Manual Therapy for the Professional Physical Therapist

by

Brennan Leyendecker, SPT

A capstone project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Physical Therapy University of Central Florida College of Health and Public Affairs Program in Physical Therapy

2010

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To all those who seek healing through the art of touch.

To my family, whose love, encouragement and discouragement of my dreams have been equally motivational.

To Bill Hanney, Karis Zbaraschuk and Tim Ahlip for opening my eyes and granting my hands the world of manual therapy.

To Judi Schack Dugre, Jennifer Tucker and Charlene McLachlan whose openness to wellness inspired my path.

To Jenny, my friend.

To Zach, my touchstone.

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Contents
Manual Therapy for the Professional Physical Therapist ................................................ 1  Focus and Scope of this Booklet.................................................................................. 1  Chapter 1: What is Manual Therapy and Who Utilizes it? .............................................. 3  Chapter 2: A Brief History of Manual Therapy ................................................................ 5  Early Manual Therapy .................................................................................................. 5  Medicine in the 1800’s ................................................................................................. 5  Physiotherapy is Born .................................................................................................. 6  Physical Therapy in the United States ......................................................................... 6  Manual Therapy in the United States and Around the World ....................................... 7  Physical and Manual Therapy Organizations ............................................................... 8  Chapter 3: Organizations and Governing Bodies of Manual Therapy in Physical Therapy ......................................................................................................................... 11  American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists (AAOMPT) ............ 11  Overview ................................................................................................................. 11  History and Vision ................................................................................................... 11  Overview of certifications offered ............................................................................ 12  Contact information................................................................................................. 12  The International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapy (IFOMT) ............ 13  Overview ................................................................................................................. 13  Vision ...................................................................................................................... 13  Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association ......................... 14  Overview ................................................................................................................. 14  An Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy Fellowship is offered. ........................... 14  Contact information................................................................................................. 14  North American Institute of Orthopaedic Manual Therapy (NAIOMT) ........................ 14  Overview ................................................................................................................. 14  Contact information................................................................................................. 15  World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) ................................................... 15  Overview ................................................................................................................. 15  Contact information................................................................................................. 15  Chapter 4: Certifications in Manual Therapy—a Detailed View of Choices .................. 17  v

............................................................................................. 45  Books ........................ 22  Lymphedma: LDT /CDP/LLCC Certification ...............Complementary and Alternative Medicine....................................... 45  Alternative Therapy.. 20  Licensed Massage Therapist (LMT)..................................................... 50  vi .......... 39  Chapter 5: Additional Resources ............... 29  Certified Manual Therapist (COMT) (NAIOMT Level IV+)15 .........................................................................International Massage & Somatic Therapies Accreditation Council13. 31  Mechanical Diagnosis & Therapy (MDT)/OMPT Criteria (McKenzie)17 ..................................................................................................................................................... certified by IMSTAC ......... 37  Manual Therapy Certication20 (MTC) (Stanley Paris) ............................................................................... 35  Certified Mulligan Practitioner (CMP)18 ........................................................................................................................................................................ 24  Rolfing (Structural Integration)..........Level II .................... certifying body (accreditation)12 ........................................................ 30  Fellow of the NAIOMT and AAOMPT9...................... 29  Certified Manual Therapist (CMPT) (NAIOMT Level III)15 .............................. 45  Cranial Sacral Therapy ........................................... 16 ............................................................ 17  Cranial Sacral Therapist (CST/ CST-D)12 ........................................................ 46  Rolfing .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 17  Bowen Technique11 ... 26  Orthopedic Manual Therapy............................................................................................................ 45  Orthopaedic Manual Therapy ........ 47  Journals ........................................................... Rolf Institute of Structural Integration14 ......... 47  References ..............................................................................

all touting the benefits of their particular derivation. guidance from mentors or other useful sources of information. The reader is encouraged to become a consumer of therapy services. The best way to fully understand what a particular type of therapy entails is to undergo at least one treatment from a qualified practitioner. This booklet will concentrate on the educational choices available to physical therapists in North America.Manual Therapy for the Professional Physical Therapist Focus and Scope of this Booklet The profession of physical therapy encourages clinicians to increase their therapeutic skill set beyond that of the entry level degree. The main focus is to assist physical therapists in determining which educational opportunities align with their interests and professional goals. A practitioner who focuses on manual therapy uses a hands-on approach to help patients heal. 1 . This booklet is not a comprehensive guide meant to replace individual research. There are educational offerings to complement a wide array of practitioner interest and talent. Additional resources will be included for further exploration into topics surrounding manual therapy. the skills. Under each discipline umbrella lay a variety of degrees and certifications. Physical therapists interested in manual therapy have a daunting task when it comes to sifting through the certification and educational information regarding manual therapy. To this end. continuing educational units (CEU) required with each certification will be outlined. Manual therapy is encompassed by several disciplines. training hours. it is a way to demonstrate a knowledge base in a particular area of study. While it is not necessary to obtain certifications in specialized fields. cost.

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chiropractors.Chapter 1: What is Manual Therapy and Who Utilizes it? Manual therapy is broadly described here as the use of hands in a healing way. The principle practitioners of manual therapy are osteopaths. Other health care workers use forms of therapeutic touch as well.3 Manual therapy and TJM is supported in entry level academic curricula. Manual therapy is an interdisciplinary skill that has great usefulness across a wide variety of patients. The American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) published a document entitled “Position on Thrust Joint Manipulation Provided by Physical Therapists” in order to establish the professional stance on use of TJM in physical therapy practice. especially concerning manipulation due to the overlap and competition in services. joint mobilization and a myriad of other hands-on techniques.” 2.1 The Guide to Physical Therapy Practice defines manual therapy as “comprising a continuum of skilled passive movements to the joints and/or related soft tissues that are applied at varying speeds and amplitudes. The assertion is that physical therapists have the skills and knowledge to provide TJM’s safely and within the scope of practice for physical therapy. since the 1960’s. chiropractors have questioned the physical therapist’s use of manual therapy. This definition includes massage. However. lymphatic flow techniques. physical therapist. 3 Small-amplitude and high-velocity therapeutic movements are also known as thrust joint manipulation (TJM) and have long been used by physical therapists. and massage therapists.3 3 . including small-amplitude and high-velocity therapeutic movement.

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then called “bone-setting” because it was once thought small bones were being put into place during manipulation. who described in 1543 the detailed anatomy of the human body. In particular. Hippocrates is known as the Father of Medicine. did much to raise the standard of what is now orthopaedic surgery. Hippocrates describes a combination of traction and pressure exerted on a patient lying prone on a wooden bed. the first such book by an orthodox medical practitioner. Hood believed that the sound of 5 . a surgeon to four successive French kings. In 1871 Wharton Hood published On Bone-Setting. It was the topic of meetings and papers. and a first book had been devoted to the subject. The Hippocratic Oath admonishes physicians to do no harm. In addition. This preceded both the founding of American Osteopathy by 4 years and chiropractic by 28 years. including many of the techniques described by Hippocrates.Chapter 2: A Brief History of Manual Therapy Early Manual Therapy The first record of manual therapy techniques occurs in medical writings by Hippocrates (460-355 BC). Medical doctors continued to practice and speak about manual therapy.4 Medicine in the 1800’s By 1870. with illustrations of many of his manipulative techniques. In 1579. Claudius Galen (131-202 AD). he used a considerable amount of manipulation. wrote extensively on the work of Hippocrates.4 The Renaissance brought fresh insight to medicine with Andreus Versalius. Ambrose Pare. manipulation was firmly established in contemporary medicine. John Hunter (1728-1793) advocated movement of joints after injury was necessary in order to prevent stiffness and the accumulation of adhesions due to inflammation. “On Setting Joints by Leverage”.

and Edger and James Cyriax. these aides were mostly women with backgrounds in physical education and training in 3-month-long courses run by physicians and nurses to train them in massage and muscle re-education. medical practitioners such as Marlin. Burrows. During World War I. As in nursing. 4 Physiotherapy is Born Physiotherapy was founded in England in 1899. Blundell-Bankart. In other countries. Coltart. trained with Mennell during World War II and carried her knowledge to New Zealand after the war.5 6 . James Mennell published a number of texts for physical therapists concerning rehabilitaion. One of the early therapists. and Humphris were publishing on manipulation. The two medical names most associated with instruction of manipulation to physical therapists were James and John Mennell. (1917-1918) “reconstruction aides” were employed in hospitals and army rehabilitation camps to do rehabilitation work. not that of bones going back into place. In the 20th century. later known as the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy.cavitation heard with manipulation was that of adhesions being broken. He encouraged his medical colleagues to send patients to this group by prescription. or massage and movement. the same therapies were called massage and medical gymnastics. both father and son. M. instructed joint and soft tissue manipulation techniques to the newly formed Society of Trained Masseuses.4 In 1907 James Mennell. respectively. Helen Hislop.4 Physical Therapy in the United States The injured veterans of World War I created a great need for physical therapy in the United States.D.

Mary McMillan founded the American Women's Physical Therapeutic Association.5 By 1928. Army because she was the first physical therapy aide in World War I. she became the founding president of the American Physical Therapy Association. in the early 1950s there were still more than 20.000 people and paralyze 27. where she oversaw the training of reconstruction aides and.S.000 cases each year until Dr. a council on physical therapy was established within the American Medical Association (AMA). She also organized one of the first courses in physical therapy in the U. The polio epidemic in the United States would kill 6.000 more.5 Manual Therapy in the United States and Around the World James Mennell was awarded the Golden Keys with Life membership in the American Congress of Physical Medicine and in the American Physical Therapy Association in 1949. rehabilitation aides battled the raging polio epidemic that began in 1924 (it would last until 1956). Under her leadership. Salk's vaccine proved successful in 1955. and a standard for length of PT education was set at 9 months. He is believed to be the first to use the term “manual therapy”-- 7 . Education remained under the direction of the AMA until 1977. Physical therapy historians agree that physical therapy evolved as a professional field as a response to the polio epidemic. Later. reeducating weakened muscles through exercise and applying thermal hot packs to painful joints. at Reed College in Oregon.In 1921. and she established the first physical therapy training center in China at Peiping Union Medical College. and these nascent physical therapists worked hard to strengthen and rehabilitate victims..S. Mary McMillan became known as "The Mother of Physical Therapy" in the U. during which therapists worked in conjunction with physicians to battle the disease.

physical therapists Maitland.4 Geoffrey Maitland of Australia published Vertebral Manipulation. in which he refined the art of oscillatory manipulation. It represented physiotherapists from Canada and the United States for recognition of spinal and extremity joint manipulation as requiring additional post-professional education.” 6 Physical and Manual Therapy Organizations In 1966. In 1968. and chaired by Paris.partial absence or total absence of joint movement. He wrote on the concepts of joint play and stated that manipulation was helpful for joint dysfunction. Maitland treated the painful joint with what he hypothesized would be the next most likely to succeed until relief was found. to oscillate that joint.. detail the method. 7 8 . the North American Academy of Manipulation Therapy was founded in Boston. and to test again. Massachusetts..4. He addressed the topics of massage. Maitland’s two books.which he chose for the title of his book. Kaltenborn.4 In 1969. and Paris met in London and discussed setting up an international body to exchange educational ideas and to maintain standards in manual and manipulative therapy. By process of elimination. and joint manipulation. passive movement. Grieve. resisted movement. called a joint lock. He concentrated it on the treatment of what he called reproducible signs. In all. He described the latter as a “. five countries were represented and the World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) was formed and the International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapists (IFOMPT) was created to steer it. a physical therapist named McCaleb published “An Introduction to Spinal Manipulation” in Physical Therapy. Peripheral Manipulation and Vertebral Manipulation. assisted movement. His approach was to identify either an active or passive movement that was painful.

The AAOMPT established residency standards for manual therapy training in the United States. a status that has since helped member nations gain increasing acceptance for joint manipulation within physical therapy. In 1978. Paris became the first president of the Section. the IFOMT became the first specialty subsection of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy. 4 The American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists (AAOMPT) was founded in 1991. The Academy was accepted for membership in IFOMT (International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapists). The North American Academy of Manual & Manipulative Therapy was subsequently dissolved as it had reached its goal of seeing manipulation become a specialty section of the American Physical Therapy Association. The President of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) is the official liaison to the Academy.4 9 .The Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association was formed in 1974.

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PT. PH. and Bjorn Svendsen. PhD. and Micheal Moore.Chapter 3: Organizations and Governing Bodies of Manual Therapy in Physical Therapy American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists (AAOMPT) Overview The AAOMPT is a professional organization dedicated to physical therapists and any educational. PT. PT. PT. History and Vision The American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists (AAOMPT) was founded in 1991 by a group of manual therapists. This was the first time that leaders of various manual therapy residency programs had come together under one roof.D. Paris PT. This was the first time in the 20 year history of the IFOMT that the United States had been a voting member. Richard Erhard. Stanley V. Kornelia Kulig. PT. OCS. Joe Farrell.8 The AAOMPT was the vehicle for the United States to become a voting member of the International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapists (IFOMT). DC. research or clinical institution with an interest in orthopaedic manual physical therapy. PT became the Founding Fellows of the AAOMPT. The Standards for Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy Residency Training in the United States standards form the basis for Fellowship programs to be recognized by the AAOMPT and have been a model for the development of other residency/fellowship programs with the APTA. The AAOMPT is active within the APTA and the APTA Orthopedic Section. Ola Grimsby PT.8 11 . The members. MS. Rogers. DHSc. Michael D. They met at Oakland University to discuss common issues facing manual therapy in the United States.

9 Contact information American Academy Of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy (AAOMPT) http://www.org P. As a professional credential. a physical therapist must complete a credentialed fellowship program in orthopaedic manual physical therapy.Overview of certifications offered Fellow. is both a membership classification and a professional credential. To achieve the Fellow credential. a "Fellow" in AAOMPT is an international recognition of competence and expertise in the practice of orthopaedic manual physical therapy by a physical therapist licensed in the USA. and research. Programs whose timeframe falls outside of these parameters will be reviewed on a case-by-case basis.O. Fellows serve their patients and the public by demonstrating excellence in clinical practice. An AAOMPT Fellow is a physical therapist who has demonstrated advanced clinical. analytical. education.8 A clinical fellowship should be completed within a minimum of 1000 hours in no fewer than six (6) months in duration and no more than 36 months.aaompt. and hands-on skills in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. The programs in orthopaedics allocate approximately 10% of their overall hours to clinical practice. in the AAOMPT. Box 4777 Biloxi. MS 39535-4777 Phone: (228) 392-0028 Fax: (228) 392-0666 12 .

It also endeavors to promote and facilitate evidence based practice and research amongst its members as well as communicate widely the purpose and level of the specialization of manual/musculoskeletal physiotherapists amongst physiotherapists. who have completed stringent postgraduate specialization programs in musculoskeletal disorders.The International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapy (IFOMT) Overview The International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapists represents groups of Physical Therapists around the world. No certifications are offered directly from the IFOMT.10 Vision The IFOMT seeks to promote and maintain the high standards of specialist education and clinical practice in manual/musculoskeletal physiotherapists. IFOMT is a subgroup of the World Confederation of Physical Therapy. It is a Federation that sets Educational and Clinical Standards in manual therapy. Contact the national group: AAOMPT for United States Citizens (see below). The IFOMT works towards international unity and conformity of educational standards of practice amongst manual/musculoskeletal physiotherapists by collaboration with individuals within the organization and with other organizations. and was formed in 1974.10 Group membership is offered. 13 . other healthcare disciplines and the general public.

supervised clinical instruction.Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association Overview This section of the APTA was created to serve as an advocate and resource for the practice of Orthopaedic Physical Therapy by fostering quality patient care and promoting professional growth. The North American Institute of Orthopaedic Manual Therapy Inc (NAIOMT) Fellowship Program is credentialed by the American Physical Therapy 14 . The training includes didactic and practical instruction in the classroom. mentoring and a series of examinations. The Orthopaedic Section will provide and support professional development for physical therapy clinicians as the preferred autonomous and evidence-based practitioners of choice for musculoskeletal care. An Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy Fellowship is offered. clinical fellowship program. Students choose their own pace and level of training to fit their educational goals. APTA. Contact information Orthopaedic Section.orthopt.org North American Institute of Orthopaedic Manual Therapy (NAIOMT) Overview The NAIOMT program offers advanced training in orthopaedic manual physical therapy. South Suite 200 La Crosse. Inc. WI 54601 http://www. in a comfortable time frame without need to relocate or leave job or family commitments. 2920 East Ave.

WCPT promotes physical therapy as a profession and its contribution to global health.com World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) Overview The World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) is an international voice for physical therapy. It encourages high standards of physical therapy research. Eugene. Charles House 375 Kensington High Street London W14 8QH Tel: +44 (0)20 7471 6765 Fax: +44 (0)20 7471 6766 Email: info@wcpt. 1574 Coburg Road. education and practice.000 physical therapists worldwide through its 101 member organizations. OR 97401-4802 Phone: (800) 706-5550 Fax: (541) 349-1172 http://naiomt. Contact information PMB 129. Contact information World Confederation for Physical Therapy Kensington Charity Centre 4th Floor.org 15 . It represents more than 300.Association as a postprofessional clinical fellowship program for physical therapists in orthopaedic manual physical therapy.

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It incorporates Chinese meridians.hour merit diploma is awarded at the end of the Basic Bowen class. but not as firm as in Rolfing therapy. tendons. seminars range from 2-3 days in duration. and a 22 . Bowen therapists claim to be only a catalyst. 17 . Clinical hours In the United States. setting the stimulus in motion for the body to heal itself. myofascial manipulation and energy flows.. nerves and fascia. The manual therapy is performed using the thumbs and fingers applying only gentle.Chapter 4: Certifications in Manual Therapy—a Detailed View of Choices Complementary and Alternative Medicine Bowen Technique11 Overview The Bowen Technique is described as a holistic system in which the practitioner uses subtle and precise mobilizations called "Bowen moves" over muscles. Students receive a manual written by Bowen Therapy Training. Cost Course Cost is about $700-$800 per seminar. This form of therapy was discovered by Tom Bowen of Australia in the 1950’s. A treatment consists of a series of specific sequences of moves called procedures. with frequent pauses to allow time for the body to respond. There is a Basic Bowen course and an Advanced course. When compared to craniosacral therapy. non-invasive pressure. a firmer touch is applied. Inc.

shoulder. ankles. vagus nerve and pubic nerve. The modules must be taken in sequence because each one reviews and builds on what was taught previously. philosophy and basic skills. Overall. Requirements for taking Module 7 include satisfactory completion 18 . back. and ankle. Emphasis is placed on reading the body. deep sciatic and tibialis posterior. The Basic Bowen Moves include 17 Bowen Technique Sequences for the low back. "Module 7. with a maximum of two modules taught back-to-back. headaches. pelvis. charts and manual. upper thoracic for breathing and digestive issues. psoas. the Bowtech procedures are taught in seven modules. sacrum. over a period of six months or more. draining sinuses . each 16 classroom hours long. hip pain. arm. Asthma." is a thorough assessment of the material taught in the first six modules. and learning how Bowen's philosophy is individualized to each client. pain under the scapula. hamstrings. TMJ. a DVD. sacrum. tennis elbow. carpal tunnel syndrome. Basic Bowen covers Bowen history. groin pull or spasm. The last seminar. Hayfever. kidneys. These modules are generally taught in two consecutive days each. neck. TMJ. sartorius. coccyx. pelvis. Moves to help frozen shoulder. breast with lymphatic drainage. shin. breast / lymph drainage. knees. vastus lateralis. as well as addressing the neck. Students are provided with a complete reference guide for their practice. stroke and headache issues are also covered. torso. The Advanced Course is 2 days long and includes advanced moves for abdominal disorders.Skills/Coursework Over the Three-Day period. the Basic Bowen moves are presented in a hands-on atmosphere where students participation is encouraged.

In order to maintain Bowenwork skills and accreditation. with the requirement due on the anniversary of the accreditation date. Contact Information Bowtech Pty Ltd PO Box 733 Hamilton. and waiting at least one month after Module 6.120 hours in most countries). Duration of Certification Lifetime. Students must provide proof of the following (depending on Country requirements): A recognized qualification in Anatomy and Physiology (100 .net. and a current First Aid and/or CPR certificate.au 19 . Victoria.of the written assessments and case study requirements at Modules 3 through 6. practitioners must complete 32 contact hours of Bowtech-approved continuing education every two years. experience running a business or a minimum of 20 hours of business education.aone. 3300 Australia Telephone: +61 (0) 3 5572 3000 Fax: +61 (0) 3 5572 3144 Email: bowtech@h140.

It is the lightest touch therapy. and it's effective for a wide range of medical problems associated with pain and dysfunction. Work with approaches to a number of common ailments such as TMJ 20 . Skills CST’s learn to: Identify the subtle craniosacral rhythm and interpret its patterns to accurately evaluate dysfunction and improvements. that complex web of tissue that impacts all body structures and systems. Release dural tube restrictions to enhance interactions between the central nervous system and the rest of the body.Cranial Sacral Therapist (CST/ CST-D)12 Overview CranioSacral Therapy (CST) is a gentle. Use techniques that produce dramatic health and relaxation effects. hands-on approach that releases tensions deep in the body to relieve pain and dysfunction and improve whole-body health and performance. Upledger after years of clinical testing and research at Michigan State University where he served as professor of biomechanics. Using a soft touch which is generally no greater than 5 grams – about the weight of a nickel – practitioners release restrictions in the soft tissues that surround the central nervous system. CST is increasingly used as a preventive health measure for its ability to bolster resistance to disease. including Direction of Energy and StillPoint Induction. when compared to Rolfing and Bowen therapies. Duration of certification The CST/CST-D certification must be renewed every 4 years. Locate the source of physical problems by traveling through the fascial system. It was pioneered and developed by Osteopathic Physician John E.

dysfunction.. 11211 Prosperity Farms Rd. Cost Seminar Cost: $500-$800 per class. Contact Information The Upledger Institute. central nervous system disorders and other physical disorders.com 21 . $300 for level two (CST-Diplomate) Reduced fees offered through some schools for full-time students. Inc. Hours of training Seminars are held for 3 to 5 days duration depending on instructor. head and neck pain. FL 33410 Phone: 561-622-4334 800-233-5880 Fax: 561-622-4771 Email: upledger@upledger. Continuing Education 24 hours every four years of approved continuing education. Exams: $300 for level one (CST) exam. Suite D-325 Palm Beach Gardens.

effleurage. Hours of training: Between 500-1000 hours. percussion. tapotement.International Massage & Somatic Therapies Accreditation Council13 Massage and therapeutic touch are within the scope of practice for physical therapists. vibration or friction to the muscular structure or soft tissues of the human body. The educational requirements to enter into a LMT program are high school diploma or GED. Skills: LMT’s learn to: Perform various types of massage techniques such as petrissage. When compared to programs of physical therapy that require a bachelor degree and rigorous science coursework. powders or other lubricants to clients' bodies to aid in various massage techniques. 22 . lotions. rebalance muscles and improve circulation. compression. Applying nonforceful passive or active movement to affect the energetic systems of the body and movement re-education. Licensed massage therapists (LMT’s) provide hands-on therapies to target somatic pain. However. Massage is often termed soft tissue manipulation and is a subject taught in schools of physical therapy. the LMT is clearly not of the same level. Physical therapy education overlaps somewhat with massage therapy education. some physical therapists find the additional hands-on practice and techniques to be valuable. certified by IMSTAC . this is an area of contention for PT’s. Considering the drastic difference in education. The public has difficulty distinguishing the profession of physical therapy and the vocation of massage therapy.Licensed Massage Therapist (LMT). Apply oils.

Some states do not require CEU’s. Renewals occur annually in most cases.Duration of certification Varies by State. Most commonly 12 CEU’s annually or 24 CEU’s biannually. Continuing Education Varies by State. 23 .

post-radiation. certifying body (accreditation)12 Overview Lymphedema therapy is used to relieve the build up of interstitial fluid that can pathologically accumulate through trauma and disease process.Level II . post-surgery. as well as the latest information on documentation and insurance reimbursement. pressure/depth. Discover new products on the market. 12 Manual Lymphatic Mapping (MLM) is used to assess the specific direction of the superficial and deep lymph and interstitial fluids in physiological and pathological conditions. Duration of certification The LDT certification must be renewed every 3 years. etc. Identify the specific direction. Select the right product for the particular type of edema.) Techniques of releasing fascia restrictions (Lymphofascia Release)/Connective Tissue Fibers Release (CTFR) will be learned. Fibrotic techniques are learned: 15 different techniques to apply on the collagen fibers/fascia before applying the lymphatic strokes (used for lymphedema. 12 24 . and quality of the lymph and interstitial fluid flow in the superficial and deep tissue layers. Perform bandaging applications for the upper and lower extremities. Applications for chronic scars: Scar Release Therapy. garments and sequential pumps in lymphedema. Special lymphatic reroutes for lymphedema. and how to measure for a garment. Skills The LDT will learn how to: Explore use short-stretch bandages.Lymphedma: LDT /CDP/LLCC Certification .

There are specific maneuvers to access the cisterna chili and to facilitate drainage of the central and peripheral nervous system. LDT’s work with other fluids. including the spine. blood (veins and arteries). teeth.LDT’s learn the Clinical connection between deep breathing and the lymph flow. The practioner is required to be licensed or certified in the area of practice. acupressure points. for manual therapy on the whole body. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). oral cavity. including tonsils and Eustachian tubes. including drainage of the pia and dura maters as well as peripheral nerves such as the sciatic nerve. Drainage of the ears. Extensive breast protocol (Lymphatic Breast Care). synovial fluid. Continuing Education Recertification is earned by attending the Lymphedema/CDP Advanced Techniques & Recertification (LCAR) workshop 25 . e. Drainage of the synovial fluid. including the interstitial fluid.12 Other LDT skills include: Applications for trigger points (TP).. 170 hours for level 2. Chapman reflexes. including the cochlea and the semicircular canals. TMJ. state. applications for body joints/articulations. rib cage.g. gums. skull and cranial sutures as well as the upper and lower extremities 12 Hours of training 140 hours for level one. Drainage of the nasal cavity.

referring to themselves as "Certified Rolfers" and Rolf Movement Practitioners. bringing physical balance in the gravitational field. relating its segments in an improved relationship. Rolf Institute of Structural Integration14 Overview More than 50 years ago. internationally. There are 1600 Certified Rolfers in 26 countries. Structural integration balances and aligns the body along a natural vertical axis by gradually stretching. Dr. In the U.Rolfing (Structural Integration). and is distributed equally between genders. feeling for imbalances in tissue texture. school and caseby-case basis.14 Duration of certification Renewals are every 3-7 years depending on certification type. She eventually named this system "structural integration. Skills Rolfers palpate. restoring its normal length and flexibility. or separate fascial layers that adhere and muscles that have been pulled out of position by strain or injury. Other soft-tissue 26 . Finally. with concentrations on the East and West Coast and in Colorado. Rolfers discriminate. Client population ranges from infancy to old age. or touch the tissue. 14 Certification is earned through the Rolf Institute of Structural Integration. lengthening and repositioning the fascia. and offer this work to the public. This certification enables graduates of the training program to become members of the Rolf Institute.. Rolfers integrate the body. Rolfers practice in nearly all-50 states.S. Ida Rolf discovered that she could achieve remarkable changes in posture and structure by manipulating the body's myofascial system." although some still refer to it as "Rolfing. quality and temperature to determine where we need to work." after its founder.

meets four to five days a week. meets four to five days a week. meets four to five days a week. 14 The practitioner combines deep. Rolfing is said to improve alignment at any stage in life. gentle pressure with the client’s breathing and movement to free fascial restrictions. The range of subject matter for continuing education is great. Advanced Foundations of Rolfing Structural Integration (level 2). Eight-week intensive. Costs: $6.14 The pressure of these techniques are markedly higher than in craniosacral and Bowen therapy. Embodiment of Rolfing and Rolf Movement Integration (level 3) is 244 Hours. Six-week intensive. Hours of Training & Associated Costs Foundations of Rolfing Structural Integration (level 1) is 218 Hours. If certified as a Movement Practitioner.525. 87 Hours. Costs: $1. Continuing Education Graduates agree to attend a minimum of eighteen days of approved continuing education over a period of three to seven years in preparation for Advanced Rolfing Training.830. Rolf Movement Integration Certification involves 144 hours. meets twelve days starting on a Sunday. Costs: $6. Clinical Application of Rolfing Theory is 269 Hours.000 plus books ($250-$500). Costs: $3. Two-week intensive. including massage. Costs: $4.700 plus books ($250-$500). are quite good at the first two. Rolfers have up to 9 years to complete CE Credits and participate in the Advanced Training.200. Must complete level 1 first. Certified Rolfers may take workshops in specific 27 .manipulation methods. Eight-week intensive. but do not balance the body in gravity.

manipulative techniques. The continuing education requirement is one of the many ways in which The Rolf Institute upholds its standards and demonstrates them to the community. Some credit requirements can also be met through approved mentoring programs.14 28 . and explore other related subjects such as CranioSacral Therapy and Visceral Manipulation.

wrist and hand. NAIOMT Level II: Intermediate Upper Quadrant. upper and lower cervical spine. Appropriate skills in basic and objective selective tissue examination necessary for generating a provisional differential diagnosis of spinal dysfunction. NAIOMT Level III: Advanced Upper Quadrant Builds on the techniques learned in Level II and helps the student understand the kinetic chain inter-relationships of the upper quadrant. A comprehensive biomechanical and anatomical review of the upper thoracic. and management of common spinal pathologies are reviewed. Specific biomechanical assessment of each area is taught along with appropriate and effective treatment techniques for common injuries and mechanical dysfunctions.Orthopedic Manual Therapy Certified Manual Therapist (CMPT) (NAIOMT Level III)15 Skills/Coursework NAIOMT Level I: Intro. NAIOMT Level II: Intermediate Lower Quadrant. knee ankle and foot. shoulder. A comprehensive biomechanical and anatomical review of the lower thoracic and lumbar spines. Integrates information generated 29 . Selective tissue tensioning techniques for the peripheral joints are introduced. pathology. to the Fundamentals: Orthopedic Manual Therapy & Differential Diagnosis. Cyriax’s principles are introduced. symptoms. Specific biomechanical assessment of each area is taught along with appropriate treatment techniques for common injuries and dysfunctions. the hip. Signs. elbow.

30 . NAIOMT Level III: Advanced Lower Quadrant Builds on the techniques learned in Level II and helps the student understand the kinetic chain inter-relationships in the lower quadrant. Presents advanced biomechanical tests and treatment and includes the sacroiliac and pubic joints. pelvic. Discusses the integration of examination and treatment techniques. the safe and effective application of spinal. NAIOMT Level IV: High Velocity Manipulation Instructs the student on the indications and contra-indications. as well as. Certified Manual Therapist (COMT) (NAIOMT Level IV+)15 Skills/Coursework Certified Orthopedic Manual Therapist (COMT)(NAIOMT Level IV+) builds on the skill learned to attain NAIOMT Level III. and costal manipulation techniques. Advanced techniques are demonstrated along with new material on temporo-mandibular joint material and peripheral manipulation skills.in the assessment to understand how remote dysfunctions can be casual or contributory.

clinical and self-study hours needs to be completed within 36 months and total in excess of 1500 hours.Fellow of the NAIOMT and AAOMPT9. As a professional credential. APTA requires 1000 hours for an APTAcredentialed fellowship. and hands-on skills in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. Intakes are flexible and year -round (rolling). To achieve the Fellow credential. The majority of the total didactic. a "Fellow" is an international recognition of competence and expertise in the practice of orthopaedic manual physical therapy by a physical therapist licensed in the USA. 31 . 440 clinical. analytical. Fellows serve their patients and the public by demonstrating excellence in clinical practice. AAOMPT requirements include a component of 440 clinically supervised hours. and when they have a clear temporal plan mapped out with their clinical instructors. and research. practical. The Fellowship Program requirement is 1500 hours of post-professional study. a physical therapist must complete a credentialed fellowship program in orthopaedic manual physical therapy. NAIOMT identifies 568 hours (of the 1500 total) to be didactic and practical hours. and the remaining hours from the fellowship project. The student begins when the time is right for them.8 The minimum time frame for the clinical fellowship is 12 months the maximum is 36 months. education. 16 Overview The designation Fellow is both a membership classification and a professional credential. planned dates for classes and examinations. and a plan that they be able to complete in 36 months. A Fellow is a physical therapist who has demonstrated advanced clinical.

270 hours of other clinical and 40 hours tutorial. shoulder. Fellowship credentialing and annual dues : Annual dues are $60. 32 . elbow. 36 days @ average $160 per day Specialty/elective classes: 326 hrs & $150-200 per day or structured home study classes. Selective tissue tensioning techniques for the peripheral joints are introduced. Level II: Intermediate Upper Quadrant.Cost Core courses levels I-IV approx. upper and lower cervical spine. symptoms. registration fee is $75. Clinical hours 130 hours of 1:1 training. is variable dependent on work situation Skills/Coursework15 Level I: Introduction to the Fundamentals: Orthopedic Manual Therapy & Differential Diagnosis. credentialing $125. Appropriate skills in basic and objective selective tissue examination necessary for generating a provisional differential diagnosis of spinal dysfunction. Signs. and management of common spinal pathologies are reviewed. Exams: Approximately $2000. Specific biomechanical assessment of each area is taught along with appropriate and effective treatment techniques for common injuries and mechanical dysfunctions. wrist and hand. A comprehensive biomechanical and anatomical review of the upper thoracic. pathology. Cyriax’s principles are introduced.

the hip. Integrates information generated in the assessment to understand how remote dysfunctions can be casual or contributory. pelvic. Specific biomechanical assessment of each area is taught along with appropriate treatment techniques for common injuries and dysfunctions. as well as. and costal manipulation techniques. knee ankle and foot.to-1 model. Presents advanced biomechanical tests and treatment and includes the sacroiliac and pubic joints. A comprehensive biomechanical and anatomical review of the lower thoracic and lumbar spines. the safe and effective application of spinal. Level IV: High Velocity Manipulation Instructs the student on the indications and contra-indications. students will be required to do a minimum of 60 supervised clinical hours applying hands-on techniques with patients under the 33 . Discusses the integration of examination and treatment techniques. Level III: Advanced Upper Quadrant Builds on the techniques learned in Level II and helps the student understand the kinetic chain inter-relationships of the upper quadrant. Supervised Clinical Practice Using a 3. Level III: Advanced Lower Quadrant Builds on the techniques learned in Level II and helps the student understand the kinetic chain inter-relationships in the lower quadrant.Level II: Intermediate Lower Quadrant. Advanced techniques are demonstrated along with new material on temporo-mandibular joint material and peripheral manipulation skills.

34 . variable dues required.supervision of a certified clinical instructor. Duration of Certification Renewal every 10 years. These hours can be done all at one time or split up according to the student’s wishes.

AAOMPT requirements include a component of 440 clinically supervised hours.$13. 440 clinical. The Fellowship Program requirement is 1500 hours of postprofessional study. and the remaining hours from the fellowship project. and a plan that they be able to complete in 36 months. clinical and self-study hours needs to be completed within 36 months and total in excess of 1500 hours. The majority of the total didactic.500 completed with Fellows of AAOMPT Thrust Manipulation Course: $615 Clinical hours 300 hours Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy Clinical Residency (360 hours) through MII (USA) Successfully complete McKenzie MDT Diploma Final Examinations Attain the McKenzie Institute Diploma in MDT 310 hours OMPT Problem Solving Experience with a FAAOMPT Complete Thrust Manipulation Course (24 hours) 35 . NAIOMT identifies 568 hours (of the 1500 total) to be didactic and practical hours.500. planned dates for classes and examinations. and when they have a clear temporal plan mapped out with their clinical instructors. Intakes are flexible and year -round (rolling).500 OMPT Mentorship: $3. APTA requires 1000 hours for an APTA-credentialed fellowship. The student begins when the time is right for them. practical.Mechanical Diagnosis & Therapy (MDT)/OMPT Criteria (McKenzie)17 Overview The minimum time frame for the clinical Fellowship is 12 months the maximum is 36 months. Costs: MII Diploma Program: Between $11.

Completion of 130 hours direct 1:1 OMPT Clinical Mentorship experience with a FAAOMPT Apply for Fellow status in AAOMPT 36 .

This simple yet effective manual approach addresses musculoskeletal disorders with pain free manual joint “repositioning” techniques for restoration of function and abolition of pain. These signs may be a loss of joint movement. (Hon).Certified Mulligan Practitioner (CMP)18 Overview The Mulligan Concept is a unique approach to manual therapy discovered and developed by Brian Mulligan F..T. pain associated with movement. M.e. The therapist must continuously monitor the patient's reaction to ensure no pain is recreated. lateral elbow pain with resisted wrist extension.P. a well-developed sense of tissue tension and clinical reasoning. Utilising his/her knowledge of joint arthrology. New Zealand. Skills/Coursework Specific to the application of MWM and SNAGS in clinical practice. or pain associated with specific functional activities (i. parallel or perpendicular to the joint plane). 37 . Cost: Approximately $450 per seminar for 4 two-day seminars.S. adverse neural tension). the therapist investigates various combinations of parallel or perpendicular glides to find the correct treatment plane and grade of movement. Dip. A passive accessory joint mobilization is applied following the principles of Kaltenborn (i.Z.N.e.. the following basic principles have been developed:19 During assessment the therapist will identify one or more comparable signs as described by Maitland. This accessory glide must itself be pain free. from Wellington.

PT. Further gains are expected with repetition during a treatment session typically involving three sets of ten repetitions. Further gains may be realized through the application of passive overpressure at the end of available range.. pain-free. CMP. spinal segment or that the technique is not indicated. The comparable sign should now be significantly improved (i. MCTA Address: 6714 Antilope Street Location: Carlsbad State: California Zip Code: 92009 Business Phone: 760-518-0249 Fax: 760-438-7987 38 .e. absence of the original pain). the patient is requested to perform the comparable sign. It is expected that this overpressure is again.While sustaining the accessory glide. Contact information Brian Folk. The previously restricted and/or painful motion or activity is repeated by the patient while the therapist continues to maintain the appropriate accessory glide. increased range of motion. FAAOMPT. and a significantly decreased or better yet. treatment plane. Failure to improve the comparable sign would indicate that the therapist has not found the correct contact point. grade or direction of mobilization.

General principles of functional anatomy.Manual Therapy Certication20 (MTC) (Stanley Paris) Overview The MTC incorporates a series of seminars. are instructed and practiced to a limited degree. Clinical hours 201 hours over a total 29 days of seminar training. Most seminars are 2 to 6 days long. which culminate in comprehensive examination--written. pathology and treatments are applied to clinical examination and treatment. At the conclusion of the seminar. the student should feel confident to examine & treat most common spinal conditions. Certification Preparation and Exam is a six-day process which provides a review and update of the contents of each prerequisite seminar. Includes instruction & techniques of evaluating structure. The objective is the safe application and interpretation of advanced clinical skills. oral and practical testing--to define competency in the selected clinical area. active movements and palpation for condition. position & mobility of the spine. 39 . Manipulation techniques are instructed at all levels of the spine except the subcranial area.800. Skills/Coursework S1‐Introduction to Spinal Evaluation and Manipulation   This is a 5-day seminar emphasizing interpretation of basic science knowledge toward the development of clinical skills needed for differential evaluation & effective treatment of spinal dysfunction. such as exercises & distraction. Cost: Total MTC tuition is approximately $5. tissue & joint biomechanics. Supportive treatments.

Soft tissue techniques directed at normalizing 40 . Soft tissue and joint techniques for both examination and treatment are practiced in lab sessions. there needs to be freedom from restrictions in the myofascial unit. and treatment are presented. E2 ‐ Extremity Integration  This three day seminar is carried out in seminar format which includes lecture and lab. posture. pathology. In order for the body to maintain normal physiological motion & postural efficiency. soft tissue anatomy. MF1‐Myofascial Manipulation  This seminar deals with the evaluation & treatment techniques of myofascial manipulation. then proceeds to treatment. and places special emphasis on palpatory techniques such as end-feel. tissue & joint biomechanics. The clinical content of the seminar includes physical examination. Non-thrust manipulations are instructed & supportive treatments are discussed.E1‐Extremity Evaluation and Manipulation  This seminar emphasizes the interpretation of basic science knowledge & the development of basic clinical skills which are needed to complete a differential evaluation of extremity dysfunction. both normal & pathological treatment principles & the biomechanics of soft tissue. The lecture component consists of discussion of functional anatomy. General principles of functional anatomy. The emphasis of this seminar is placed on the relationship of the soft tissue structures to the mechanics of the spine. Clinical cases are presented for discussion of management and treatment based upon clinical reasoning skills. The content of this seminar highlights the interrelationships of extremity joint complexes. along with thorax and spinal influences with emphasis on kinetic chain events.

S3‐Advanced Evaluation & Manipulation of Cranio‐Facial. The utilization of biomechanical & anatomical principles for the enhancement of patient care through manipulation & exercise is emphasized as is the patients' role in their own welfare. Cervical & Upper Thoracic Spine    Advanced spinal seminars begin with a brief review & update of anatomy. rib cage & the pelvis. Self help & exercise programs are instructed. spondylosis & myelopathy. are added. mechanics & pathology of dysfunction. Techniques of S1 are reviewed & advanced techniques instructed.function will be demonstrated & practiced for the hip. lumbar. Special emphasis is placed on the management of syndromes & particular attention is paid to posture. Emphasis is placed on the functional relations within this region so as to understand pelvic girdle dysfunction. thoracic spine. problem solving & treatment strategies are explored. pelvis. Special emphasis will be placed on the subcranial & mid cervical regions. Lectures & evaluation techniques will assist with the evaluation & treatment of cervical dysfunction including disc degeneration. Research documentation of the anatomical and mechanical roles of the related structures is provided. particularly those requiring a higher level of skill & decisionmaking. The techniques in the S1 seminar are reviewed. Exercises. thoracic and cervico-thoracic spines. and additional techniques. S 2‐Advanced Evaluation & Manipulation of Pelvic. Topic areas include: functional 41 . Lumbar & Thoracic Spine Including  Thrust   The S2 seminar focus is the lumbar spine. S4‐Functional Analysis & Management of the Lumbo‐Pelvic‐Hip Complex   A biomechanical & neurophysiological approach to the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex is presented.

comprehension & applied skills. Methods for self-mobilization & stabilization are demonstrated. Manual Therapy Certification Review  A five day review seminar. with 4 or more instructors. On the fifth day. On the sixth day each candidate receives four to five twenty-minute oral/practical examinations to test retention. Duration of Certification In order to maintain use of the certification letters. biomechanics of the sacroiliac & pubic joints. the University requires evidence of continuing professional development. Patient education strategies integrating therapeutic exercise with manual interventions will be presented. An update is also presented by the instructors where such an update seems appropriate. a three hour multiple choice examination is conducted. respiratory assist mobilization & muscle energy. injection or ADL may also be included in management. spinal and extremity joint. and soft tissue manipulation. the therapist 42 . In addition. Over a 24-month period. labor & delivery as well as dysfunction in the form of pathomechanics and pathophysiology. The evaluation process approaches the problem from both joint & muscular standpoints. muscular & ligament influences. Laboratory experience involves the demonstration & practice of clinical evaluation methods for assessing dysfunction in the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex. Treatment of pelvic dysfunction is also multi-dimensional & therefore soft tissue and joint mobilization is offered. Additional suggestions relating to bracing. effects of the pregnancy. select pathologies. covering each area in the prerequisite courses: namely basic science.anatomy. time is provided for an introduction to the concepts & application of techniques such as positional release.

is expected to maintain either full or part-time clinical practice and meet one or more of the following activities: 30 hours (3. Requires a copy of an unofficial transcript. Development and/or teaching of a seminar. These seminars may be any physical therapy practice management area. Just send us the copy of the article with citation. etc. It does not include seminars related to employment topics such as blood borne pathogens. with a copy of the certificates for each seminar attended. Augustine. A copy of the letter and/or the certificate will suffice for verification. clinical pearl. call: (904) 826-0084 43 . call: (800) 241-1027 Outside of the U. Development and/or teaching of a rehabilitation-related course in a degreegranting program. This could be a research study. HIV updates. Augustine for Health Sciences St. HIPPA requirements.S. Post-professional degree coursework (3 credits over 24 months).S. CPR certification. Augustine Campus 1 University Boulevard St. not just manual therapy. FL 32086 In U.0 CEU) of continuing education attendance every 2 years. position paper. Publication of article(s) in peer-reviewed journal. Completion and passing of the ABPTS certification examination. medical errors. Contact information University of St.

44 .

F. Jon D. Clinician’s Complete Reference to Complementary & Alternative Medicine. Cranial Sacral Therapy Gehin. Donald. D. John E. Organized by bone.A. 2000. Eastland Press. 1983 This is one of the most practical. the position of both patient and practitioner.. Eastland Press. its function in health. Alan. comprehensive textbooks in this rapidly growing field of therapy. and relationship to disease processes. The concise text systematically describes the purpose of the technique.Chapter 5: Additional Resources Books Alternative Therapy A comprehensive guide to alternative therapies including and beyond manual therapy can be found in this outstanding book: Novey.O. M.A.O. and the movement of hands and fingers in relation to the cranial motion. Upledger. MD.A. this book is one of the most comprehensive sources of cranial techniques available. & Vredevoogd. the points of contact. 1985 With more than one hundred illustrated techniques. F. each technique is illustrated to depict the placement and movement of the practitioner's hands on the patient's head. Atlas of Manipulative Techniques for the Cranium & Face. Mosby. defining the physiology and anatomy of the craniosacral system. Craniosacral Therapy. It provides practical instruction 45 .

. Boyling & Nigel Palastanga. Hengeveld.. G. Hydrotherapy & Psychotherapy.A. Banks. Manipulation of the Spine Thorax and Pelvis. Mosby-Year Book. Upledger. 2005. 1997. Vertebral Manipulation. Tehan. Orthopaedic Manual Therapy Edmond. the temporomandibular joint. Topics included in this book are cranial nerves. 46 .O. 1987 Building upon concepts in Craniosacral Therapy. and an extensive glossary of terms and concepts. Susan.. 1974.D. Craniosacral Therapy II: Beyond the Dura. Inc.A. Combining Manual Therapy.. Fundamentals of Manual Therapy: Physiology. Diagnosis from the Spine: A Practical Method of Diagnosis & Non-Medical Treatment. An Osteopathic Perpective... John E. D.O. P. 2005. Elsevier. as well as basic physical diagnosis. Butterworth-Heinemann. 2006. Gordon Press Publishers. Maitland. Eyal. F. Churchill Livingstone. Churchill Livingstone Elsevier. 1993. Eastland Press. Maitland’s Peripheral Manipulation. Dr. Jones. P. Grieve's Modern Manual Therapy: The Vertebral Column. B. E.H. Churchill Livingstone. Neurology & Psychology. clinical techniques. the anatomy of the neck. Jeffrey D. 1994 Lederman. Upledger further explores the anatomical and physiological bases and clinical implications of several important aspects of the craniosacral system. Gibbons. Manipulation and Mobilization: Extremity and Spinal Techniques.in developing and extending palpatory skills which will greatly benefit all forms of manipulation. Inc. K.

Winkel. Ph.D. Diagnosis & Treatment of the Spine: Nonoperative Orthopaedic Medicine & Manual Therapy. MP. 1999. Aspen Publishers. Ph. Integrative Manual Therapy for the Upper and Lower Extremities: Introducing Muscle Energy & Beyond Techniques. Sharon. It will provide readers with both a general fund of knowledge on the assessment and management of specific problems 47 . Cervical. Meier. New York: Harper and Row. An Evaluation and Treatment Manual of Osteopathic Muscle Energy Procedures. November 1990 Journals Research based treatments are the lifeblood of the profession of physical therapy. 1979.D. Dos. Limited. Thoracic. 1977 Ida Rolf. Andry.pmr. 1996. There are many internet search engines that will find articles from these journals and more on the topic of manual therapy. Rolfing Ida P. 1998. Inner Traditions International. Sacrum. This is not an exhaustive list of manual therapy journals. North Atlantic Books. & Lumbar Spine with Muscle Energy & Beyond Technique: A Contemporary Clinical Analysis of Biomechanics. Rolfing: Reestablishing the Natural Alignment and Structural Integration of the Human Body for Vitality and Well-Being.vcu. Integrative Manual Therapy for the Pelvis. Valley Park: Mitchell Moran and Pruzzo Associates. The Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation http://www. Rolfing and Physical Reality. Sharon. Rolf. Inner Traditions International. Onno G. Ph. Vleeming.Mitchell. Rolfing: The Integration of Human Structures. Limited. North Atlantic Books. Weiselfish-Giammatteo.D. December 1990 Ida Rolf.edu/jbmr/ Practical information about musculoskeletal rehabilitation to clinicians who treat patients with back and musculoskeletal pain complaints. Weiselfish-Giammatteo.

original research from the basic sciences relevant to assessment.com/Journals/ManTherapy/jhome.net/jmmt This journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists includes clinical studies pertinent to manual and manipulative medicine. treatment. Journal of Orthopaedic Research http://www.and new information considered to be state-of-the-art in the field. and clinical aspects of orthopaedic research.ors. Journal of Manual and Manipulative Therapy http://home1. and more.org/ JMPT JMPT is dedicated to the advancement of chiropractic health care but it is also useful for PT’s. including prospective clinical studies.churchillmed. It provides the latest information on current developments in therapeutics.html This peer-reviewed journal of the Manipulation Association of Chartered Physiotherapists is written for the diverse needs of the various professions engaged in all aspects of manual therapy. The intended audience is multidisciplinary as well as multi-specialty. as well as reviews of clinically oriented research and practical information 48 .gte. theoretical. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics (JMPT) http://www. Topics covered are relevant to how elements of the neuromusculoskeletal system influence therapy outcomes and effectiveness. and prevention of musculoskeletal disorder. case studies that describe innovative approaches to patient care. which reports new information on experimental. Manual Therapy http://www.html This is the official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society.jmptonline.org/jor/index.

JMPT. and sports medicine specialists. radiologists. osteopaths. commentary.for use in clinical settings. publishes peer-reviewed original articles. Readers include chiropractors. 49 . case reports. physiatrists. physical therapists. and new media reviews. the premier biomedical publication in the chiropractic profession. journal abstracts.

50 . USA.org.org. http://www. Guide to Physical Therapist Practice.com/. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists. 6. APTA-Orthopaedic.edu/files/fef40c8b-2f40-4b46a534-07fe797ff68c.bellevuemassageschool. http://www. Accessed 03/20/2009.aaompt. J Phys Ther Ed. 20. Pettman E. 2010. http://www. Phys Ther. Accessed 4/10/2009. Accessed 1/15/2010. 2005.A.com. Manual Therapy Certification. http://www.html. Minneapolis. Position on Thrust Joint Manipulation Provided by Physical Therapists. Accessed 03/13/2009.bmulligan.pdf. Rolf I. 2009:11.andrews. McCaleb B.com. J Man Manip Ther. http://www. Accessed 2/12/2009.. Morgan D. NA-MCTA. Bowtech. 2010.bowtech. Bellevue Worldwide Directory of Massage Schools.na-mcta. 2. IFOMT. Manual mobilization of the extremity joints : basic examination and treatment techniques. Evjenth O. North American Region of the Mulligan Concept Teachers Association (NAMCTA). American Physical Therapy Association White Paper.49(12):13691374. The Science and Practice of Manual Therapy. Accessed 1/15/2010. 16.References 1. 2009. 2003. VA: American Physical Therapy Association.usa. Kaltenborn FM. Revised 2nd Edition ed.com/index. 11. 12. APTA. MDT MI.upledger. Alexandria. 5. Accessed 2/12/2009. http://www. http://www. AAOMPT. 9. Upledger I.html.org.S. Andrews U. Accessed 4/15/2009. Accessed 2/12/2009. Dec 1969.mckenziemdt.orthopt. The history of physical therapy practice in the United States.htm. Accessed 1/12/2010. 3.ifomt. 19. 2009. 14.com/more-information/worldwide-directory-ofmassage-schools. An introduction to spinal manipulation. 4th ed.17:10. 1989. http://www. 2009. 4. Certified Mulligan Practitioner. Moffat M. Mulligan C. 13. Bellevue. Oslo.edu/cas/pt/programs/courses.org. London: Elsevier.15(3):165-174. http://www. 2007. 10. 17.org.org. 7. http://www. MN: Olaf Norlis . 2009. http://www.rolf. Lederman E. Bowtech. 2nd ed. OPTP (Orthopedic Physical Therapy Products) distributor in the U. 2004. Available at. http://www. 8. 18. 15. http://www. A history of manipulative therapy. APTA.apta. Accessed 1/15/2010. Accessed 02/10/2009.

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