book is one of the most comprehensive sources of cranial techniques available. Atlas of Manipulative Techniques for the Cranium & Face.F. The concise text systematically describes the purpose of the technique. Upledger. defining the physiology and anatomy of the craniosacral system. MD. Eastland Press. M.A. each technique is illustrated to depict the placement and movement of the practitioner's hands on the patient's head. Eastland Press. Clinician’s Complete Reference to Complementary & Alternative Medicine. the position of both patient and practitioner. comprehensive textbooks in this rapidly growing field of therapy.A. the points of contact. Alan.Chapter 5: Additional Resources Books Alternative Therapy A comprehensive guide to alternative therapies including and beyond manual therapy can be found in this outstanding book: Novey.

Maitland. Tehan.. D. G. K. E. Upledger. Diagnosis from the Spine: A Practical Method of Diagnosis & Non-Medical Treatment. Fundamentals of Manual Therapy: Physiology. An Osteopathic Perpective.in developing and extending palpatory skills which will greatly benefit all forms of manipulation.. 1994 Lederman. Gordon Press Publishers. 1987 Building upon concepts in Craniosacral Therapy. Butterworth-Heinemann. Vertebral Manipulation.. and an extensive glossary of terms and concepts. Manipulation and Mobilization: Extremity and Spinal Techniques.O. Elsevier. Neurology & Psychology.A. Churchill Livingstone. P. Churchill Livingstone Elsevier. the anatomy of the neck. 2006. Orthopaedic Manual Therapy Edmond. Inc.O. P. Mosby-Year Book. Inc.A. Banks. 46 . Manipulation of the Spine Thorax and Pelvis. the temporomandibular joint. B. Susan. Dr. Upledger further explores the anatomical and physiological bases and clinical implications of several important aspects of the craniosacral system. Churchill Livingstone. Hengeveld.H. 2005. Eyal. Jeffrey D. Hydrotherapy & Psychotherapy. Gibbons..D. Boyling & Nigel Palastanga. John E. 1993.. Topics included in this book are cranial nerves.. Craniosacral Therapy II: Beyond the Dura. as well as basic physical diagnosis. Eastland Press. Grieve's Modern Manual Therapy: The Vertebral Column. Jones. Combining Manual Therapy. Maitland’s Peripheral Manipulation. 1997. F. clinical techniques. 1974. 2005.

vcu.D. Onno G. Dos. 1979. 1977 Ida Rolf. This is not an exhaustive list of manual therapy journals. Aspen Publishers. Sharon. MP. November 1990 Journals Research based treatments are the lifeblood of the profession of physical therapy.Mitchell. Diagnosis & Treatment of the Spine: Nonoperative Orthopaedic Medicine & Manual Therapy.pmr. & Lumbar Spine with Muscle Energy & Beyond Technique: A Contemporary Clinical Analysis of Biomechanics. Andry. Rolfing: Reestablishing the Natural Alignment and Structural Integration of the Human Body for Vitality and Well-Being. New York: Harper and Row.D. The Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation http://www. Weiselfish-Giammatteo. Limited. North Atlantic Books.D. Winkel. Sacrum. 1998. Vleeming. Rolfing and Physical Reality. Rolfing: The Integration of Human Structures. Inner Traditions International. An Evaluation and Treatment Manual of Osteopathic Muscle Energy Procedures. Inner Traditions International. Limited. Valley Park: Mitchell Moran and Pruzzo Associates. 1999. Integrative Manual Therapy for the Upper and Lower Extremities: Introducing Muscle Energy & Beyond Techniques. Rolfing Ida P. Cervical. North Atlantic Books. Meier. Weiselfish-Giammatteo. Thoracic. Integrative Manual Therapy for the Pelvis. Ph. Rolf. Ph. 1996. December 1990 Ida Rolf. It will provide readers with both a general fund of knowledge on the assessment and management of specific problems 47 . Sharon. There are many internet search engines that will find articles from these journals and more on the topic of manual therapy. Ph.edu/jbmr/ Practical information about musculoskeletal rehabilitation to clinicians who treat patients with back and musculoskeletal pain complaints.

which reports new information on experimental.ors. The intended audience is multidisciplinary as well as multi-specialty. theoretical. and clinical aspects of orthopaedic research. Topics covered are relevant to how elements of the neuromusculoskeletal system influence therapy outcomes and effectiveness. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics (JMPT) http://www. and prevention of musculoskeletal disorder. including prospective clinical studies.and new information considered to be state-of-the-art in the field. treatment. as well as reviews of clinically oriented research and practical information 48 . Journal of Manual and Manipulative Therapy http://home1. and more.org/ JMPT JMPT is dedicated to the advancement of chiropractic health care but it is also useful for PT’s.churchillmed.html This is the official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society.net/jmmt This journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists includes clinical studies pertinent to manual and manipulative medicine.jmptonline.org/jor/index.html This peer-reviewed journal of the Manipulation Association of Chartered Physiotherapists is written for the diverse needs of the various professions engaged in all aspects of manual therapy. Journal of Orthopaedic Research http://www. original research from the basic sciences relevant to assessment.com/Journals/ManTherapy/jhome.gte. Manual Therapy http://www. case studies that describe innovative approaches to patient care. It provides the latest information on current developments in therapeutics.

publishes peer-reviewed original articles. radiologists.for use in clinical settings. Readers include chiropractors. 49 . and new media reviews. physical therapists. osteopaths. physiatrists. JMPT. the premier biomedical publication in the chiropractic profession. case reports. commentary. and sports medicine specialists. journal abstracts.

10. http://www. Kaltenborn FM. http://www. IFOMT. http://www. Bowtech. http://www. 20. Accessed 1/15/2010. Revised 2nd Edition ed. The Science and Practice of Manual Therapy. MDT MI. 2005. Rolf I. 3.andrews.com.bmulligan. 4th ed. The history of physical therapy practice in the United States. 5.pdf.ifomt. Oslo.S. Accessed 1/12/2010. London: Elsevier. 12.bellevuemassageschool. 19. Manual Therapy Certification.com/more-information/worldwide-directory-ofmassage-schools.com. 2009.org. 2007.org.org. Alexandria. Manual mobilization of the extremity joints : basic examination and treatment techniques. 2009.apta. 2nd ed. http://www. Available at. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists.aaompt. American Physical Therapy Association White Paper. http://www. http://www. Accessed 03/13/2009. Accessed 2/12/2009.17:10.usa. Pettman E.edu/cas/pt/programs/courses. NA-MCTA. A history of manipulative therapy.org.49(12):13691374. USA. 4. Bellevue Worldwide Directory of Massage Schools. Bellevue.bowtech. J Phys Ther Ed. Dec 1969. 2009.com/. Accessed 02/10/2009. http://www. http://www. 18. 2010.html. 2004. McCaleb B.org. Minneapolis. Mulligan C. 2009:11. 9. Accessed 2/12/2009. APTA. An introduction to spinal manipulation. Upledger I. Andrews U. Certified Mulligan Practitioner. http://www..org. 7. 6. 50 .edu/files/fef40c8b-2f40-4b46a534-07fe797ff68c. Accessed 1/15/2010.References 1. 13. Moffat M. 2003. North American Region of the Mulligan Concept Teachers Association (NAMCTA). 2010. 17.na-mcta. Lederman E. 2009. Phys Ther. Accessed 4/10/2009. MN: Olaf Norlis . 16.upledger. Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. Morgan D. Accessed 2/12/2009.mckenziemdt. 11. APTA. 1989. VA: American Physical Therapy Association. 2. 8. Accessed 03/20/2009. http://www. Position on Thrust Joint Manipulation Provided by Physical Therapists.html. APTA-Orthopaedic. Accessed 4/15/2009.com/index. http://www. Accessed 1/15/2010.rolf. http://www. J Man Manip Ther. Evjenth O.orthopt. 14.A.htm. 15. AAOMPT.15(3):165-174. Bowtech. OPTP (Orthopedic Physical Therapy Products) distributor in the U.

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